As Virtual Reality (VR) technology has become consumer ready, questions concerning its effects are becoming more urgent, specifically in regards to content that involve strong emotions such as horror games. This study compares player responses while playing the same game in two conditions: room-scale VR and a conventional monitor. We developed a test game, based on a commercial title, and combined semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and psycho- physiological measures to analyze differences between setups. Participants’ self- reports of fright were similar in both conditions on their first playthrough. How- ever, results across different measures indicated an elevated experience of fear in VR upon playing the game a second time. The sensation of spatial presence afforded by VR emerged as the main argument for making the experience more intense and enhancing the immediacy of virtual threats. Our results show that while VR does not necessarily provide a more intense horror experience than conventional setups, it is less impacted by pre-existing knowledge of game con- tent, providing a longer-lasting intensity to the experience.
To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.
Conference Paper Full-text available January 2005
This paper focuses on the study and the experimentation of a glove interface for robotics and virtual reality applications. The system can acquire the phalanxes position and force of an operator during the execution of a grasp. We show how it is possible to use and integrate this data in order to permit the user to interact with a synthetic world. In particular the system we designed can
... [Show full abstract] reproduce tactile and force sensation. Electrodes and actuators are activated according to the information coming from the real world (position and force of the user's finger) and from a physical model that represents the virtual object. We also report some psychophysical experiments we conducted on five subjects, in this case only the electro-tactile stimulator was used in order to generate a touch sensation. View full-text Article Full-text available January 2018 · Frontiers in Psychology
Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative
... [Show full abstract] effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees. View full-text June 1999 · Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
Recurring episodes of intense physical sensations are characteristic features of panic disorder. During cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) of the disorder, the therapist frequently challenges the patient's misinterpretations of certain physiological symptoms. When discussing these issues, the therapist typically has to rely on the patient's subjective report, which is often subject to
... [Show full abstract] distortion. Although recent technological advances make it possible to monitor patients' ambulatory psychophysiological responses, such data have rarely been used in treatment. This article will provide some arguments for using psychophysiological data in CBT for panic disorder. Read more January 1997
The observations recorded in the last paragraph of the preceding chapter and related remarks in earlier parts of this book pertaining to the critical-analytical discussion of the odor effects of single perfume components (single materials or complexes) point to the need for a more extensive treatment of a psychological phenomenon that is of fundamental and outstanding importance for the
... [Show full abstract] perfumer’s work. To put it more precisely, an aquaintance with this psychological phenomenon becomes meaningful to the perfumer who is no longer content with a purely intuitive working style but wants to tackle the solution of problems in a deliberate way, making use of available physiological and psychological experience. To do this we must turn to the field of Gestalt psychology. Read more May 1971 · Journal of Milk and Food Technology
A study was made of the flavor quality of whole milk available to the consumer in retail outlets. Results obtained on samples with both laboratory and organoleptic tests and their variation during the course of the year are presented.
Read more March 2011 · Electronics and Communications in Japan
If a person's eyes are more strongly attracted to target objects by matching a smell to an important scene of a movie or a commercial image, the value of the image content will rise. In this paper, we attempt to describe an image system that can also present smells, and the reason for the improvement, as indicated by gaze point analysis, in the presence of smell that is matched to an image. The
... [Show full abstract] relationship between the eye-catching ability and the position of the object of viewing was examined using images with a scene in which someone eats three kinds of fruits. These objects were gazed at for a long time on release of their scents. When the smell was not released, the gaze moved actively in an attempt to receive a lot of information from the entire screen. On the other hand, when the smell was inserted, the subjects became interested in the object and there was a tendency for their gaze to stay within the narrow area surrounding the image. We also investigated the effect on the memory of attaching smells to the flowers in a virtual flower shop by using an immersive virtual reality system (HoloStage™). Memorization was easier than with the scentless case. It appears that viewers obtain information actively by reacting to smell. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 94(3): 9–19, 2011; Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/ecj.10319 Read more Article Full-text available December 2017 · Frontiers in Psychology
Galvanic tongue stimulation (GTS) modulates taste sensation. However, the effect of GTS is contingent on the electrode polarity in the proximity of the tongue. If an anodal electrode is attached in the proximity of the tongue, an electrical or metallic taste is elicited. On the other hand, if only cathodal electrode is attached in the proximity of the tongue, the salty taste, which is induced by
... [Show full abstract] electrolyte materials, is inhibited. The mechanism of this taste inhibition is not adequately understood. In this study, we aim to demonstrate that the inhibition is cause by ions, which elicit taste and which migrate from the taste sensors on the tongue by GTS. We verified the inhibitory effect of GTS on all five basic tastes induced by electrolyte materials. This technology is effective for virtual reality systems and interfaces to support dietary restrictions. Our findings demonstrate that cathodal-GTS inhibits all the five basic tastes. The results also support our hypothesis that the effects of cathodal-GTS are caused by migrating tasting ions in the mouth. View full-text Article Full-text available April 2004 · Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Emotional images may be viewed as propositional structures (Lang, 1977), and involve a range of modalities, including cognitive processes. Early memories, however, are often experienced non-verbally (Pillemer, 1998). Self-generated and spontaneous images were investigated in a spider anxious group (N = 29) and a non spider anxious group (N = 30). Participants completed self-report measures and a
... [Show full abstract] detailed semi-structured interview. The spider anxious, compared to the control group, reported more modalities, particularly skin and internal body sensations, in a self-generated spider image than in a control image. Their spider image was also associated with more anxiety, greater intent and vividness, and skin and body sensations that lasted longer. It was also associated with more negative self and other related core beliefs. Themes in core beliefs included loss of control, negative self-evaluation and vulnerability. Most of the spider anxious group reported spontaneous, recurrent images associated with their fear of spiders. Visual, body, skin and auditory sensations were noted. These images were linked to negative self and other related beliefs. Over half identified an associated early memory containing content, emotional meaning and modalities similar to that identified in the initial image. Implications for the treatment and cognitive theory of phobias are considered. View full-text February 2015 · Psychophysiology
Dyspnea anticipation and perception varies largely between individuals. To investigate whether genetic factors related to negative affect such as the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impact this variability, we investigated healthy, 5-HTTLPR stratified volunteers using resistive load induced dyspnea together with fMRI. Alternating blocks of severe and mild dyspnea ("perception") were differentially cued
... [Show full abstract] ("anticipation") and followed by intensity and unpleasantness ratings. In addition, volunteers indicated their anticipatory fear during the anticipation periods. There were no genotype-based group differences concerning dyspnea intensity and unpleasantness or brain activation during perception of severe vs. mild dyspnea. However, in risk allele carriers, higher anticipatory fear was paralleled by stronger amygdala activation during anticipation of severe vs. mild dyspnea. These results suggest a role of the 5-HTTLPR genotype in fearful dyspnea anticipation.
© 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research. Read more Conference Paper Full-text available January 2005
To develop an interface to improve interaction, the first step is usually to explore the user's needs and perceptions. However, in our changing world, it is necessary to connect not only humans to the computer world, but also to develop interfaces for entities such as animals and plants. We have developed and tested some interfaces allowing us to study the effects of different kinds of
... [Show full abstract] interaction and how people change their perception of other virtual and living entities. These interfaces allow the user to have contact with other living beings, such as plants and animals, in unique ways that provide a better understanding of their "feelings". In the specific case of plants, this is achieved by transforming the measurement of changes in the soil where the plant is into humanly abstracted experiences, such as thirst, sadness and happiness. These events are processed and analyzed by a computer program that infers the current status of the plant so that this can be modeled like a FSM.One way to link the actions performed by the user with a desirable result in the virtual world is to effectively guess the user's needs and expectations. However, this is not always achieved. Tactile sensations, sounds and images can help us to immerse the user into our application, but in heterogeneous VR applications we need to include virtual references to connect all the entities in the Virtual world and change the way the user observes these entities. The following paper describes a Plant-Computer-Human interface involving a real and a virtual plant that was developed for VR and Art applications. We also describe the reactions of users to these applications. View full-text May 2018 · Journal of Environmental Engineering (Transactions of AIJ)
In an effort to decrease the number of casualties caused by heatstroke, we used a survey to measure the effects of air-conditioned wear and the differences between morning and afternoon on the physiological responses and reported comfort levels and thermal sensations of construction workers in summer. Measurements of the thermal environment, such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed and MRT;
... [Show full abstract] physiological responses such as skin temperatures, tympanic temperatures, heart stroke, activity, and three-directional (X, Y and Z) acceleration; and the survey to assess psychological response were carried out at indoor and outdoor construction sites over four days each. There were sixty-six interior workers (IW), thirty-one with air conditioned wear (ACW) and thirty-five without ACW. There were thirty-two plumbers (PL), twenty with ACW and twelve without ACW. There were forty-two reinforcing bar placers (RBP), twenty with ACW and twenty-two without ACW. There were forty-four form workers (FW), twenty-four with ACW and twenty without ACW. These numbers are based on the number of working hours logged, not on the n umber of subjects participating in the survey.
Skin temperature of RBP and PL workers at the outer construction site with ACW were significantly lower than those without ACW (p<0.01). Tympanic temperature of RBP workers with ACW was significantly higher than those without ACW (p<0.001). Tympanic temperature of PL workers was significantly higher than those of RBP workers with ACW (p<0.05), and lower than that of RBP workers without ACW (p<0.01). Acceleration in the Y-axis, of workers at the outer construction site with ACW was significantly higher than those without ACW (p<0.001), probably due to movement for their walking. Acceleration in the X-axis of workers at indoor construction site was significantly higher than those without ACW (p<0.001), probably due to their increased activity in cutting boards and pipes.
The effects of ACW on comfort and thermal sensation were estimated as below.
The reported comfort level of four occupational workers at the indoor and outdoor construction sites with ACW were significantly higher than those without ACW (p<0.001). The reported thermal level of both IWs and PLs with ACW were significantly lower than that without ACW (p<0.001). The reported thermal levels of PWs with and without ACW were significantly higher than those of RBPs (p<0.001). Without ACW, the reported thermal level of the IWs was significantly lower than those of the PLs (p<0.05). The reported thermal level of workers in outdoor construction site with ACW was significantly lower than those without ACW (p<0.001).
Lastly, differences in the physiological and psychological responses between the morning and the afternoon were investigated at the indoor and outdoor construction sites. Tympanic temperature and activity of workers at the indoor construction site in the afternoon were significantly higher than those in the morning (p<0.01, p<0.05). Skin temperature of workers at outdoor construction site in the afternoon was significantly higher than those in the morning (p<0.01). It was suggested that the increase of casualties caused by heatstroke in the afternoon was due to these physiological parameters.
The effects of ACW on both the psychological and physiological responses such as skin and tympanic temperature of workers at outdoor construction site were significantly estimated. The differences between the skin and tympanic temperatures of workers at indoor construction site with and without ACW were so small, that the only significant differences between those with and without ACW were psychological responses. Read more July 2016 · IEEJ Transactions on Sensors and Micromachines
Here we report a portable wind/olfactory display system that can present a virtual airflow and/or odor source at an arbitrary position on a screen of a tablet computer. The system is named a smelling screen mini. As in our original-size smelling screen, airflows generated by four fans are made to impinge on each other, and thus, an airflow directed toward the user from a specified position on the
... [Show full abstract] screen is generated. By introducing odor vapor into the airflows, the odor distribution is as if odor vapor had been released from a certain position on the screen. However, it has been found that the airflows generated by the fans in the smelling screen mini are not properly impinging on each other and that the airflow directed toward the user is obliquely distorted. We have shown that the distortion is caused by the irregularities of the airflows from the fans. Experimental results are presented to show that the distortion of the airflow distribution can be effectively reduced by adding airflow straightening vanes and tapered flow paths to suppress the swirling motion of the airflows. The smelling screen mini can be used to add special effects to mobile games and electronic picture books. Read more Last Updated: 05 Jul 2022 Looking for the full-text?
You can request the full-text of this conference paper directly from the authors on ResearchGate.