Image and Performance Enhancing Drugs
2016 National Survey Results
Report prepared by: Emma Begley, Jim McVeigh, Vivian Hope
Survey co-ordinated by: Emma Begley, Jim McVeigh, Vivian Hope, Geo Bates, Rachel Glass,
John Campbell, Claire Tanner, Joseph Kean, Gareth Morgan, Dean Acreman and Josie Smith.
PHI, Faculty of Education, Health and Community, Liverpool John Moores University, Henry Cotton Campus, 15-21 Webster Street, Liverpool, L3 2ET
0151 231 4511 | PHI@ljmu.ac.uk | www.ljmu.ac.uk/phi | ISBN: 978-1-912210-11-4 (web)
The National IPEDinfo Survey is a study exploring image and performance drug use in Wales, England
and Scotland. The survey is a Public Health Wales initiative working collaboratively with the Public
Health Institute at Liverpool John Moores University, NHS Scotland, Nine Zero Five and Public Health
England. All partners contributed to the development and delivery of the survey. Further information
about the National IPED Info Survey can be found at http://ipedinfo.co.uk.
Image and Performance Enhancement Drugs (IPEDs) encompasses a wide range of substances that
are taken to alter body image and/or performance . Some IPEDs are predominantly injected whilst
others are taken orally, for example, injectable IPEDs include Human Growth Hormones (HGH),
peptide hormones such as melanotan II and anabolic steroids . Oral IPEDs also include a range of
anabolic steroids as well as oestrogen control, post cycle and fat loss drugs. These synthetically made
substances are often illicitly manufactured and sourced [3-5], although they are legal to possess for
personal use . Studies indicate that anabolic steroids are most commonly used by men and often
alongside a repertoire of different drugs [2, 7].
Traditionally participants of elite sports, body building and power lifting were the predominate
consumers of IPEDs, however over the past two decades use of IPEDs has increased and become more
widespread [8, 9]. In particular, data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) indicates
that the estimated number of 16-59 year olds reporting lifetime use of anabolic steroids has increased
from 194,000 in 2005/06 to 271,000 in 2015/16 . The CSEW is likely to be unreliable for rare events
like anabolic steroid use and so may under-estimate the number of people using drugs; however, data
from needle and syringe programmes also indicate that use is likely to be increasing [7, 11-13].
Globally there is a growing concern about the extent of the health consequences of IPED use, including
physical and psychological harms. Many well established harms reported are superficial (e.g. acne,
balding), however they also include more severe physical (e.g. cardiovascular disease, liver function)
and psychological (e.g. mood changes, increased aggression) problems [14, 15]. Emerging evidence
indicates that IPED use may also lead to dependence [16, 17].
Furthermore, the complicated drug regimes that people who use IPEDs employ, often alongside the
use of illicit psychoactive substances or alcohol, and the adulteration of drugs used, are likely to impact
on the extent of the adverse consequences [7, 18]. For example, there is a growing body of evidence
that alcohol  and oral anabolic steroids  are linked to adverse liver conditions. Similarly
psychoactive drugs  and anabolic steroids [1, 14] are linked to psychological issues such as,
depression, aggression or anxiety, although the role of the specific substances and their synergistic
effects remain unclear [21, 22]. As many of the people using IPEDs inject their drugs they are also at
risk of injecting related harms, such as, injection site infections and injuries e.g. redness, swelling,
tenderness and abscesses . Additionally people who inject drugs are also vulnerable to infection
with blood borne viruses, and recent research has indicated an increased risk of blood borne virus
infection among those who inject IPEDs .
Despite the established adverse effects of IPEDs and the risky behaviours associated with their use,
people who use IPEDs are often reluctant to seek professional medical advice or visit primary care
services [12, 15]. Data from previous IPEDinfo surveys also indicate that people who use IPEDs will
often choose to either wait for symptoms to go away or self-medicate with natural remedies or other
pharmaceutical substances . Equally people who use IPEDs may not perceive themselves as a ‘drug
user’ as they are not using psychoactive drugs like heroin and so may not access specialist drug services,
such as needle and syringe programmes. Therefore there is a need for health care services to be aware
of this and provide appropriate non-judgmental services that are responsive to the specific needs of
these individuals .
In order to better understand these issues, Public Health Wales initiated the National IPED Info survey
in collaboration with colleagues at the Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Moores University; NHS
Scotland; Nine Zero Five and Public Health England. This document summarises key findings from the
fourth year of this survey.
Findings from the previous waves of this survey are available at:
2013 Survey (Chandler & McVeigh, 2014):
2014 survey (McVeigh, Bates & Chandler, 2015):
2015 survey (Bates & McVeigh, 2016):
The methodology used for this survey is described in more detail in the reports of the previous surveys
(see links above).
Fieldworkers recruited participants via needle and syringe programmes, harm reduction outreach
and/or through gyms and sports settings across 18 areas in England, Scotland and Wales. They
obtained verbal consent from participants and assisted them with completing the questionnaire.
Additionally, survey participants could also complete the questionnaire online in their own time, an
option which was promoted within needle and syringe programmes, gyms and online forums. As in
previous years, eligible participants must have used oral and/or injectable IPEDs at some point
during their lifetime.
The questionnaire was drafted by the Public Health Institute at Liverpool John Moores University with
Public Health Wales and refined following feedback from research partners and other
stakeholders. The questionnaire used in this survey was modified slightly from that used
previously, to make it quicker for participants to complete. Changes included removal of the
section on most recent cycle and the inclusion of more multiple choice and rating scale (0-10)
questions. The survey was constructed using the Bristol Online Survey Tool, an online resource
made available to Universities across the UK. Ethical approval for the survey was obtained via the
Liverpool John Moores University Research Ethics Committee. The survey was open from May-
We would like to thank the following individuals, in no particular order for their help with the
data collection; Adam Trice, Aaron Carnahan, Charlotte McLean, Colin Campbell, Neil Jones, Con
Lafferty, Dean Acreman, Gareth Morgan, Finlay Colville, Gary Beeny, Jane Neale, Lee Little,
Mark Lewis, Naim Vali, Jack Killingray, Sid Wiffen, David Rourke, Paul Gibson, Drew Guard. And
also Laura Heeks for her graphic design.
Key Findings: Snapshot
A total of 684 participants completed the 2016 National IPEDinfo Survey questionnaire. The majority of the
participants were recruited from gyms and needle and syringe programme across England, Wales and
Scotland; only 25 (4%) were completed by participants online.
The majority of the participants were male (94%) and described themselves as being white British (80%) and
UK nationals (95%). Participants were mostly employed (78%), and were aged between 17 and 74 years (mean
age 32 years). Overall more reported ever using oral IPEDs (89%) than injecting IPEDs (85%), steroids were
the most commonly used IPEDs. The most frequently reported oral IPED was methandrostenolone also
known as Dianabol (D-Bol); testosterone enanthate (Test E), was the most frequently injected IPED. Aesthetic
reasons, such as changing their body image and for cosmetic purposes, were the most important motivation
for use of IPEDs for more than half (56%) of the participants.
Almost one-in-five of the participants who had injected (18%) reported that they had reused their own
injecting equipment, and around one in seven (15%) reported that they had shared a multi-dose drug vial. The
majority of participants were sexually active (91%) and around half of these participants reported more than
one sexual partner during the past year; condom use was infrequent.
had used oral
had used injectable
reasons were the
The most commonly reported side effect for men was testicular atrophy (58%); other commonly reported side-
effects were sleep difficulties, changes to libido, mood swings, aggression and acne. More than half of those
reporting side effects waited for symptoms to go away on their own without seeking healthcare. One-in-five
(20%) reported that they had redness, tenderness and swelling at an injection site, indicating an injection site
infection or injury. Lastly, less than a third of participants reported ever having diagnostic tests for HIV (31%),
hepatitis B (30%) or hepatitis C (29%).
Who is using IPEDs?
A total of 684 people using IPEDs in the past 12 months were recruited throughout England,
Scotland and Wales (see figure 1). The majority of participants were men (94%), who had been
born and were residing in the UK (95%, 99% respectively). The mean age of the participants was 32
years (median 30 years; ranged 17 to 74 years) and most described themselves as heterosexual
(95%). Numerous ethnicities (n=15) were reported, with the majority of participants being white
British (80%), followed by Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi (8%) and white other (6%). Almost three-in-
four participants reported being in full time employment and a small minority were either
unemployed or other (incl. full time education (figure 2)). A full demographic breakdown is
provided in appendix 1. One-in-six of the participants reported that they had been in a young
offenders institute or prison (n=112, 17%), less than half of whom (n=33, 29%) reported that they
had consumed IPEDs during incarceration.
Figure 1. Distribution of survey participants across England, Scotland and
Figure 2. Employment status of the participants.
What IPEDs have people used during the past 12 months?
Nine-in-ten (89%) of the participants reported using IPEDs orally and more than eight-in-ten (85%)
through injection, with almost three-quarters (73%) having used IPEDs both orally and through
injection (see appendix 2).
IPEDs taken orally: Participants were asked about the various oral and injectable IPEDs they had used
during the past 12 months. Oral IPEDs were categorised into three groups: oral steroids, oestrogen
control and post cycle, and fat loss/others (figure 3). Two-fifths reported using drugs in all three of
these groups, and almost one-in-five had combined oral steroids with fat loss substances. The most
common oral steroid was methandrostenolone (also known as Dianabol or D-Bol) which more than
half of the survey participants reported using. Other oral IPEDs commonly used were oestrogen
control and post-cycle drugs, with one-in-two people reporting tamoxifen citrate use (see appendix
2). Compared to the earlier IPEDinfo surveys there was a concerning increase in the proportion of
participants reporting the use of dinitrophenol (DNP), though this remained rare, its use had risen
from 1.8% in 2015 to 3.1% in 2016. DNP is used to promote weight loss, however it has severe
adverse effects including liver failure and has been associated with a number of deaths .
IPEDs injected: The injectable IPEDs used were also categorised into three groups: injectable steroids,
peptides and associated growth hormones, and melanotan/other. The most common injectable IPED
was testosterone enanthate (also known as Test E) reported by almost half of survey participants.
Around one-quarter of survey participants also reported using human growth hormones (HGH) and
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (see appendix 2)). Of those who reported injecting IPEDs,
combining steroids with peptides and associated growth hormones was reported by two-fifths (40%
(see figure 3)).
Oral IPEDs Used
Injectable IPEDs Used
Figure 3. Patterns of oral and injectable IPED use.
At what age do people start using IPEDs?
Onset of IPED use was most common between the ages of 20 and 24 years old. However, the reported
age of first IPED use ranged from 14 years to 53 years and varied slightly depending on the method of
use (appendix 3). Almost three quarters of participants reported first using oral and injecting IPEDs
(73%, 78% respectively) before the age of 30, see figure 4 and 5.
oral use of
Gluteus Thigh Deltoid Triceps Other
Intramuscular injection sites
Figure 4. Age of first use of oral IPEDs.
Figure 5. Age of first of injecting IPEDs.
How are IPEDs used?
Patterns of use: The use of IPEDs is typically cyclic, with several substances used in sequence and/or
in combination during different periods of the cycle. The reported number of cycles and the length
of breaks in-between use varied widely. When asked about typical on and off cycles over the past
12 months, the average reported cycle length was 11 weeks for those using orally or 16 weeks for
those injecting. However, almost two-fifths of people frequently reported longer cycle periods, see
appendix 3 (most common cycle length was 12 weeks; oral and injecting cycles ranged from 0-104
and 0-161 weeks, respectively). People most commonly reported taking 12 week breaks between
periods of IPED use during the past year, with one-in-seven reporting this; the average (mean) length
of break between cycles was 20 weeks.
How injected: Most of those injecting IPEDs reported injecting intramuscularly at least twice a week
and the body site they most commonly injected into was the gluteus (79% (figure 6)). A third of
participants reported injecting subcutaneously (that is under the skin). The most commonly used body
site reported for subcutaneous injection was the abdomen (appendix 4).
Other category includes sites such as: the abdomen, biceps, pectoral, latissimus dorsi and the calf.
Figure 6. Intramuscular injection sites reported.
Where do they source their IPEDs?
Participants were most likely to obtain
IPEDs from their friends (54%) and they
considered the substances that they had
obtained to be genuine most of the time
(74% (appendix 8)).
What other substances do
People who use IPEDs also report use of a
wide range of other substances including
alcohol and illicit psychoactive
substances such as cannabis, cocaine and
amphetamines [12, 26].
Use of alcohol: Three-quarters of
participants reported consuming
alcohol monthly or more
frequently. Of the men who reported
drinking alcohol in the past 12 months,
42% consumed more than 10 units on a
typical day drinking (appendix 6, and
Use of other drugs and substances: Almost half (47%) of all participants reported using one or
more psychoactive drug during the past year. Cannabis was the most commonly reported
psychoactive drug used in both the past month (21%) and the past 12 months (33% (figure 8)); of
those who reported using psychoactive drugs around one-in-twenty had ever injected a psychoactive
drug (5.6% (appendix 6)).
Participants commonly reported use of over the counter or prescribed painkillers; over two fifths
(46%) of those reporting use of other substances had used either prescribed or over the counter pain
relief in the past 12 months, with one-in-ten using both over the counter and prescribed pain relief in
the past month (appendix 6).
Figure 8. Other drug and substance use past
Figure 7. Units of alcohol consumed on a
typical drinking day past 12 months among
those reporting alcohol use.
What are the motivations for use?
Motivations for using IPEDs varied. Just over half (56%) of survey participants reported aesthetic
reasons (changing their body image or for cosmetic purposes) as a very important motivation for their
use of IPEDs. This was followed closely by non-competitive bodybuilding (45% (see figure 9)). Other
motivations for IPED use, such as: hormone replacement therapy, retaining youthfulness or to aid
injury pain/anxiety/increase confidence were generally reported as being less important (appendix 8).
Figure 9. Motivations for IPED use.
What are the adverse side effects?
There are a range of physiological and psychological harms and risks associated with the use of IPEDs.
Research has linked anabolic steroids with increased risk of acne, accelerated balding, gynaecomastia,
sexual dysfunction, mood changes as well as chronic conditions such as cardiac, metabolic, neurologic
and musculoskeletal disorders . Survey participants described experiencing a range of adverse side
effects which they attributed to their IPED use. These varied differently by gender; more than half of
male participants reported testicular atrophy and almost half of female participants reported nausea.
In addition to the different effects sex hormones have in men and women, the side effects are
probably related to the differences in the IPEDs used by men and women, notably melanotan use
which was more often reported by women  (see figure 10 and appendix 5 for full breakdown).
One-in-five (20%) reported that they had redness, tenderness and swelling at an injection site,
indicating an injection site infection or injury. However, only 2% reported that they had an abscess,
sore or open wound at injection site (appendix 5).
used by men
Figure 10. IPED use and reported adverse effects by gender
used by men
Injection site pain
Raised Blood Pressure
reported by men
used by women
used by women
Injection site pain
Raised Blood Pressure
reported by women
*Ephedrin, Caffeine and Aspirin (ECA)
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Needle and syringe programme
Someone else collects from a
needle and syring programe
Survey participants could report more than one source.
Men: number of
female sexual partners
0 partners 5%
1 partner 48%
2-4 partners 29%
5-9 partners 11%
10+ partners 8%
Women: number of
male sexual partners
0 partners 14%
1 partner 50%
2-4 partners 36%
5-9 partners 0%
10+ partners 0%
Figure 11. Reported sources of injecting equipment.
What are the injecting risks?
The survey data indicate that risky injecting practices – those that could put them at risk of infection -
occurred among the participants; almost one-in-five (18%) of the participants who had injected
reported reusing their own injecting equipment, and around one-in-seven (15%) had shared a multi-
dose vial. More than half reported washing their hands and cleaning their injection sites before
injecting, (appendix 4). Participants most commonly obtained new injecting equipment via needle and
syringe programmes, either by collecting it themselves or someone else collected for them (figure 11
and appendix 5).
What are the sexual risks?
The majority of survey participants were sexually active (91%) and around half of sexually active
participants reported having more than one sexual partner within the past year (see figure 12 and
appendix 7 for more details). Amongst those sexually active, condom use was infrequent, indicating
many are at risk of sexually transmitted infections. The number of people who reported same sex
partners was small; 9% of males reported having a same sex partner in the past year (see appendix 7).
Figure 12. Number of sexual partners during past 12 months.
Participants could report more than one response
Waited for them to go away on their own (55%)
Treated them myself (34%)
Treated by my GP (4%)
Treated by another health service (4%)
Hepatitis B Hepatitis C HIV Hepatitis B
Ever had diagnostic test Ever been
What were the responses to harms and what health services were used?
Globally there is growing concern about the health consequences of IPED use, including infections
such as HIV and hepatitis B and C and the side-effects of use . It is important to understand the
ways in which people who use IPEDs respond to the risks and harms that can arise from the use of
these drugs in order to ensure health services can provide appropriate help. Our survey data
indicated that more than half of those reporting side effects waited for symptoms of these to go
away on their own, without seeking medical help/advice (figure 13).
The majority of people reported that they had used health services, such as, walk-in clinics, General
Practitioners, Accident and Emergency departments or sexual health clinics, (65%) in the past 12
months (appendix 5). However, this also indicates that over one third of those using IPEDs had no
contact with health services during the previous year. This is a particular concern due to the reported
adverse effects and common route of administration associated with IPED use (i.e. injection).
Due to the risk of contracting blood borne viruses associated with injecting drug use, survey
participants were asked about hepatitis B vaccination and testing for blood borne viral infections
such as HIV. Data indicated that the majority of participants had not been vaccinated against
hepatitis B, and that testing for blood borne viral infections was uncommon (figure 14). However,
of those reporting a diagnostic test for a blood borne virus and providing information on year of
their last test, 2016 was the most frequently reported year of test (appendix 5).
Figure 14. Ever been tested for blood borne viruses or vaccinated against Hepatitis B.
Figure 13. Participant responses to side effects from their IPED use.
The data presented here corroborate findings from the previous surveys of people using IPEDs [24, 28,
29]. They highlight that the average person using IPEDs in the UK is likely to be a white British male, in
their 30s; most of whom use a mixture of injectable and oral anabolic steroids and typically inject their
IPEDs intramuscularly. New data from this survey indicate that motivations for use are often complex,
but were most often related to aesthetic purposes, though athletic performance and non-
competitive bodybuilding were also common motivations, these findings are consistent with the
wider evidence on motivations [21, 30].
Most had started using IPEDs before the age of 30, however, some had initiated use whilst in
adolescence and it is a particular concern that some reported having done so at the ages 14 and 15
years. Initiating use at such a young age is a public health concern, as those who start using IPEDs
at younger ages may be at risk of negative impacts on their development and maturation .
It is reassuring to find that the average age for starting to inject IPEDs and the average age for first
use of needle and syringe programmes were both 26 years. This indicates most people are probably
directly accessing clean sterile equipment when they start injecting. This also offers an opportunity
for healthcare professionals to provide harm reduction advice early on. Although there has been a
marked increase in the number of people using IPEDs accessing NSPs  some of these also collect
equipment for others, who may not be directly accessing services . There needs to be a
continued effort to engage people who are using IPEDs with services, such as needle and syringe
programmes and primary health care.
The data from this survey confirm that IPED use is complex and varied, including complex
regimes/cycles of use and poly-drug use repertories. People using IPEDs also report the use of a broad
range of other illicit drugs, most commonly cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy alongside their use of IPEDs.
Many survey respondents also reported using prescription and/or over the counter pain relief
medication. This complexity makes informing policy and practice challenging. Further research is
needed to investigate and understand the combinations of drugs used and drug use practices among
people using IPEDs in order to establish effective health responses.
The uptake of testing for blood borne viruses and hepatitis B vaccination remains low amongst people
using IPEDs, the reason for this is currently unclear. Effective and targeted qualitative research is
therefore required in order to explore these factors further. Harms associated with the use of IPEDs
extend beyond the transmission of infections through injection . For example, people using IPEDs
commonly report low levels of condom use and can be highly sexually active so are at increased risk
of sexually transmitted infections [2, 12]. In order to combat this, targeted interventions to address
the sexual health needs of this population will also be required.
The National IPEDinfo survey has provided an important insight into a population using IPEDs.
However, we lack detailed information on the size and nature of this population, and so it is unlikely
that this survey will have adequately captured all types of use and groups of people using IPEDs.
Therefore further research is needed to investigate particular sub-group populations (e.g. young
people) that may be most difficult to reach through surveys such as this one. Additionally conducting
more qualitative research with people using IPEDs will help us better understand behaviours and
develop responses to: patterns of drug use, the transition between use of different substances, and
issues with health service engagement. Understanding these behaviours will better equip us to
deliver effective and appropriate health responses for those using IPEDs.
Appendix 1. Demographics
Recruitment site where
participants took part
South East Wales
Devon & South West
*25 online submissions
Sex of participants
Age, years of
Up to 19
40 and over
Mean (median) age
Full time education/Other
White (Irish, Eastern European, Other)
Mixed other (white & black Caribbean/African, white
Asian, other mix)
Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi
Black Caribbean/British, Arab, Other
Heterosexual or straight
Gay or Lesbian
Prefer not to say
Imprisonment and IPED use
Have you ever been
Have you ever taken IPEDs in
prison (oral or injectable;
Appendix 2. Reported IPED use
Ever used IPEDs
Both oral and injectable (N=684)
Appendix 3. Age of onset and cycle routines
Age of onset first
Up to 19
40 and over
Mean (median) age
Last 12 month Oral IPED use
Total use past year
Anabolic Steroids (N=507, 86%)
Mesterolone (Proviron; Pro-V)
Oxymetholone (Anapolan 50;
Stanozolol (Winstrol; Winnie)
Estrogen control and post-cycle drugs (N= 347, 59%)
Tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex)
Clomiphene citrate (Clomid)
Fat loss & others drugs (N=419, 71%)
Ephedrin, Caffeine and Aspirin
Pre-workout (stimulant type)
Last 12 month injectable IPED use
Past year N=563
Injectable Steroids (N=542, 96%)
Testosterone Propionate (Test P)
Testosterone Cypionate (Test Cyp)
Testosterone Enanthate (Test E)
Testosterone Suspension (Sus 250)
Trenbolone Acetate (Tren Ace)
Trenbolone Enanthate (Tren E)
Stanozolol (Winstrol; Winnie)
Boldenone (Equipoise; EQ)
Masteron (Drostanolone; Mast)
Methenolone (Primpobolan; Primo)
Nandrolone (Deca-Durabolin; Deca)
Blend of steroids in one vial (e.g.
Fast Rip, Tri-Tren)
Peptides & associated growth hormones (N= 298, 53%)
Human growth hormone
MGF (Mechano Growth Factor)
HCG (Human Chorionic
Other listed IPEDs (N=92, 16%)
Duration of IPED cycle
Length of oral cycle*
Length of injectable cycle*
Length of break in use*
No. of cycles
*reported in weeks
Appendix 4. Injection practices and equipment
Frequency of injecting IPEDs
More than once per day
Every other day
Twice per week
Once per week
Less than once per week
Before injecting have you
Always washed your hands (N=577)
Always cleaned the injection site (N=580)
Before injecting have you
Ever reused injecting equipment used
by someone else?
N= 574 respondents
Before injecting have you
Ever reused your own injecting
N= 575 respondents
Before injecting have you
Ever shared a multi-dose vial
N= 576 respondents
Proportion of those collecting
equipment for other people
Those who haven’t collected
equipment for others
Self-reported source for
obtaining injecting equipment
Needle and syringe programme
Someone else collects equipment
from an NSP for me
Appendix 5. Adverse effects/risks and responses to risk
Self-reported adverse effects and problems
Self-report past year N=628
Males n=592 (%)
Females n=36 (%)
Pain at injection site
Raised blood pressure
Redness, tenderness and swelling at injection site
Unwanted facial or body hair
Hair loss (male pattern baldness)
Deepening of voice
Abscess, sore or open wound at injection site
Sleep difficulties/disturbed sleep
Change in sex drive
Responses to side effects or problems
experienced with IPED use
N= 614 (%)
Waited for side effects to go away on their own
Treated side effects myself
Sought treatment from a General practitioner
Sought treatment from another health service
History of testing for Blood Borne Viruses
Ever had a dose of the hepatitis B vaccine (n=676)
Ever been tested for hepatitis B (n=673)
Ever been tested for hepatitis C (n=672)
Ever been tested for HIV (n=672)
Reported year last test for
Hepatitis B (n=188)
Hepatitis C (n=172)
Health services accessed for any reason during past 12
NHS walk-in clinic
General practitioner or family doctor
Accident and Emergency
Genitourinary, sexual transmitted disease or sexual health clinic
None of these services
Any other clinical health tests
in the past 12 months
Liver function Test
None of these tests
Appendix 6. Other reported substance use
Last Month N=662 (%)
Last Year N=662 (%)
Prescribed painkillers only
Over the counter painkillers only
Both over the counter and
prescribed painkillers reported
Other substance use N=662
purchased over the counter
Injecting drug use
Ever N=672 (%)
Ever injected a psychoactive drug
Frequency of alcohol consumption
Frequency N= 681 (%)
Monthly or less
2-4 times a month
2-3 times per week
4+ times per week
Number of units on a
typical day drinking
Frequency N = 516
1 or 2
3 or 4
5 or 6
7 to 9
10 or more
Appendix 7. Sex and sexual health
Have you been sexually active
past 12 months
Males reporting on No. of
sexual partners past year
10 or more
Females reporting on No. of
sexual partners past year
with 2+ partners
About half the time
Appendix 8. Other aspects of IPED use
Where do you get your
Prescribed by doctor
Not obtained any
Score of 10
Score of 1
Develop sporting/athletic performance (non-
Support occupational performance N=529
Bodybuilding (competitive) N=591
Bodybuilding (non-competitive) N=591
Increase sex drive N=534
Develop body image/cosmetic purposes N= 557
Hormone Replacement Therapy N=512
Retain/regain youthful appearance N=520
Other Strength, injury pain, cope with
depression/anxiety, confidence, and increase energy.
Frequency of using IPEDs
thought to be fake