Increased interest in quantum mechanical theories of mind has been kindled by two recent books by Roger Penrose.
These books, The Emperor’s New Mind, and Shadows of the Mind, along with a paper by Hameroff and Penrose (1996), propose a quantum theory of consciousness that, like the present one,
is based on von Neumann’s formulation of quantum theory. But the Penrose–Hameroff
theory brings in ... [Show full abstract] some controversial ideas that are not used in the more direct application of orthodox quantum mechanics
described in this book.