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A discourse on the Persian Chahar-Bagh as an Islamic garden


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The ancient garden plan, the Chahar-Bagh, was originally put onto ground for the purpose of organizing garden in an arid landscape of Persia besides a symbol of political territory. This quadripartite plan of garden was found as early as 600 BC during Achaemenid era. Therefore, claims made in various scholarships that referred Chahar-Bagh as an Islamic garden basic pattern is apparently deceiving the true meaning of Islam, which came into the world in seventh century. The method of content analysis and library search that emphasized on the theories and principles of Persian garden have been adopted in this study. To conclude, Chahar-Bagh pattern preceded Islam therefore, assigning it as the basic pattern of Islamic garden planning and design is irrelevant.
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1 Researcher at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Email:
Journal of the Malaysian Institute of Planners
VOLUME 15 ISSUE 3 (2017), Page 123 134
Zainab Abdul Latiff1, Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos2, & Maheran Mohd Yaman3
1,2 Faculty of Design and Architecture
3Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design
The ancient garden plan, the Chahār-Bāgh, was originally put onto ground
for the purpose of organizing garden in an arid landscape of Persia besides
a symbol of political territory. This quadripartite plan of garden was found
as early as 600 BC during Achaemenid era. Therefore, claims made in
various scholarships that referred Chahār-Bāgh as an Islamic garden basic
pattern is apparently deceiving the true meaning of Islam, which came into
the world in seventh century. The method of content analysis and library
search that emphasized on the theories and principles of Persian garden
have been adopted in this study. To conclude, Chahār-Bāgh pattern
preceded Islam therefore, assigning it as the basic pattern of Islamic garden
planning and design is irrelevant.
Keyword: Persian garden, Chahār-Bāgh, Islamic garden, contemporary garden,
planning and design
Date Received: 1st November 2016
Date of Acceptance: 21st October 2017
Zainab Abdul Latiff, Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos, & Maheran Mohd Yaman
A Discourse on the Persian Chahār-Bāgh as an Islamic Garden
© 2017 by MIP
Most of Iran is predominantly located at an altitude of more than one thousand
metres (The Board of Persian, 2010; Kohi, 2012). Strategically located, Iran was
in contact with and absorbed a variety of cultural influences from Achaemenids
and the Sassanian dynasty from Fars that once ruled the country. Conversion to
Islam followed the Arab conquest in the 7th century, and the country was
subsequently ruled by Abbasids, Seljuks, Mongols and Timurids (Kohi, 2012). Its
major area is located in the eastern Mediterranean with desert-like climate
(English, 1968; Khosravi, 2014) that hinders tree planting, thus gardens were
regarded as a supreme value (Turner, 2005). Though Persia was dominated by
various foreign rulers, its garden survived and was adopted by successive
invaders, hence the tradition became diffused throughout the world (Mahdizadeh,
Iran’s Persian gardens have become known as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The gardens include nine gardens in the province (Wilber, 1962). “They
exemplify the diversity of Persian garden designs that adapted to different climate
conditions while retaining principles that have their roots in the times of Cyrus
the Great in the 6th century BC(Wilber, 1962).
The tradition of constructing gardens and designing open-air spaces in
Iran has a long history (Asif et al., 2015; Hensel & Gharleghi, 2012; Rostami et
al., 2014; Shakiba & Kamali, 2012). It may date back as far as 4000 BCE
(Daneshdoust, 1986; English, 1968), the decorated pottery of that time displays
the typical cross plan of the Persian garden that was constructed in Mesopotamia.
“It was once believed that the Achaemenids modelled their gardens after those of
Mesopotamia” (Shakiba & Kamali, 2012).
The physical pottery evidence shows the world represented by a plaque
or bowl-appears symmetrically divided into four zones by two axes forming a
cross; at the point of intersection a pool is depicted as the focal point of the world
(Daneshdoust, 1986; Farroukh, n.d.) This plan was found in the Sassanian period
(AD 224-641) in the hunting park (Turner, 2005). The concept of privacy is the
most important concept of Persian gardens (Behbahani, Irani & Khosravi, 2006).
Several methods of garden designing have existed both in the ancient Egyptian
and Mesopotamian civilization under the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562
BC) (Seddigh, Karimiazari & Ghanaati, 2014). The influence of Maghreb and
Mesopotamian (Ibn Balkhi, 1921) gardening techniques and concepts in the
renowned ‘Hanging Gardensof Babylon is furthermore evident in the culture of
Persia (Seddigh, Karimiazari & Ghanaati, 2014) due to the near vicinity of the
two civilizations and the geographical similarities between the three civilizations
of Persia, Maghreb and Mesopotamia (English, 1968).
The Iranian garden, as a faultless structure, has been always
Journal of the Malaysia Institute of Planners (2017)
© 2017 by MIP
demonstrated a close relationship between its cultural and natural basis (Asif et
al., 2015; Daneshdoust,1986; Koshravi, 2014; Ruggles; 2008). This tradition of
respecting the environment of trees and green areas was continued by the
Achaemenid (550-330 BCE), the first Persian empire, and continued in the
Parthian and Sassanid eras. Consequently, the Achaemenian became the novice
in actualizing the concept of four-garden or Chahār-Bāgh (Seddigh, Karimiazari
& Ghanaati, 2014) and the innovation of dry-land irrigation called ‘qanat’.
The concept of fourfold-garden or Chahār-Bāgh started in the
Achaemenid era when Cyrus the Great (6th century BC) built a royal city (Asif
et al., 2015; Lehrman,1980; Lincoln, 2003). Pasargadae with a rectangular garden
bed opposite the throne hall with symmetric streets and trees (Ibn Balkhi,1921).
Cyrus the Great has undoubtedly employed methods inherited from Assyria and
Babylon in order to deliver political messages through the architecture of Royal
Gardens (English, 1968). This fourfold-garden became a quintessential structure
through many centuries of later Persian garden design. This form of Chahār-Bāgh
was also introduced into India in the 16th century by the first Mughal emperor,
Babur (Mahdizadeh, 2015).
Pasargadae was the place where the “Persian Gardens were formed
(Mahdizadeh, 2015). Persian gardens usually made use of pools and axial canals
and especially pavilions. In the royal garden of Pasargadae which appears to have
been divided into four equal plots by a watercourse and a path, later became
known as a Chahār-Bāgh may have contributed further to the design of earthly
garden crossed by canals to imitate four rivers in the paradise (Bennis, 2006).
Figure 1 The Chahār-Bāgh water system in Islamic gardens
This is also the point where the application of symmetry, the Chahār-
Bāgh and use of defining water courses, avenues, and the closure of vistas,
terraces and kiosks originated (Kohi, 2012). “In Chahār-Bāghs, terraces
symbolize the cosmic mountains, the creation of the edifice or throne at the
Zainab Abdul Latiff, Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos, & Maheran Mohd Yaman
A Discourse on the Persian Chahār-Bāgh as an Islamic Garden
© 2017 by MIP
highest level represents the position of God. A great pool is placed in front of the
edifice representing the cosmic ocean as the source of allwaters which can irrigate
the whole garden. Thepresence of trees, flowers and animals around theedifice
complement the figure of the universe(Farahani, Motamed & Jamei, 2016). The
gardens of the ancient world lived on in various forms and were sources of
motivation for other cultures in the centuries after the end of antiquity and later,
been found in Achaemenid dwellings and Parthian and Sassanian palaces
(Khademi, Kabiri & Khan, 2013; Pour, Rad & Pishe, 2012; Shakiba & Kamali,
2012). The classical Persian Chahār-Bāgh layout was found in the ancient royal
garden of Achaemenid, the Pasargadae (Mahdizadeh & Sara, 2015), as one of the
oldest example of fourfold prestigious garden (Pour, Rad & Pishe, 2012). “This
classical layout of thegarden is the ideal model of the blissful paradise, a garden
of perpetual spring, promised as a reward in the afterlife(Mahdizadeh, 2015).
Thisquadripartite (Chahār-Bāgh or four-part plan) layout is found on the land of
Pasargadae, which further defines the plan of a rectilinear orchard, with pavilions
that open through loggias on four sides (Shakiba & Kamali, 2012). The walled
orchard, water channels, basins, fruits and shady trees, pavilions, baths and
towers certainly lead us to conclude that there was some continuity in the idea of
a garden through the centuries. It is necessary to define the features of the royal
garden type in each period in order to retrace its evolution (Alemi, 1997). As a
consequence, the concept of a walled, quadripartite garden containing a pavilion
was established (Stronach, 1994).
Figure 2 The plan of the Royal City of Pasargadae (Koshravi, 2014) (left) has
become the basic pattern of Persian gardens (Halsted, 2014) (right)
The enclosed Persian garden became the prototype for the Islamic garden
and the gardens of Mughal India. When adopted by nature loving nomadic central
Asians, the gardens became royal encampments (Mahdizadeh, 2003). There is a
consensus among scholars that the Chahār-Bāgh is a rectangular walled garden
Journal of the Malaysia Institute of Planners (2017)
© 2017 by MIP
layout, crossed by two main walkways (Rostami et al., 2014) or streams lined
with trees and plants on their banks, intersecting at right angles (Pour, Rad &
Pishe, 2012) with a kiosk or pavilion and a square basin (Kohi, 2014; Pour, Rad
& Pishe, 2012), open to four views at the cross section which eventually a four-
part garden is created (Rostami et al., 2014). Its major components are the kiosk,
alleys, waterways, pools and planted parterres (Habashi, 2000). “It is planted with
tall cypresses cast shade over most of the garden, and grass grows in place of the
shrub. Roses pomegranates, jasmine, lilac and spring flowering bulbs are grown
originally(Kohi, 2014). There are four plots each with a single species of fruit
tree and planted round with clover. Meanwhile, cucumbers and mulberries are
planted around the base of the pavilion, apples on its south side where they are
shaded by the south wall of the garden and vines on its north side where they are
sheltered from the wind (Pour, Rad & Pishe, 2012).
The Chahār-Bāgh appears just like a simple manual for gardeners, as a
good way of mapping out land in order to obtain an ideal garden (Habashi, 2000).
“The Chahār-Bāgh is a symbol of political territory, to organize gardens, highly
structured geometrical scheme. Historians believed that the term Chahār-Bāgh
referred literally to a garden divided into four parts, or a multiple of four. There
is no evidence to assign an Islamic identity to this garden type because the
concept of quadripartite planning preceded Islam; versions of it appeared in both
Mediterranean and Persian history”.
The Chahār-Bāgh concept blended into Islamic gardens design through
the Arabs conquest in Persia in 651. They applied Persian garden tradition at their
earliest capitals at Baghdad and Samarra in the 8th and 9th centuries (Asif et al.,
2015).“This quadripartite order of Pasargadae gardens has been transferred to
Timurid gardens in Samarkand, gardens that were created and shaped in India
during Mongol empire and Andalusian gardens in Spain(Asif et al., 2015).
Another factor is due to the incorporation of Mesopotamian and Persian tradition
into the Islamic world thus the concept being carried to Syria, Egypt, Maghribi
(Pour, Rad & Pishe, 2012). Spain and Kashmir (Rostami et al., 2014). Later, the
Mongol empire (l286 - l353) conquest Persia then carried the Persian garden
tradition to their empire to India. Accordingly, Babur introduced the Persian
Garden to India in Ram Bagh garden in Agra consequently to Taj Mahal (English,
1968). The second achievement is the innovation of qanats (Tajaddini, 2011),
which became one of the most important methods of dryland irrigation during the
pre-Islamic era constructed by the Achaemenid. Qanats are gently sloping tunnels
dug nearly horizontally into an alluvial fan until the water table is pierced. Once
constructed, ground water filters into the channel, runs down its gentle slope, and
emerges at the surface as a stream (Dickie, 1976; The Board of Persian Garden,
2010; Turner, 2005). These tunnel-wells that consist of a series of wells linked up
at a considerable distance (Wescoat, 1999) are widely used in the deserts for
Zainab Abdul Latiff, Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos, & Maheran Mohd Yaman
A Discourse on the Persian Chahār-Bāgh as an Islamic Garden
© 2017 by MIP
several causes. First, qanats require no power source other than gravity to
maintain flow. Second, water can be moved substantial distances in these
underground conduits with least evaporation losses and little danger of pollution.
Third, the flow of water in qanats is balanced to the available supply in the
aquifer, and, if properly maintained, these infiltration channels yield a dependable
supply of water for centuries (Dickie, 1976; Koshravi, 2014). Most of the times,
these underground networks were constructed before building the actual physical
structure of the cities and gardens and are widely used even in modern gardening
styles (Khademi, Kabiri & Khan 2013; Khosravi, 2014).
Later, during the reign of Sassanids (3rd to 7th century CE), under the
influence of Zoroastrianism, four element theory preceded. The theory was
founded by Zarathustra (600-583) or also known as Zoroaster by the Greeks
(Faghih & Sadeghy, 2012). Zoroastrianism was the religion of pre-Islamic Persia
(The Board of the Persian, 2010). The religion set a high value for nature
especially admiring and respecting the water, its mythical role has had a great
influence on palace-gardens of this era. Most of the gardens in this era were
founded next to springs and ponds. The figure square and number four are
considered as holy. The number four shows four cardinal points (North, south,
East, and west), mankind’s special body features (front, back, left, and right), four
basic existence elements (water, wind, soil and fire) (Akhgar & Soheilipour,
2010; Ibn Balkhi, 1921), the year seasons (spring, summer, autumn, and winter)
and the number of square sides and angles. Square is also a figure having
symmetry, balance, and equilibrium (Ibn Balkhi, 1921).
Zoroastrianism remained one of the most influential in the Middle East
until the advent of Islam. Its followers praised trees, plants, flowers and rivers as
blessed elements and they are strongly encouraged to paint and cultivate.
Meanwhile, the wind, stars, the moon, the sun, springs, rivers, lands and plants
are called holy creatures. Water, fire and plants are elements to be worshipped.
They worship the goods and best waters (Lincoln, 2003).
During the Sasanid era, gardening and garden-making have grown and
developed widely. Sasanian kings preferred to construct and built their own
palaces in a place that was dominated by big pools that were filled with natural
springs and fountains. Probably these natural pools and ponds have inspired the
pools in the Islamic gardens. Geometrical variety is the most distinctive
characteristic of the gardens of this age and the axial, central and quadripartite
order and organization have been improved during this era.
Later the invasion of large parts of the Sassanid and Byzantine empires
by recently converted Muslim Arabs after the seventh century CE resulted in the
diffusion of the concept of the Persian garden in the Middle East. While the
tradition of hunting parks declined after the advent of Islam, the design of
pleasure gardens, which represented the Qur'anic paradise, was pursued by both
the political authorities and the wealthy. During this period, the underground
Journal of the Malaysia Institute of Planners (2017)
© 2017 by MIP
irrigation system of qanat allowed the construction of gardens in remote areas
despite climatic difficulties (Faghih & Sadeghy, 2012).
The main objective of the study is to revisit the assignment of Chahār-Bāgh plan
as an Islamic garden design pattern whereas the plan was long adopted in the past,
in the organization of agricultural land of ancient Mesopotamia, Achaemenid and
The following methods have been carried out in this study:
1. A close examination on written documents and plans of Pasargadae and
Chahār-Bāgh; and
2. Constant comparison analysis (Onwuegbuzie, Nancy & Kathleen, 2012)
on the physical features of Persian garden by grouping the texts to codes,
then themes to become the key points to be discussed in each paragraph
in the article.
Among the terms referred to garden by the Persians are rose garden (bustan,
bostan, gulistan), flower gardens (Gulshan and Gulzar), pleasure ground
(gulghasht), flower bed (gulkari), a nosegay (guldasta), garden of tulips (lalehzar)
and the most common one is bagh. Due to a great interest in gardening among the
Persians, they named their garden as ‘pearadeasa’, which mean ‘surrounding the
fort (building)’, or, as they called it, ‘dis’. The word ‘dismeans building, and the
person who constructed it is known as ‘disa’. The Persian word ‘pairidaezawas
derived from pairi (around) and daeza (wall), which means ‘enclosed space
(Subtelny, 1997) or accumulating and fencing, which on the whole means
planting trees and flowers around the building as described by Dehkhoda. This
term, ‘pairidaezais what Cyrus the Great called his garden (Ruggles, 2008) and
it has been applied twice in the Zoroaster’s religious book (Ibn Balkhi, 1921).
Persian gardens are always behind a wall (Chardin, 1335; Ibn Balkhi,
1921; Khademi, Kabiri & Khan, 2013), that is made up of clay, to mark the
garden’s boundary and as a border between the dry land outside and shady and
cooling area inside (English, 1968). This wall made with no ornaments so as to
create both a resting place and a secured place (Chardin, 1335; Ibn Balkhi, 1921).
The walls also can be simple or carved and decorated producing a private place
for relaxation and also serves as a safety protection. Wall in itself gives out a
mystery and the symbol of the third dimension of the space, the wall is considered
as a living spatial thing. It is a man-made ecological environment, especially its
water and terrain element. Persian garden isusually referred to as having a
quadripartite layout to maximize and highlight the role of geometry in the garden.
Zainab Abdul Latiff, Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos, & Maheran Mohd Yaman
A Discourse on the Persian Chahār-Bāgh as an Islamic Garden
© 2017 by MIP
What is actually meant by symmetry in Persian gardens, however, is visual
symmetry in the position and viewpoint of the onlooker from certain spots of the
place in the garden (Pinder-Wilson, 1976; Titley, 1979).
A Persian garden always employs the concept of order and symmetry,
owns the respect and privacy, lacks the uselessness and extremism, and is suitable
for economy and resistance (Ruggles, 2008). Straight lines were used to design
the garden to reduce water wastages, while at the same time divided the garden
into geometrical shapes (Chardin, 1335; Stronach, 1989) of four parts, which
were mostly square, or square-like rectangles that were divided into four other
squares. This division continues according to the total area of the land (Chardin,
1335; Ibn Balkhi, 1921).
Persian garden is linked with water as the main source of life and
abundance (Lincoln, 2003). Due to the process of irrigation, which is directly
dependent on the land type, gardens were usually constructed on a steep hill with
a natural slope so that natural flux could therefore create natural waterfalls
(Stronach, 1989). The irrigating system of Chahār-Bāgh was used so that water
comes again from the upper level to the lower one and gardener irrigates
respectively each one of the four pieces by building temporary dams (Chardin,
1335; Ibn Balkhi, 1921). Water was used for irrigation and ornamentation
(Khademi, Kabiri & Khan, 2013). Drowning was another irrigation scheme
where all plants of a certain patch were watered by drowning of its whole area.
For ornamentation purpose, centrally-placed pools (Kohi, 2012), fountains and
waterways were used. Rounded pools, which later were replaced by square or
rectangular shape or basins, which were sometimes shallower, were placed
opposite of the garden (Stronach, 1989). From the pool, clearly defined canals
stretched out along the garden’s length, and often across it (Kohi, 2012).
There was also a big pond in the middle of each garden and there was a
water map that run in the middle of the complex into a large pond with water view
or at least a fountain, whose floors have been covered with white stones
(sometimes carved to make the attractive noise of water movement possible), or
glazed turquoise tiles (Chardin, 1335; Ibn Balkhi, 1921). The main waterways
were lined by shady trees to maximize the functionality of water in both
mythological and ornamental, besides cooling and moistening the air. Waterfalls
and fountains were made wherever the natural slope allowed (Chardin, 1335; Ibn
Balkhi, 1921; Subtelny, 1997) in order to produce a more interesting watercourse
so that staircase could be built in the middle for the water crossing for a
pleasurable sound (Chardin, 1335; Ibn Balkhi, 1921). Water features worked to
increase the evaporation, and consequently to make the garden cooler and more
Short plants were planted in half waterways; the agricultural fruit gardens
were formed in geometrical separation. Evergreen and long acarpous trees were
planted based on their medicinal, food and other similar qualities along with
Journal of the Malaysia Institute of Planners (2017)
© 2017 by MIP
aesthetic factors were considered (Hensel & Gharleghi, 2012). The plants were
coordinated with water resources to make shadows and shades as much as
possible (Moynihan,1980). Fruit trees were more common due to their
usefulness. Every part of the garden was allocated to one type of fruit and good
smelling flowers such as rose and damask roses were planted beside the water
paths (Kohi, 2012; Shakiba & Kamali, 2012).
Vegetation includes a range of trees (Chardin, 1335; Ibn Balkhi, 1921;
Khademi, Kabiri & Khan, 2013) and other plants of diverse types and functions,
with or without flowers and lawn. Trees were planted according to its medicinal,
food, aestheticism or any other purposeful causes (Carroll, 2003), which mainly
were of three types; evergreens such as cedar, deciduous such as pine, and fruit
trees (Halsted, 2014; Ibn Balkhi, 1921). Trees provided shades (Chardin, 1335;
Ibn Balkhi, 1921; Khademi, Kabiri & Khan, 2013) to this arid and rainless climate
to make the environment pleasant, and protected it from the intense sunlight.
More fruit trees were planted in direct lines as the area of the land increases.
Irrigating the trees was done by brooks and regular streams which prevented
wastage of water. Because of this, most of the Persian gardens were of the same
shape including a square (Arianpoor, 1365).
The soothing sound was created by the trickling water of fountains and
the song of birds, as well as by conversation and song accompanied by stringed
instruments (Kohi, 2012). Also present were small buildings, castles, pavilions,
kiosk and other structures (Chardin, 1335; Ibn Balkhi, 1921). The garden offered
passer-bys a series of spaces ideally suited for solitary meditation, while pleasing
the senses. It offered the warmth of the sun and the freshness of its shade, the
whispering of breezes in the leaves and the murmur of running water in the
channels, the song of birds, the perfume of flowers, and the bursts of colour
(Subtelny, 1997).
This article presented the origin of the ancient Persian garden’s plan, the Chahār-
Bāgh which was highly influenced by Zoroastrianism, and how it has influenced
the Persian and Mughal gardens in later periods. It is also evident that the plan
has been alleged as an Islamic garden layout plan that emulates the description of
the paradise in the Qur’an. However, the Chāhār Bāgh was an irrigation plan that
had already been used to irrigate Achaemenid gardens that had existed long
before Islam. Since interpretations are unavoidable, therefore, contemporary
Islamic garden design should cater the current needs and culture of local Muslim
society and address the climate change, rather than imitating quadripartite plan in
the garden’s planning and design.
Zainab Abdul Latiff, Mohd Yazid Mohd Yunos, & Maheran Mohd Yaman
A Discourse on the Persian Chahār-Bāgh as an Islamic Garden
© 2017 by MIP
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A Discourse on the Persian Chahār-Bāgh as an Islamic Garden
© 2017 by MIP
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... Persian Gardens have been the source of inspiration for many arts and design creations-from the micro to the macro level (Shahcheraghi 2010). Persian Gardens tried to replicate heaven on earth by telling a story through form and pattern and using conceptual and symbolic elements in the design (Shahcheraghi 2010;Latif, Mohd Yunos, and Yaman 2017). In fact, the word paradise in English is rooted in the Persian word "Pardis" which means garden (Khansari, Moghtader, and Yavari 2004). ...
... The point that is a two-axis cross-over is usually celebrated by a large pool or kiosk (kūshk) (Abbas, Nafisi, and Nafisi 2016). This created four divisions in the garden and then each of those might be divided into smaller sections based on the area (Latif, Mohd Yunos, and Yaman 2017). ...
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Two of the main elements of Persian tangible heritage are rugs and gardens, which have evolved together from the dawn of Iranian history. Emerging from the same system of thought and geographical location, together they represent the Persians’ world views, desires, dreams, and design paradigms. In this study, the Persian Garden’s patterns, elements, typology, and meanings are introduced and compared with the same aspects of Persian rugs. This paper uses a qualitative comparative methodology to analyze rugs’ designs and patterns in relation to Persian Gardens’ design principles. Data is collected primarily through library study and observation. The author uses two categories for comparison: meanings and forms. First, the author identifies underlying meanings common to the two art forms and then introduces form, function, and general principal patterns into the analysis. There is a type of rug pattern, known as Chahar-Bagh (literally, “four gardens”), that mirrors a garden design, down to the details, which is the focus of this paper. Additionally, other representations of Persian Gardens in rug design, such as Shekargah (“hunting pattern”), are discussed, as are other rug patterns with fewer elements borrowed from garden design. The paper also considers several motifs that represent flora common in gardening on the Iranian plateau, some of which have symbolic meanings dating to the Zoroastrian era. By comparing these two mediums of art (garden and rug) in the context of Persian history and geography, it becomes clear that the Persian rug design, in its roots, is an attempt to bring a garden into interior space. The study shows that the forms, patterns, and meanings reflected in Persian rugs render the study of their designs incomplete without considering the history of gardens.
... Such a form of sus tainability indicates a close relationship between civilization and nature, and a deep correlation between this element and other aspects of Iranian culture. (Abdul Latiff et al., 2017) In particular, this is due to the gardening s tyle that has continued after the arrival of Islam to Iran (Barati, 2011). This is while the park pattern as a new imported design has not become a semantic-shaped package containing his torical signs among the Iranians. ...
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ABS TRACT: Due to the thousands of years of Persian garden his tory, it has taken an indigenous color and aroma and its components have formed according to the needs that have exis ted over time; whereas the park suddenly entered Iran to induce modernism in the Qajar period. For this reason, its features don't fit the circums tances of Iran and ins tead fit with its territorial characteris tics. A solely his torical attitude to the Persian garden has led to the exclusion of this space from the process of regeneration and adaptation to recent needs. On the other hand, in the 50 years since the park's emergence in Iran, some of its features have harmonized with the context. Accordingly, the research ques tion is: following the characteris tics of urban public spaces, which patterns of green space-Persian garden or park-might be more adaptable to the Iranian context. Several experts' opinions were used to respond to the research ques tion. The criteria for reviewing were selected from the project for public spaces and the results of the ques tionnaires were analyzed in the form of the hierarchical analysis process method and were adapted to the theoretical background. Although regarding some of the use and activity criteria, the park has more adaptability as a public urban space in Iran, in terms of access and linkage, comfort and image as well as overall measurements, the garden is more adaptable than the park.
Conference Paper
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Nowadays sustainability is well known ethic that influenced all of our life aspects. Landscape has powerful connection with environment therefore it may have more influence on it. Sustainability is one of main concepts that formed Persian gardens. One of the reasons that makes Persian garden`s concept fallowed in more than 2000 years is sustainability. Therefore, Persian garden concept even in contemporary Persian life and passing through different periods of times does not change comprehensively. Diverse collection of Persian gardens is inherited. This pattern of garden designing is determining especial cultural and historical background. One of the important principles of the historical landscape designs, which affected many regions through the Silk Road was Persian garden. This makes better understanding of Persian garden very important. These especial places contain their own identity and social behavior. Hence, understanding the sustainability factors in the Persian gardens by modeling in accordance with contemporary paradigms can be beneficial to achieve sustainable development. First, the principles and aspects of sustainability in landscapes will be mentioned for better understanding of Persian gardens, and then some evidence of it in traditional Persian gardens will be described.
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Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings intertwined with it. In this sense, the architecture and design are the interface for transferring meaning and identity to the nation and future generations. Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society. This paper aims to investigate the patterns of design and architecture in Persian gardens and the meanings intertwined with their patterns and significant elements such as water and trees. Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society. This paper seeks to explore Persian gardens in terms of their geometric structure, irrigation system, network construction and pavilions alongside design qualities such as hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony. In the second stage, the paper investigates the fundamental symbols and their philosophy in the creation of Persian gardens and in relation to the architecture and design.
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The term Islamic garden has been defined in various ways considering different aspects and values. These definitions draw a broader perspective to Islamic garden, a key feature of Islamic civilization throughout the history. This paper aims to analyze these views and compare them in order to reach toward a holistic definition for Islamic garden- its origin, evolution, principles and essence. Also searching for a way to revitalize the original essence and application of Islamic gardens in the contemporary societies are discussed in a brief way.
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In the wide territory of Iran, there are gardens that are considered as valuable examples, from the point of view of art and architecture and popularized Iranian landscape design in other countries and especially in Islamic ones. About the Iranian garden, which is a proverb of heaven and effort to reach ideal heaven in this word, there are a lot of written. Among it, the effect of shape geometrical structural, in the general form and shape of Iranian gardens, it represented distinguish. Iran, as a hot and dry country suffers from the lack of water supplies for plantation coverage. It seems really important to have gardens made due to its significant importance in Iranians’ art. Considering documents and variety of studies done in libraries. This paper studies the qualities of persian gardens. The results show that in order to make a antique persian garden, we are in need of some elements like soil, water, plants and layout. Here, we have fully studied Bagh-e Shahzadeh Mahan (Mahan prince garden) as a typical case.
Iranians' imagination of heaven, which is the reward of a person's good deeds during their life, has shown itself in pleasant and green gardens where earthly gardens were made as representations of paradise. Iranians are also quite interested in making their earthly gardens and plantations around their buildings. With Iran's hot and dry climate with a lack of sufficient water for plantation coverage, it becomes noticeable how important it is to Iranians' art in making gardens. This study, with regard to examples, documents and library studies, investigates the characteristics of Persian gardens. The result shows that elements such as soil, water, plants and layout have been used in forming a unique style of Persian gardens. Bagh-e Shah Zadeh Mahan (Mahan prince garden) is a typical example and has been carefully studied. In this paper I try to investigate and evaluate the characteristics of a Persian garden by means of a descriptive approach.
"In the course of my research," writes D. Fairchild Ruggles, "I devoured Arabic agricultural manuals from the tenth through the fourteenth centuries. I love gardening, and in these texts I was able to enter the minds of agriculturalists and botanists of a thousand years ago who likewise believed it was important and interesting to record all the known ways of propagating olive trees, the various uses of rosemary, and how best to fertilize a garden bed." Western admirers have long seen the Islamic garden as an earthly reflection of the paradise said to await the faithful. However, such simplification, Ruggles contends, denies the sophistication and diversity of the art form. Islamic Gardens and Landscapes immerses the reader in the world of the architects of the great gardens of the Islamic world, from medieval Morocco to contemporary India. Just as Islamic culture is historically dense, sophisticated, and complex, so too is the history of its built landscapes. Islamic gardens began from the practical need to organize the surrounding space of human civilization, tame nature, enhance the earth's yield, and create a legible map on which to distribute natural resources. Ruggles follows the evolution of these early farming efforts to their aristocratic apex in famous formal gardens of the Alhambra in Spain and the Taj Mahal in Agra. Whether in a humble city home or a royal courtyard, the garden has several defining characteristics, which Ruggles discusses. Most notable is an enclosed space divided into four equal parts surrounding a central design element. The traditional Islamic garden is inwardly focused, usually surrounded by buildings or in the form of a courtyard. Water provides a counterpoint to the portioned green sections. Ranging across poetry, court documents, agronomy manuals, and early garden representations, and richly illustrated with pictures and site plans, Islamic Gardens and Landscapes is a book of impressive scope sure to interest scholars and enthusiasts alike. Copyright