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Self-esteem and envy: Is state self-esteem instability associated with the benign and malicious forms of envy?

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Abstract

The purpose of the present research was to investigate whether trait self-esteem level and state self-esteem instability were associated with benign envy (i.e., the desire to improve one's own position) and malicious envy (i.e., the desire to damage a superior person's position). In the current study (N = 182), we extend previous research in this area by examining the possibility that state self-esteem instability would moderate the associations that trait self-esteem level had with the benign and malicious forms of envy. The results indicate that (1) trait self-esteem level was negatively associated with both benign and malicious envy, (2) state self-esteem instability was positively associated with benign envy, and (3) state self-esteem instability moderated the association between trait self-esteem level and malicious envy such that individuals with stable high self-esteem reported lower levels of malicious envy compared to those with unstable high self-esteem or low levels of trait self-esteem (regardless of whether their low self-esteem was stable or unstable). Taken together, these findings suggest that trait self-esteem level and state self-esteem instability have important connections with the benign and malicious forms of envy.

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... Thus, as with dispositional malicious envy, dispositional benign envy should also breed the feelings of inferiority and frustration at the lack of advantages. Vrabel et al. (2018) revealed that people high in dispositional benign envy had a fluctuating self-esteem, revealing that their self-worth may be somewhat fragile and vulnerable to external challenges. As a result, it is possible for dispositional benign envy to harm one's eudaimonic well-being to a certain degree. ...
... From an instrumental perspective of personality (Steel et al. 2008), dispositional envy may work through an indirect link to affect one's subjective well-being. For instance, dispositional envy may color one's experience of life events and bring intrapersonal ramifications (Vrabel et al. 2018), which in turn promote or limit one's subjective well-being (Lucas and Diener 2009). Beyond the intrapersonal ramifications, recent studies on state envy emphasized the interpersonal ramifications of experiencing envy (e.g., Behler et al. 2020;Brooks et al. 2019). ...
... Therefore, it is possible that the positive self-evaluation created by dispositional benign envy is strong enough to offset the feeling of inferiority, elucidating a positive effect on self-esteem. Previous studies have provided mixed results showing that while dispositional benign envy did not decrease one's overall level of self-esteem, it was associated with a fluctuating selfesteem across time (Vrabel et al. 2018). ...
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The association between dispositional envy and subjective well-being has been well-investigated in the literature. Nevertheless, most of these investigations have predominantly (1) focused on the hedonic component of subjective well-being, (2) employed a cross-sectional design, (3) targeted at young adults, and (4) tested the main effects instead of the mediating mechanisms. These limitations might restrict the robustness and generalizability of the observed association between dispositional envy and subjective well-being. To address these gaps, the present research focused on the eudaimonic component of subjective well-being, which highlights a purposeful, psychologically flourishing life. Conceptually, the association between dispositional envy and flourishing is paradoxical, such that both a positive and a negative association can be predicted. To examine this unexplored association, three studies were conducted to provide longitudinal evidence for this association as well as to investigate its intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating mechanisms among young adults and adolescents. Converging results indicated that dispositional malicious envy was negatively associated with flourishing, while dispositional benign envy was positively linked with it. In this research, a series of model comparisons was conducted to strengthen our understanding of dispositional envy. Specifically, we compared (1) the extent that dispositional envy was associated with eudaimonic well-being and hedonic well-being, (2) the associations among the two age groups, and (3) the importance of the intrapersonal and interpersonal mechanisms.
... Someone could feel envy for others in personal development, materials, social relations, romance, family, faith, physical performance, and academic performance. 20 In the world of the work environment, benign envy proved to be related to increased self-esteem, 15 motivation, job satisfaction, 14,21 and success. 22 While malicious envy is associated with low self-esteem, 15 job satisfaction, and a tendency to change profession. ...
... 20 In the world of the work environment, benign envy proved to be related to increased self-esteem, 15 motivation, job satisfaction, 14,21 and success. 22 While malicious envy is associated with low self-esteem, 15 job satisfaction, and a tendency to change profession. 14,21 Another study showed that malicious envy in the work environment could influence cognitive processes and cause negative behavior. ...
... The higher the gratitude, the higher the level of benign envy and the lower the level of malicious envy. Another study carried out by Vrabel et al. 15 also showed that students experienced a higher level of malicious envy with low of admiration rates, high level of rivalry, and low level of self-esteem. ...
Article
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Envy is a negative emotion that painful and unpleasant, caused by feelings of inferiority when someone compared themselves to others. Envy is divided into benign and malicious envy. Benign envy could be leverage to motivate someone to improve themselves until they reach or even exceed the envied person’s level. In contrast, malicious is destructive that someone could do anything to pull the envied person down to the same level as themselves or even lower. This study aimed to measure benign and malicious envy among the students of the Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Bandung. It was a descriptive study involving 152 students. Measurement made using the Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS), which uses 6 points Likert scale during November 2019. Data analysis using Microsoft Excel. The study results showed envy among the students dominated by positive or productive envy, the mean value for benign envy (4.57), and malicious envy (1.92). It showed that benign envy push students to be more competitive rather than destructive envy. The conclusion of this study that the level of envy students of the Faculty of Medicine Universitas Islam Bandung dominated by benign envy. The faculty is responsible for developing strategies to increase the benign envy level and control the malicious envy level. PENGUKURAN TINGKAT IRI PADA MAHASISWA SEBUAH FAKULTAS KEDOKTERANIri adalah emosi negatif menyakitkan dan tidak menyenangkan yang diakibatkan oleh perasaan inferior ketika membandingkan diri dengan orang lain. Iri terbagi atas benign envy dan malicious envy. Benign envy bersifat memotivasi seseorang untuk terus memperbaiki diri sampai mencapai bahkan melebihi apa yang dimiliki kompetitornya. Sebaliknya, malicious envy bersifat destruktif ketika seseorang berupaya untuk menarik kompetitornya ke level yang sama dengan dirinya atau bahkan lebih rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur tingkat benign dan malicious envy pada mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Bandung. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan melibatkan 152 mahasiswa sebagai subjek penelitian. Pengukuran dilakukan menggunakan Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS) selama November 2019 menggunakan 6 poin skala Likert dan analisis data menggunakan Microsoft Excel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata benign envy (4,57) lebih tinggi dibanding dengan malicious envy (1,92). Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa iri yang bersifat positif atau produktif jauh lebih tinggi dibanding dengan nilai iri yang bersifat destruktif. Simpulan penelitian ini adalah bahwa tingkat iri pada mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Islam Bandung lebih dominan pada benign envy dibanding dengan malicious envy. Tugas fakultas adalah mengembangkan strategi agar dapat meningkatkan nilai benign envy serta berupaya mengendalikan tingkat malicious envy.
... 31 One possible reason is that people with low self-esteem are more likely to adopt hostile strategies after experiencing social comparison failure, consistent with malicious envy. 37,38 However, at present, there is no clear conclusion about the relationship between self-esteem and benign envy. Smallets, Streamer, Kondrak and Seery found that individuals with high self-esteem are more likely to experience benign envy, 39 whereas the results from Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill and Southard showed that self-esteem is significantly and negatively correlated with benign envy. ...
... Smallets, Streamer, Kondrak and Seery found that individuals with high self-esteem are more likely to experience benign envy, 39 whereas the results from Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill and Southard showed that self-esteem is significantly and negatively correlated with benign envy. 38 Regarding the link between self-esteem and benign envy, we cannot make a clear assumption. Therefore, for exploratory purposes, we expect our results to replicate or clarify the relationship between self-esteem and benign envy. ...
... This finding is consistent with previous literature. 38,58,59 Xiang et al.'s study suggested that self-esteem was an important mediator between childhood maltreatment and dispositional envy, 12 and our paper builds on this research. The current study is the first to demonstrate the differential effects of childhood maltreatment on benign envy/malicious envy through affecting self-esteem. ...
Article
Objective This study aimed to investigate the role of pride and self‐esteem in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and benign envy/malicious envy in Chinese college students. Methods One thousand fifty‐one Chinese college students completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self‐Esteem Scale, the Authentic and Hubristic Pride‐ Proneness Scale and the Benign and Malicious Envy Scale, and the significance test of mediating variables was performed. Results Self‐esteem and hubristic pride independently mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and benign envy/malicious envy, authentic pride only played a mediating role in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and benign envy. More importantly, the model indicated that childhood maltreatment could influence benign envy/malicious envy through the chain mediating path of ‘authentic pride–self‐esteem’ and ‘hubristic pride–self‐esteem’. Conclusions Authentic pride, hubristic pride and self‐esteem might be the possible mechanisms through which childhood maltreatment influences benign envy/malicious envy in adulthood. This study provides insights into the role of pride and self‐esteem in the childhood maltreatment–benign (malicious) envy link from the perspective of the learned helplessness theory. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... This process typically involves self-evaluation (Gerber et al. 2018), resulting in a sense of inferiority. Empirical work supports the role of inferiority in envy; the experience of envy diminishes one's self-esteem (Vrabel et al. 2018). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that envy does not have significant associations with grandiose narcissism, which bolsters one's self-concept with high levels of agency or extraversion, but is positively associated with vulnerable narcissism, which provides no such protection of self-concept (Neufeld and Johnson 2016). ...
... Research on the instability of self-esteem indicated that the dispositional traits, such as Big Five personality, predicted the fluctuations of self-esteem over time (Zeigler-Hill et al. 2015). More importantly, Vrabel et al. (2018) found that dispositional envy was associated with the subsequent instability of self-esteem. Hence, by affecting the stability of self-esteem, it is possible that dispositional envy also affects the trait level of self-esteem. ...
Article
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The literature has revealed that the tendency to feel envy, as captured by dispositional envy, can dampen a young adult’s life satisfaction. As values and resources change with the passing of various developmental stages, what affects life satisfaction may vary across age groups. Nevertheless, limited research has been conducted to investigate the effect of dispositional envy on life satisfaction and the mechanisms accounting for this linkage among adolescents. Hence, built upon the dual-process framework, the present research tested an intrapersonal mechanism of self-esteem and an interpersonal mechanism of social connectedness using two samples. Through a comparative study among both young adults and adolescents (N = 1,033), we show that dispositional envy negatively predicts life satisfaction, and both self-esteem and social connectedness mediate this link in the two age groups. These two distinct pathways both affect life satisfaction among dispositional enviers. Using within- and between-group comparisons, we find that the mediation effect of self-esteem is significantly stronger than that of social connectedness among adolescents, while the two pathways are equally strong among young adults. Finally, an alternative model predictive of life satisfaction was ruled out to strengthen the current conclusion.
... In particular, benign envy scale covers the items related to the liking of the envied and increased self-enhancement; while malicious envy scale encompasses of items related to hostile, resentment, and anger feelings towards the envied. Although the BeMaS was originally developed and tested in several samples (three Amazon Mechanical Turk samples and one marathon runner sample), it has also been implemented in several student samples, which include Midwestern region of the United States (Vrabel et al., 2018), China (Xiang et al., 2018), and Indonesia (Sitinjak, 2016). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate further the psychometric properties of the BeMaS, whereby stronger psychometric evidence can help invite more future studies to investigate into this matter. ...
Article
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Recent theorizing and research have proposed two subtypes of envy, namely benign envy and malicious envy. However, many of the existing measures have mainly focused on the malicious dimension of envy. The Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS) appears to be an appealing measure to fulfill this research need. The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of BeMaS in terms of its factorial validity, construct validity, and reliability. The current study recruited two samples of university students for this purpose (N 1 = 500; N 2 = 356). As hypothesized, exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 yielded a two-factor structure of BeMaS (47% variance explained), which is further supported with confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2 (TLI = .919, CFI = .940, RMSEA = .078, χ 2 /df = 4.039). Both subtypes of envy significantly correlated with other psychological (depression, anxiety, and stress) and behavioral problems (conspicuous consumption orientation), evidencing the construct validity of BeMaS. Benign envy scale and malicious envy scale demonstrated good internal consistency in both samples. In conclusion, the psychometric assessments provided strong evidence for BeMaS as a valid and reliable measure of envy.
... Recent research has shown that narcissistic admiration is positively associated with the agency dimension of the interpersonal circumplex whereas narcissistic rivalry is negatively associated with the communal dimension of the interpersonal circumplex (Grove, Smith, Girard, & Wright, in press). Interpersonal theory may offer the basis for an even deeper understanding of the divergent associations that narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry have with interpersonal phenomena such as perceptions of status (Zeigler-Hill et al., in press), the experience of envy (Lange, Crusius, & Hagemeyer, 2016;Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill, & Southard, 2018), perceptions of mate value (Zeigler-Hill & Trombly, 2018), and the tendency to forgive others (Fatfouta, Zeigler-Hill, & Schröder-Abé, 2017). For example, Wurst et al. (2017) recently found that narcissistic admiration is primarily responsible for the short-term romantic appeal of narcissistic individuals whereas narcissistic rivalry is largely responsible for the long-term romantic problems experienced by narcissistic individuals. ...
... The rationale for these predictions was that individuals with high levels of narcissistic rivalry would be characterized by a blend of insecurity and antagonism that may result in them being willing to employ a variety of influence strategies with their romantic partners with relatively little regard for the potentially detrimental consequences that these strategies may have for their relationships. These predictions are consistent with previous results showing that narcissistic rivalry is connected to outcomes such as aggression (Back et al., 2013), disagreeableness (Rogoza et al., 2016), hostility (Grove et al., in press), malicious envy (Lange et al., 2016;Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill, & Southard, 2018), hubristic pride (Rogoza et al., 2018), and perceived disrespect (Zeigler-Hill et al., 2019). ...
Article
Narcissism is often associated with interpersonal difficulties. The purpose of the present studies was to examine the connections between narcissistic personality features and the strategies that individuals use to influence their romantic partners. More specifically, we were interested in the possibility that narcissistic admiration (an agentic form of narcissism) and narcissistic rivalry (an antagonistic form of narcissism) may have divergent associations with influence strategies. Study 1 examined basic associations that narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry had with the use of influence strategies in a sample of 351 undergraduates. Study 2 sought to replicate the results of Study 1 in a more diverse sample of 302 community members. Study 3 examined the associations that narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry had with influence strategies for both members of 77 romantic dyads. The results of these studies indicate that narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry often had similar positive associations with manipulation, whereas narcissistic rivalry also had positive associations with supplication, bullying, autocracy, and disengagement as well as a negative association with bargaining. Discussion will focus on the implications of these results for understanding the connections that nar-cissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry have with romantic relationship functioning.
... The literature provides arguments in favor of this hypothesis. Indeed, higher experiences of Schadenfreude and malicious envy have been associated with narcissism, low selfesteem and high social comparison [10,12,[15][16][17], which are frequently reported by AN-R patients and which predict low body satisfaction [18][19][20]. As a result, AN-R patients may experience higher Schadenfreude and malicious envy as a way to restore their low self-esteem. ...
Article
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Purpose According to the Cognitive-Interpersonal Maintenance Model of anorexia nervosa, social factors are involved in the maintenance and development of this disorder. Therefore, this study aimed to test whether patients with restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (AN-R) experience malicious envy (negative emotions associated with the wish that others lack their superior quality), benign envy (negative emotions associated with the desire to reach and obtain the others’ superior quality) and Schadenfreude (pleasure at the misfortunes of others) with a higher intensity than healthy controls (HC). Methods 26 AN-R patients and 32 HC completed scenarios that aimed to induce envy and Schadenfreude and completed questionnaires measuring envy, self-esteem and social comparison. Results AN-R patients reported more benign envy than HC. Interestingly, higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with less Schadenfreude, malicious and benign envy in AN-R only. Conclusions This study shows that AN-R patients present higher motivation to evolve when facing others’ superior quality (i.e., benign envy). It also underlines the importance of considering social factors in the maintenance of AN-R and the role of BMI when examining emotions related to others’ fortune. Level of evidence Level III, case-control analytic study.
... Narcissistic rivalry predicts lower perceived deservingness of others' superiority, mediating its relationship with malicious envy (Lange et al., 2016). Similarly, different forms of trait self-esteem distinctively related to optimism or defensiveness show specific relationships with benign and malicious envy (Smallets, Streamer, Kondrak & Seery, 2016;Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill, & Southard, 2018). These examples suggest that core appraisals can integrate a diverse set of predictors and outcomes of envy. ...
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The nature of envy has recently been the subject of a heated debate. Some researchers see envy as a complex, yet unitary construct that, despite being hostile in nature, can lead to both hostile and non-hostile reactions. Others offer a dual approach to envy, in which envy’s outcomes reflect two types of envy: benign envy, involving upward motivation, and malicious envy, involving hostility against superior others. We compare these competing conceptualizations of envy in an adversarial (yet collaborative) review. Our goal is to aid the consumers of envy research with navigating the intricacies of this debate. We identify agreements and disagreements and describe implications for theory, methodology, and measurement, as well as challenges and opportunities for future work.
... Fragile self-esteem is conceptualized as being defensive, unstable, and discrepant with true feelings of self-worth (Kernis, 2003). Therefore, low trait self-esteem is especially likely to employ hostile strategies in order to avoid the loss of their seemingly precious selfesteem resources following unpleasant upward social comparisons (Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill and Southard, 2018). ...
Article
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Bu çalışmada, işyerinde üretkenliğe aykırı çalışma davranışlarının (ÜAÇD) ve çalışanların bağlamsal performanslarının öncelleri bireysel psikososyal değişkenler bağlamında incelenmiştir. Literatür araştırması ve kuramsal arka plan değerlendirmeleri neticesinde, ÜAÇD'nı ve bağlamsal performansı açıklayabilecek değişkenler arasında bir psikososyal yapı olarak çalışanların işyerinde algıladığı kıskançlık duygusunun olabileceği görülmüştür. Bununla birlikte, işyerinde kıskançlık algısın ÜAÇD üzerindeki etkisinin birtakım durumsal faktörlere göre değişebileceği öne sürülerek, çalışanların öz-denetim düzeylerinin şartlı (düzenleyici) bir değişken olarak rolünün olabileceği varsayılmıştır. Araştırma İstanbul ilinde sağlık, eğitim, yüksek öğretim (akademik), satış-pazarlama ve banka-finans kurumlarında çalışmakta olan bireyler üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Elde edilen verilere (N=330) keşfedici faktör analizi uygulanmış ve hipotezleri test etmek üzere çoklu regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Bulgulara göre çalışanların hissettiği iş yerinde kıskançlık duygusunun (haset ve gıpta olmak üzere) üretkenlik karşıtı çalışma davranışları ve bağlamsal performansları üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisi bulunmaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra, bireylerin öz-denetim düzeyinin işyerinde kıskançlık duygusunun alt boyutu olan haset ile ÜAÇD üzerindeki etkisinde düzenleyici rolü olduğu, öz-denetim düzeyi yükseldikçe, haset duygusunun ÜAÇD üzerindeki etkisinin azaldığı görülmüştür. ABSTRACT In this study, the predispositions of counterproductive work behaviors (CPWBs) in the workplace and contextual performance of employees were examined in terms of individual psychosocial variables. As a result of the literature research and theoretical background evaluations, it can be seen that there may be a sense of envy perceived in the workplace as a psychosocial structure among the variables that can explain the CPWBs and contextual performancs. On the other hand, it is assumed that the effect of envy perception in the workplace on CPWBs and contextual performance may vary according to some situational factors and it can be assumed that degree of employees' self-control may have a contingent (moderating) role. The research was carried out on the individuals working in health, education, higher education (academic), sales-marketing and bank-finance institutions in AYDIN KÜÇÜK-TAŞTAN 736 2019 Istanbul. Exploratory factor analyses were performed on the data obtained (N = 330) and multiple regression analyses were performed to test hypotheses. According to the findings, the sense of envy (malicious and benign) at the workplace felt by the employees has a significant effect on the counterproductive work behaviors and contextual performance in the workplace. In addition, it was observed that the degree of self-control in the workplace had a moderating role on the influence of individuals' malicious feeling of envy on CPWBs. As such, it was seen that as the degree of self-control of employees increases, the influence of the sense of malicious envy on CPWBs decreases.
... Narcissistic rivalry predicts lower perceived deservingness of others' superiority, mediating its relationship with malicious envy (Lange et al., 2016). Similarly, different forms of trait self-esteem distinctively related to optimism or defensiveness show specific relationships with benign and malicious envy (Smallets, Streamer, Kondrak, & Seery, 2016;Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill, & Southard, 2018). These examples suggest that core appraisals can integrate a diverse set of predictors and outcomes of envy. ...
Article
Full-text available
The nature of envy has recently been the subject of a heated debate. Some researchers see envy as a complex, yet unitary construct that despite being hostile in nature can lead to both hostile and non-hostile reactions. Others offer a dual approach to envy, in which envy’s outcomes reflect two types of envy: benign envy, involving upward motivation, and malicious envy, involving hostility against superior others. We compare these competing conceptualizations of envy in an adversarial (yet collaborative) review. Our goal is to aid the consumers of envy research in navigating the intricacies of this debate. We identify agreements and disagreements and describe implications for theory, methodology, and measurement, as well as challenges and opportunities for future work.
... Finally, we use the Rosenberg (1985) inventory for "self-esteem." The literature suggests that self-esteem is related to both empathy and positional behavior for several goods including physical appearance or career success (e.g., Vrabel et al., 2018). Adding the self-esteem measure in the baseline slightly increased the estimates. ...
Article
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Studies show that people are concerned with other people's consumption position in a varying degree with respect to the type of goods consumed and individual characteristics. Using both survey experiments and a large survey of subjective well-being (SWB) dataset, this paper aims to investigate the association between the degree of empathic capacity and positional concerns for consumption items involving pleasure and pain. The paper exploits both empathy quotient (EQ) and interpersonal reactivity index (IRI) measures of empathic capacity, i.e., dispositional empathy, which are sufficient measures capturing affective and cognitive aspects of empathy. Positional concerns are identified directly using a series of stated choice experiments and indirectly using the SWB approach. The main result of the paper is that positional concerns vary substantially with the levels of empathic capacity. Both EQ and IRI are found to be positively associated with positional concerns for “goods” (e.g., after-tax income, market value of a luxury car), reflecting a degree of self-regarded feelings and behavior to reduce personal distress, and negatively associated with positional concerns for “bads” (e.g., working hours and poverty rates), reflecting a degree of other-regarding feelings and behavior. The results are robust with respect to various checks including statistical specifications, reference groups, and omitted variables (e.g., prosocial behavior and competitivity) that could bias the results.
... Fragile self-esteem is conceptualized as being defensive, unstable, and discrepant with true feelings of self-worth (Kernis, 2003). Therefore, low trait self-esteem is especially likely to employ hostile strategies in order to avoid the loss of their seemingly precious selfesteem resources following unpleasant upward social comparisons (Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill and Southard, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmada, işyerinde üretkenliğe aykırı çalışma davranışlarının (ÜAÇD) ve çalışanların bağlamsal performanslarının öncelleri bireysel psikososyal değişkenler bağlamında incelenmiştir. Literatür araştırması ve kuramsal arka plan değerlendirmeleri neticesinde, ÜAÇD'nı ve bağlamsal performansı açıklayabilecek değişkenler arasında bir psikososyal yapı olarak çalışanların işyerinde algıladığı kıskançlık duygusunun olabileceği görülmüştür. Bununla birlikte, işyerinde kıskançlık algısın ÜAÇD üzerindeki etkisinin birtakım durumsal faktörlere göre değişebileceği öne sürülerek, çalışanların öz-denetim düzeylerinin şartlı (düzenleyici) bir değişken olarak rolünün olabileceği varsayılmıştır. Araştırma İstanbul ilinde sağlık, eğitim, yüksek öğretim (akademik), satış-pazarlama ve banka-finans kurumlarında çalışmakta olan bireyler üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Elde edilen verilere (N=330) keşfedici faktör analizi uygulanmış ve hipotezleri test etmek üzere çoklu regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Bulgulara göre çalışanların hissettiği iş yerinde kıskançlık duygusunun (haset ve gıpta olmak üzere) üretkenlik karşıtı çalışma davranışları ve bağlamsal performansları üzerinde anlamlı bir etkisi bulunmaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra, bireylerin öz-denetim düzeyinin işyerinde kıskançlık duygusunun alt boyutu olan haset ile ÜAÇD üzerindeki etkisinde düzenleyici rolü olduğu, öz-denetim düzeyi yükseldikçe, haset duygusunun ÜAÇD üzerindeki etkisinin azaldığı görülmüştür. ABSTRACT In this study, the predispositions of counterproductive work behaviors (CPWBs) in the workplace and contextual performance of employees were examined in terms of individual psychosocial variables. As a result of the literature research and theoretical background evaluations, it can be seen that there may be a sense of envy perceived in the workplace as a psychosocial structure among the variables that can explain the CPWBs and contextual performancs. On the other hand, it is assumed that the effect of envy perception in the workplace on CPWBs and contextual performance may vary according to some situational factors and it can be assumed that degree of employees' self-control may have a contingent (moderating) role. The research was carried out on the individuals working in health, education, higher education (academic), sales-marketing and bank-finance institutions in AYDIN KÜÇÜK-TAŞTAN 736 2019 Istanbul. Exploratory factor analyses were performed on the data obtained (N = 330) and multiple regression analyses were performed to test hypotheses. According to the findings, the sense of envy (malicious and benign) at the workplace felt by the employees has a significant effect on the counterproductive work behaviors and contextual performance in the workplace. In addition, it was observed that the degree of self-control in the workplace had a moderating role on the influence of individuals' malicious feeling of envy on CPWBs. As such, it was seen that as the degree of self-control of employees increases, the influence of the sense of malicious envy on CPWBs decreases.
... Numerous studies have found that mindfulness can positively predict self-esteem (Bajaj, Robins & Pande, 2016;Pepping, O'Donovan & Davis, 2013;Randal, Pratt & Bucci, 2015;Sang, 2013). Moreover, previous studies have found that self-esteem can negatively predict malicious envy (Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill & Southard, 2018). Therefore, people with higher levels of mindfulness have stronger self-esteem and maintain an open and receptive attitude to feelings of malicious envy, thereby inhibiting the sense of malicious envy. ...
Article
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At present, mindfulness is a hotspot in psychological research. Mindfulness is an effective tool that enables people to effectively inhibit negative emotions. Previous studies have shown that envy is a typical negative emotion; however, envy can be divided into two completely different types: benign envy and malicious envy. The question then arises, how does mindfulness affect both types of envy? Using a mindfulness reperceiving model, we explored the effect of mindfulness on these two different types of envy and on the mediating mechanism of psychological resilience. To accomplish this, we recruited 676 Chinese undergraduates to complete the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BEMAS) and the Connor‐Davidson Resilience Scale (CD‐RISC). The results we obtained showed that mindfulness and psychological resilience significantly and negatively predicted malicious envy and that psychological resilience played a partially mediating role in the relationship. In addition, the results showed that there was no significant effect between mindfulness and benign envy; however, psychological resilience can significantly and positively predict benign envy and played a completely mediating role between mindfulness and benign envy. These results effectively extend theories based on the mindfulness reperceiving model while also being important for promoting benign envy and inhibiting malicious envy in terms of improving mindfulness and psychological resilience.
... Finally, a measure of self-esteem is generated based on the Rosenberg (1985) inventory. 16 The literature identifies important relationships between people's self-esteem, personality, and the degree to which they compare their consumption, appearance, and success with others (e.g., Aspinwall and Taylor 1993;Suls et al. 2002;Vrabel et al. 2018). ...
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This paper employs survey experiments to examine the relationship between personality characteristics and positional concerns across a wide range of “goods”, e.g., income and market value of a car, and “bads”, e.g., infant mortality and poverty rates. Personality traits are measured using the five-factor model (Big-5), the locus of control, and reciprocity. We demonstrate that there are significant relationships between personality types and positional concerns, which differ both by the type of personality and by the nature of a good. The results are highly consistent with the predictions presented in the field of personality psychology. That is, while agreeableness is negatively associated, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and external locus of control are positively associated with positional concerns for most goods. Importantly, there is also a substantial heterogeneity in the mean degree of positional concerns across the low and high values of most personality characteristics and goods.
... Therefore, it will be necessary to examine the moderating effect of gender. Studies have shown that malicious envy is related to narcissism (Lange, Crusius & Hagemeyer, 2016), hostility toward the envied person (van de Ven et al., 2009), fear of failure (Lange & Crusius, 2015) and self-esteem instability (Vrabel, Hill, & Southard, 2018). Although benign envy motivates individuals to overcome their inferiority, individuals with low levels of self-esteem are more apt to make upward social comparisons and are vulnerable to discouraging, anxious and depressed feelings (Cohen-Charash, 2009;Cohen-Charash & Mueller, 2007). ...
Article
The malicious envy felt by individuals due to social structural problems is more serious than ever. Recently, as internet and Social Network Site (SNS) have been developed, researches on dispositional envy and psychological health are increasing. Dispositional envy is closely related to attachment insecurity because it occurs mainly in relationships with surrounding people. Studies have also shown that insecure attachment can impair psychological well-being and make the individual vulnerable to depression. Attachment instability and envy both decrease psychological health. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between attachment instability and psychological health, mediated by dispositional envy. The study sample consisted of 155 males and 194 females participants with an average age of 40.16 years (SD=10.66). The self-report measures of collecting data are comprised of Dispositional Envy Scale, Experience of Close Relationship, Beck Depression Inventory and Psychological well-being. Simple correlation showed that attachment instability and envy were highly correlated with depression and psychological well-being. Also, the multiple regression analysis showed that envy mediated partially between attachment instability and psychological health. Results suggest that people with insecure attachment exhibit poor psychological health because of feelings of envy. The implications and limitations of this research were discussed.
... さらに,自尊感情の変動性は,自尊感情のレベルが 様々な心理的・社会的機能に与える影響を調整する (Kernis, 2005;Ostrowsky, 2010;Webster, Kirkpatrick, Nezlek, Smith, & Paddock, 2007) 。例えば,自尊感情が 高く安定した人は,友人や家族に知覚された攻撃性 (Zeigler-Hill, Enjaian, Holden, & Southard, 2014) ,悪意 のある羨望 (Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill, & Southard, 2018 Halbesleben, Neveu, Paustian-Underdahl, & Westman, 2014;Hobfoll, 1989Hobfoll, , 2002に統合して理論的説明をしている。資源保存理 論は,ストレスへ対処するための資源の獲得,保持, 保護へと駆り立てる動機づけを説明する理論である。 資源は,個人によって価値があるとみなされた物 (objects),状態(states),個人特性(personal characteristics),エネルギー(energies)と定義されており,高 い自尊感情を保持することも資源の 1 つとされている (Hobfoll, 1989(Hobfoll, , 2002 Table 3) (Table 5) ...
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When measuring the instability of self-esteem, the standard deviation of state self-esteem over a period of several days has been considered the gold standard. As an alternative, the perceived self-esteem instability measure (P-SEI measure) was developed as a single-administration scale. The present study involved the development of the Japanese version of the P-SEI measure and evaluation of its reliability and validity. In Study 1, the P-SEI measure was translated into Japanese. Confirmatory factor analysis on the 8-item P-SEI measure confirmed factorial validity and internal consistency. In addition, the P-SEI measure was related to mental health (K6) when controlling for the Rosenberg self-esteem scale or the standard deviation of state self-esteem measured over 7 days. In Study 2, the test-retest reliability of the P-SEI measure was confirmed. Finally, this study evaluated considerations about using the P-SEI measure in research and other applications as well as the possibility of a longitudinal developmental study.
... Embora, já existam alguns estudos anteriores que já vinham associando a inveja com variáveis como: narcisismo (Lange, Crusius & Hagemeyer, 2016), hostilidade em relação à pessoa invejada ( Van de Ven, Zeelenberg & Pieters, 2009), medo do fracasso (Lange & Crusius, 2015), autoestima (Smith et al., 1996;Vrabel, Hill & Southard, 2018), depressão e ansiedade (Gold, 1996), satisfação com a vida no local de trabalho (Beham & Drobnic, 2010), bem-estar psicológico e subjetivo (Huh & Lee, 2018), saúde mental do trabalhador (Ding et al., 2017, Huh & Lee, 2018Park et al., 2018), e seu impacto direto e negativo no desempenho organizacional (Maris, Saidabadi & Niazazari, 2016). Até a realização deste estudo não foi encontrado nem uma pesquisa que examinasse a existência conjunta entre os três construtos: inveja, bem-estar subjetivo e saúde mental e sua relação no local de trabalho do ensino superior público brasileiro. ...
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Silva, M. D. S., Roazzi, A., Souza, B. C., Nascimento, A. M. (2020). Inveja, bem-estar subjetivo e saúde mental nos locais de trabalho. Revista AMAzônica, 25(2), 390-411. (ISSN 1983-3415) https://bit.ly/2D4w2bj //////// Resumo: Este estudo propõe uma reflexão a relação entre o sentimento de inveja, bem-estar subjetivo (BES) e saúde mental nos locais de trabalho. As discussões tratam sobre a inveja como um estado negativo que tem influências destrutivas no meio organizacional, do BES enquanto campo da psicologia que busca entender as avaliações das pessoas sobre suas vidas e, da saúde mental, mais especificamente, sobre suas consequências diretas sobre a saúde e o absenteísmo do trabalhador. Considera-se que a inveja tem consequências destrutivas sobre os indivíduos que interagem na organização ao provocar sofrimento emocional que por sua vez pode influenciar a satisfação que os mesmos têm sobre sua vida, e, representar uma ameaça à saúde mental destes em seus locais de trabalho. Julgando-se assim necessário a emersão de estudos no âmbito organizacional que congreguem as relações entre a inveja presente nos locais de trabalho que envolvam o BES e suas influências na saúde mental dos indivíduos que compõem as organizações de ensino superior públicas, no intuito de direcionar ações que lidem com a complexidade destas relações no contexto organizacional. Palavras-Chave: Inveja, Satisfação com a vida, Saúde mental, Local de trabalho. /////// Abstract: This study proposes a reflection on the relationship between envy, subjective well-being (BES) and mental health in the workplace. Discussions address envy as a negative state that has destructive influences on the organizational environment, as well as subjective well-being as a field of psychology that seeks to understand people's assessments of their lives and, more specifically, about its direct consequences on worker health and absenteeism. Envy is considered to have destructive consequences for individuals who interact in the organization by causing emotional distress which in turn can influence their satisfaction with their lives and pose a threat to their mental health in their workplaces. From this finding, studies in the organizational field are necessary to bring together the relationships between envy in the workplace involving subjective well-being and its influences on the mental health of individuals in public higher education organizations, in order to direct actions that deal with the complexity of these relationships in the organizational context. Keywords: Envy; Life satisfaction; Mental health; Work place.
... Envy can be considered to be a result of a social comparison between the envier and the target of envy [15]. This social comparison occurs when Individual A (envier) perceive himself or herself to be less than Individual B (target of envy) [8,35]. According to Parrot and Smith, envy happens when an individual lacks or desires the qualities and achievements of others [9,21,25,29]. ...
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Envy is a common and complex emotion and a concept with religious specificity; however, investigating envy and its real-life outcomes is limited in Egypt. To this end, the current study examined the relationship between patterns of envy (benign and malicious) and achievement motivation. Moreover, the study examined the moderating effect of self-esteem in that relationship. A convenience sample of 248 Egyptian participants (45 men and 203 women), Mean participant age was 32.15 years (standard deviation = 9.75), with an age range of 15–70 years. Participants responded to three questionnaires assessing the Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS), The Achievement Motivation Measure (AMM) and the Rosenberg's scale for self-esteem. Results indicated that a significant positive relationship exists between benign envy and achievement motivation and with its components (Achievement thoughts and behaviors). However, no significant relationship was observed between malicious envy and achievement motivation. A significant interaction effect was observed between malicious envy and self-esteem on achievement motivation. The findings of this study will contribute to distinguishing between two patterns of envy and their outcomes through assistance in real life by improvement one's personal beliefs to reduce the negative feelings result of envy. These findings were discussed in the light of the extant theoretical and empirical literature. Furthermore, limitation and conclusion are also stated.
... As such, people are more likely to gossip about this person Pieters 2012, 2009). Both, benign and malicious envy are more likely to be experienced by individuals who suffer from low trait self-esteem (Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill, and Southard 2018). ...
Article
In the age of social media, consumers are constantly exposed to idealistic images of others arousing social-related emotions such as envy. Yet, very little is known about the effects of envy on purchase intention. Our pilot study and experiment investigated the effects of Facebook envy on purchase intent involving female Facebook users, aged 18–25 years. The pilot study and experiment manipulated the envy subtypes (benign and malicious). A serial mediation model via two mediators to purchase intent was then tested. It tested the persuasion pathway via attitude towards the brand user (human-related social effect) and via the brand (brand-related effect). Results indicated that the human-related social effect was stronger than the brand-related effect. Further analysis into product types (body-related vs non-body-related) found that not all products induce invidious reactions. The effects were only present for the body-related products.
... In line with this hypothesis, variables correlating with higher appraisals of personal control predicted higher dispositional and state benign envy. Examples of such variables are stable self-esteem (Smallets et al. 2016; but see also Vrabel et al. 2018), assertive facets of narcissism (Lange et al. 2016), increased hope for success (Lange and Crusius 2015b;Lange et al. 2018c), or envied persons' signals that their success was based on invested effort (Lange and Crusius 2015a). Moreover, variables correlating with lower appraisals of deservingness predicted higher dispositional and state malicious envy. ...
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The public and scholars alike largely consider envy to be reprehensible. This judgment of the value of envy commonly results either from a limited understanding of the nature of envy or from a limited understanding of how to determine the value of phenomena. Overcoming this state requires an interdisciplinary collaboration of psychologists and philosophers. That is, broad empirical evidence regarding the nature of envy generated in psychological studies must inform judgments about the value of envy according to sophisticated philosophical standards. We conducted such a collaboration. Empirical research indicates that envy is constituted by multiple components which in turn predict diverse outcomes that may be functional for the self and society. Accordingly, the value of envy is similarly nuanced. Sometimes, envy may have instrumental value in promoting prudentially and morally good outcomes. Sometimes, envy may be non-instrumentally prudentially and morally good. Sometimes, envy may be bad. This nuanced perspective on the value of envy has implications for recommendations on how to deal with envy and paves the way toward future empirical and theoretical investigations on the nature and the value of envy.
... Whether the effect of envy on schadenfreude appears have been suggested to be associated with several factors. First, previous studies have proposed two categories of envy, malicious, and benign envy (e.g., Van de Ven et al., 2009;Crusius and Mussweiler, 2012;Crusius and Lange, 2014;Falcon, 2015;Lange et al., 2016;Van de Ven, 2016;Briki, 2018;Vrabel et al., 2018;Xiang et al., 2018). Both of these categories of envy are negative emotions caused by an individual lacking something another person has. ...
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Previous studies have investigated whether envy, particularly malicious envy, increases feelings of schadenfreude and whether this effect is evident in both gain and loss frames. However, as a social-comparison-based emotion, schadenfreude was not investigated through social comparisons in these previous studies. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether malicious envy influences schadenfreude when schadenfreude is elicited in the context of precise and ambiguous social comparisons. To address this issue, participants in the present study were asked to play a monetary game with several other players. In the experimental condition, participants gained less or lost more than the other player; in the control condition, both the participants and the player gained little or lost much. Subsequently, the participants observed that the player encountered a misfortune, that is, gained less or lost more money than the participant. The results showed that when participants knew the exact amount of monetary gained and lost by themselves and the other player (i.e., precise social comparisons), malicious envy increased feelings of schadenfreude only in the loss frame rather than in the gain frame. More importantly, malicious envy turned out to reduce feelings of schadenfreude in both gain and loss frames, when participants did not know the exact amount (i.e., ambiguous social comparisons). The findings provide novel evidence that malicious envy does not always increase schadenfreude particularly when schadenfreude is elicited through social comparisons.
... In the current study, it was determined that the change in competitive attitude and its sub-dimensions was explained by self-esteem. Although there is no research found on the relationship between self-esteem and competitive attitude in the literature review, it can be seen in the researches that self-esteem is associated with the concepts such as jealousy (Vrabel, Zeigler-Hill & Southad, 2017), loneliness (Karahan et al., 2004), workaholism (Aziz, Zamary & Wuensch, 2017), and psychological resilience (Özdemir & Adıgüzel, 2021). Therefore, the relationship between these concepts and competitive attitude can be evaluated in future studies. ...
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Perception of negative emotions including envy is on rise specifically in private organizations, which has important implications on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. This study examined the relationship between benign envy (one of the two forms of envy) and employee engagement. Furthermore, mechanisms underlying benign envy–outcome relationship are not well understood. To enhance this knowledge, this study investigated self-efficacy as a mechanism in understanding the relationship between benign envy and employee engagement. Relying on cross-sectional study design, data were gathered from 107 employees at two different point of times from private organizations of the service sector. Self-report measures comprising of all variables of the study were adopted. Data were analyzed and interpreted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 21. Correlations and moderated regression analyses revealed that benign envy is not significantly related to employee engagement. However, the results revealed that the interaction term of benign envy and self-efficacy had significant influence on employee engagement, that is, the relationship between the two variables became significant under the condition of high self-efficacy. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed and the article concluded with an outline for possible future research.
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We review research on the determinants of dispositional envy and its consequences on the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and societal level. We propose to extend earlier conceptualizations of envy by distinguishing two forms that constitute emotional pathways in responding to status threats. According to this perspective, benign envy is a reaction to a loss of prestige leading to behaviors directed at re-gaining status. Therefore, people who are inclined to experience benign envy make more positive impressions on others, improve their performance, and, ultimately, reach better well-being. Thus, we argue that dispositional benign envy may contribute to societal flourishing. In contrast, malicious envy is a reaction to dominant others leading to behaviors directing at harming their status. Therefore, people who are inclined to experience malicious envy make less positive impressions on others, undermine superior’s successes with aggressive strategies, and, ultimately, reach worse wellbeing. Thus, we argue that dispositional malicious envy may contribute to societal conflict. In sum, dispositional envy appears to be an important personality variable contributing to the regulation of status hierarchies.
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Previous research has conceptualized dispositional envy as a unitary construct. Recently however, episodic envy has been shown to emerge in two qualitatively different forms. Benign envy is related to the motivation to move upward, whereas malicious envy is related to pulling superior others down. In four studies (N = 1,094)-using the newly developed Benign and Malicious Envy Scale (BeMaS)-we show that dispositional envy is also characterized by two independent dimensions related to distinct motivational dynamics and behavioral consequences. Dispositional benign and malicious envy uniquely predict envious responding following upward social comparisons. Furthermore, they are differentially connected to hope for success and fear of failure. Corresponding to these links, dispositional benign envy predicted faster race performance of marathon runners mediated via higher goal setting. In contrast, dispositional malicious envy predicted race goal disengagement. The findings highlight that disentangling the two sides of envy opens up numerous research avenues. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
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We present a process model that distinguishes 2 dimensions of narcissism: admiration and rivalry. We propose that narcissists' overarching goal of maintaining a grandiose self is pursued by 2 separate pathways, characterized by distinct cognitive, affective-motivational, and behavioral processes. In a set of 7 studies, we validated this 2-dimensional model using the newly developed Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ). We showed that narcissistic admiration and rivalry are positively correlated dimensions, yet they have markedly different nomological networks and distinct intra- and interpersonal consequences. The NARQ showed the hypothesized 2-dimensional multifaceted structure as well as very good internal consistencies (Study 1, N = 953), stabilities (Study 2, N = 93), and self-other agreements (Study 3, N = 96). Narcissistic admiration and rivalry showed unique relations to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), the Big Five, self-esteem, pathological narcissism, and other narcissism-related traits like Machiavellianism, psychopathy, self-enhancement, and impulsivity (Study 4, Ns = 510-1,814). Despite the positive relation between admiration and rivalry, the 2 differentially predicted general interpersonal orientations and reactions to transgressions in friendships and romantic relationships (Study 5, N = 1,085), interpersonal perceptions during group interactions (Study 6, N = 202), and observed behaviors in experimental observations (Study 7, N = 96). For all studies, the NARQ outperformed the standard measure of narcissism, the NPI, in predicting outcome measures. Results underscore the utility of a 2-dimensional conceptualization and measurement of narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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The psychological adjustment of individuals with stable and unstable forms of self-esteem was examined across three studies using undergraduate participants. Study 1 (N = 122) included indicators of global distress and aggression; Study 2 (N = 199) focused on depression, hopelessness, anxiety, and rejection sensitivity; and Study 3 (N = 183) examined global distress, affect, and psychological well-being. Across each study, unstable self-esteem was found to moderate the association between self-esteem level and psychological adjustment. The pattern of these findings suggests that individuals with unstable low self-esteem are especially likely to experience dejection, whereas those with unstable high self-esteem are likely to experience agitation.
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ABSTRACT At least three motives guide self-evaluation: accuracy, self-enhancement, and self-improvement. To satisfy these motives, self-evaluation may utilize different information sources. Self-esteem may also moderate self-evaluation strategies. Participants evaluated the frequency and usefulness of eight types of information for meeting the three motives in two life domains: academics and social life. Personal standards information was reported to be used more frequently than objective or social comparison information and also perceived as most useful for meeting all three motives. Individuals low in self-esteem reported using more social comparison information than those high in self-esteem, especially upward social comparison information. Individuals with high self-esteem reported using personal standards information more often than they used social comparison information, while individuals with low self-esteem relied equally often on these two types of information. Discussion focuses on the role social comparison information may have for those with unstable self-concepts.
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Envy is the painful emotion caused by the good fortune of others. This research empirically supports the distinction between two qualitatively different types of envy, namely benign and malicious envy. It reveals that the experience of benign envy leads to a moving-up motivation aimed at improving one's own position, whereas the experience of malicious envy leads to a pulling-down motivation aimed at damaging the position of the superior other. Study 1 used guided recall of the two envy types in a culture (the Netherlands) that has separate words for benign and malicious envy. Analyses of the experiential content of these emotions found the predicted differences. Study 2 and 3 used one sample from the United States and one from Spain, respectively, where a single word exists for both envy types. A latent class analysis based on the experiential content of envy confirmed the existence of separate experiences of benign and malicious envy in both these cultures as well. The authors discuss the implications of distinguishing the two envy types for theories of cooperation, group performance, and Schadenfreude.
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This article describes the nature and significance of the distinction between the emotions of envy and jealousy and reports 2 experiments that empirically investigated it. In Experiment 1, Ss recalled a personal experience of either envy or jealousy. In Experiment 2, Ss read 1 of a set of stories in which circumstances producing envy and jealousy were manipulated independently in a factorial design. Both experiments introduced new methodologies to enhance their sensitivity, and both revealed qualitative differences between the 2 emotions. Envy was characterized by feelings of inferiority, longing, resentment, and disapproval of the emotion. Jealousy was characterized by fear of loss, distrust, anxiety, and anger. The practical importance of this distinction, the reasons for its confusion, and general issues regarding the empirical differentiation of emotions are discussed.
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The present studies examined the association between self-concept structure and stability of self-esteem. In two daily diary studies, evaluative integration (organizing positively and negatively valenced self-beliefs into the same self-aspects) was associated with more stable self-esteem than evaluative compartmentalization (organizing positively and negatively valenced self-beliefs into separate self-aspects) among individuals with generally high self-esteem. Moreover, analyses of self-esteem reactivity confirmed that the sensitivity of state self-esteem to daily events was greater for compartmentalized individuals than for individuals with relatively integrative self-concept structures. Compartmentalization also was associated with greater sensitivity to experiences of social rejection in the laboratory, consistent with the view that integration affords greater stability of self-evaluations. These results suggest that some of the benefits believed to be associated with compartmentalization (such as high self-esteem) may have hidden costs that have not previously been considered.
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Recent debate has considered the connection between self-esteem and aggression. The present study attempted to clarify this association by examining the possibility that self-esteem instability moderates the association that self-esteem level has with aggression. Perceived aggression was measured in 234 (34 men and 200 women) undergraduate participants. These participants were then evaluated by 1,078 friends and family members. Self-esteem instability was found to moderate the association between self-esteem level and aggression such that individuals with stable high self-esteem were viewed as being less aggressive than those with unstable high self-esteem or low self-esteem (regardless of whether their low self-esteem was stable or unstable). These findings are discussed in the context of understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression.
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We examined stability of self-esteem and level of self-esteem as predictors of dispositional tendencies to experience anger and hostility. We reasoned that individuals with unstable high self-esteem would report especially high tendencies to experience anger and hostility, and that individuals with stable high self-esteem would report particularly low tendencies. We expected individuals with stable and unstable low self-esteem to fall between these two extremes. These predictions were derived from an analysis of anger and hostility that emphasized the instigating role of threats to self-esteem. Stability of self-esteem was assessed through multiple assessments of global self-esteem in naturalistic settings. Results revealed the predicted pattern for the tendency to experience anger and a "motor" component of hostility. The importance of considering both stability and level of self-esteem in analyses of anger and hostility is discussed.
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In this article, I report on a research program that has focused on the joint roles of stability and level of self-esteem in various aspects of psychological functioning. Stability of self-esteem refers to the magnitude of short-term fluctuations that people experience in their current, contextually based feelings of self-worth. In contrast, level of self-esteem refers to representations of people's general, or typical, feelings of self-worth. A considerable amount of research reveals that self-esteem stability has predictive value beyond the predictive value of self-esteem level. Moreover, considering self-esteem stability provides one way to distinguish fragile from secure forms of high self-esteem. Results from a number of studies are presented and theoretical implications are discussed.
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Intraindividual personality variability is a construct that reflects the extent to which a person's self-reported personality changes over time or across social roles. Past studies have linked variability with important outcomes such as adjustment and well-being. However, existing variability measures conflate mean-level variance with true change over time, and thus these past findings are questionable. Three studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of existing variability indexes and to develop a new index that does not suffer from the problem of conflated variance. This new index is reliable and valid and can predict actual changes in self-reports over time. However, once mean-level variance is removed, intraindividual variability is no longer related to well-being.
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Why is it that many individuals verbally rationalize and distort self-esteem threatening information? We examined whether such verbal defensiveness (Feldman Barrett, Williams, & Fong, 2002) differs as a function of whether individuals' high self-esteem is secure or fragile. Our findings indicated that individuals whose self-esteem was stable, not contingent, or congruent with high implicit self-esteem exhibited especially low amounts of verbal defensiveness. In contrast, verbal defensiveness was considerably higher when individuals' high self-esteem was unstable, contingent, or paired with discrepant low implicit self-esteem. Discussion centers on why the possession of well-anchored and secure high self-esteem obviates defensiveness directed toward enhancing, maintaining, or bolstering feelings of self-worth.
Fragile self-esteem: The perils and pitfalls of (some) high self-esteem
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Jordan, C. H., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2013). Fragile self-esteem: The perils and pitfalls of (some) high self-esteem. In V. Zeigler-Hill (Ed.). Self-esteem (pp. 80-98). London: Psychology Press.
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Lange, J., Blatz, L., & Crusius, J. Dispositional envy: A conceptual review. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality and individual differences: Volume 3. Applications of personality and individual differences. London: SAGE (in press).