Conference Paper

The Simulation of Catheter Interventional Surgery Based on Virtual Reality

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Abstract

The haptic-based virtual reality simulation which can create a visual and tactile fusion in virtual environment for operators is an important application in surgical training. The catheter’s deformation and force feedback are key techniques in the catheter interventional simulator. The simulation of catheter interventional surgery is developed with the aid of some open–source software, such as OpenGL and CHAI3D, and the force feedback instrument Omega.6 (Force Dimension, Switzerland). CHAI3D is a platform framework for visualization, computer haptic and interactive real-time simulation. To realize the deformation and the haptic effect in virtual system, the skeleton ball-spring model based on classic mass-spring model (MSM) is applied to the catheter 3d model, and the improved GEL dynamics engine is proposed. According to the skeleton ball-spring model, a set of 6-DOF balls are arranged within the 3d model. By defining the parameters of those balls and springs, such as mass, radius, elasticity, damping and external force, the real characteristic of the catheter can be simulated vividly. The improved model is more accurate than MSM but still computationally efficient. The simulator provides an effective surgical training method to help operators practice the catheter interventional surgery and get more skillful in a safe and easy way rather than traditional surgeries. Meanwhile, the deformable and collision-detective catheter model in the simulator provide operators with a more realistic feeling in surgical trainings. The methods can also be applied to other surgical fields.

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Article
Most of today's medical simulation systems are based on geometric representations of anatomical structures that take no account of their physical nature. Representing physical phenomena and, more specifically, the realistic modeling of soft tissue will not only improve current medical simulation systems but will considerably enlarge the set of applications and the credibility of medical simulation, from neurosurgery planning to laparoscopic-surgery simulation. To achieve realistic tissue deformation, it is necessary to combine deformation accuracy with computer efficiency. On the one hand, biomechanics has studied complex mathematical models and produced a large amount of experimental data for accurately representing the deformation of soft tissue. On the other hand, computer graphics has proposed many algorithms for the real-time computation of deformable bodies, often at the cost of ignoring the physics principles. The author surveys existing models of deformation in medical simulation and analyze the impediments to combining computer-graphics representations with biomechanical models. In particular, the different geometric representations of deformable tissue are compared in relation to the tasks of real-time deformation, tissue cutting, and force-feedback interaction. Last, the author inspects the potential of medical simulation under the development of this key technology