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Abstract

Technology devices are widely used today, creating opportunities to connect and communicate with distant others while also potentially disrupting communication and interactions between those who are physically present (i.e., technoference or phubbing). These disruptions in couple and coparenting relationships have the potential to negatively impact relationship outcomes. In this two-part study of 182 married/cohabiting couples from the Daily Family Life Project and 239 couples from the Couple Well-Being Project, we examined the role of technoference in couple and coparenting relationship quality and potential gender differences utilizing dyadic data. We found that greater technoference related to greater conflict over technology use, and greater conflict predicted lower relationship satisfaction and poorer perceptions of coparenting quality (Study 1). Using a more diverse sample (Study 2), we again found support for the main pathways tested in our first study, suggesting that results found in Study 1 and in previous work are not artifacts of sampling. As satisfaction, support, and agreement among relationship partners and parents are often critical to relationship health and family cohesion, it is important for couples and families to evaluate, monitor, and be willing to adapt their technology usage patterns so that these patterns do not cause conflict and possibly relationship deterioration over time.

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... However, ubiquitous access to employees can result in blurred lines between work and non-work domains, often leaving workers to struggle between balancing their work and personal lives (Hertlein, 2012;Morandin et al., 2018;Ragsdale and Hoover, 2016). In the present study, we examine workrelated technoference (the minor everyday intrusions and interruptions of devices in our personal interactions) (McDaniel and Coyne, 2016;McDaniel et al., 2018), and its associations with work-to-family spillover, feelings of overload, life satisfaction and job satisfaction. ...
... Technoference (i.e. interruptions of devices in personal interactions; McDaniel and Coyne, 2016;McDaniel et al., 2018) and phubbing (the snubbing of others for phone use; Roberts and David, 2016) have indeed been linked with greater relationship dissatisfaction, relationship conflict over technology use and poorer individual well-being. This is likely due to the negative ways in which these technology interruptions change the synchrony of interactions between partners, the quality of the leisure time they spend together, as well as partners' perceptions of whether their partner values their time spent together (e.g. ...
... This is likely due to the negative ways in which these technology interruptions change the synchrony of interactions between partners, the quality of the leisure time they spend together, as well as partners' perceptions of whether their partner values their time spent together (e.g. McDaniel and Coyne, 2016;McDaniel et al., 2020;McDaniel et al., 2018;Roberts and David, 2016). For example, both McDaniel and Coyne (2016) and Roberts and David (2016) found that perceived partner phubbing undermined the relationship satisfaction of the phubbed partner, which in turn reduced their reported life satisfaction. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine whether work-related technology use outside of work and around family members could produce technoference or phubbing, where time spent with family members is interrupted by or intruded upon by technology use. The authors also examined its impact on work-to-family spillover, feelings of overload, life satisfaction and job satisfaction for workers. Design/methodology/approach Via an online survey, the authors assessed the frequency of technoference due to work, work-to-family spillover, feelings of overload, life satisfaction and job satisfaction. The authors’ analytic sample included US parents (95 fathers and 88 mothers) who worked for pay and experienced technoference in their relationships, which was at least sometimes due to work. Findings Results reveal possible impacts of technoference related to work on employee feelings of work-to-family spillover, greater feelings of overload, lower life satisfaction and lower job satisfaction. Research limitations/implications Data are from a cross-sectional online survey, and results are correlational. Although the authors have theoretical/conceptual evidence for the impacts of technoference, it is possible that the direction of effects could be reversed or even bidirectional. Experimental/intervention work could further examine whether changes in technology use at home due to work improve employee well-being. Practical implications The authors’ findings suggest that organizational policies which promote healthy boundaries and work-life balance are likely fundamental to employee well-being and that employers should be mindful of employees' work-related technology use at home. Originality/value This study examines technoference and phubbing due to work while at home, as opposed to focusing on the at-work context.
... Problematic media use (PMU) can occur in romantic relationships when it infringes upon the autonomy of an individual or negatively influences others, such as media addiction, technoference, and (within certain contexts) pornography use (Brown et al., 2017;McDaniel & Coyne, 2016b;Northrup & Shumway, 2014). Such behaviors might impact the way that couples connect or diminish their feelings of safety and attachment (King et al., 2013;McDaniel et al., 2018). With our current media-saturated environment, such instances of PMU are typical (Andreassen, 2015) and may have significant influences on partner responsiveness, which may influence a variety of relationship outcomes. ...
... A common example in our modern world would be an individual scrolling on their phone while their spouse attempts to communicate with them, resulting in a one-sided conversation. Typically, greater amounts of technoference are related to greater conflict over technology use (McDaniel et al., 2018;Roberts & David, 2016), less positive faceto-face interactions (McDaniel & Drouin, 2019), lower relationship satisfaction (Hipp, 2019;McDaniel et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2017), poorer communication (Chotpitayasunondh & Douglas, 2018), and lower sexual satisfaction (Hipp, 2019). ...
... A common example in our modern world would be an individual scrolling on their phone while their spouse attempts to communicate with them, resulting in a one-sided conversation. Typically, greater amounts of technoference are related to greater conflict over technology use (McDaniel et al., 2018;Roberts & David, 2016), less positive faceto-face interactions (McDaniel & Drouin, 2019), lower relationship satisfaction (Hipp, 2019;McDaniel et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2017), poorer communication (Chotpitayasunondh & Douglas, 2018), and lower sexual satisfaction (Hipp, 2019). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine how problematic media use (technoference, internet gaming disorder symptoms, and pornography use) predicted later partner relationship outcomes, operating through the mediator of partner responsiveness. Participants ( N = 1039) were from Waves II–IV of a nationally representative quantitative study on marriage relationships across the United States. Both spouses completed surveys reporting problematic media use, partner responsiveness, and relationship outcomes at three separate time points each spaced a year apart. In order to test the hypotheses, three longitudinal actor-partner interdependence models with indirect paths were estimated, with each model corresponding to one type of problematic media use. Results indicated that at the cross-sectional level, all three types of problematic media use had significant indirect actor and partner effects, where problematic media use predicted lower relationship outcomes through the intervening variable of partner non-responsiveness. Longitudinally, wife technoference directly negatively predicted later partner responsiveness, but there were no full indirect paths of Wave II problematic media to Wave IV relationship outcomes through the intervening variable of Wave III partner responsiveness. Implications of these findings and future directions are discussed.
... It is also a finding with important applied implications since the urge to respond instantaneously is at the heart of some of the most worrying aspects of online communication. These negative consequences occur when incoming messages lead people to attend to their digital media devices while driving (Bayer and Campbell, 2012), while engaging in work tasks which require concentration (Mark et al., 2018), or while engaging in interpersonal communication tasks where full attention is expected (McDaniel et al., 2018). Therefore, we wish to confirm whether we can identify this imperative in the studied population, as well as the weight of two possible explanations for this behavior described in the study of chronemic agency-(a) to avoid forgetting to respond or (b) to avoid giving the impression of ignoring the sender. ...
... Chronemic urgency and associated temporal considerations can explain the strong "pull" of some communication media. This "pull" has significant applied implications in daily life and is mentioned in many contexts, such as separation anxiety from smartphones (Han et al., 2017;King et al., 2013), interfering with relationships (McDaniel et al., 2018), or dangerous distractions by smartphones such as in the case of distracted driving or distracted healthcare workers (Engelberg et al., 2015;Klauer et al., 2014). High chronemic urgency could be a powerful force that attracts users to check some media for incoming messages, as well as strengthens the urge to respond without delay (Frizell, 2015). ...
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The experience of a lack of time due to an increasing burden of urgent tasks is one of the more common challenges created by digital communication media in the network society. This study develops the concept of chronemic urgency to explore urgent messaging using digital media. Chronemic urgency is the urgency users assign to messages received via a specific communication medium. Consistent with a communication perspective, the urgency is a function of both the relationship and the media. This study uses social entrainment theory and expectancy violations theory to conceptualize the chronemic urgency construct. This construct is then examined in a pilot study of the chronemic urgency 773 US-based participants assign to the communication media they use at least on a weekly basis. High chronemic urgency is assigned to messages received through media that (1) are used for urgent communication, (2) are checked more often, (3) are likely to be used by others who wish to contact the user urgently, and (4) are likely to lead to a quicker response. Despite the increasing centrality of urgency in everyday communication in the digital age, researchers and practitioners lack reliable methods to measure chronemic urgency in populations. The findings provide initial indications of levels of chronemic urgency in the US population’s everyday digital communication and create a foundation to better understand contemporary temporal phenomena.
... One technology use behavior gaining interest within recent years is technoference, or technology interference, an intrusion that typically occurs in social interactions [3][4][5]. A manifestation of technoference is phubbing, which occurs when an individual uses their phone to snub a conversational partner [6][7][8][9]. ...
... Example items on the BIS-11 include "I plan tasks carefully" and "I am self-controlled". Responses are provided using a four-point Likerttype scale that ranges from rarely/never (1) to almost always/always (4). Survey scores are calculated by summing all item responses and can range from 30 to 120. ...
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Phubbing, or using a phone to snub another person, has been investigated through social and personality frameworks. Phubbing involves attending to and performing competing tasks, implying the involvement of attentional abilities. Yet, past research has not yet used a cognitive framework to establish a link between phubbing and attention. Using self-report data from a large online sample, we explored the associations between phubbing and everyday attentional failures. Phubbing was associated with difficulties in attentional shifting and distractibility, frequent attentional lapses, spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering, and attention-related cognitive errors. When examining these attention variables alongside several psychosocial and personality variables, attention-related cognitive errors acted as the biggest predictor of phubbing behavior. Phubbing was also positively correlated with media multitasking, which is a conceptually similar yet distinct technology use behavior. The results suggest that perceived everyday attentional failures are strongly associated with, and to an extent can predict, phubbing behavior, even more so than some social and personality variables. Technology has incorporated itself as a necessity, or at the very least a favored convenience, in most people’s lives. Characterizing technology multitasking behaviors from a variety of frameworks can help us better understand who is engaging in these behaviors and why.
... In the context of romantic relationships, phone use can detract from meaningful in-person connection and take time away from engaging in enjoyable activities with one's partner (e.g. McDaniel et al., 2018). Partner "phubbing" (i.e., snubbing the other by using one's phone), a form of technoference, occurs frequently, is felt as problematic by both the phubbed partner (e.g. ...
... Thus, in line with the displacement and interference hypothesis of technoference (Kushlev & Leitao, 2020), phone use and social media can be harmful when they take away from quality time with a partner and interfere with their relationship (e.g. McDaniel et al., 2018). While we were not able to directly test this, it is possible that by spending more time on their phones and social media, people may have lost opportunities to be present with their partner, to connect and provide support, which are important aspects for healthy relationship development (e.g. Gordon & Chen, 2016), particularly during times of stress (Balzarini et al., in press). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has touched many aspects of people’s lives around the world, including their romantic relationships. While media outlets have reported that the pandemic is difficult for couples, empirical evidence is needed to test these claims and understand why this may be. In two highly powered studies ( N = 3271) using repeated measure and longitudinal approaches, we found that people who experienced COVID-19 related challenges (i.e., lockdown, reduced face-to-face interactions, boredom, or worry) also reported greater self and partner phone use (Study 1) and time spent on social media (Study 2), and subsequently experienced more conflict and less satisfaction in their romantic relationship. The findings provide insight into the struggles people faced in their relationships during the pandemic and suggest that the increase in screen time – a rising phenomenon due to the migration of many parts of life online – may be a challenge for couples.
... Infants and children can also be indirectly affected by parent phone and mobile device use. There is an ever-growing literature which has linked technoference in couple relationships with decreased relationship satisfaction, lower quality interactions, greater relationship conflict, decreased feelings of closeness to one's partner, and negative emotions in the individual feeling snubbed (e.g., Amichai-Hamburger & Etgar, 2016;Brown et al., 2016;Dwyer, Kushlev, & Dunn, 2018;Halpern & Katz, 2017;Krasnova et al., 2016;McDaniel & Coyne, 2016a;McDaniel et al., 2018;McDaniel et al., 2020;Roberts & David, 2016;Wang et al., 2017). Additionally, some work has linked technoference with lower coparenting quality, or the ability of partners to work together in parenting their children (McDaniel & Coyne, 2016b;McDaniel, Galovan, et al., 2018). ...
... There is an ever-growing literature which has linked technoference in couple relationships with decreased relationship satisfaction, lower quality interactions, greater relationship conflict, decreased feelings of closeness to one's partner, and negative emotions in the individual feeling snubbed (e.g., Amichai-Hamburger & Etgar, 2016;Brown et al., 2016;Dwyer, Kushlev, & Dunn, 2018;Halpern & Katz, 2017;Krasnova et al., 2016;McDaniel & Coyne, 2016a;McDaniel et al., 2018;McDaniel et al., 2020;Roberts & David, 2016;Wang et al., 2017). Additionally, some work has linked technoference with lower coparenting quality, or the ability of partners to work together in parenting their children (McDaniel & Coyne, 2016b;McDaniel, Galovan, et al., 2018). We also know that the quality of the couple and coparenting relationship (in families with multiple caregivers) spills out into the quality of parenting that children receive as well as how secure children feel in their family relationships (e.g., Davies & Cummings, 1994;Erel & Burman, 1995;Margolin et al., 2001). ...
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The increase in the prevalence of smartphones and mobile devices has spurred changes in the caregiving environment of infants and young children, as phones and mobile devices are used at times during caregiving and in caregiving spaces. This use could create disruptions and cause distractions during parenting (termed technoference). This article summarizes the potential impacts on parent responsiveness and the experiences of infants and young children. Yet, it also warns that it is important to consider the reason for and type of parent use. Finally, the article ends with practical tips for working with parents concerning mobile device use.
... However, child device use has been reported by parents to be a source of family conflict, tension or disagreement (Rhodes 2017). In addition, device use by parents has also been reported to have the potential to displace parent-child interactions in a multitude of settings due to the portability and ease with which devices can be used (Kildare and Middlemiss 2017;McDaniel et al. 2018). For example, increased frequency and duration of parent device use has been found to interrupt playtime between parents and children while at home (McDaniel and Coyne 2016), can result in parents being less responsive to their children while eating out at restaurants (Radesky et al. 2015), and has been associated with signifcantly lower attachment quality when used while infant-feeding (Gutierrez and Ventura 2021). ...
Article
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Mobile touch screen devices (smartphones and tablet computers) have become an integral part of many parents’ and children’s lives, with this interaction linked to physical, mental and social outcomes. Despite the known importance of parent-child attachment, evidence on the association between device use and attachment was yet to be reviewed. Following protocol pre-registration, databases were searched, papers screened, and methodological quality assessed. Three papers met the inclusion criteria, and reported some negative associations between duration of parent/child smartphone use and attachment outcomes. A narrative synthesis on two groups of related papers found child time using any screen technology (including television viewing), and child “problematic” internet, mobile phone, gaming and social media use, was negatively associated with attachment outcomes. Currently there is limited direct evidence on any association between time parents or children spend using these devices and parent-child attachment to support time guidelines for families and professionals working with families. Practitioner Summary: Many parents and children regularly spend time using smartphones and tablet computers. This systematic review found limited evidence evaluating associations between child/adolescent or parent time using devices and parent-child attachment. Until quality evidence exists, practitioners should be alert to potential impacts of device use on family relationships and child outcomes.
... increasing (CNNIC, 2020). On the one hand, the use of smartphones has greatly changed the way people communicate and interact, strengthening social connections at a distance, and on the other hand, it may disrupt close communication and interaction (Mcdaniel et al., 2018). College students spend nearly 8 h a day on their mobile phones and have become part of the so-called "low-headed" crowd, even experiencing serious "phubbing" (Roberts et al., 2014). ...
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With the increasing popularity of smartphones and social networks, phubbing has spread around the world. Mobile phones allow people to connect with others from almost anywhere at any time. However, there is growing concern that smartphones may actually sometimes detract, rather than complement, social interactions. The term “phubbing” represents the act of snubbing someone in a social setting by concentrating on one’s phone instead of talking to the person directly. The impact of phubbing on the quality of interpersonal relationships, well-being, and behavior performance has also become a focus of interest for researchers. However, the relationship between perceived social norms and phubbing and its underlying mechanisms were still unclear. This study aims to examine the mediating role of individual control and fear of missing out in the association between perceived social norms and phubbing. A total of 927 college students (57.0% females) completed measures of perceived social norms, phubbing, individual control, and fear of missing out. The results showed that individual control mediated the relationship between perceived social norms and fear of missing out; fear of missing out mediated the association between individual control and phubbing; individual control and fear of missing out mediated the relationship between perceived social norms and phubbing, both in series and in parallel. The findings and implications of this study are presented and discussed, and these findings have important implications for the prevention and intervention of phubbing among college students.
... A szülők különböző infokommunikációs technikákat használnak, ami alternatívája lehet ugyan a személyes és telefonos csatornának, azonban több félreértésre is lehetőséget adhat (a nonverbális kommunikáció és az azonnali reagálás, korrekció lehetőségének hiánya csökkentheti az üzenetek érthetőségét). A válással jelentősen megváltozhat a szinkron és aszinkron kommunikáció aránya, és olyan kommunikációs formák válhatnak dominánssá, mint az e-mail, az SMS, a Facebook vagy más, azonnali üzenetküldő szolgáltatás, megosztott naptár, képmegosztás (Dworkin, 2016;Ganong, Coleman, Feistman, Jamison, & Stafford Markham, 2012;McDaniel, Galovan, Cravens, & Drouin, 2018). Sok szülő előnyben részesíti a kommunikáció írott formáját, ami egyrészt jól követhető, másrészt a felek megfontoltabban és tárgyilagosabban kommunikálnak így, mint élő szóban. ...
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Tanulmányunk célja áttekintést nyújtani a válás utáni közös szülőségre, a szülők együttműködésére és konfliktusaira vonatkozó főbb kutatási eredményekről. A közös szülőség fogalma a szülők közötti interakciókat, kapcsolatot jelenti, amit a válást követően is szükséges fenntartani. Tanulmányunkban egyrészt kitérünk a közös szülőség egyes aspektusaira (szülői kommunikáció, egymás támogatása–aláásása, konfliktusok és konfliktuskezelés), másrészt a vonatkozó vizsgálatokban leggyakrabban megjelenő háttérváltozókra (válási folyamat, elhelyezés típusa). A válás következményei, az új helyzethez való alkalmazkodás sikeressége mind a szülők, mind a gyerekek részéről jelentős társadalmi fontossággal bír, ennek ellenére a válás utáni közös szülőség témája csak egy-egy hazai publikációban jelenik meg. Jelen tanulmánnyal célunk ennek a hiánynak a pótlása, valamint a kérdéskör hazai kutatásának inicializálása. A vizsgált szakirodalom alapján elmondható, hogy a párkapcsolat felbomlása után kiemelten fontos egy új egyensúlyi állapot kialakítása, mivel a közös szülőség minősége összefüggést mutat a gyermekek és a felnőttek jóllétével is. A vonatkozó empirikus szakirodalom egy része azokra a preventív képzési programokra irányul, amelyek a válás utáni közös szülőség minőségének fejlesztését tűzték ki célul. Említést teszünk ezért több ilyen programról, röviden ismertetve a sajátosságaikat és a kapcsolatos empirikus eredményeket. Következtetésként elmondható, hogy a válást követő közös szülőség komplex témaköre és a szülők sokszor eltérő narratívája miatt olyan diádikus kutatási megközelítés választása indokolt, amellyel ez az összetettség megragadható. Felhívjuk továbbá a figyelmet arra, hogy hazánkban hiányoznak az elvált szülőknek kínált edukációs programok, pedig a szülők és gyermekek jóllétének érdekében fontos lenne ezek kifejlesztése, hatékonyságuk vizsgálata és a megfelelő hatékonyságú programok rendszerszintű elterjesztése. This study aims to provide a review of the main research findings on coparenting after divorce, parental cooperation and conflicts. The concept of coparenting refers to the interactions and relationship between parents which must be maintained even after divorce. In our paper, we cover some aspects of coparenting (parental communication, mutual support, undermining, conflicts and conflict management) and the most common background variables in the relevant studies (divorce process, type of custody). The consequences of divorce and the success of adapting to the new situation are of significant importance for both parents and children, however, the topic of coparenting after divorce appears in few Hungarian publications. With the present study, we aim to fill this gap and to initialize domestic research on the issue. Based on the examined literature, it can be stated that the formation of a new state of equilibrium after the dissolution of the relationship is of great importance, as the quality of coparenting is related to the well-being of children and adults as well. Some of the relevant empirical literature relates to preventive training programs aimed at improving the quality of coparenting after divorce. We, therefore, mention several such programs, briefly describing their specifics and related empirical results. In conclusion, due to the complex topic of coparenting after divorce and the often different narratives of parents, it is justified to choose a dyadic research approach that can capture this complexity. We would also like to draw attention to the fact that there is a lack of educational programs for divorced parents in Hungary, although it would be important to develop and disseminate them widely for the well-being of parents and children.
... For example, negative partner interactions regarding technology (either when we are interrupted by technology [i.e., technoference] or ignored by our partner while they attend to technology [i. e., phubbing]) and disagreements about technology use are thought to be stressors in romantic relationships that negatively affect relationship quality and increase conflict (Beukeboom & Pollmann, 2021;Halpern & Katz, 2017;McDaniel & Drouin, 2019;McDaniel et al., 2018;Vande-nAbeele et al., 2019). Although technology might play a significant role in relationship dynamics and interactions, an important question involves identifying psychological characteristics-of both individuals and their partners-that are associated with the variety of ICT use in the first place. ...
Article
This exploratory study examined both individual and dyadic predictors of variety of ICT use. Need for cognition is associated with engaging in a variety of intellectually stimulating practices and a prominent individual difference predictor of the types of ICTs people use. Participants were a subset of 542 heterosexual couples (N = 1084 individuals; 50% women; Mage = 63.65; 83.9% Caucasian) from the Health and Retirement Study with access to the internet. Individuals high in need for cognition were more likely to use ICTs for a variety of reasons. Being married to someone high in need for cognition was associated with a greater variety of ICT ownership, ICTs for financial/transactional activities, and ICTs for miscellaneous reasons (e.g., research), although these effects were relatively small and the evidence for partner effects was relatively weak according to the distribution of p-values. Partner effects were not significant for social technology or internet-enabling ICTs; cross-partner interactions provided suggestive evidence for compensating for lower levels of individual need for cognition. Findings are discussed in relation to the relational and contextual determinants of ICT use in older adulthood.
... Continuous experiences of phubbing may then affect relationships and individual well-being: relationship satisfaction and perceived relationship quality between phubbees and phubbers may decrease, while feelings of jealousy, relationship problems, and depression levels may increase (e.g., Al-Saggaf & O'Donnell, 2019;Halpern & Katz, 2017;Ivanova et al., 2020;McDaniel et al., 2018). ...
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Phubbing-ignoring another person in order to use a smartphone instead-is an increasingly common behavior that disrupts interactions and harms relationships. Using the frameworks of the Theory of Planned Behavior and an interaction value approach, we examined driving factors of phubbing frequency. Four pre-registered predictors were tested: attitudes towards phubbing, subjective norms of phubbing, interaction value, that is, the extent of valuing a social interaction, and perceived interaction value of the partner. After having had lunch together, a total of 128 participants in 64 dyads filled out a survey assessing the four predictors. Dyadic linear mixed model analyses confirm that a more positive attitude towards phubbing increases phubbing, as well as being phubbed. Moreover, we disentangled screen-sharing time (i.e., using a phone together), phone use, co-present phone use (i.e., using a phone alone), and phubbing: we found that valuing the social interaction more decreased phone use, but not phubbing, and holding more accepting subjective norms on phubbing increased co-present phone use, but not phone use in general. We further found that the person that used their phone first, phubbed more. Overall, this research extends our understanding of the factors driving phubbing and may be fruitfully harnessed to reduce phubbing.
... Participants who felt more technoference in their relationships also reported more conflict regarding use of technology, as well as lower relationship and life satisfaction, and more depressive symptoms. Co-parenting quality also can be affected by technoference (McDaniel, Galovan, Cravens, & Drouin, 2018). According to a Pew Report (Lenhart & Duggan, 2014), many romantic partners have experienced annoyance at their partner's smartphone usage while spending time together. ...
Article
Partner phubbing (Pphubbing) means snubbing a romantic partner by using one's smartphone in his or her presence. Pphubbing behavior has been predicted by characteristics such as neuroticism or attachment insecurity and has been associated with lower relationship satisfaction. Little is known about the influence of Pphubbing in long-term couples. We used data of 163 German heterosexual couples with an average relationship duration of 22 years to investigate interrelations of perceived Pphubbing with relationship satisfaction, age, and attachment orientation. Pphubbing was associated with attachment orientation and with younger age in both sexes, and with lower relationship satisfaction in men, but not in women. Dyadic analyses showed an overall actor effect of attachment anxiety as well as a partner effect of attachment avoidance in women. We also identified interaction effects of attachment avoidance and sex. These findings are discussed in the light of long-standing attachment dynamics and gender roles in long-term couples, and regarding possible mechanisms by which attachment and perceived Pphubbing impacts relationship satisfaction.
... The current study also included relationship satisfaction as its only outcome. Although frequent and responsive remote communication had a generally positive association with relationship satisfaction, it is possible that couples who are highly engaged with their romantic partners over their phone may do so at the expense of in-person relationships (McDaniel et al., 2018;Sbarra et al., 2019). Building on recent work that extends MMT, further research is needed to understand how couples transition between offline and online interactions and the extent to which couples integrate (vs. ...
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Due to the widespread use of smartphones, romantic couples can connect with their partners from virtually anywhere, at any time. Remote communication may be particularly important to long-distance relationships (LDRs), compared to geographically close relationships (GCRs). The goals of the current research were to examine differences between LDRs and GCRs in (1) the patterns of remote communication (video calls, voice calls, and texting), and (2) how frequency and responsiveness of remote communication are related to relationship satisfaction. Data were drawn from an online survey of emerging adults ( n = 647) who were in a relationship or dating someone (36.5% were in an LDR). Participants in LDRs engaged in more frequent video calling, voice calling and texting, compared to those in GCRs. Long-distance relationship participants also perceived their partners to be more responsive during video and voice calls, compared to GCR participants. More frequent and responsive texting predicted significantly greater relationship satisfaction among participants in LDRs, but not GCRs. Meanwhile, frequency of voice calls was associated with greater relationship satisfaction in GCRs, but not in LDRs. The use of video calls was not significantly related to relationship satisfaction in either group. Overall, study findings add to a growing literature on remote communication in romantic couples and suggest a uniquely positive role of texting within LDRs. Further research is needed to examine the ways in which LDR and GCR couples can best capitalize on different forms of remote technology to maintain their relationships during periods of separation.
... In addition to smartphones, interpersonal relationships are also affected by the excessive use of videogames and gaming technologies. Research suggests that it is not the absolute amount of time spent on gaming that has an impact on relationship satisfaction, but the conflict generated by its misuse (McDaniel, Galovan, Cravens, & Drouin, 2018;Roberts & David, 2016). Davey et al. (2018) reported that people in higher socioeconomic sociodemographic brackets were more likely to be involved in and concerned with phubbing. ...
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Phubbing, the act of ignoring someone to use the smartphone, has been a concern because of its consequences on social interaction. The present study aims to verify the phubbing practice's impact on satisfaction with a loving relationship and intimacy. This study was a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional, and quantitative study. The sample consisted of 384 individuals, 255 women, and 129 men. A sociodemographic questionnaire and instruments were applied Phubbing Scale (PS), Mobile Phone Usage Addiction Scale (MPUAS), Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Social Media Addiction Scale (SMAS), Game Addiction Scale (GAS), SMS Addiction Scale (SAS), Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS) and Psychological Intimacy Scale (PIS). The statistical program used for data analysis was the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The only dimensions of phubbing that influenced satisfaction with the love relationship were the communication disturbance, and in women, the difficulties of controlling the smartphone's use, and the need to share on social media. Results showed that: 1- satisfaction with the relationship is associated with the levels of intimacy. Another finding was that intimacy is related to a communication disturbance and phone obsession in women and difficulties in controlling smartphone use in men.
... Hubungan yang romantis antara kedua orangtua, diharapkan mampu memberikan cinta yang unconditional, nonjudgemental, dan everlasting kepada anak (Tifrere 2018). Hubungan kedua orangtua yang sehat disertai kepuasaan yang tinggi terhadap hubungan sebagai pasangan, dukungan, serta agreement mampu mengurangi konflik dalam praktik pengasuhan (McDaniel, et al. 2018). ...
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Parents play an important role in the family, while the second role plays in parenting is very much needed by the child's development. Child's psychological development will be much better, if both require joint care or coparenting. The pattern of joint care or coparenting is mutual support and act as a team of mutual support, which is carried out by both parties. The main concept of coparenting care here is second, interconnected or mutually supportive in all forms of attitudes, relationships and teaching in parenting practices. This study uses a single case study design with A-B-A model in which this research method is deemed suitable for the assessment of changes in therapy and applied therapy in couples. The results of the study showed a change in coparenting scores in each pair.
... Additionally, during time spent together partners may, at least at times, expect undivided attention, and when this expectation is violated negative feelings about the partner and the interaction may emerge (Miller-Ott & Kelly, 2015). Although much of the research has utilized survey research and focused on the potential dissatisfaction and negative emotions experienced when phubbed by a partner (e.g., Amichai-Hamburger & Etgar, 2016;Halpern & Katz, 2017;Krasnova, Abramova, Notter, & Baumann, 2016;McDaniel & Coyne, 2016;McDaniel et al., 2018;Roberts & David, 2016;Wang, Xie, Wang, Wang, & Lei, 2017), the significant associations among these suggest that individuals likely perceive differences in interactional quality due to phone use. Speaking directly to this point, recent research where individuals in couple relationships report on technoference each night for a series of days has found that on days when greater technoference is experienced individuals feel less positive about their face-toface interactions with their partner (McDaniel & Drouin, 2019) as well as perceive that their time spent together was of lower quality (McDaniel, Galovan, & Drouin, 2020). ...
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When someone focuses on their phone, rather than the person in front of them ("phubbing" or "technoference"), this can lead to feelings of exclusion and dissatisfaction. Few studies have examined this phenomenon experimentally using a confederate during face-to-face interactions, and to our knowledge the published research has yet to examine the role that attributional information may have on the effects of being phubbed. Thus, we conducted an experiment investigating how attributional information influenced the effects of phone use on feelings of exclusion and interactional quality during a face-to-face interaction. We randomly assigned 99 young adults into one of three conditions: no phone use, important use, or trivial use. In the phone conditions, the participant's interaction partner (a confederate) pulled out their phone 2 minutes into the interaction, gave either an important or trivial reason for use, and then interacted with their phone, making intermittent eye contact while continuing to interact with the participant. Phubbed individuals reported feeling more excluded, less close, and like the partner was more distracted in the phone use conditions, regardless of reason. However, individuals phubbed for an important reason reported feeling less excluded and like the partner was less distracted as compared with participants in the trivial condition. Results suggest that people take attributional information into account during the phubbing experience. Given the frequency of phone use during social interactions, these data suggest giving a good reason for use may help in relationships and interactions; yet, it may not alleviate all the potential negative effects.
... This supports previous research findings where mobile touch screen devices have been perceived as both 'good' and 'bad', depending on how the devices are used. For example, devices have been perceived as having the potential to both enhance levels of family connectedness (Padilla-Walker, Coyne, and Fraser 2012), as well as negatively influence interactions (McDaniel et al. 2018). ...
Article
The potential for human-computer interaction to have a substantial impact on adults is well documented. However, its potential importance prior to birth has rarely been reported. Parental use of smartphones and tablet computers could influence the relationship between parent and baby during pregnancy (prenatal attachment) and thus child development. Twenty-seven families were interviewed to explore how parents used these devices during pregnancy, and how device use influenced parents' thoughts, feelings and behaviours towards their baby while in utero. All used devices for a variety of purposes, and all described good levels of prenatal attachment. Parents described both disrupted and enhanced connectedness as a result of device use, and increased parental stress. The findings highlight a new opportunity for how device design and use guidelines could support families to maximise benefits and reduce detriments of device use to optimise prenatal attachment, and thus future parent-child attachment and child development.Practicioner Summary:Many parents regularly use smartphones and tablet computers while pregnant. This qualitative study found that how devices were used either enhanced or disrupted feelings of prenatal attachment. Practitioners should be aware of potential beneficial and detrimental impacts of device use during pregnancy given implications for future attachment and child development.
... The ubiquitous ICT and its excessive use in everyday life, which has become significantly more accessible with the development of smart mobile devices, has led to a deterioration in people's mental health and well-being (Harwood et al., 2014;Samaha & Hawi, 2016;Thomas et al., 2016). What is more, the use of different digital devices and media can cause addictions, as well as social phobias, behavioural disorders, and problems with interpersonal relations (Beyens et al., 2016;Chotpitayasunondh & Douglas, 2016;Elhai et al., 2016;King et al., 2013;Koç & Ugur, 2015;Lai et al., 2016;McDaniel et al., 2018;Peper & Harvey, 2018;Przybylski et al., 2013;Roberts & David, 2016;Yildirim & Correia, 2015). It is worth noticing that the use of digital tools is not always related to behavioural-type addictions, e.g. ...
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Although the use of ICT is one of the fundamental traits of the information society and smart tourism, constant online presence and hyper-connected lifestyle can also induce fatigue or even be addictive. Businesses and other institutions related to the hospitality and tourism industry create therefore products and packages for individuals who wish to reduce or forego altogether their use of ICT when travelling. The emergence of such offers has become a part of a trend called unplugged tourism. The main purpose of the research was to provide a supply-focused analysis of unplugged tourism offers in Poland to demonstrate the diversity of establishments and approaches possible in this niche market. Depending on the consumer needs, stays or trips based on the idea of unplugged tourism allow for leisure and recreation, mind and body cleanse, or even treatment of technology addictions.
... In der deutschen MiniKIM-Studie 2020 (Medienpädagogischer Forschungsverbund Südwest, 2020) ergab eine Befragung von 600 Erziehenden von Kindern im Alter von zwei bis fünf Jahren, dass in 97 % der Haushalte ein Smartphone vorhanden war und in 67 % ein Tablet. Nicht nur beschäftigen sich die Erwachsenen häufig mit dem Smartphone, sondern sie unterbrechen auch oft Tätigkeiten und soziale Interaktionen infolge von Push-Nachrichten (McDaniel, Galovan, Cravens, Drouin, 2018). Kleine Kinder besitzen zwar selbst noch eher selten eigene digitale Geräte -in der MiniKIM-Studie besaßen 14 % der Kinder ein eigenes Tablet und 4 % ein eigenes Handy -es ist jedoch davon auszugehen, dass Kinder im Vorschulalter schon häufig die in der Familie vorhandenen Smartphones und Tablets nutzen. ...
Article
Young children's use of smartphones and tablets is increasingly prevalent. Smartphones and tablets are part of families' daily lives. Therefore, preschoolers are confronted with mobile devices as well, and learn to use them naturally. Specialists who work with children or deal with various aspects of early childhood development are alarmed and warn of resulting harmful effects. It is also feared that research on the impact of smartphone and tablet use on child development cannot keep pace with the rapid technological developments. This review therefore looks at associations between the use of mobile devices and social-emotional development as well as the emergence of behavioral problems in preschool children aged four to six years. A search of the literature was conducted in two databases, PsycInfo and Pubmed. Based on the title, abstract, and in some cases other parts of 861 articles, 7 articles were included.The seven articles are in different research areas, and each demonstrates important research approaches for the topic. An experimental case study with a learning app found benefits for young children's social behavior. On the other hand, a neuropsychological study pointed out that the social dimension of pretend play is missing when playing with a tablet. Other studies, cross-sectional and longitudinal, found certain associations between the use of digital devices and impaired social-emotional development as well as behavioral problems in preschool children and also identified mediators such as parental stress. In sum, however, the results do not provide a consistent picture of the role of smartphone use for social-emotional development and behavior problems in the preschool years. Further research that keeps pace with technology developments is needed.
... The present measure, the DISRUPT (Distraction In Social Relations and Use of Parent Technology), is a 4-item measure intended to examine parents' tendencies toward problematic phone use during times they spend with their child. Problematic phone use has been measured in a variety of studies and deals with issues surrounding cognitive and behavioral struggles with device use (Augner & Hacker, 2012;Bianchi & Phillips, 2005;Hadlington, 2015;McDaniel & Radesky, 2018a;McDaniel et al., 2018;Pavia et al., 2016;Takao et al., 2009). The DISRUPT therefore has items that are related to components of behavioral addiction (Billieux et al., 2015), such as cognitive salience (e.g., thinking about the device) and loss of control (e.g., having trouble staying away from the device). ...
Article
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The landscape of modern parenting has shifted as an increasing number of parents have and utilize smartphones and other mobile devices throughout the day. A validated measure of parent distraction with these devices is needed in the field. It is important to have a validated measure of parent distraction with mobile devices (e.g., phubbing, technoference), as this distraction can be common at times and could negatively impact the quality of parenting that children receive. In the current study, I developed a brief, parent-reported survey measure of parent distraction (DISRUPT), examined its reliability and validity (convergent, divergent) in two survey studies (Study 1, n = 473 parents; Study 2, n = 294 parents), and examined its usefulness in predicting parenting quality (predictive validity). Overall, the results provide initial support for the DISRUPT as a valid and reliable measure of parent problematic tendencies with their phone or mobile devices during time they spend with their children. The DISRUPT’s items loaded together well and were internally consistent, and scores were associated with technology use (e.g., problematic phone use) and well-being variables (e.g., depression, stress) in the expected directions. Results also revealed the measure to be useful, as scores predicted parenting-related variables over and above other technology use variables. The DISRUPT also functioned as a mediator in a conceptual model of depression and parenting stress predicting parent distraction (DISRUPT) which then predicted parenting quality.
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As mobile technology has become ubiquitous in modern culture, researchers have begun to examine the effects of technology use on couple and family relationships. The sum of this research shows that the use of technology has the potential to create disruptions in interactions. The present study aimed to predict behavioral problems in children aged 3-5 years based on mothers' techno interference and problematic internet use. The present study was a correlational study and its statistical population was all mothers in Tehran in 2020. From this statistical population, a sample of 322 mothers was selected by using the purposive sampling method. The instruments used in this study included the Technoference in Parent-Child Relationships (McDaniel and Coyne, 2016), Problematic Internet use (Caplan, 2010), and The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple Regression analysis with SPSS-26 software. Findings indicated that technoference and problematic internet use positively correlate to child behavior problems. The results of regression analysis showed that technoference and problematic internet use played significant roles in predicting child behavior problems. So, special attention should be paid to the effects of technology on family interactions.
Article
In this study, we examined the typical and ideal bedtime routines of 289 Americans in cohabiting relationships who were recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Participants described their bedtime routines, indicated their frequency of sex with their partner, and completed surveys measuring their bedtime, sexual, relationship, and life satisfaction. There were some incongruencies between ideal and typical scenarios, with joint activities (both technological and non-technological) featured more often in the ideal scenarios, and more time alone featured in typical scenarios. Incongruence between the presence of physical intimacy in ideal and typical scenarios was predictive of bedtime satisfaction, as were the presence of emotional intimacy, going to bed together, and shared technology use (e.g., watching television together) during their typical time together. In turn, bedtime satisfaction predicted frequency of sex, and sexual, relationship, and life satisfaction. However, shared time together not engaged in technology and time apart (using technology or not) was not predictive of bedtime satisfaction. As bedtime is an opportunity for leisure together for many couples, going to bed together and engaging in activities that promote emotional intimacy (e.g., conversations) may be beneficial to couples. Additionally, discussions and compromise related to the presence of physical intimacy at bedtime may help couples experience greater bedtime satisfaction. Finally, in contrast to suggestions that technology use has a negative effect on relationships, shared technology use before bed may have a positive impact on individual and relational well-being.
Chapter
In the age of 4IR, working life is generally characterized by penetration of technological devices and online platforms to individuals' social lives through teleworking. There is no consensus about teleworking whether it has negative or positive impacts on work-life balance of employees. Since teleworking is directly related with technological devices, researchers discuss technoference and its effects on teleworkers' lives. So, in terms of its impact, teleworking and work-family interface should be taken into consideration with the concept of technoference. This chapter will analyze the relationship between teleworking and work-family interface in the context of technoference in depth. Due to pervasiveness of teleworking at the age of 4IR, this analysis seems like a necessity for both individuals and companies in terms of teleworkers' work-family satisfaction. Suggestions and protection methods in order to decrease negative impacts of teleworking will also be discussed.
Chapter
İçinde bulunduğumuz bilgi çağında, tüm yaşamsal mekanizmaları bilişim teknolojileri aracılığıyla buluşturmayı amaçlayan ve devrim niteliği taşıyan Endüstri 4.0 sisteminin yaşantımızı her anlamda etkilediğini gözlemlemekteyiz. Teknoloji her alanda gelişim göstermekte ve teknolojiyi etkili kullanmak bireylerin başarılı olmasında gün geçtikçe daha da önem kazanmaktadır. Bu gelişime uyum sağlamak ve ihtiyaç duyulan bilgi ve beceriye sahip olabilmek ancak eğitimle gerçekleşebilir. Topluma uyum sağlamak ve başarıyı yakalamak, öğretimin tasarlanması ve uygulanması sürecinde 21. yüzyıl becerilerine sahip olmayı kolaylaştıracak yöntemlerin izlenmesiyle mümkün olabilir. Yaşam ve kariyer becerileri, öğrenme ve yenilik becerileri ile bilgi, medya ve teknoloji becerileri olmak üzere üç kategoride değerlendirilen bu becerilere sahip olma sürecinde, teknolojiyi etkili kullanmanın hem öğrenciler hem de öğretmenler açısından önemli faydalar sağlayacağı unutulmamalıdır. Eğitimcilerin öğretim sürecini planlarken yaşam temelli öğrenmeyi benimsemeleri, öğrenciyi merkeze alarak üst düzey düşünme becerilerini desteklemeleri ve öğrenmeyi öğrenme becerisini kazandırmaları hayati öneme sahiptir. Bunun gerçekleşmesi öğretmenlerin yaşam boyu öğrenme yaklaşımıyla hareket etmeleri ve sürekli olarak değişime açık olmalarıyla mümkün olabilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: 21. Yüzyıl becerileri, yaşam ve kariyer becerileri, öğrenme ve yenilik becerileri, bilgi, medya ve teknoloji becerileri, 21. yüzyıl öğrenme modelleri
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Technology use within relationships has been shown to produce potential rewards and costs that influence relationship development and/or sustainment; however, the negative influence of modern technology (i.e., smartphone, computer, tablet, and/or television) use in romantic relationships during quality time spent together (i.e., technoference) remains an understudied area. Even less is known about the effects of technoference on young adult couples' relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. The current study utilized a descriptive correlational survey design with 158 young adult couples. We used actor-partner interdependence modeling to test the dyadic associations between technoference and relationship and sexual satisfaction among the young adult couple sample. Results indicated statistically significant negative actor effects between technoference and relationship and sexual satisfaction and statistically significant negative partner effects between technoference and relationship satisfaction.
Article
Previous studies have found some risk factors of cyberbullying. However, little is known about how mother phubbing may influence adolescent cyberbullying, and the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relationship. “Phubbing,” which is a portmanteau of “phone” and “subbing,” refers to snubbing other people and focus on smartphones in social interactions. This study examined whether mother phubbing, which refers to being phubbed by one’s mother, would be positively related to adolescent cyberbullying, whether perceived mother acceptance would mediate the relationship between mother phubbing and adolescent cyberbullying, and whether emotional stability would moderate the pathways between mother phubbing and adolescent cyberbullying. The sample consisted of 4,213 Chinese senior high school students (mean age 16.41 years, SD = 0.77, 53% were female). Participants completed measurements regarding mother phubbing, cyberbullying, perceived mother acceptance, and emotional stability. The results indicated that mother phubbing was positively related to cyberbullying, which was mediated by perceived mother acceptance. Further, moderated mediation analyses showed that emotional stability moderated the direct path between mother phubbing and cyberbullying and the indirect path between mother phubbing and perceived mother acceptance. This study highlighted the harmful impact of mother phubbing on adolescents by showing a positive association between mother phubbing and adolescent cyberbullying, as well as the underlying mechanisms between mother phubbing and adolescent cyberbullying.
Article
Background Parental phubbing and its effects on adolescents have recently begun to attract concern. Previous studies have shown that parental phubbing was associated with emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents. However, much less is known about the association between parental phubbing and youth life satisfaction, let alone the mediating and moderating mechanisms. Methods Self‐reports of parental phubbing, satisfaction with the parent–adolescent relationship, life satisfaction, and attachment style were assessed in a sample of 303 Chinese teenagers (155 girls and 148 boys, Mage = 14.00, SDage = 0.86). Multiple regressions were applied to investigate the association between parental phubbing and adolescents' life satisfaction, the mediating role of adolescents' relationship satisfaction, and the moderating role of adolescents' attachment styles. Results Parental phubbing had a negative effect on adolescents' life satisfaction, yet this association was completely mediated by adolescents' relationship satisfaction. Besides, the association between parental phubbing and adolescents' relationship satisfaction was moderated by adolescents' attachment styles. Overall, the conditional effect of parental phubbing on adolescents' life satisfaction was significant among the preoccupied teens and the fearful teens but not significant among the secure teens and the dismissing teens. Conclusion Although parental phubbing has the potential to undermine youth well‐being, the actual consequences for adolescents are variable, depending on their attachment orientations.
Article
Since the advent of television in the 1950s, parents, educators, researchers, and policy makers have been concerned about the effects of screen time on children's development. Then, when computers became widely used, a new wave of interest in the positive and negative effects of this new medium was generated. Within the past 15 years, the development of the smartphone and tablet have completely changed the landscape of screen time. This review examines the current state of the research regarding the relation between children (from infancy to age 8 years) and screens. Using principles from the Science of Learning as a guide, we invite content creators and researchers to create a new wave of the digital revolution, one in which we need to prompt rather than substitute for social interaction. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Developmental Psychology, Volume 2 is December 15, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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The current study sought to examine whether parental phubbing was significantly related to adolescents' cyberbullying perpetration and if moral disengagement mediated this relationship. We further examined whether online disinhibition moderated the direct and indirect relationships between parental phubbing and adolescents' cyberbullying perpetration. The participants included 2,407 adolescents from seven middle schools in China who completed the questionnaires regarding their experience with parental phubbing, moral disengagement, cyberbullying perpetration, and online disinhibition. Results indicated that adolescents with a high level of parental phubbing were likely to cyberbully others. Moral disengagement significantly mediated the relationship between parental phubbing and adolescents' cyberbullying perpetration. Furthermore, online disinhibition moderated the indirect relationship between parental phubbing and adolescents' cyberbullying perpetration. Specifically, the paths from parental phubbing to moral disengagement and from moral disengagement to cyberbullying perpetration became strengthened when adolescents experienced high levels of online disinhibition.
Article
Technology devices are ubiquitous in people’s lives and can interfere with parent-child interactions. This parental technoference is related to negative parent-child relationships and increased child behavior problems. The present study examined the relationship between parental technoference and adolescent smartphone addiction as well as the roles of social sensitivity and loneliness. A sample of 3051 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 13.08 years, SD = 0.89) responded to the anonymous questionnaires regarding covariates, parental technoference, social sensitivity, loneliness, and smartphone addiction. Results indicated that parental technoference could positively predict adolescent smartphone addiction tendency. In addition, social sensitivity and loneliness mediated the association between parental technoference and adolescent smartphone addiction in both parallel and sequential fashion. Specifically, it suggested that parental technoference could lead to higher social sensitivity and loneliness, which in turn resulted in increased adolescent smartphone addiction tendency. The present study contributes to a better understanding of how parental technoference increases the risk of smartphone addiction and also provide important theoretical and practical implications.
Chapter
This chapter reviews research that describes the prevalence and potential impacts of technoference within family contexts. A focus is placed on the potential of parent mobile device use to interfere with responsive feeding and decrease the quality of parent-child feeding interactions during infancy. Recommendations are provided for how to help parents and caregivers balance the benefits they glean from technology with their children’s needs for sensitive, responsive, and engaged caregivers.
Article
This study assessed the effects of maternal smartphone use on mother–child interaction. Thirty‐three Israeli mothers and their 24‐ to 36‐month‐old toddlers (16 boys) from middle‐high socioeconomic status participated in three within‐subjects experimental conditions: maternal smartphone use, maternal magazine reading, and uninterrupted dyadic free‐play. The mothers produced fewer utterances, provided fewer responses to child bids, missed child bids more often, and exchanged fewer conversational turns with their children when engaged with a smartphone or printed magazines compared to uninterrupted free‐play. The quality of maternal responsiveness was also decreased. These findings suggest maternal smartphone use compromises mother–child interaction, which given smartphone ubiquity in daily life may have negative effects on child development in various domains, including language, cognition, and socioemotional regulation.
Article
Phubbing (phone-snubbing) -a word to describe an interruption of a conversation due to using and/or glancing at a smartphone while communicating in person- has become an important problem. This unpleasant behavior can occur in different contexts like romantic relationships, business life, family relations, and educational environments. Previous researches generally focused on the first three situations; however, there is currently a lack of studies addressing phubbing behavior in an educational context. Although there have been insistent calls to examine the effects of phubbing behaviors in educational environments, to our knowledge, this study is the first which specifically focuses on supervisor-supervisee communication and the impact of phubbing behavior on this relationship. In this study, the term 'supervisor-phubbing' (SPhubbing) has been coined in the literature and described as "the supervisor's act of ignoring supervisees by using their smartphone or by being distracted by their smartphone during an academic meeting." Our research model, which draws upon Social Exchange Theory and Leader-Member Exchange Theory, examines whether SPhubbing results in any change to supervision outcomes or has an impact on trust between a student and their supervisor. Our results clearly show that SPhubbing has a negative impact on a student's trust in their supervisor which is important because trust positively impacts student satisfaction and perceived supervisor contribution to learning. In addition, student satisfaction is positively related to perceived supervisor contribution to learning. Students expect to be given the attention during a conversation; unless they are inclined to trust their supervisors less which undermines their supervision outcomes.
Article
Information and communication technology (ICT) facilitates communication within families but may also displace face-to-face communication and intimacy. The aims of this systematic review were to investigate what positive and negative relationship outcomes are associated with ICT use in families, and whether and how the outcomes differ depending on relationship type (romantic relationship, parent–child relationship, or sibling). Included in the review were research published in English between 2009 and 2019 studying the effects of ICT on family relationships with quantitative data. 70 peer-reviewed articles (73 studies) were retrieved and categorized based on four types of ICT variables: personal use, personal use in the presence of a family member (technoference), communication between family members, and co-use with family members. Personal use and technoference were mostly related to negative outcomes due to, for example, displaced attention and more frequent conflicts. Romantic partners were especially strongly negatively affected displaying stressors unique to romantic relationships, such as infidelity. By contrast, communication and co-use showed mostly positive effects across all relationship types. In particular, “rich” communication media resembling face-to-face interaction were strongly associated with positive outcomes. We conclude that ICT impacts family relations in different ways, depending on both the type of relationship and type of ICT use. Personal ICT use tends to weaken both parenting and romantic relationships in ways that can partly be mitigated by co-use and communication. Directions for future research include, assessing how often ICT is used in relationship-strengthening versus relationship-interfering ways, investigating causal pathways between ICT use and relationship quality, and focusing on understudied relationship types, such as siblings and grandparents.
Article
A growing number of studies have suggested that partner phubbing is negatively associated with marital satisfaction. However, little is known about the mediating mechanisms between this relationship. The current study investigated whether marital interaction and marital conflict mediate the relationship between partner phubbing and marital satisfaction. A sample of 470 Chinese married adults completed questionnaires regarding demographics, partner phubbing, marital interaction, marital conflict, and marital satisfaction. The results suggested that (a) partner phubbing was negatively associated with marital satisfaction; (b) both marital interaction and marital conflict partially mediated the association between partner phubbing and marital satisfaction; and (c) marital interaction and marital conflict sequentially mediated the association between partner phubbing and marital satisfaction. These findings promote our understanding of how partner phubbing is associated with marital satisfaction.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore the impact of excessive smartphone use on students’ academic performance. In today’s digitalized world, smartphones have become a vital device in human lives and have taken control over every aspect of day-to-day activities. Design/methodology/approach After a thorough literature review, the factors associated with smartphone use that impact student performance were identified, and a conceptual framework was developed. Further, a survey was conducted by contacting 264 students pursuing higher education in India to test the model. Structural equation modeling was adopted to test the hypotheses. Findings Results indicate that there is no direct impact of excessive mobile phone use on student performance. However, it can be observed that excessive mobile phone use impacts student performance indirectly mediated by technoference. Research limitations/implications This study was conducted among students pursuing higher education in cosmopolitan cities with representation from India. Future studies can test the model among students in tier two cities and rural areas and primary and high school students for more insights. Practical implications This study has suggestions for college management to promote a hybrid learning model and prohibit using smartphones in classrooms and academic areas. Originality/value This study is among the earliest to explore the impact of technoference in an academic environment.
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Aim: Mothers’ problematic internet use has been associated with suboptimal mother-child interactions and child behavioral problems. This study aimed to investigate the structural model of the relationship between mothers’ problematic Internet use and child behavioral problems with the mediating role of mother-child interaction. Method: The population was all mothers in Tehran in 2020. From this statistical population, a sample of 322 mothers was selected by using the purposive sampling method. The instruments used included the Problematic Internet use (Caplan, 2010), The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997), and Child-Parent Relationship Scale (Pianta, 1992). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-26 and AMOS-24 software. Results: The data analysis showed a significant inverse relationship between mothers’ problematic internet use with mother-child interaction and a positive and significant relationship with child behavioral problems. The structural equations modeling results showed that the model has a good fit and mother-child interaction played a mediating role in mothers’ problematic internet use and child behavioral problem. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is suggested that parents and psychotherapists with managing parents' use of the Internet during mother-child interactions and strengthening this interaction, improve behavioral problems in children. Thus, the foregoing variables could be attended in the familial, educational, and therapeutic domains. Key words: problematic Internet use, mother-child interaction, child behavioral problems, structural equation modeling (SEM)
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Screen time has become a hot button issue in psychology with researchers fiercely debating its mental effects. If we want to understand the psychological dynamics of technology use, however, a numerical conceptualization of screen time will lead us to gloss over crucial distinctions. To make this point, the present article takes a hermeneutic approach to a negative form of screen time known as ‘phubbing’, which is the practice of snubbing conversational partners in favor of one’s phone. Using interview data, it is demonstrated that whether or not phone use amounts to phubbing, that is, whether or not it tips over and becomes harmful, depends on a host of contextual factors such as relation (who), content (what), purpose (why), timing (when), and communication (how). These findings demonstrate that not all screen time is created equal: what is harmful and inappropriate in one context is benign in another, and vice versa. Simply put, screen time is not a numerical entity whose causal effects we can measure and explain, but a meaningful activity that we must try to understand.
Article
With the rapid rise of modern mobile technology development, smartphones provide immense opportunities for increased social interaction among human beings. However, smartphone capabilities can also incur an addictive preoccupation with unlimited access to the internet, social media, and other online activities. As a result, the increased amount of time and attention spent on smartphones can monopolize our focus away from the people around us. This inappropriate "phubbing" behavior has become an apparent worldwide phenomenon of concern. Phubbing is the act of snubbing an individual in a social setting due to the overriding focus on one's phone instead of paying attention to the other person (Chotpitayasunondh & Douglas, 2018). Of particular concern is the increasing distracted parenting noted due to the excessive time parents and caretakers spend on their smartphones resulting in less human interaction with their children. Research shows that troubling addictive smartphone activities of parents and caretakers negate the nurturing of their children and directly influencing their well-being in their formative years. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential adverse behavioral and developmental problems in youth-related to parental phubbing behaviors. This article also aims to inform the importance of parental self-monitoring and control of their smartphone use and identify pediatric nurses' approaches to guide parents and families to prevent adverse outcomes for this emerging public health problem.
Research
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Phubbing is a new form of neglect, and recent studies have examined the effects of parental phubbing on adolescent psychological development. The aim of this study was to explore whether there would be a significant correlation between mother phubbing (Mphubbing) and loneliness and whether mother-adolescent communication (MAC) and perceived mother acceptance (PMA) would sequentially mediate the relation between Mphubbing and adolescent loneliness. Our study included 3,293 senior high school students from China who completed measurements regarding demographic variables, Mphubbing, MAC, PMA, and loneliness. The sequential mediation model of MAC and PMA in the relationship between Mphubbing and loneliness was analyzed to verify all possible paths in this study. Taking the demographic variables as covariables, the results indicated that (1) Mphubbing was positively correlated with loneliness in adolescents and (2) MAC and PMA mediated the relationship between Mphubbing and adolescent loneliness sequentially.
Article
Purpose The ubiquity of mobile phone use has generated a common phenomenon called phubbing, a reference to snubbing someone in social settings and instead concentrating on one's phone. Despite numerous adverse effects of phubbing argued in previous research, the group of phubbers is growing intensively. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential transmission of phubbing between marital partners to raise public awareness of the propagation of phubbing. Design/methodology/approach A two-wave study with a 3-month interval was conducted, using matched husband–wife data from 253 Chinese couples. Husbands and wives separately completed questionnaires about their spouses’ phubbing and their marital quality. The dyadic data analysis method was applied to test the research hypotheses. Findings The results confirm the transmission of phubbing and show a pronounced gender asymmetry in the process of phubbing transmission. Phubbing could be transmitted from wives to husbands, but not vice versa. Specifically, only wives' phubbing significantly undermine relationship quality, while relationship quality was negatively related to both husbands' phubbing and wives' phubbing. Originality/value This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanism of phubbing transmission and provide support for reciprocity theory and social role theory. Results can cause public attention to the transmissibility of phubbing and provide enlightenment on the management of personal phone behavior and offer insight into research on technology use in other types of interpersonal relationships.
Article
The term “phubbing” is a portmanteau of “phone” and “snubbing”, representing interruptions in face-to-face interactions due to smartphones acting as a distractor. Phubbing has previously been associated with several negative relational and personal outcomes (i.e., reduced relationship satisfaction, low mood, and increased interpersonal conflict). The present study explored the consequences of partner phubbing on phubbee's (i.e., the recipient's) daily reports of relationship satisfaction and personal well-being. To extend current phubbing literature, we assessed how phubbees responded to being phubbed (ignoring, resentment, curiosity, retaliation, conflict) and their motivations for engaging in any retaliatory behaviours. Participants (N = 75) completed a 10-day daily diary study, consisting of short baseline and daily measures (perceived partner phubbing, relationship satisfaction, depressed mood, anxious mood, self-esteem, anger/frustration, responses to phubbing, and, if applicable, motivations for retaliation). Results revealed phubbees reported lower relationship satisfaction and greater feelings of anger when daily perceived partner phubbing was high. Likewise, when perceived partner phubbing was high, phubbees reported greater curiosity, resentment, and retaliation. Revenge, need for support, and need for approval were all significant motivations for retaliation. Findings reinforced the emotional and behavioural impact of phubbing on the recipient.
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Emerging trends online and in social network sites have created an environment where transparency is increasingly unavoidable for psychologists, and online issues are increasingly salient issues for adult and child clients. Psychologists may increasingly have to apply ethical principles to the increasingly interconnected and transparent online world that may stand in stark contrast to the privacy of the therapeutic relationship. Psychologists and psychologists in training may need to consider best online practices for the field that relate to social networking, personal online activity, and patients' issues related to social media usage.
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Phubbing is a new form of neglect, and recent studies have examined the effects of parental phubbing on adolescent psychological development. The aim of this study was to explore whether there would be a significant correlation between mother phubbing (Mphubbing) and loneliness and whether mother–adolescent communication (MAC) and perceived mother acceptance (PMA) would sequentially mediate the relation between Mphubbing and adolescent loneliness. Our study included 3,293 senior high school students from China who completed measurements regarding demographic variables, Mphubbing, MAC, PMA, and loneliness. The sequential mediation model of MAC and PMA in the relationship between Mphubbing and loneliness was analyzed to verify all possible paths in this study. Taking the demographic variables as covariables, the results indicated that (1) Mphubbing was positively correlated with loneliness in adolescents and (2) MAC and PMA mediated the relationship between Mphubbing and adolescent loneliness sequentially. Our study highlights the potential mediating mechanisms between Mphubbing and adolescent loneliness, which has important implications for the theoretical and practical of adolescent loneliness in the age of mobiles.
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Aim: Mothers’ problematic internet use has been associated with suboptimal mother-child interactions and child behavioral problems. This study aimed to investigate the structural model of the relationship between mothers’ problematic Internet use and child behavioral problems with the mediating role of mother-child interaction. Method: The population was all mothers in Tehran in 2020. From this statistical population, a sample of 322 mothers was selected by using the purposive sampling method. The instruments used included the Problematic Internet use (Caplan, 2010), The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997), and Child-Parent Relationship Scale (Pianta, 1992). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-26 and AMOS-24 software. Results: The data analysis showed a significant inverse relationship between mothers’ problematic internet use with mother-child interaction and a positive and significant relationship with child behavioral problems. The structural equations modeling results showed that the model has a good fit and mother-child interaction played a mediating role in mothers’ problematic internet use and child behavioral problem. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is suggested that parents and psychotherapists with managing parents' use of the Internet during mother-child interactions and strengthening this interaction, improve behavioral problems in children. Thus, the foregoing variables could be attended in the familial, educational, and therapeutic domains. Key words: problematic Internet use, mother-child interaction, child behavioral problems, structural equation modeling (SEM)
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The widespread application of technology devices creates opportunities to interrupt real-time communication and interactions, which is referred to as “technoference”. This study is aimed at determining whether the interference in parent-child relationships increases the risk of adolescents' smartphone addiction among adolescents, and at examining the role of cognitive factors in this relationship. A total of 1,354 high school students from Hubei Province of China participated in this study. The participants responded to perceived technoference, attentional control, internal state awareness (ISA), and smartphone addiction. According to the results, the positive association between technology device interference in parent-child relationships and adolescents' smartphone addiction was partially mediated by attentional control. Moreover, the correlation between attentional control and smartphone addiction becomes stronger as the level of ISA increased.
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Heavy parent digital technology use has been associated with suboptimal parent-child interactions, but no studies examine associations with child behavior. This study investigates whether parental problematic technology use is associated with technology-based interruptions in parent-child interactions, termed "technoference," and whether technoference is associated with child behavior problems. Parent reports from 170 U.S. families (child Mage = 3.04 years) and actor-partner interdependence modeling showed that maternal and paternal problematic digital technology use predicted greater technoference in mother-child and father-child interactions; then, maternal technoference predicted both mothers' and fathers' reports of child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results suggest that technological interruptions are associated with child problem behaviors, but directionality and transactional processes should be examined in future longitudinal studies.
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We describe the development and validation of the Daily Coparenting Scale (D-Cop), a measure of parents’ perceptions of daily coparenting quality, to address the absence of such a daily measure in the field. A daily measure of coparenting can help us to better identify specific mechanisms of short-term change in family processes as well as examine within-person variability and processes as they are lived by participants in their everyday lives. Mothers and fathers, from 174 families with at least one child age 5 or younger, completed a 14-day diary study. Utilizing multilevel factor analysis, we identified two daily coparenting factors at both the between- and within-person level: positive and negative daily coparenting. The reliabilities of the overall D-Cop and individual positive and negative subscales were good, and we found that parents’ reports of coparenting quality fluctuated on a daily basis. Also, we established the initial validity of the D-Cop, as scores related as expected to (a) an existing and already validated measure of coparenting and to (b) couple relationship quality, depressive symptoms, and child behavior problems. Further, fluctuations in daily couple relationship feelings related to fluctuations in daily coparenting quality. The D-Cop and its subscales functioned almost identically when only utilizing 7 days of data instead of 14 days. We call for future work to study day-by-day fluctuations and dynamics of coparenting to better illuminate family processes that lead to child and family outcomes in order to improve the efficacy of family interventions.
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This study investigated the relationship between smartphone multitasking and romantic intimacy. Participants currently in a romantic relationship (N = 128; 98 women; M age = 26.7 years, SD = 4.3) filled out two sets of questionnaires: The Emotional Intimacy Scale, measuring romantic intimacy, and the mobile phone interference in life scale, measuring multitasking on a smartphone. Participants filled out each questionnaire twice, once in relation to themselves and once in relation to their partner (for the partner questionnaire, statements were altered from the first person to the third person singular, he/she instead of I). Results suggested that only the partners’ smartphone multitasking scores were negatively related to ratings of romantic intimacy, whereas participants’ own smartphone multitasking scores were not related to ratings of romantic intimacy. These results can be explained by the actor–observer asymmetry, suggesting that participants attributed their multitasking behaviors to situations, but attributed their partners multitasking behaviors to behavior patterns or intentionality. This research suggests that smartphone multitasking has a negative association with face-to-face interactions. People should attend to the costs of smartphone use during face-to-face interactions.
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Technology devices and their characteristics have become more pervasive and enticing. The use of these new devices is common, and interruptions due to these devices are likely. This study examines the frequency of technology interference in (a) coparenting relationships—the relationship between parents as they parent their children together—during early infancy/childhood and in (b) various parenting domains (bedtime, mealtime, etc.), as well as (c) associations between technology interference and perceptions of coparenting quality as reported by 203 married/cohabiting mothers. Many mothers perceived that technology interrupted coparenting interactions on occasion, especially during unstructured parenting such as playtime. Mothers rating more interference reported worse coparenting, relationship satisfaction, and depressive symptoms. Technology interference predicted coparenting even after controlling for relationship satisfaction and depressive symptoms. Technology interference likely decreases coordination between parents, leaving some mothers feeling frustrated. Parents may be advised to critically examine and potentially regulate technology use during family interactions.
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The couple and coparenting relationship are theorized to influence each other in a reciprocal manner over time. Empirical evidence demonstrates cross-sectional associations between the 2 as well as prospective predictions of coparenting by relationship quality and vice versa. However, less is known about the longitudinal reciprocity between the couple relationship and coparenting from the perspective of both parents. The current study sought to examine longitudinal associations between relationship quality and coparenting support/undermining across the transition to parenthood from a dyadic perspective. Participants were 164 cohabiting heterosexual couples expecting their 1st child, assessed during pregnancy and at 6 and 36 months after birth. Actor partner interdependence modeling was used to examine, for both men and women, (a) stability over time in relationship quality and coparenting, (b) reciprocal associations between relationship quality and coparenting support/undermining, and (c) the gender differences in those associations. Moderate rank-order stability in relationship quality and coparenting support/undermining across the 1st 3 years of parenthood was demonstrated. For women, but not men, findings suggested longitudinal reciprocal associations between relationship quality and coparenting support/undermining. Specifically, our findings suggested that prenatal relationship quality sets the stage for coparenting functioning after birth for both men and women but that coparenting functioning is then connected to subsequent feelings about the romantic relationship for only women.
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Smartphones allow people to connect with others from almost anywhere at any time. However, there is growing concern that smartphones may actually sometimes detract, rather than complement, social interactions. The term “phubbing” represents the act of snubbing someone in a social setting by concentrating on one’s phone instead of talking to the person directly. The current study was designed to examine some of the psychological antecedents and consequences of phubbing behavior. We examined the contributing roles of Internet addiction, fear of missing out, self-control, and smartphone addiction, and how the frequency of phubbing behavior and of being phubbed may both lead to the perception that phubbing is normative. The results revealed that Internet addiction, fear of missing out, and self-control predicted smartphone addiction, which in turn predicted the extent to which people phub. This path also predicted the extent to which people feel that phubbing is normative, both via (a) the extent to which people are phubbed themselves, and (b) independently. Further, gender moderated the relationship between the extent to which people are phubbed and their perception that phubbing is normative. The present findings suggest that phubbing is an important factor in modern communication that warrants further investigation.
Conference Paper
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Coined as “phubbing”, excessive use of smartphones in the romantic context has been shown to represent a barrier to meaningful communication, causing conflict, lowering relationship satisfaction, and undermining individual well-being. While these findings project a dire picture of the future of romance, the mechanisms behind the detrimental influence of partner phubbing on relationshiprelevant markers are still little understood. Considering prior evidence that partner phubbing leads to the loss of exclusive attention towards the other party, we argue that these are rather the feelings of jealousy partner phubbing is triggering that are responsible for the negative relational outcomes. Based on the analysis of qualitative and quantitative responses from “generation Y” users, we find that partner phubbing is associated with heightened feelings of jealousy, which is inversely related to couple’s relational cohesion. Moreover, jealousy plays a mediating role in the relationship between partner’s smartphone use and relational cohesion, acting as a mechanism behind this undesirable link. Challenging the frequently promoted euphoria with regard to permanent “connectedness”, our study contributes to a growing body of IS research that addresses dark sides of information technology use and provides corresponding implications for IS practitioners.
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The exceptional sociability of human life colors nearly every phenomenon in the social and behavioral sciences. However, most psychological theories continue to adopt a within-person perspective, analyzing human behavior by reference to individual-level biological processes, personal dispositions, or cognitive experiences. Interdependence theory is an important antidote to this actor-focused bias. Interdependence theory identifies the most important characteristics of interpersonal situations via a comprehensive analysis of situation structure and describes the implications of structure for understanding intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. Situation structure matters because it is the interpersonal reality within which motives are activated, toward which cognition is oriented and around which interaction unfolds. This paper describes key principles of interdependence structure and processes, and illustrates the utility of an interdependence theoretic analysis via a review of four phenomena – regulatory fit, persistence in the face of dissatisfaction, tit-for-tat versus generosity, and the origins and consequences of trust.
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Partner phubbing (Pphubbing) can be best understood as the extent to which an individual uses or is distracted by his/her cell phone while in the company of his/her relationship partner. The present study is the first to investigate the oft-occurring behavior of Pphubbing and its impact on relationship satisfaction and personal well-being. In Study 1, a nine-item scale was developed to measure Pphubbing. The scale was found to be highly reliable and valid. Study 2 assessed the study's proposed relationships among a sample of 145 adults. Results suggest that Pphubbing's impact on relationship satisfaction is mediated by conflict over cell phone use. One's attachment style was found to moderate the Pphubbing - cell phone conflict relationship. Those with anxious attachment styles reported higher levels of cell phone conflict than those with less anxious attachment styles. Importantly, Pphubbing was found to indirectly impact depression through relationship satisfaction and ultimately life satisfaction. Given the ever-increasing use of cell phones to communicate between romantic partners, the present research offers insight into the process by which such use may impact relationship satisfaction and personal well-being. Directions for future research are discussed.
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The current chapter examines what I term “technology interference” or “technoference,” which includes times when and ways that technological devices intrude, interrupt, and/or get in the way of couple or family communication and interactions in everyday life. I begin this discussion first by examining individual characteristics that predict individual use of mobile devices, as well as problematic use. I then move to an examination of characteristics of the devices themselves, those features that influence use. Then, I turn to how even normative use of technology might produce interruptions in family life, and what the current research tells us about how technology interference might influence personal and couple well-being. Overall, preliminary work suggests that technology interference is common in couple relationships and that greater interference is related to diminished personal and relational well-being.
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Family transitions, such as stepfamily formation, can be a source of stress for adults and children. Yet, the stepfamily literature lacks a focus on factors that influence child stress levels while transitioning to stepfamily life. Using a social support perspective, the purpose of this study was to assess the independent and additive influence of closeness with three common parental figures on retrospective reports of stress experienced by children during stepfamily formation. A sample of 1139 emerging adults from a retrospective, US-based national quota sample, the Stepfamily Experiences Project, was analysed. Results indicated that parental relationships have independent, not combined, effects on stress. More specifically, we found that greater closeness with resident stepparents and resident biological parents was associated with less stress in children, whereas greater closeness with non-resident biological parents was associated with slightly greater levels of stress. These findings reflect (i) the primacy of residential relationships in children's stress reduction; (ii) the benefit of parental relationships to children as sources of social support during stressful family transitions; and (iii) the potential for children to experience stressful loyalty binds during stepfamily formation. Implications for social work practice, limitations and future directions for research are discussed.
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Evidence suggests that those who engage in text messaging, particularly young individuals, tend to text in what many people may deem socially inappropriate or odd situations, such as while speaking face-to-face with someone else, while at work, while in the shower, or even while having sex. The present study investigates whether young texters are creating a new etiquette where these are socially acceptable practices or whether they deem these practices to be social breaches, but do it anyway. The data support the latter; college students report texting in many situations they did not deem socially acceptable. The importance of texting to this generation and future research directions are discussed.
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For many emerging adults, initiating and developing a romantic relationship is likely to be very different from the experiences of previous generations. Many studies address the abundant use of technology among young adults in virtually every aspect of their lives. Few studies, however, have investigated the use of communication technology and its impact on how relationships are discovered, initiated, and maintained among this group. Researchers collected data from 1,003 young adults (ages 18-25 years) through an online survey about communication technology use and dating behaviors. Results were analyzed using chi-square tests to assess for differences between groups. Findings suggest significant differences between men and women and their use of communication technology during the initiation of dating relationships. Additionally, young adults believe that "talking," "hanging out," and "sharing intimate details" are more important when compared with using communication technologies to establish a relationship. The information yields valuable understanding about the role communication technology plays in the intimate relationship development of emerging adults.
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Technology use has proliferated in family life; everyday intrusions and interruptions due to technology devices, which we term “technoference,” will likely occur. We examine the frequency of technoference in romantic relationships and whether these everyday interruptions relate to women’s personal and relational well-being. Participants were 143 married/cohabiting women who completed an online questionnaire. The majority perceived that technology devices (such as computers, cell or smartphones, or TV) frequently interrupted their interactions, such as couple leisure time, conversations, and mealtimes, with their partners. Overall, participants who rated more technoference in their relationships also reported more conflict over technology use, lower relationship satisfaction, more depressive symptoms, and lower life satisfaction. We tested a structural equation model of technoference predicting conflict over technology use, which then predicted relationship satisfaction, which finally predicted depression and life satisfaction. By allowing technology to interfere with or interrupt conversations, activities, and time with romantic partners—even when unintentional or for brief moments—individuals may be sending implicit messages about what they value most, leading to conflict and negative outcomes in personal life and relationships.
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Two explanations for relational maintenance processes center on the constructs of equity and relationship uncertainty. The current study sought to uncover how these two explanations compare when predicting relational maintenance data. Survey data were collected from 219 individuals in romantic relationships. As predicted, both inequity and uncertainty were moderately and negatively related to the use of maintenance strategies. Further, results indicate that future, definition, and mutuality uncertainty are positively related to being underbenefitted, but that being overbenefitted is not related to any of the dimensions of relationship uncertainty. Finally, both inequity and uncertainty predict relational satisfaction as well as the frequency of maintenance enactment, but uncertainty appears to be the stronger and more consistent predictor of both. Implications for combining the two approaches are discussed.
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The applicability of 5 conventional guidelines for construct measurement is critically examined: (1) Construct indicators should be internally consistent for valid measures, (2) there are optimal magnitudes of correlations between items, (3) the validity of measures depends on the adequacy with which a specified domain is sampled, (4) within-construct correlations must be greater than between-construct correlations, and (5) linear composites of indicators can replace latent variables. A structural equation perspective is used, showing that without an explicit measurement model relating indicators to latent variables and measurement errors, none of these conventional beliefs hold without qualifications. Moreover, a "causal" indicator model is presented that sometimes better corresponds to the relation of indicators to a construct than does the classical test theory "effect" indicator model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Drawing on five waves of multiple-informant data gathered from focal participants and their parents and intimate partners (n = 360 families) who completed annual surveys in the German Family Panel (pairfam) study, the present investigation examined bidirectional associations between the development of adults’ conflictual and intimate interactions with their parents and intimate partners. Autoregressive cross-lagged latent change score modeling results revealed a robust pattern of coordinated development between parent-adult child and couple conflictual and intimate interactions: increases in conflict and intimacy in one relationship were contemporaneously intertwined with changes in the other relationship. Additionally, prior couple intimacy and conflict predicted future parent-adult child relations in seven out of 14 cross-lagged pathways examined, but parent-adult child conflict and intimacy was only associated with future couple interactions in one pathway. These associations were not moderated by the gender of parents or the adult child or whether the adult child was a young adult or nearing midlife. Frequency of contact between parents and the adult child moderated some associations. Adults simultaneously juggle ties with parents and intimate partners, and this study provides strong evidence supporting the coordinated development of conflictual and intimate patterns of interaction in each relationship.
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Advancing a theoretical model to explain the negative effects of texting on romantic relationships, we suggest that constant texting leads partners to attend to their cell phones instead of communicating with their significant other (Pphubbing), reducing through two different processes the perceived quality of a romantic relationship. These processes are: (1) conflicts erupting between couples due to texting behavior; and (2) lack of intimacy, stemming from texting activities that displace focus on the romantic partner. To test the model we conducted a two-wave, representative panel survey, separated by one year. A cross-lagged analysis of the two-wave panel demonstrates that frequency of texting leads to lower levels of perceived quality in relationships. This relationship militates against the argument that individuals in unhappy relationships turn to the phone to avoid being together with the partner. Additionally, results support the proposed model suggesting that both mediators -lack of intimacy and conflicts- have negative effects on perceived relationship quality over time.
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Cell phones are essential in maintaining ties with romantic partners but they can also detract from quality time we spend with them. The purpose of this study was to examine expectations that romantic partners have of cell phone usage during time spent together and how they manage violations of expectations. Using Expectancy Violation Theory (EVT; Burgoon, 1978) as the analytical framework, in-depth, qualitative analysis of transcripts of focus groups with college students (N = 51) revealed that participants have expectations for undivided attention on formal dates and when spending intimate time together and divided attention when informally “hanging out” with one another. In addition, results identified ways that individuals respond to expectancy violations and manage their expectations with romantic partners.
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This diary study examines the impact of daily recovery experiences on daily work–home interference (WHI) and daily burnout symptoms within a group of smartphone users. A total of 69 employees using smartphones on the initiative of their employer completed a diary questionnaire on five successive workdays (N = 293 data points). We hypothesised that particularly for intensive smartphone users it would be important to engage in activities fostering psychological detachment and relaxation in order to reduce the risk of WHI. We predicted that smartphone use would be positively related to WHI. Finally, we predicted that the positive relationship between WHI and state levels of burnout would be stronger for intensive smartphone users. Overall, the results of multi-level analyses supported these hypotheses. The findings emphasise the importance of a clear organisational policy regarding smartphone use during after-work hours.
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We are in an unprecedented age of technology. Few articles in family journals address online behavior, intimacy patterns, and influences on the ways couples and families communicate through technology. The purpose of this article is to use a multitheoretical model to describe the process of how technologies are affecting couple and family life. Suggestions for future research and applications are presented.
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This paper critically examines the operationalization of marital quality indices used as dependent variables. First, it looks at the functioning and construction of marital quality variables. In particular, Spanier's Dyadic Adjustment Scale is used to illustrate the arguments. Second, it presents both semantic and empirical criteria to judge the development of a marital quality index. Finally, it presents a Quality Marriage Index (QMI) based on the introduced criteria. This index was constructed using data from 430 people across four states. Several advantages of the QMI over more traditional measures are shown in terms of how covariates relate to the index.
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Recent advancements in communication technology have enabled billions of people to connect over great distances using mobile phones, yet little is known about how the frequent presence of these devices in social settings influences face-to-face interactions. In two experiments, we evaluated the extent to which the mere presence of mobile communication devices shape relationship quality in dyadic settings. In both, we found evidence they can have negative effects on closeness, connection, and conversation quality. These results demonstrate that the presence of mobile phones can interfere with human relationships, an effect that is most clear when individuals are discussing personally meaningful topics.
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Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use, and to explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an online assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style, to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. We found the CPOS to be composed of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (relative ratio, 1.13; confidence interval, 1.01-1.26). For each 1-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance.
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Several studies of telecommuting and working at home have alluded to the blurring line between work and family that can result from such highly integrated work-family arrangements. However, little is known about working parents’ perceptions of the integration and blurring of their work and family roles. In this study, the authors created and validated the Work-Family Integration-Blurring Scale using a national sample of business professors raising children in two-parent families. Based on boundary theory and work-family border theory, the authors expected scores on this scale to be associated with the number of hours worked at home and on campus, the number of work-family transitions made when working at home, the presence of distractions when working at home, and the presence of work-family conflict. The scale’s significant and moderately high correlations with these variables supported its construct validity. The research implications and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
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Social Exchange Theory is one of the social science theories that have been applied to the study of human sexuality. This theoretical perspective is of particular relevance for understanding sexuality as it is negotiated between two people who have a relationship with each other. In this article, I describe three specific social exchange models with particular relevance to sexuality: equity theory (e.g., Walster, Walster, & Berscheid, 1978), the Investment Model (Rusbult, 1980, 1983), and the Interpersonal Model of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1992, 1995). Then, I discuss how the general social exchange perspective or one of the more specific exchange models/theories has been applied to five topics that focus on sexuality within a relational context: (a) partner selection, (b) onset of sexual activity, (c) sexual satisfaction, (d) sexual initiation and refusal, and (e) extradyadic sexual behavior.
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The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
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This research focused on the BlackBerry developed by Research In Motion and its impact on couple relationships. The areas examined were couple communication, time spent together, and martial satisfaction using grounded theory, a demographic survey, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale and interviews. Ten couples participated and reported that the BlackBerry offered many practical applications for their relationship. The research showed that communication via the BlackBerry resulted in fewer face-to-face interactions. There was no increase in time together and for some time decreased. Martial satisfaction had increased for two couples, decreased for two couples with no influence for the rest of the couples. The research revealed that for some couples where both partners had BlackBerrys, the mobile device facilitated the resolution of disagreements via email.