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This research paper provided a comparative analysis of foreign policy of Nigeria under Muhammadu Buhari's military regime 1983-1985 and his current civilian administration which started in May 2015. Foreign policy is a set of tools or activities developed by states to drive its interest in the international system, and internal and external factors usually influence this. The personality and environment in which leaders assumes leadership also plays an important in defining a state foreign policy. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of Buhari's foreign policy under his military and civilian administration. The research utilizes secondary data from journals, books, newspapers, government reports among others. The findings of the study shows the under Buhari's military administration relations between Nigeria and ECOWAS was hostile which led to border closures, relations with Nigeria's former colonial master, United Kingdom was also strained due which resulted in diplomatic rows between both countries, the Buhari administration also continued with Afrocentric policy with continuous call for end to apartheid and colonialism on the continent. While under his civilian government Buhari was able to create friendly relations with ECOWAS member nations, maintained good relations with UK and US, and improve the countries relations with China to improve the country's economy. The paper concludes that the type of government and environment in the international system with which Buhari served played a role in shaping the foreign policy direction of the state.
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Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 4, October 2017
P-ISSN 2362-8022 | E-ISSN 2362-8030 |
Comparative Analysis of Nigeria Foreign
Policy Under Muhammadu Buhari
Administration 1983-1985 and 2015-2017
Ismail Bello, Asmau Isyaku Dutse and Muhammad Fuad Othman
School of International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia
Date Received: August 9, 2017; Date Revised: October 18, 2017
Asia Pacific Journal of
Education, Arts and Sciences
Vol. 4 No.4, 43-52
October 2017
P-ISSN 2362-8022
E-ISSN 2362-8030
Abstract This research paper provided a
comparative analysis of foreign policy of Nigeria
under Muhammadu Buhari’s military regime 1983-
1985 and his current civilian administration which
started in May 2015. Foreign policy is a set of tools or
activities developed by states to drive its interest in the
international system, and internal and external factors
usually influence this. The personality and
environment of which leaders assumes leadership also
plays an important in defining a state foreign policy.
The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative
analysis of Buhari’s foreign policy under his military
and civilian administration. The research utilizes
secondary data from journals, books, newspapers,
government reports among others. The findings of the
study shows the under Buhari’s military
administration relations between Nigeria and
ECOWAS was hostile which led to border closures,
relations with Nigeria’s former colonial master,
United Kingdom was also strained due which resulted
to diplomatic rows between both countries, the Buhari
administration also continued with Afrocentric policy
with continuous call for end to apartheid and
colonialism on the continent. While under his civilian
government Buhari was able to create friendly
relations with ECOWAS member nations, maintained
good relations with UK and US, and improve the
countries relations with China to improve the
country’s economy. The paper concludes that the type
of government and environment in the international
system with which Buhari served played a role in
shaping the foreign policy direction of the state.
Keywords: Foreign Policy, ECOWAS, United States,
China, Buhari, and Nigeria.
Foreign policy is an essential tool with which
states relateto states and non-states actors in the
international system [1; 33]. The foreign policy is set
of tools which are used to pursue and achieve
country‟s national interests. Foreign Policy of
Nigerian state has continued to change under different
governments and leaders. This is usually influenced
by the type of government and to a great extent
personality of the countries leader [1], [2], [29]. From
independence, where Nigeria pursue a non-aligned
foreign policy under Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa,
Under Yakubu Gowon 1966-1975 the country was
plagued with civil war, but his foreign policy was also
Afrocentric in nature, Murtala Mohammed and
Olusegun Obasanjo 1975-1979 the government
pursued a radical foreign policy which was aimed at
liberation of African states from clutches of apartheid
and colonialism and reducing the influence of Western
capitalist countries, Shehu Shagari 1979-1983
continued with the Afrocentric policy and also liberal
policy, Muhammadu Buhari 1983-1985 chose to
follow foreign policy of Murtala/Obasanjo foreign
policy which was radical in nature. Ibrahim
Babangida 1985-1993 foreign policy was seen mainly
as pro-western countries which led to the acceptance
of Structural Adjustment Programs and also its
economic diplomacy, Sani Abacha 1993-1998 choose
to pursue an isolation foreign policy which meant
Nigeria had limited engagement with outside world.
Olusegun Obasanjo 1999-2007 decided to re-open
Nigeria to the world after isolation of Sani Abacha
government, his foreign policy was hinged on shuttle
diplomacy which was aimed at economic
development, Umaru Musa Yar'Adua and Goodluck
Jonathan 2007-2015 foreign policy was opened and
encourages relations with other countries around the
world, and its policy was hinged on citizen diplomacy,
Muhammadu Buhari 2015-Present foreign policy is
also hinged on improving relations with neighbors and
to maintain ties with the United States and China
among other countries in the world.
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As a Head of Government under a military
government General Buhari pursued a radical foreign
policy which led confrontation with Nigeria
neighbours, radical countering of colonial and
apartheid governments on the continent. President
Buhari assumed shuttle diplomacy between different
countries immediately after assuming office in 2015
he was referred at as “Jet-Setting President”, this was
attributed mainly to the fact he spent a quarter of first
100 days in office in different countries. The president
upon inauguration assumed the responsibility of been
countries chief diplomat and foreign policy officer to
re-launch Nigeria into the international community.
Thisis mostly attributed to the international
environment Buhari found himself, this situationwas
characterised by dwindling oil prices, terrorism and
counter-terrorism, nuclear deals and neoliberalism
among others [3].
The objective of this research is to have a
comparative analysis of Muhammadu Buhari foreign
policy under his military and civilian administrations
to understand the change of foreign policy direction
under the same person and different form of
This paper utilises secondary sources of data for
the research; this includes journals, relevant books,
periodicals, newspapers reports, internet sources,
government releases, and pronouncement.
Foreign Policy Decision Making (FPDM) Under
Military Regime
Military administration are regime who came into
prayers via coup de ‟tat either by overthrowing a
democratic government or fellow Foreign Policy
under a military administration revolves around the
personality of head of state who has the prerogative to
accept or ignore advice from government bodies, also
FPDM is faster and quicker because it is usually via
decree rather than constitution, influence in military
regime is limited because the head of state determines
the position of government foreign policy, and FPDM
in military regime does not entail broad consensus
which is a feature of a democratic as decision are
personalized [4].
Foreign Policy Decision Making (FPDM) Under
Democratic Government
A democratic government is that in which power
is vested in the people, and it is exercised by them
directly and indirectly. The people are provided with
the opportunity to elect their representatives through
free, fair and periodic elections. Features of a
democratic government are an independent judiciary,
respect for fundamental human rights, a multi-party
system which ensures alternatives and competition
candidates for people. FPDM in a democratic
governmentincludes the presidency, ministry of
foreign affairs (state departments or foreign and
commonwealth office) and the parliament or
legislature.All these multiple bodies influence FPDM
in a democratic government which makes foreign
policy a long drawn process due to due process and
broad consultation and finally FPDM shows broad
consensus mainly due to debates and approval of
ministerial appointments, ambassadorial positions,
treaties, a budget which are required to be approved
by national assembly [4].
Nigeria Foreign Policy under Major-General
Muhammadu Buhari 1983-1985
Major-General Muhammadu Buhari rose to
become Nigeria‟s head of state and Commander-in-
Chief from December 31, 1983, and his government
ended August 27, 1985. He became head of state as a
result of military coup d‟état which deposed civilian
president Shehu Shagari. The military accused the
civilian authorities of mismanaging the economy,
corruption, civil disorder and uncertainty in which the
nation found itself under the leadership of the former
civilian government. General Buhari government
focused on fighting corruption especially those
committed by former government and businessmen
with a link to government, as a result of the corruption
drive over 500 officials of government, politicians,
and people in business were thrown into prisons and
tried to the military tribunal‟s setup. In his inaugural
speech, General Buharistated:to put an end to the
serious economic predicament and the serious crisis
of confidence now afflicting our nation”. [5]. With the
start of its administration, the Buhari administration
prided itself as an offshoot of Murtala/Obasanjo
government, it hereafter built it foreign policy after
that of the previous military regime. In one case, in
following suits of Murtala/Obasanjo, which
recognised MPLA in Angola, the Buhari regime
recognised Polisario government in Western Sahara
despite opposition from fellow African states. The
regime also re-launched commitment to the liberation
of South Africa from the apartheid regime [6]. The
key features of the General Muhammadu Buhari
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foreign policy wereits relations with Nigeria
ECOWAS neighbours, Nigeria-Africa relations and a
diplomaticface-off between Nigeria-Britain.
Nigeria-United Kingdom Relations
Nigeria has been a former colony of United
Kingdom; both countries enjoyed peaceful and cordial
relations. However, in 1984 there was a break in
diplomatic relations between both countries due to the
“Dikko affair”. Umar Dikko was an influential
minister in the toppled ShehuShagari civilian
administration, with the coup d‟état which toppled
Shagari‟s regime, General Buhari government
released a list of former government officials accused
of corrupt practices. Umar Dikko was top on the list
and was accused of syphoning about six billion dollars
from the national treasury. However, Dikko escaped
Nigeria and found succour in the United Kingdom
where he came to a critic of Buhari‟s junta and even
promised to lead a holy war against the junta. There
was an attempt to kidnap him on July 5,1984; the
action was carried out by Nigeria‟s diplomats and
MOSSAD officers from Israel. Dikko was kidnaped
and drugged by MOSSAD with the help of an Israeli
medical Doctor, he was packaged in a crate which had
a Mossad agent Shapiro, which was to be flown out of
UK with Nigeria Airways Boeing 707 which had
arrived the UK, and however, Dikko‟s secretary
witnessed the kidnap and promptly reported to
authorities. The crates were opened at the airport these
led to freeing of Dikko and arrest of the Israeli agents
and Nigerians involved.
This action of Nigeria led to a serious diplomatic
spat between both countries. Seventeen individuals
were arrested while four were convicted and jailed,
they included three Israelis Abithol, Barak, Shapita
and a Nigerian Major Yusuf. After the failed attempt,
Nigeria government formally requested for the
extradition of Dikko;Britain rejected this. The
Nigerian government also retaliated by arresting two
British engineers for stealing an aircraft. Another
diplomatic implication was the grounding of Nigeria
Airways Boeing 707 and the expulsion of two
Nigerian diplomats from London; they include Peter
Oyedele (Counselor) and EdetOkon (attaché). The
Nigeria government retaliated with the suspension of
British diplomats; Head of Chancery in Lagos John
Harrison and diplomatic attaché. This was also
followed up by the grounding and seizure of British
Caledonian jet which was carrying 221 passengers and
22 crew members. However, when the Nigeria crews
were released and return home from Britain, the
British Jet was also released and allowed to return to
London [7], [31], [4].
In international relations, the withdrawal or recall
of ambassadors or high commissioner is always a sign
of escalation or serious rift between countries in the
conduct of relations between each other. Due to
diplomatic escalation as a result of the Dikko Affair,
the Nigerian government recalled its high
commissioner in London, General Halidu Hanania for
consultation, because he was summoned by Britain
foreign office and was requested to submit himself to
police questioning, these were clear contravention his
diplomatic immunity, in response Nigeria called on
London to recall its high commissioner in Lagos Sir
Hamilton Whyter. Britain later compiled by recalling
its top diplomat after much pressure. The standoff
between both countries was the hallmark of Buhari‟s
junta foreign policy with her former colonial masters.
To this effect, there were even calls for the
downgrading of economic relations and breaking of
diplomatic ties with Britain as a result of this issue.
The junta claimed that its decision on foreign policy
was informed by national interest because the former
ruling elites had bastardised the economy which was
complimented by dwindling fall in oil prices made it
imperative for the junta to take action which has a
nationalistic outlook and was commended by the
populace in the country [9].
Nigeria-United States of America Relations
In continuation of it Afro-centric policy and strive
to rid the continent of Apartheid regimes and colonial
rules. The Buhari government tried to exact some
influence on Ronald Regan government to secure
independence for Southern Africa state of Namibia
independence and the withdrawal of Cuban troops
from Angola. One enormous success of the
administration was the appointment of Joseph Garba,
a Major General as Nigeria permanent representative
to United Nations. He was subsequently elected as UN
special committee against Apartheid. Through the
instrumentality of Joseph Garba, Nigeria was able to
recruit non-governmental organisation, business
leaders, and civil societies to lobby the America
political establishment with regards to Southern
Africa states. Companies such as Kellogg, Gulf Oil,
Bechtel Corporation and Mobil while personalities
such as Reverend Jesse Jackson, Anthony Solomon
and David Rockefeller were all enlisted to push
forward Nigeria‟s foreign policy thrust on the
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Southern Africa states. It is noteworthy that much
was not achieved during Buhari government with the
US, as president Regan at no time showed any interest
in relations with Nigeria, as a result of these relations
between both countries were strained [7; 31].
Nigeria- Africa Relations
Nigeria since independence has pursued an
Afrocentric foreign policy; which implies that Africa
is the centrepiece of Nigeria foreign policy. As stated
above, the regime continued to toe the foreign policy
of Murtala/Obasanjo regime with regards to Africa,
especially the liberation of the Africa continents as a
whole from the shackles of colonialism and apartheid
regimes, with Namibia and South Africa topping its
agenda. The administration reasserted the need for
liberation by contributions to the Organization of
African Union (O.A.U) liberation committee.
Nigerian foreign affairs minister, Ibrahim Gambari,
undertook a tour of states under these colonial and
apartheid rule to assert the government commitments
towards the liberation of the continent. The
appointment of Murtala/Obasanjoerst while minister
of foreign affairs as Nigeria Permanent representatives
to UN and his subsequent election as the chairman of
UN anti-apartheid committee boosted the regime role
in fighting colonial and apartheid rule in Africa.
Another milestone in Nigeria-Africa relations under
General Buhari regime was its recognition of Polisario
Front as the legitimate representatives of Western
Sahara and Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic
(SADR). The government condemned the occupation
of Western Sahara by the government in Morocco and
call for decolonisation and granting of independence
to the Western Sahara. The government positionwas
hinged on the fact that it cannot continue to call for an
end to the colonisation of Africa by foreigners and
still condoneconquest of Africa by Africans. This
gave an impetus to the liberation struggle by the
people of Western Sahara [10].
Nigeria-ECOWAS Members Relations
Economic Community of West African States
(ECOWAS) was created to facilitate free movements
of citizens of the 15-member nations within the
region, however, like it, relations with the former
colonial masters, Nigeria relations with its
neighbourswas everything but friendly. These alluded
to some factors which will be discussedin the paper.
To the east Nigeria shares border with Cameroon, to
the west, it shares a border with the Benin Republic,
and to the north Niger Republic. On assumption of
office in 1984, the Federal Military Government
(FMG) sent a delegation led by Major-General
Domkat Bali; the Nigerian defense minister to the
three countries that shared border with Nigeria to
assure them of commitment of new government to
foster relations with the countries, and seek their
cooperation towards the enhancement of Nigeria
national security, check cross-border smuggling and
prevent hostile action against Nigerians living in these
countries.Meeting were held with Mathieu Kerekou of
Benin, Paul Biya of Cameroon, Seyni Koantche of
Niger and Tahiru Ginaso of Chad on 11-17 January
However, relations between these countries went
sour less than just a month of sending diplomatic
emissaries. Two factors were said to have influenced
these decisions; Security implication as religious
crises which occurred in Yola Adamawa state which
was blamed on aliens from neighbouring countries
and Economic implication; ruling elites were leaving
the country through the various porous borders with a
large sum of money which could cripple the economy
if allowed escape. The border was closed between
April 25 and May 6, 1984. The security implication
was as a result of February 1984 religious violence
which broke out in Yola Adamawa state claiming the
lives of over 100 military and police officerswere
reportedly killed while over 1,000 civilians lost their
lives. The minister of internal affairs Brigadier
Muhammadu Magoro accused foreigners of been
responsible for the crises and directed that Nigeria
borders with neighbouring countries be closed and
armed with military officers to prevent illegal entry,
with over 700,000 immigrants ordered to leave
Nigeria, these led to straining of relations between
Nigeria and this member nation
Economic Implication: One of the key reason for
overtaking the Shagari government was its
mishandling of Nation economy which was
characterised by greed and corruption especially at
high echelon of government, coupled with oil glut in
early 1980‟s. The three policy of border closure,
medication of the naira (national currency) and
expulsion of illegal aliens had an impact on Nigeria‟s
and its member‟s relations. The border was closed to
curtail excessive smuggling which occurs at Nigeria
borders with neighbouring countries which
havebecome a feature of commercial and trade
relations. The closure was justified by external affairs
minister who said:“to have a weak Nigeria,
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economically, nor to have a Nigeria whose currency is
a subject of trafficking all over” [4, pp. 161]. Another
economic implication was the fact that second
republic politicians had run the country to ground
economically, and with the coup, they were escaping
through the countries porous borders and making
away with their loots from the national treasury.
Furthermore, he stated that borders had to be closed
because of the government determination “to look
inward and record it priorities internally, to check
indiscipline; to consider the value of our currency to
check smuggling and then put our trade relations on a
positive path with our neighbours.
The impact of the policy was immense in these
border countries, for Niger the closure was adversely
affecting it economy because it was a landlocked
country which depended on Nigeria for supplies of
petroleum products, The presidents of Benin, Niger
Republic, Chad, all visited Nigeria in a bid to get
concession from the government of Nigeria on the
issue of border closure.
The border closure issue became an international
economic and diplomacy issue. The Benin Republic,
for example, was affected by the closure, these were
attributed to cultural and historical ties between both
countries, they also share economic ties because of
some strategic projects sited in Benin and Nigeria
which benefits both countries these include the
training of Béninois at the Nigeria College of Aviation
Technology at Zaria, academic collaboration between
University of the Republic of Benin and the
University of Ibadan for the training of Béninois. Also
economic projects such as Save Sugar project and
Onigbolo Cement project. There was also a military
collaboration with the 1979 agreement which allowed
cooperation in security and military between both
countries and finally, both countries share cultural ties
because 15% of Béninois are Yoruba speaking people.
All these were affected due to the closure of the
border. With regards to the Chad Republic, it took an
international diplomacy aspect because of the conflict
which has displaced a lot of people.
The Americans and French tried to persuade the
Nigeria leader to reconsider the closure, American
president sent General Vernon Walters as a special
envoy to Nigeria in order to convince Buhari on need
to reopen the border in order to aid the passage of
relief materials and urgent supplies to refugees who
have been displaced as a result of conflict in Chad.
However, the border remained closed despite
diplomatic overtures to the Nigerian leader; thiswas
attributed to the fact that Chad has always been central
to security issues in Nigeria due to its closeness and
previous encounters when Chadians invaded Nigeria
territories. The Nigérien President Kountche took a
diplomatic tour to Nigeria in order to persuade the
government of Nigeria to reconsider the policy,
because the policy severely affected the country
because the country is landlocked and depends on
Nigeria for Gas and Petroleum, there was also
economic cooperation between both countries through
the Nigeria-Niger Joint Commission on Economic
Cooperation which is located in Niamey the Niger
capital with a Nigerian as the secretary general. Both
countries also share cultural ties as a good number of
Nigériens are Hausa speakers.
The government also without prior notice expelled
foreign nationals in the country especially those from
ECOWAS region, those expelled were those with
illegal entry visa or expired visa and overstayed their
welcome in the country. This action further infuriated
the member nations who call to question Nigeria
leadership in ECOWAS, as the action defeats the goal
of the creation of ECOWAS which was to aid free
movements of citizens of member nations.
Submissively, it could be arguedthat relations between
Nigeria and its immediate neighbourswere not cordial.
In the international arena, the junta was unable to
continue on the path of General Murtala/Obasanjo
regime; thiswas attributed to the state of the economy
in the country which was in the bad state as a result of
mismanagement of the economy by the previous
civilian regime. [11], Summed General Buhari junta
by saying
The continued decline in oil price and the
inability of OPEC to do much to change the
situation, and the Counter-Trade and other
alternative economic arrangements into which
Nigeria was forced, could not bring about the
much-desired autonomy of action, under the
General Muhammadu Buhari's regime [11, pp.
Achievement and Summary of General Buhari
foreign policy
In keeping in line with the country Afrocentric
policy, the regime continued to push for
decolonisation and end to apartheid in SADR.
This finally culminated in eventual independence
for South Africa, the recognition of Nigeria to
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SADR also granted impetus to the SADR calls for
In international economic relations, the regime
was able to pursue an independent policy despite
pressure from capitalist bodies such as IMF &
World Bank for the devaluation of Naira due to
economic imbalance. The regime was able to
maintain the value of naira against dollars and
provide basic service for the populace.
The regime was able to pursue an independent
foreign policy without unnecessary influence from
her former colonial master- the United Kingdom,
or other western power. The regime was able to
pursue a foreign policy which isimportant to the
achievement of her national interest.
Through the instrumentality of international
organisation such as O.A.U and U.N, the regime
pushed for the independence of states under
colonial rules.
Nigeria Foreign Policy under President
Muhammadu Buhari 2015-2017
President Muhammadu Buhari won the election
the 2015 election by defeating the incumbent
president Goodluck Jonathan. The election which was
conducted on March 28, 2015, saw the former military
leader returning to power, making him the second
Nigeria‟s former military leader elected under a
democratic rule. Factors which contributed to
President Buhari success at polls could be attributed to
the failure of the former government to deal decisively
with the Boko Haram terrorism which was badly
affected Nigeria‟s image in the international
community. President Buhari hinged his campaign
promises on three cardinal points which include,
Combating Terrorism, Fighting Corruption and
Improving on the economy.
As stated earlier, foreign policy under a
democratic government involves a lot stages for
planning and execution. The main foreign policy
under president Buhari government includes
improving relations with its neighbors in order to
jointly fight Boko Haram which assumed a
multinational or transnational dimension, partner with
US and other world power to support the government
in order to fight terrorism by providing needed
manpower and intelligence, and more importantly
improvement of economy and fighting corruption,
improved relations with China in order to foster
economic development through provision of needed
Nigeria- ECOWAS Countries Relations
During his campaign for election to the
presidency of Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari promised
to tackle head-on three main issue of Insecurity (Boko
Haram Insurgency), Corruption and Economy
development. Before his declaration as president,
Boko Haram had taken over swat of Nigerian
territories and declaring an Islamic state within the
Nigeria territory. Apart from Nigeria, the Boko Haram
terrorism took a transnational dimension by carrying
out attacks in Nigeria and receding into the
neighbouring countries. Multinational Joint Task
Force (MNJTF) which was charged with the
responsibility of insurgency in the Lake Chad region
was not effective although it tried to curtail the
activities of Boko Haram as members countries
contributed to the war against Boko Haram in Nigeria.
With onslaught against the group by MNJTF member
countries, Boko Haram soon targeted these countries
for daring to aid Nigeria in the fight against terrorism,
thereby giving the Boko Haram action an international
dimension [12 & 13]. It was observed that MNJTF
was not effective and efficient as Boko Haram even
overran it base in Baga Borno State, and went ahead
to commit one of the most heinous crimes against
humanity when it massacred the locals in Baga town
[14; 32].
On the assumption of office, President
Muhammadu Buhari first trip overseas was to the
Niger Republic on June 3, 2015. The Cameroon
president also attended the meeting; the trip was on
Anti-Boko Haram summit which was aimed at
discussing the regional offensive against the group.
The Nigerien President
MahamadouIssoufoucommitted his countries resolve
to help Nigeria tackle the growing threats of Boko
Haram which has continued to threaten peace and
stability in the region. It was also agreed that MNJTF
headquarters be relocated from Nigeria to N'Djamena
in Chad an appointment of a Nigerian as the
commander of the organisation. The meeting was
followed up with a visit to Chad on June 4, 2017;
thisvisit was followed up by a bilateral meeting with
President Paul Biyaof Cameroon. Although Benin
republic was not affected by the insurgent activities of
Boko Haram, Buhari visited Benin republic and these
visited was reciprocated by Benin President BoniYayi
who committed troops to the MNJTF to combat
terrorist activities in the country [35].
As Onapajo [15] and Waddington[16] argued, the
shuttle diplomacy by President Buhari to his West
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Africa neighbors played a decisive role in limiting the
capabilities of Boko Haram to strike in Nigeria and
recede to these neighboring countries as shield against
Nigeria forces, this diplomatic relation between these
ECOWAS countries help curtail the activities of Boko
Apart from using foreign relations to tackle Boko
Haram insurgency, president Buhari played a key role
as the chief mediator in solving the constitutional
impasse in Gambia, where President Yahaya Jammeh
initially refused to give up power to democratically
elected president Adama barrow, President Buhari
was tasked by ECOWAS to led a negotiation with
Jammeh in order to concede power to
Barrow.President Buhari resolves for a peaceful
transition and the need to avoid violence which could
lead to a civil war and a possible a humanitarian
disaster for the ECOWAS sub-region. The negotiation
was fruitful, and former president Jammeh conceded
power and stepped aside [17], [18].
President Muhammadu Buhari made it a cardinal
objective of his foreign policy to pursue its national
interest by maintaining good relations with its
immediate neighbours. The result of this was an
improvement on the counter-insurgency war which
led to decimation of Boko Haram.
Nigeria-United States Relations
Unlike his predecessor, Muhammadu Buhari
enjoyed somewhat better relations, the grudge
between Obama Administration and Goodluck
Administration over the handling of Boko Haram
insurgency especially the kidnap of Chibok girls and
Human Rights abuses committed by the military.
Relations between both countries under Buhari
administration started with a high-level diplomatic
meeting between Obama and Buhari which held at
Oval on the 20th July 2016. President Obama
committed that the United States will assist the
government of Nigeria, tackle the growing threats of
Boko Haram and countering violent extremism.
President Buhari also requested Obama administration
to assist the government in curtailing corruption which
has continued to plague the country, also seek the
assistance of the government towards improving the
economy which included reforms in the energy sector
by stopping oil theft. The meeting was followed up by
a meeting with Vice President Joe Biden where it was
agreed that the USwould assist Nigeria to root out
corruption, ensure stability in the economy and also
the policy with special reference to a Northern region
of Nigeria which is the heartbeat of the Boko Haram
insurgency. The trip also afforded president Buharian
opportunity to meet Treasury Secretary, Attorney
General Loretta E. Lynch and Bob Work the Deputy
Defense Secretary [7], [19], [20].
Under the administration of Donald Trump,
nothing seems to have changed, as US Department of
Justice recently filed a civil complaint for the
forfeiture of money ($144 million) which are from
corrupt proceedings by former Nigerian minister of
petroleum Diezani Alison-Madueke. The DOJ was
said to have accused the former minister and two
accomplices in the name of Olajide Omokore and
Kola Aluko of fronting for the former minister
through oil lifting contracts which were awarded to
the duo without due process. The DOJ seeks the
forfeiture to return these assets to benefit the populace
which is harmed by this corrupt practice [21]. [22]
agreed and stated that US government officials saw
the election of Buhari as an avenue to aid the
government‟s anti-corruption drive and on the larger
extent improve bi-lateral relations This action can be
linked the agreement between Buhari administration
and DOJ under Loretta E. Lynch for collaboration to
fight corruption and assist Nigeria to recover its loots
domiciled in the US and other western countries.
The Trump administration also demonstrated
efforts to aid Buhari administration in his fight against
Boko Haram with the proposed sales to military
equipment to Nigeria, Nigeria was earlier blacklisted
under President Jonathan, this led to declining for a
request for the purchase of military equipment. The
proposed sale included 12 Ember A-29 Super Tucano
aircraft. The proposed arms sell also got the approval
of Senators in US Congress who had earlier blocked
the sales under Obama administration citing Leahy
law which prohibited the US from selling arms to
countries where their militaries have cases of human
right abuses [24], [23].
Nigeria-China Relations
China has been termed the fastest growing
economy and the second largest economy in the world
and Nigeria have been trying to establish a balance of
power with China in economic and diplomatic
relations. Both countries share demographic and
geographic significance in their continent. With China
continuous aggressive expansion regarding
commercial, technical and economic matters Nigeria
has become an important player in Africa with regards
to China new strategic expansion. Owing to its large
Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 4, October 2017
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population Nigeria is considered a large market. On
the hand also, Nigeria and other Africa countries,
considers China a partner in development due to
infrastructure loans which it provides at interest rates
lower than what is obtainable from Bretton Woods
institutions (World Bank and International Monetary
Fund). The importance of China has been affirmed by
a wide range of analyst and academics, CNN asserted
that the US is the most significant nation on the world
stage, but China is de-facto leader of the global
economy in the 21st century [25].
Barely one year after assumption of office,
President Muhammadu Buhari visited China, the visit
was on the heels of invitation by Chinese president Xi
Jinping. The visitwas aimed at solidification of both
countries trade, diplomatic and economic relations
between both countries. The visit led to the signing of
the framework to enhance infrastructural development
and industrial activities in Nigeria between National
Development Reform Commission of China and
Ministry of Industry, Trade and investment of Nigeria;
Technological and Scientific Cooperation between
both countries, the visit lasted for one week. In the
aftermath of the visit, a number of the loan was
granted to Nigeria especially to finance the deficit of
2016 budget, infrastructure loan for trains, among
The rail project as argued by the government was
aimed at solving the infrastructure deficit in the
country, also provide needed jobs for the populace,
and most importantly stimulate the economy. The
government took a bold step towards breaking the
hegemony of USD in the Nigeria market by signing a
deal which allows for Chinese currency Yuan to be
used for transaction in the country. This will facilitate
inclusion of Yuan in the country‟s foreign reserve and
also allow banks to allow Yuan transaction from
foreign and local investors alike. The Industrial and
Commercial Bank of China also provided $2 billion to
AlikoDangote for funding of his cement factories.
Apart from Economic relations between both
countries, the countries also enjoy good diplomatic
relations between both countries, China recently stated
it full support for Nigeria‟s quest for a permanent seat
on the United Nations Security Council, Chinese
parliament speaker Zhang Dejiang made this known
during a meeting with his Nigerian counterpart
Yakubu Dogara, this was part of effort to reform the
UN and accommodate countries from another region.
Table 1. Showing Infrastructural Project Agreement
Signed Between China and Buhari Administration.
$ 1.231
Lagos-Kano modernization
projects, Lagos-Ibadan segment
$1.146 billion
Lagos-Kano railway modernization
project, Kano-Kaduna segment
$ 3.474
Lagos-Calabar Coastal Rail project
$ 6.1 billion
Kano line
$ 1.4 billion
Lagos to Ibadan Rail Project
$ 15 billion
Agricultural Development
$ 2 billion
Dangote Group Cement Project
$478 million
Construction of 300 Mega Watts
solar power in Shiroro, Niger State
$55 million
Construction and equipping of
granite mining plant
$1 billion
Greenfield expressway for Abuja-
$250 million
Ultra-modern 27-storey high rise
$1 billion
Hi-tech industrial park in Ogun-
Guangdong Free Trade Zone
$200 million
Construction of two 500MT/day
float gas facilities
$363 million
Comprehensive farm and
downstream industrial park
$500 million
Project for the provision of
television broadcast equipment
$25 million
Facility for production of pre-paid
smart meters
Source [34]
On the issue of Taiwan, which China has refused
to recogniseas an independent state but as a province
of China, President Muhammadu Buhari recently
assured Chinese foreign minister of its resolve to
adopt the “one China policy”. This policy ensures that
there is only one state called China and Taiwan and
mainland China isincontrovertible part of a single
China. In keeping with this policy, the government in
Nigeria ordered the Taiwanese embassy out of the
federal capital which means downgrading of
diplomatic relations with Taiwan, and itsmovement to
Lagos. However, it maintains minimal trade relations
and consular activities with Taiwan which will be
domiciled in Lagos. The minister of foreign affairs
minister, Geoffrey Onyeama made the policy
statement stating that “Taiwan will stop enjoying any
privileges because it is not a country that is recognized
under international law” stating the country
justification for a trade relation the minister stated that
Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts and Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 4, October 2017
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“Chinese Government does not oppose trading with
Taiwan as long as there is no formal contact with the
government that will suggest recognition of Taiwan as
sovereign country” (Yusuf, 2017). Nigeria decision
can be justified in the sense that Taiwan possesses less
economic leverage in comparison to China. Nigeria-
Taiwan economic relations which cover seafood,
industrial equipment, natural gas and other food
product stood at $800 million in 2016, compared to
$6.4 billion trade relations between Nigeria-China in
just first half of 2016 [27], [28].
Conclusively, it can be argued that under
President Muhammadu Buhari, Nigeria-Sino relations
have been taken to great heights with improvement in
bilateral economic and diplomatic relations between
both countries.
Achievement and Summary of President Buhari
Foreign Policy 2015-2017
In two years of the administration, the government
has been able to improve its foreign relations with
Nigeria neighbours which are ECOWAS and
LAKE CHAD Commission members. These as
also helped the government achieved some level
of success in the fight against Boko Haram
insurgency which has taken an international
Buhari administration has been able to forge
important diplomatic and economic relations with
China, which is a growing economicpowerhouse
in the global economy. This relation has provided
the country with needed funds to cushion the
effect of the infrastructural deficit. This provided
the nation needed foreign direct investments.
On the international scene, Nigeria has gained
more respect under Buhari administration this is
largely attributed to his personality and committed
fight against corruption and insecurity in the
country. This was evident at the invitation of
President Buhari to G7 meeting immediately after
he was sworn in.
President Buhari assumed leadership in
negotiation for the peaceful return of
democratically elected government in the Gambia.
Recently President Buhari was appointed to lead
AU anti-corruption drive in the region.
Unlike his predecessor, President Buhari was able
to improve relations between Nigeria and the
United States which has led to improving
collaboration in the fight against Boko Haram and
corruption which has become endemic in the
The paper concludes that there was a major shift
in Muhammadu Buhari foreign policy under his
military and civilian regimes. Under the military
regime, General Buhari pursued a more radical
foreign policy direct which was anti-west and anti-
capitalist. Also with regards to Nigeria neighbours in
the West Africa sub-region. This action could be
linked to the environment which the government took
over the leadership of the country. These situations
include acolonial rule in southern Africa, smuggling
and economic sabotage which was aided by Nigerian
neighbours, among others. While on the other hand,
the civilian regime there was a change in the
personality of President Buhari foreign policy
postulations. President Buhari maintained good
relations with its neighbours to fight Boko Haram
insurgency, the administration also improved bilateral
relations with China to cater for countries economic
imbalance, despite the relations with China, Nigeria
also maintained good relations with the United States.
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... The foreign policy of the late President Umar Musa Yar`adua's administration in 2007 was hinged on citizen diplomacy, while his predecessor, former President Goodluck Jonathan's administration in 2011 adopted a transformation agenda in line with his domestic political orientations, including attracting foreign investment. The current administration of President Buhari, who took office in 2015, has launched the foreign policy agenda of his administration regarding cooperation with global entities to combat the threat to national security, such as Boko Haram and kidnapping, among others, reviving the local economy to attract foreign direct investment, and partnering with global cooperation in fighting corruption, as well as military and diplomatic steps to eliminate national security threats in the country (Bello et al., 2017). ...
... The current Muhammad Buhari administration that resumed office in 2015 was shaped on the foreign policy of strengthening Nigerian relations with neighbouring countries and major powers such as the US and China, among others, in order to harmonize together, forged ahead, and come up with strategic measure in fighting security threat in the country and the rest west African Sahel. The administration of Buhari had prioritized three significant points, which are; to restore and energized the economy, eradicate corruption, and tackling terrorism, insecurity, and kidnapping (Bello et al., 2017). Regrettably, intensified heinous crimes ravaged such efforts and robbed the country of the benefits brought by such opportunities. ...
... The current administration of President Buhari, who took office in 2015, has directed the foreign policy agenda of his administration to cooperate with global entities to combat the threat to national security, such as Boko Haram and kidnapping, among others, to revive the domestic economy to attract foreign direct investment, and to partner with global cooperation. In the fight against corruption, as well as military and diplomatic steps to eliminate national security threats in the country (Bello et al., 2017). The administration's foreign policy goals were limited to eliminating security threats and attracting foreign investment. ...
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... In most developing countries including Nigeria, International Trade policies are mostly guided by the principle that a strong and vibrant manufacturing sector is a major key to Economic Development and that this can best be achieved by protecting the local manufacturers from international competition which is theoretically and practically a tool to enhance local production Bello et al. [17]. The theory has been criticised based on its basic assumptions and a new theory was propounded by David Ricardo. ...
... In most developing countries including Nigeria, International Trade policies are mostly guided by the principle that a strong and vibrant manufacturing sector is a major key to Economic Development and that this can best be achieved by protecting the local manufacturers from international competition which is theoretically and practically a tool to enhance local production [17]. This therefore indicates that while protectionism is beneficial to import based industries, it is detrimental to export based industries. ...
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... However, there was hardly any benefit derived from the operations of MNJTF. Rather, it has been observed that it helped to internationalize the Boko Haram movement by providing excuses for them to raid and terrorize rural communities of other member states of MNJTF as they are weak states with poor security strategies (Bello, Dutse and Othman, 2017). ...
... It is partly for this reason that the Buhari regime's diplomatic dialogue with countries around the Lake Chad region to form a united front with Nigeria against the Boko Haram insurgency yielded little or no result (Bello, Dutse and Othman, 2017). Nevertheless, the first three regimes have laid some foundation that subsequent governments can build upon in the effective utilisation of reciprocity and economic diplomacy as an instrument of reviving the economy. ...
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... Nigeria has also partnered with the United States to fight terrorism through providing military manpower and intelligence. Also, relations with China have been improved to promote economic growth through infrastructural development (Bello, Dutse, & Othman, 2017). ...
... Such translated into the focal point of his domestic and external pursuits leading to Buhari's main role in foreign policy to improve relations with our neighbours. Other considerations include the defeat of Boko Haram through Nigerian leadership efforts and multi-national partnership to fight against terrorism, gaining intelligence and the resources towards improving the economy and fighting corruption, improved relations with China to foster economic development via needed infrastructure (Bello et al., 2017). ...
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Leaders' inputs shape foreign policy at the highest echelon of a State decision-making apparatus. President Buhari is the 15th Head of State of Nigeria (2015-2019) and is in charge of the Nation's foreign policy. Hence, this study emerged to assess the influence of his personality on Nigeria’s foreign policy under his first civilian rule (2015-2019). In doing this, the study adopted a qualitative method, descriptive design, primary and secondary, and the role theory to arrive at its findings. This study revealed that Buhari’s personality traits were shaped by his military background, childhood upbringing, life and leadership experiences. Such manifested in Buhari being a disciplinarian, a conserve and reserve person, slow to take decisions but committed to them when they are taken, and suspicious of lavish living. This translated into Nigeria’s foreign policy Agenda of ‘Anti-Corruption, Security and the Economy’ under his first civilian rule. His personality was also a plus for Nigeria’s Foreign policy in pursuing these agendas. The international community accepted his antecedence and personality as representing a trusted leader with integrity to work with as a global partner Keywords: Foreign policy, personality, civilian rule, Buhari's personality, Nigeria’s foreign policy
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... There is a general notion of democracy as the government of the people by the people and for the people. But in a more specific approach, democratic government or administration denotes the kind of government that is people oriented (power is vested in the people) and the power is employed by the people either directly or indirectly, the people have the chance to choose those that would represent them in government through open or free, impartial or fair and regular elections (Bello, Dutse and Othman, 2017). ...
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The power of the media to set agenda and influence what we think and talk about has influenced media practice and reception of media contents in Nigeria despite the extremes of powerful media and powerful audience. This tends to be the focus of most media debates and inquiry in the academia in the recent time; most especially, with the emergence of the academic discipline of cultural studies with its emphasis on representation and constructive nature of media texts. This paper reviews the various ways in which culture has been represented and constructed to ‘us’ and by “us” through an analysis of various texts forwarded on new media platforms particularly WhatsApp, Twitter and Facebook by Nigerians debating the issue of Igbo tribe’s call for secession from Nigeria. The paper argues that the Biafra saga and the subsequent debates around the subject are all political constructs, and discourses which, an average Nigerian has become a part of circulating. The paper proposes that research inquiry into media should start exploring the concept of ‘power’ as a political discourse and that academic inquiry in media studies must recognise the constructive nature of media texts. In doing this therefore, and taking its departure from current debates in cultural and media studies with regards to the notion of ‘power’ in political discourses, posit that culture are representation and language fixes as well as differentiates, the paper presents the findings of content analysis cum thematic analysis of an Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa messages through What’s App, the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria that are involved in the saga. The paper shows that “power” politics plays major role in what is disseminated and that differences via inter-ethnicity has been constructed as the “reality” rather than a myth around which boundaries are erected. Key words: Biafra, Representation, Discourse, Language, Media, Political Power, Myths
... Given this, the two countries being larger economies in Africa have more to lose if the situation persists. Put differently, the severe attacks on Nigerians have been analyzed by experts to be an ungrateful reciprocation from South Africa owing to the fact that the former actively played a significant role in liberating the latter from the shackle of colonialism during the apartheid policy (Bello, Dutse, & Othman, 2017;Chidozie, 2012;Dallaji, 2012;Onah, 2014;Zabadi & Onuoha, 2012). ...
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The renewed xenophobic attacks in South Africa on Nigerians and other Africans is an ugly trend that raises serious concern among experts and analysts of foreign relations. The latest scenario in Pretoria has resulted in the loss of innocent lives and valuable properties destroyed by some militant youths in South Africa. According to Nigeria’s Foreign Affairs and Diaspora Advisor, Abike Dabiri-Erewa, the country has lost about 116 nationals due to the unlawful acts of some hoodlums in South Africa. This remains a significant setback and which poses a threat to the external relations of Nigeria and South Africa. The research relies on secondary data, such as journals, books, Internet materials, newspaper and official communications between South Africa and Nigeria. The ugly trend of xenophobic attack has resulted in a cold war between Nigeria and South Africa in their socio-economic and political relationships. However, the paper infers that adequate actions are required to be taken to restore and guarantee peace for the immigrants residing in South Africa. Failure to curb the menace of xenophobic violence in South Africa might degenerate into regional conflict which invariably will affect the relationship between both nations in all ramifications. The research contributes to existing literature on the issue of xenophobic attack and its impact on foreign relations; it also gives insight on the recent xenophobic attack which occurred in 2017 and its impact on Nigeria and South Africa relations.
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Pertinent to international relations is foreign image, and Nigeria since independence has projected Africa to be the centrepiece of its foreign policy, thus swift to playing the 'big brother' role in Africa. Adopting the expository design, this study examined the foreign and domestic implications of Nigeria's foreign image alongside the foreign policy perspectives under President Muhammadu Buhari's administration. The study confirmed that Nigeria's foreign policy decisions and direction are the resultant influence of the personality traits of the leadership, and it concluded that the many challenges faced by the country domestically are not good image projections for it on the international scene. It recommended that in order to attain and maintain a respectable image in the eye of the its neighbours far and near, the Nigerian government needs to focus on infrastructural development, economic diversification, improvement in the energy sector, and the protection of the lives of Nigerians in the diaspora.
States are propelled by certain interests in their external relations, thus shaping their patterns of behavior in the international system. Those interests, also known as national interests, are encoded in their foreign policy. Therefore, as interest varies among states, so also are the approaches adopted by individual state leaders in the pursuit and realization of such interest. This reality has been noted in Nigeria’s foreign policy under President Buhari since 2015. A major feature of his foreign policy is the penchant for foreign trips (diplomatic shuttles), as a tool for promoting bilateral and multilateral bargaining in interstate relations. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the nature, contents, and, viability of Nigeria’s external relations under President Buhari in the context of its many diplomatic shuttles. The paper adopts neo-classical realism as its theoretical framework. Data were collected through secondary sources such as journals, magazines, and reports. The paper observes amongst others that the diplomatic shuttles rekindled international business engagements in Nigeria by attracting an inflow of Foreign Direct Investments, infrastructural development, and, promoting trade and bilateral relations. However, there is more to be done in addressing some of the domestic challenges that government aims to address. This paper, therefore, recommends redirection of the country’s priority towards addressing the critical issue of infrastructure as an internal dynamic that can substantially strengthen the country’s foreign policy architecture and emplace the country in a vantage position for more robust international engagements
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The study examined Nigeria Foreign Policy from 1960-2012. The objective was to find out whether there is any change in foreign policy orientation among the various regimes or administrations within the period of study. The method of study employed was historical and descriptive research study methods. To this end, the analysis was done thematically and the results or findings show that the logic and the instrumentality of domestic development linkage theory in foreign policy is virtually lacking in Nigerian foreign policy behaviour. This is because Afrocentric foreign policy commitment overwhelmingly overshadows domestic reality. Although the Obasanjo's and Jonathan's economic diplomacy try to aligned the nation's economic reality (The NEEDS policy and Transformation agenda) with her international interaction, however, much of the foreign policy resources were not deployed to bear on the welfare of the citizenry hence, the current economic crisis in the country. Based on this, the study recommends a paradigm shift of using foreign policy as an instrument for the revitalizations and the diversification of the nation's economy to engineer national development.
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The paper examines the impact of Nigerian Civil War on her foreign policy. Though a volume of literature exits examining the impact of domestic factors in general and civil war in particular on Nigerian foreign policy, this paper seeks to build on the already existing literature. It is a general fact that the behavior of sovereign nation states towards their external environment is always shaped and conditioned by internal and external factors. However, the paper focuses more on the internal factors especially that served as remote and immediate pushers of the country into civil war. The paper is qualitative in nature and therefore, qualitative approach is adopted for data collection and analysis. The data was generated mainly from secondary sources. Theory of National Interest is the theoretical tool for analysis adopted by the paper in order to examine the nature of various interests played in different degrees during the war. Based on all these, the paper argues that the Nigerian civil war greatly impacted on her foreign policy in so many ways, such as radicalization of the foreign policy, a new initiative that made her foreign policy so dynamic, true adherence to the principle of nonalignment and realistic foreign policy among others. Key Words: Foreign Policy, Nigeria, Civil War, National Interest and International Relations
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Foreign policy as the actions or activities of the state towards her external environment and this policy are shaped by states domestic and external conditions. The actions which states use to form her activities determined by internal dynamics of the state, i.e., domestic issues. Since his inauguration as Nigeria's President in May 2015, President Buhari three Cardinal promises were fought against terrorism, economic development and fight against corruption. This paper explores the centrality of the fight against terrorism and economic development to the foreign policy of Nigeria under President Buhari. The paper utilized secondary data such as a journal, books, newspaper among others. The paper found out that the foreign policy objectives and diplomatic trips of the President since coming to office in 2015 are related to the two issues stated therein. These are evident in the president diplomatic shuttle to it immediate neighbors of Niger, Chad and Cameroon to build a sub-regional task force to combat terrorism, there were also improved ties to the United States to boost military and trade relations. Key among his foreign policy of economic development was the renewed ties with China and signing of many business deals totaling about $6 billion for infrastructural and by extension economic development in Nigeria. The paper concludes that President Buhari has been able to make considerable progress in the fight against terrorism and economic development since the President made it a cardinal objective of his administration foreign policy.
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This paper bears out of a documentary assessment of the prime motivations for the speedy enforcement of United Nations' Resolution 1973 and consequent enforcement of the " responsibility to protect " (R2P) norm on Libya. The study discovers that the intervention was not driven by humanitarian concerns, but was impelled by the national interests, geo-strategic considerations of the intervening nations especially the United States and France. Hence, the intervention though seemingly genuine was a vindictive attempt at regime change especially in the light of its selective character as some other actors guilty of grave human rights abuses of which the Qathafi regime was accused were selectively left out. The study further highlights the flagrant abuse of the Resolution 1973 in the marginalisation of the humanitarian component of the mission, as well as the prolongation of the assault within which infantry and massive armed support were offered to the rebels all of which veritably impacts on the future application of the R2P norm. The study thus submits that realist " self-help " factors were of primary significance in the intervention and recommends that military units belonging to hegemonic powers; in particular, the United States, France and Britain must not be allowed to participate in future interventions in the light of the chaotic aftermath of previous interventions as evident in Iraq and Libya to mention but two.
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Abstract: Following the disputed December 2016 presidential elections in The Gambia, ECOWAS managed to “restore democracy” in the country by using the threat of force, but without any use of direct physical violence. Both the African Union and the United Nations Security Council backed ECOWAS, which also gave ECOWAS legitimacy, for what was essentially ECOWAS’s policy, and indeed an African solution to African problems. Only when the scenario of military invasion became credible did the Gam- bian regime accept the defeat. Four main factors explain the behaviour of ECOWAS and its success: ECOWAS had a clear legal mandate to threaten the use of force in order to protect democracy in one of its member states; there was consensus that ECOWAS forces could have coped with the relatively small Gambian army; the Gambian president could not rely on friends among his regional peers or some powerful ally from outside Af- rica; and regional leaders such as Nigeria and Senegal made a credible commitment to the regional intervention. While the intervention was a victory for pro-democratic activist regionalism, the specific West African conditions make a diffusion of the model to other parts of Africa unlikely.
Terrorist activities in the Lake Chad Basin region of Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon, have impacted negatively on the security, socio-political and economic situations in the region. This paper investigates the evolution of insurgency and the factors leading to its growth in the region. It also examines its socio-political, economic and security implications. Nigeria, in the centre of the imbroglio, has had no respite from terrorist activities for a long time. Boko Haram has carried out many gun attacks and bombings in many strategic places, including the United Nations building in Abuja, the federal capital city. There have been similar attacks in Cameroon, Chad and Niger, including a massive attack in Bosso in the Niger Republic with 26 soldiers killed in 2016. This article concludes that the wave of terrorism in the subregion has a connection to the wave of global terrorism. To stem the tide of insurgency in the subregion, this paper recommends that governments at all levels should create enabling environment for investment and industrial growth. It also suggests that security of lives and properties should be given utmost priority. This paper examines the evolution, manifestations, and course of the Boko Haram insurgency in the subregion, exploring the implications for national and international security, socioeconomic order, political stability, and sustainable development of the area. It will suggest ways to curtail the Boko Haram insurgency and probable future insurgencies in the subregion.
EDITOR’S PREFACE: Elli Lieberman’s Reconceptualizing Deterrence is a wideranging study of deterrence in the Middle East over the past seven decades. For the JCWS, Lieberman’s analysis of how deterrence worked (and did notwork) in the Middle East during the Cold War is of particular relevance. We asked three leading experts on conventional and nuclear deterrence—George H. Quester, Patrick M. Morgan, and Jeffrey S. Lantis—to provide short commentaries on this and other aspects of the book. Their commentaries are published here seriatim along with a reply by Lieberman.
One of the campaign promises of President Muhammadu Buhari was that he would eliminate Boko Haram six months after assumption of office. By December 2015, the Buhari-led government gave itself a pass mark for countering the terrorists. The government declared that the group had been ‘technically defeated’. This declaration has led to debates in the public space as to the veracity of this claim. This article aims to critically appraise the on-going attempt to eliminate the Boko Haram threat under the Buhari administration. The author questions whether we can actually conclude that the anti-Boko Haram war has really been won. The article analytically demonstrates that Boko Haram continues to pose a threat to Nigeria and the West African sub-region, contrary to claims that it has been defeated.
In the twenty-first century, Africa has become an important source of US energy imports and the world's natural resources. It has also become the epicentre of the world's deadly health epidemic, HIV/AIDS, and one of the battlegrounds in the fight against terrorism. Africa is now a major player in global affairs.