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Abstract

A photo-taking-impairment effect has been observed such that participants are less likely to remember objects they photograph than objects they only observe. According to the offloading hypothesis, taking photos allows people to offload organic memory onto the camera's prosthetic memory, which they can rely upon to "remember" for them. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating whether participants perceived photo-taking as capable of serving as a form of offloading. In Experiment 1, participants used the ephemeral photo application Snapchat. In Experiment 2, participants manually deleted photos after taking them. In both experiments, participants exhibited a significant photo-taking-impairment effect even though they did not expect to have access to the photos. In fact, the effect was just as large as when participants believed they would have access to the photos. These results suggest that offloading may not be the sole, or even primary, mechanism for the photo-taking-impairment effect.

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... This has been termed the photo-taking-impairment effect (Henkel, 2014). More recent work suggests that this effect may not be solely due to the belief that the camera will do the 'remembering' for them; recently, the photo-taking-impairment effect was observed even when participants did not believe they would have access to photos later (Soares & Storm, 2017). The authors of this recent work suggest that engaging in photo-taking might disrupt the typical processing or encoding of object features (Soares & Storm, 2017), but more work is necessary to disentangle the consequences of engaging in offloading for processes related to initial encoding and for subsequent recall of information. ...
... More recent work suggests that this effect may not be solely due to the belief that the camera will do the 'remembering' for them; recently, the photo-taking-impairment effect was observed even when participants did not believe they would have access to photos later (Soares & Storm, 2017). The authors of this recent work suggest that engaging in photo-taking might disrupt the typical processing or encoding of object features (Soares & Storm, 2017), but more work is necessary to disentangle the consequences of engaging in offloading for processes related to initial encoding and for subsequent recall of information. ...
... Importantly, the size of the benefit that these populations might expect to obtain does not appear to be tied to overt memory performance. While there are certainly practical limitations to the utility of offloading as a strategy to improve performance of memory-based tasks, such as when one is unable to access the offloaded information (e.g., Soares & Storm, 2017), objective memory ability does not appear to fall into this category. This is notable given that other memory improvement strategies, such as working memory training, tend to be more effective in individuals with higher objective memory ability to start with (Wiemers, Redick, & Morrison, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive offloading refers to the act of reducing the mental processing requirements of a task through physical actions like writing down information or storing information on a cell phone or computer. Offloading can lead to improved performance on ongoing tasks with high cognitive demand, such as tasks where multiple pieces of information must be simultaneously maintained. However, less is known about why some individuals choose to engage in offloading and under what conditions they might choose to do so. In the present study, offloading behavior is investigated in a short-term memory task requiring memory for letters. The present study is a replication and extension of a previous study conducted by Risko and Dunn, and tests the new prediction that individuals with lower working memory capacity will be more likely to offload. Here, we find that offloading information confers a performance advantage over relying on internal memory stores, particularly at higher memory loads. However, we fail to observe that those with poorer memory abilities have a greater propensity for offloading or benefit more from it. Instead, our findings suggest that cognitive offloading may be a valid compensatory strategy to improve performance of memory-based tasks for individuals with a wide range of memory ability.
... And while no attempts have been made to replicate Studies 2, 3, or 4 of Sparrow et al. (2011), which were those that actually examined memory effects, other research testing memory has found mixed results. Soares and Storm (2018) expanded on the research on digital photography by comparing the memories of people who observed pictures from a museum on a computer screen; took photos with a cell phone; or took pictures in an ephemeral manner. In one study (Soares & Storm, 2018, Study 1), this involved taking photos with Snapchat and sending them to an account set up by an experimenter, at which point the photos would disappear from the participant's phone. ...
... Huang, Zheng, and Ward (2017) found that sharing information on social media led to diminished memories, and this was stronger when perceived to be sharing with a small audience rather than a large audience. This might explain why Soares and Storm (2018) found that taking ephemeral photos using Snapchat showed memory impairment. It is possible that taking the photos with Snapchat and sending them to an account set up by the experimenter could have led people to think that they were offloading the images onto the experimenter. ...
... However, the original literature on transactive memory (Brandon & Hollingshead, 2004;Wegner, 1987) saw it as one not just of directed forgetting but also one of directed remembering: when the cognitive division of labor called for it, people would remember information because they knew others did not have the subject expertise. Very little of the research looking at issues of how access to technology shapes memory has taken advantage of a control group (Soares & Storm, 2018 being a notable exception) to see what extent information persistence leads to forgetting and to what extent the information non-persistence leads to increased remembering. Thus, it is asked: ...
Article
This study examines “Google effects on memory” and “cognitive self-esteem” in the interpersonal contexts of Snapchat and text messaging, and looks at the relationship between the two concepts, given that both are derived from earlier research on transactive memory systems (originally an interpersonal domain). It was hypothesized that the permanence of text messages would impair memory relative to the ephemerality of Snaps, and these effects would be mediated by cognitive self-esteem such that information permanence would increase cognitive self-esteem, which in turn would impair memory. Using a laboratory experiment (n = 189) manipulating the channel (text messaging/Snapchat/control condition) from which people received images and facts about animals, there were no Google effects on memory, and cognitive self-esteem was positively related to memory. However, results indicated that when cognitive self-esteem and possible moderating effects of mobile application use were controlled for, both text messaging and Snapchat impaired some forms of memory relative to a control condition. Implications of the null and positive (counter-hypothesized) results are discussed in the context of other recent research, suggesting that Google effects may not be as robust as earlier studies may have proposed and/or memory impairment being due to increased cognitive load rather than cognitive offloading.
... Does taking a photograph of an item improve or impair memory? The research on this topic has produced a mixed picture, with some studies showing that storing information in the form of photographs impairs memory (Henkel, 2014;Soares & Storm, 2018a), and other studies showing improved memory for photographed information (Barasch, Diehl, Silverman, & Zauberman, 2017). This study attempted to reconcile the inconsistencies in the literature by testing the hypothesis that photographs may improve memory for some aspects of an experience and impair memory for other aspects. ...
... Research addressing this question has not yet arrived at a clear answer, with some studies reporting better memory for content that is photographed (Barasch et al., 2017), and others finding the opposite (Henkel, 2014;Soares & Storm, 2018a). Below, we briefly review the findings to date and report a series of experiments that attempt to more clearly understand the circumstances in which photographs may help and hurt memory. ...
... A recent study by Soares and Storm (2018a) found similar results using a laboratory version of Henkel's procedure. Participants photographed paintings shown on a computer screen using both the built-in camera application on a smartphone as well as Snapchat, a photo-sharing application that does not save the photographs to the device. ...
Article
Does taking a photograph of an item improve or impair memory? The literature is currently mixed, with some studies showing impairments and other studies showing improvements. The current study includes four experiments that tested the hypothesis that photographs may help memory when the test is perceptually driven but may hurt memory when the test is conceptually driven. The perceptually driven test involved identifying a target among visually similar items, and the conceptually driven test involved recognizing a concept that had been previously studied. Contrary to predictions, the results showed impairment both on perceptually driven and conceptually driven tests, which were found both after a short (20 min) and long (48 h) delay between encoding at test.
... Interestingly however, new research has found that having access to saved information about an event (e.g., via photographs or video) may actually have a negative effect on memory for that same event (Henkel 2014;Risko and Gilbert 2016;Sparrow et al. 2011) and that this "photo-taking impairment effect" could be due to cognitive offloading (Henkel 2014;Soares and Storm 2018). When we use recording devices in the physical environment (e.g., a camera, phone, or notepad) in an effort to change the processing requirements of a task (i.e., recording information to act as a cue for later recall), we are said to be "offloading" information to a prosthetic "memory" bank (Risko and Gilbert 2016;Soares and Storm 2018). ...
... Interestingly however, new research has found that having access to saved information about an event (e.g., via photographs or video) may actually have a negative effect on memory for that same event (Henkel 2014;Risko and Gilbert 2016;Sparrow et al. 2011) and that this "photo-taking impairment effect" could be due to cognitive offloading (Henkel 2014;Soares and Storm 2018). When we use recording devices in the physical environment (e.g., a camera, phone, or notepad) in an effort to change the processing requirements of a task (i.e., recording information to act as a cue for later recall), we are said to be "offloading" information to a prosthetic "memory" bank (Risko and Gilbert 2016;Soares and Storm 2018). Doing so can reduce cognitive load in the encoding environment, which theoretically "frees up resources" for other tasks, such as better communication, problem-solving, decision-making, and motor tasks. ...
... Likewise, a camera may signal that the information being captured is either unimportant and can be disregarded, or that it is being stored elsewhere. Soares and Storm (2018) argue that other processes, specifically attentional disengagement, may better explain the problematic recall for photographed objects. They conducted a within-subject study wherein participants took photos of a group of paintings with the messaging application Snapchat. 1 They also took photos of paintings that would not be deleted (i.e., with a regular camera). ...
Article
People are known to offload memory processing tasks to devices, such as cameras. We examined whether body-worn cameras (BWCs) are used in this way by police officers. Fifty officers responded to a simulated domestic dispute that resulted in lethal force. Half the sample was provided a BWC and told their footage would be available to assist with post-event recall, but it was later feigned that there was a technological issue. The remaining officers were not equipped with a BWC and thus were aware they would not have any footage to rely on. The amount, accuracy, and type of details reported by officers were coded and subjected to analysis. The results revealed that wearing a camera did not promote cognitive offloading in officers, suggesting that the training officers receive, or other factors that might be unique to policing, may mitigate an effect that has been observed in other contexts.
... Whereas present studies have focused predominantly on the effects of taking notes via writing versus typing on computers (e.g., Luo et al., 2018;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014; for a review, see Jansen et al., 2017), surprisingly little research has investigated the learning consequences of using one's smartphone to take photos of lecture materials. To date, the vast majority of research on phototaking and memory has been done in the context of museum or gallery tours when participants take photos of objects and experiences (e.g., Barasch et al., 2017;Henkel, 2014;Soares & Storm, 2018), but not in lecture or educational settings. Moreover, although the effects of smartphone usage on academic performance have been heavily investigated, extant studies have often focused on students' use of such devices for media multitasking (for reviews, see Chen & Yan, 2016;May & Elder, 2018) and purposes that are lectureunrelated (e.g., Wammes et al., 2019). ...
... Further support for this attentional account has been shored up by Soares and Storm's (2018) finding that the photo-taking impairment effect persists even when participants are given additional unimpeded time to view the objects after photographing them. Thus, participants' subsequent poorer memory for those objects cannot be simply attributed to reduced encoding time while using the camera (e.g., time spent angling the shot, focusing the camera lens, etc.). ...
... Rather, these results are consistent with the account that taking photos causes one's attention to be limited or disengaged when encoding an object or experience, thus impairing memory for it. In addition, this attentional disengagement persists even after taking a photo, whereby participants continue to encode the photographed objects more poorly than if they had simply observed them (Soares & Storm, 2018). Taken together, the extant findings suggest that: In the absence of additional measures that strongly direct attention to particular aspects of the object or experience-either through explicit instructions to zoom in (Henkel, 2014) or by having participants take photos volitionally and thus intentionally select some items to capture (Barasch et al., 2017)-photo-taking may, by default, encourage mind-wandering whereby attention drifts away from the task at hand. ...
Article
In two experiments (N = 200), we compared the effects of longhand note-taking, photographing lecture materials with a smartphone camera, and not taking any notes on video-recorded lecture learning. Experiment 1 revealed a longhand-superiority effect: Longhand note-takers outperformed photo-takers and control learners on a recall test, notwithstanding an equal opportunity to review their learning material right before being tested, and even when photo-takers and control participants reviewed an exact transcript of the lecture slides via their photos or printouts, whereas longhand note-takers accessed only a fraction of the content as captured in their handwritten notes. Photo-takers performed comparably to learners who had not taken any notes at all. Experiment 2 further showed that mind-wandering mediates the mnemonic benefits of longhand note-taking: Relative to learners who took photos or did not take any notes, longhand note-takers mind-wandered less and, in turn, demonstrated superior retention of the lecture content. Yet, across both experiments, learners were not cognizant of the advantages of longhand note-taking, but misjudged all three techniques to be equally effective. These findings point to key attentional differences between longhand note-taking and photo-taking that impact learning—knowledge that is easily and conveniently acquired in a snap may not be better remembered.
... Other research has documented instances where relying on external memory may prevent individuals from maintaining an internal representation of the information they are attempting to preserve (Henkel, 2014;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018). Henkel (2014) documented a photo-taking-impairment effect by which participants may be less likely to remember objects they photograph rather than objects they simply observe. ...
... Photography can be interpreted as a form of cognitive offloading, which allows individuals to rely on the external device to record information about the object, rather than storing it in the internal memory. This result has been recently replicated by Soares and Storm (2018), who found that participants exhibit a photo-taking-impairment effect even when they do not expect to have subsequent access to the photos. Converging support has been provided by a further study showing that media usage can impair memory (Tamir et al., 2018). ...
... The first aim of this study was to investigate the influence of earlier offloading on subsequent unaided memory ability. Some previous research has suggested that the act of cognitive offloading may have a detrimental effect on unaided memory for the specific memories that are offloaded (Henkel, 2014;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018). Other studies suggest that offloading memory to an external store can improve individuals' ability to encode and remember subsequently-presented information (Storm & Stone, 2015). ...
Article
The technological advancement that is rapidly taking place in today’s society allows increased opportunity for “cognitive offloading” by storing information in external devices rather than relying on internal memory. This opens the way to fundamental questions regarding the interplay between internal and external memory and the potential benefits and costs of placing information in the external environment. This article reports the results of three pre-registered online experiments investigating the consequences of prior cognitive offloading on A) subsequent unaided ability, and B) strategic decisions whether to engage in future cognitive offloading. We administered a web-based task requiring participants to remember delayed intentions for a brief period and manipulated the possibility of setting reminders to create an external cue. Earlier cognitive offloading had little effect upon individuals’ subsequent unaided ability, leading to a small and nonsignificant drop in subsequent performance. However, there was a strong effect on participants’ subsequent likelihood of setting reminders. These findings suggest that the short-term impact of cognitive offloading is more likely to be seen on individuals’ strategy choices rather than basic memory processes.
... The offloading explanation of the photo-taking impairment effect was directly tested in two studies using different methods to ensure that some subjects understood that their photos were gone and not safely offloaded elsewhere [17]. In one study, participants used Snapchat, an app where photos automatically disappear after a short period of time. ...
... If cognitive offloading drives the photo-taking impairment effect, memory should be less impaired when individuals knew their photos were gone forever. However, memory was impaired relative to the observation condition regardless of whether participants expected to have later access to the photos (standard camera condition) or not (Snapchat or manual deletion conditions) [17]. Converging results were obtained in a study where participants believed that their written accounts of an event would be erased (vs saved), offering further evidence against a cognitive offloading account [6]. ...
... Instead, these studies highlight how media usage imposes a cognitive load on the user. Although the form of the media did not matter (i.e., regular photos vs Snapchat photos), across studies memory was consistently lower with media use than without it [6,17,18]. Media use may distract and promote multitasking, ultimately impairing memory, regardless of the future accessibility of records. ...
Article
People externalize their autobiographical memories by creating representations that exist outside of their minds. Externalizations often serve personal and social functions, consistent with theorized functions of autobiographical memory. With new digital technologies, people are documenting more memories than ever and are sharing them with larger audiences. However, these technologies do not change the core cognitive processes involved in autobiographical memory, but instead present novel situations that affect how these processes are deployed. Smartphones allow events to be recorded as they unfold, thus directing attention and sometimes impairing memory. Social media increase the frequency of reviewing and sharing records which reactivate memories, potentially strengthening or updating them. Overall, externalization in the digital age changes what people attend to and remember about their own experiences.
... 1.4) that negates the need to form a personal memory. The validity of this explanation was explored in a recent set of laboratory experiments by Soares and Storm (2018). In their two experiments, Soares and Storm had participants view a computer-based slideshow featuring representations of fifteen figurative paintings, the artwork's titles and artists. ...
... One final point to note is that whilst taking photographs has been largely demonstrated to prompt a memory impairment effect, several studies have shown that participants actually believe the opposite. Following the memory test in their paired-participant study, Soares and Storm (2018) asked participants "What effect do you think taking a photo of an event has on your memory for it". Likewise Barasch et al. (2014) asked participants to report their subjective memory-how well they thought they remembered the exhibition or bus tour. ...
... Although much of the evidence is consistent with a cognitive offloading explanation, some results challenge the completeness of this interpretation. For example, whilst results from both Soares and Storm (2018) and Tamir et al. (2018) replicate Henkel's initial observation of a negative effect on memory triggered by the taking of photographs (Henkel 2014), the results of Soares and Storm showed that the negative effects persisted even when participants knew that the data would be unavailable to them after capture (e.g., because they were taking them with an ephemeral photo application). This appears to contradict the suggestion that the memory impairment is the result of cognitive offloading. ...
Chapter
The technology and tools that we develop have always been transformative, but the pace of change, particularly in the last few decades is undoubtedly altering humans in ways we don’t understand. As researchers look to develop novel prosthetics and tools to enhance our memories and extend cognition, further consideration is needed to understand how technologies can help (or, indeed, hinder) our inherent abilities. In this chapter, we identify two distinct forms of cognitive risk associated with current and emerging technologies: memory inhibition and memory distortion. We describe how lifelogging, search engines, social media, satnavs and other developments are prompting us to retain less information for ourselves (inhibition), and present three specific examples of this phenomenon: the Google effect, photo-taking-impairment and alterations in spatial memory attributed to satnav use. We further consider cases in which technology actually increases the likelihood of errors in what and how we remember (distortion), including doctored evidence effects, creation of false memories for current or historical affairs (“fake news”) and retrieval-induced forgetting. Finally, we provide an exploration of these cognitive vulnerabilities in the context of human memory augmentation, including the reporting of a mixed design experiment with 48 participants in which we demonstrate both retrieval-induced forgetting and false memory creation for real-world experiences.
... According to the cognitive offloading hypothesis, because photos "remember" the visual details of an experience, participants are thought to use the camera as a kind of transactive memory partner and strategically offload the task of remembering onto the camera. Contrary to this hypothesis, however, the photo-taking-impairment effect is observed even when photos are deleted immediately after being taken, either owing to the nature of the camera app (i.e., Snapchat), or to the instructions given to participants by the experimenter (Soares & Storm, 2018). Likewise, the photo-taking-impairment effect is not observed when participants use a body-worn automatic-capture camera (Niforatos, Cinel, Mack, Langheinrich, & Ward, 2017). ...
... According to this hypothesis, photo-taking may cause people to disengage from the experience they are photographing, thus leading them to encode the experience less effectively than they would have encoded it otherwise (Soares & Storm, 2018). ...
... Specifically, choosing what to photograph may help focus visual attention and enhance engagement. Studies in which participants are assigned to photograph particular objects (e.g., Henkel, 2014;Niforatos et al., 2017;Soares & Storm, 2018) may bypass the cognitive process of choosing what to photograph, and so, the benefits. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Digital technologies have changed the everyday use of human memory. When information is saved or made readily available online, there is less need to encode or maintain access to that information within the biological structures of memory. People increasingly depend on the Internet and various digital devices to learn and remember, but the implications and consequences of this dependence remain largely unknown. The present chapter provides an overview of research to date on memory in the digital age. It focuses in particular on issues related to transactive memory, cognitive offloading, photo taking, social media use, and learning in the classroom.
... Henkel found evidence of a photo-taking-impairment effect such that participants recalled, recognized, and correctly answered fewer questions about the objects they photographed (photo condition) relative to the objects they did not photograph (observe condition). The photo-takingimpairment effect has since been observed under various circumstances, including in participants using smartphones to take photos in a laboratory-controlled digital version of a gallery (Soares & Storm, 2018) and in participants tested using different styles of perceptual and conceptual recognition tests after both short (20-min) and long (48-hr) delays (Lurie & Westerman, 2021). ...
... The photo-taking-impairment effect could also occur because photo-taking causes qualitative attentional disengagement that goes beyond the dual-task costs of using a camera (Soares & Storm, 2018). Based on this account, the effects of taking multiple photos may depend on how people go about taking the photos. ...
... The order was randomized such that participants engaged in each of the three photo-taking behaviors throughout the session. This approach differs from prior lab-based studies in which participants were assigned to photo conditions in blocks (Lurie & Westerman, 2021;Soares & Storm, 2018). Counterbalancing across participants ensured that each painting was equally likely to appear in each of the three conditions. ...
Article
The photo-taking-impairment effect is observed when photographed information is less likely to be remembered than nonphotographed information. Three experiments examined whether this effect persists when multiple photos are taken. Experiment 1 used a within-subjects laboratory-based design in which participants viewed images of paintings and were instructed to photograph them once, five times, or not at all. Participants’ memory was measured using a visual detail test, and the photo-taking-impairment effect was observed when participants took multiple photos. Experiment 2 examined the photo-taking-impairment effect using a between-subjects design. Participants either photographed all of the paintings they saw once, five times, or not at all, before being tested on their memory for the paintings. The photo-taking-impairment effect was observed in both photo-taking conditions relative to the no photo baseline. Experiment 3 replicated this pattern of results even when participants who took multiple photos were instructed to take five unique photos. These findings indicate that the photo-taking-impairment effect is robust, occurring even when multiple photos are taken, and after nonselective photo-taking.
... While it is beyond the scope of this paper to review all of those studies (see Risko & Gilbert, 2016 for a review), it is clear that the picture is more complex. Many studies do find a cost to offloading: people are less likely to remember museum objects after taking digital photos of the exhibits (Henkel, 2014; but see Soares & Storm, 2018), or to remember card locations in a memory matching game when allowed to take notes during the encoding phase (Eskritt & Ma, 2014). And yet sometimes offloading affords deeper processing of information, such as when a note-taker connects a lecture to other material from a class (Einstein, Morris, & Smith, 1985). ...
... Negative effects have typically been observed when students are assigned to photograph particular objects or when note-taking consists of rote copying. That is, taking digital photos of museum exhibits reduces memory for those exhibits, as compared to other items that were viewed but not photographed (Henkel, 2014; but see also Soares & Storm, 2018). Different results are observed when the documenter is able to choose what to photograph or take notes on. ...
Article
The internet is rapidly changing what information is available as well as how we find it and share it with others. Here we examine how this “digital expansion of the mind”__ changes cognition. We begin by identifying ten properties of the internet that likely affect cognition, roughly organized around internet content (e.g., the sheer amount of information available), internet usage (e.g., the requirement to search for information), and the people and communities who create and propagate content (e.g., people are connected in an unprecedented fashion). We use these properties to explain (or ask questions about) internet-related phenomena, such as habitual reliance on the internet, the propagation of misinformation, and consequences for autobiographical memory, among others. Our goal is to consider the impact of internet usage on many aspects of cognition, as people increasingly rely on the internet to seek, post, and share information.
... Just like most cases of multitasking that impair cognitive performance, media use during an experience interferes with attentional engagement and memory encoding. That, in turn, results in impoverished recall of the experience afterwards (Jiang et al., 2016;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018). For example, Tamir et al. (2018) asked one group of participants to take photos during a self-guided tour of a landmark with the intention of later posting the photos to Facebook. ...
... The current findings extend previous research and reveal the dynamic influences of social media on autobiographical remembering. They go beyond the questions of how the Internet and social media offload memories for semantic information (Ferguson et al., 2015;Kahn & Martinez, 2020;Sparrow et al., 2011;Storm et al., 2017), interfere with ongoing experience and memory encoding (Jiang et al., 2016;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018), or facilitate autobiographical memory retention through rehearsal and meaning making (Wang et al., 2017). In particular, extending Wang et al. (2017)'s finding that memories shared online are more likely to be remembered than those not shared, our findings show memory reconstruction as a result of the interplay between retrieval contexts, retrieval cues, and the timing of recall. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the impact of social media as a retrieval context (in contrast to private recall) on the retention of autobiographical memory. At session 1, participants (N = 177) generated recent life events in response to cue words and then described the event details as if they were writing about the events either on WeChat or in their diaries. They received a surprise memory test for the events at session 2 either one week or two weeks later, either with or without the original cue words. Participants in the WeChat condition recalled less consistent memories between the two sessions than those in the diary condition, especially when the memory test took place at the one-week interval and when there were no cues to assist recall at the two-week interval. It appears that memories recalled on social media are subject to greater reconstruction in subsequent offline recall, and that the timing of recall and the presence of memory cues interact with the reconstructive process. These findings shed new light on autobiographical remembering in the digital age.
... Lastly, beyond these concerns related to the appropriate timing of when to view BWC footage, research suggests that BWCs may be associated with other, yet to be explored, negative consequences related to officer memory. Indeed, research from non-police settings suggests that the presence of a camera itself could change the way that officers encode information during their encounters with the public (Gilbert 2015;Henkel 2014;Marsh and Rajaram 2019;Risko and Dunn 2015;Risko and Gilbert 2016;Soares and Storm 2018;Sparrow et al. 2011). In fact, recent research is finding that, when possible, individuals may attempt to reserve limited cognitive resources by engaging in a process commonly referred to as cognitive offloading (Risko and Gilbert 2016). ...
... Several other studies have also demonstrated a 'saveand-forget-it' type effect, whereby knowledge that information is being saved in another form impairs encoding of that information at the point of contact (Henkel 2014;Risko and Gilbert 2016;Soares and Storm 2018). For example, Henkel (2014) investigated memory for observed versus photographed objects in two experiments. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current paper reviews existing literature that relates to how body worn cameras might influence an officer’s memory of their interactions with the public, namely those that involve the use of force. Notably, most of this research does not come from the policing field but focuses on the impact of camera technology in other settings. Much of the available research supports the commonly held view that body worn cameras could be used to enhance memory for these interactions, particularly interactions that are complex or stressful. However, contrary to what people might expect, research also exists that suggests body worn cameras may actually have a detrimental effect on officer memory. Three major potential detriments: cognitive offloading, retrieval-induced forgetting and misinformation-type effects are highlighted. Future studies examining the impact of body worn cameras on officers’ memory are necessary. Ways forward are discussed.
... M emory impairments have been shown when information is encoded through digital media. [1][2][3][4] One explanation for these impairments is that organic memory is offloaded/outsourced 1 as an individual is cognizant that this information can be subsequently accessed digitally (a phenomenon also known as ''The Google Effect'' 4 ). ...
... It is, however, worth noting that memory for facts and images encoded through Snapchat is impaired relative to nondigital encoding, 2,3 that is, the classic Google Effect. 4 Soares and Soames, 3 therefore, argue that if these effects follow memory offloading, then this process must be automatic. ...
Article
The mnemonic effect of posting personal experiences on ephemeral social media was examined. Participants completed a daily diary for 6 consecutive days. On alternate days they were instructed to use, or refrain from using, the ephemeral social media platform Snapchat. At the end of the week, participants received a surprise memory test for the contents of the diaries. We observed significantly superior recall for memories encoded on the Snapchat days, demonstrating memory facilitation despite memory type equivalency across the posting and no posting conditions. The study is the first to examine the effect of Snapchat use on autobiographical memory, with the findings supporting previous work showing that posting on social media facilitates memory. Given the ephemerality of Snapchat posts, the reported improvement in memory contradicts the notion that cognitive offloading occurs automatically when posting memories online.
... This phenomenon has been described as the photo-taking impairment (Henkle, 2014). The hypothesis of cognitive offloading that underlies the phototaking impairment is rooted in transactive memory theory (Soares & Storm, 2018). Henkle (2014) examined the photo-taking impairment through two thought experiments and illustrated that when individuals capture digital imagery, they are less likely to store details related to that imagery in their biological memory. ...
... Conversely, Soares and Storm (2018) found an impairment regardless of whether an image was going to be available for future use or not. In addition, Henkle (2014) found that when an individual zoomed in on an image, memory for that imagery improved. ...
Thesis
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Smartphones have permeated nearly every aspect of life, and existing research has demonstrated that cognitive processes are being offloaded to the smartphone as a mind-extending resource. The digital extended mind describes a circumstance where cognitive processes are offloaded to a digital artifact as a result of perceived reliance, accessibility, and trust with the resource, and little is known about the predictors of the phenomenon. To address this research gap, age, gender, screen time, extraversion, and need for cognition were evaluated as potential predictors of the digital extended mind in this study. A quantitative nonexperimental research methodology with a convenience sample was used to determine if variance in extended mindedness was predictable from age, gender, screen time, extraversion, and need for cognition. Members of the millennial generation and Generation Z, often described as digital natives, have been substantially impacted by the advent of the smartphone and were the focus of this study. The online convenience sample of digital native smartphone users (N = 136) in the United States was collected over a one-month period in August 2020 from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Age, gender, and screen time were collected as self-report variables, and extraversion, need for cognition, and extended mindedness were collected using the 18-item Need for Cognition scale developed by Cacioppo et al. (1984), the Mini International Personality Item Pool developed by Donnellan et al. (2006), and the Extended Mind Questionnaire developed by Nijssen et al. (2018), respectively. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the collective and unique predictive ability of the independent variables on the outcome variable, and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine which variable or combination of variables predicted the most variance in extended mindedness. Data analysis indicated strong reliability (α > .89) for the three scales and that the assumptions for a multiple linear regression analysis were met. The results of the multiple linear regression analysis indicated that extended mindedness was collectively predictable from age, gender, screen time, extraversion, and need for cognition (F (5, 102) = 4.978, p < .001, R2 = .196, R2adj = .157) and that screen time alone predicted the most variance in extended mindedness (F (1, 106) = 23.752, p < .001, R2 = .183, R2adj = .175). The results of this study suggest that the length of time spent operating a smartphone (i.e., screen time) predicts the degree to which this technology extends the mind.
... Just like most cases of multitasking that impair cognitive performance, media use during an experience interferes with attentional engagement and memory encoding. That, in turn, results in impoverished recall of the experience afterwards (Jiang et al., 2016;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018). For example, Tamir et al. (2018) asked one group of participants to take photos during a self-guided tour of a landmark with the intention of later posting the photos to Facebook. ...
... The current findings extend previous research and reveal the dynamic influences of social media on autobiographical remembering. They go beyond the questions of how the Internet and social media offload memories for semantic information (Ferguson et al., 2015;Kahn & Martinez, 2020;Sparrow et al., 2011;Storm et al., 2017), interfere with ongoing experience and memory encoding (Jiang et al., 2016;Soares & Storm, 2018;Tamir et al., 2018), or facilitate autobiographical memory retention through rehearsal and meaning making (Wang et al., 2017). In particular, extending Wang et al. (2017)'s finding that memories shared online are more likely to be remembered than those not shared, our findings show memory reconstruction as a result of the interplay between retrieval contexts, retrieval cues, and the timing of recall. ...
Preprint
The current study examined the impact of social media as a retrieval context (in contrast to private recall) on the retention of autobiographical memory. At session 1, participants (N = 177) generated recent life events in response to cue words and then described the event details as if they were writing about the events either on WeChat or in their diaries. They received a surprise memory test for the events at session 2 either one week or two weeks later, either with or without the original cue words. Participants in the WeChat condition recalled less consistent memories between the two sessions than those in the diary condition, especially when the memory test took place at the one-week interval and when there were no cues to assist recall at the two-week interval. It appears that memories recalled on social media are subject to greater reconstruction in subsequent offline recall, and that the timing of recall and the presence of memory cues interact with the reconstructive process. These findings shed new light on autobiographical remembering in the digital age.
... Eskritt and Ma (2014) speculate impairment occurs after learning, with participants who know information is stored externally engaging in intentional forgetting. Research has not yet explicitly tested these proposed mechanisms; however, scholars term the general behavior of shifting or sharing responsibility for internal processing with an external aid as cognitive offloading (Clark & Chalmers, 1998;Risko & Dunn, 2015;Risko & Gilbert, 2016;Soares & Storm, 2018). The phenomenon manifests because the human brain seeks efficiency in balancing cognitive demands. ...
Article
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Ephemeral social media is growing in popularity and brands are increasingly using this method to engage with and advertise to consumers. Yet, little research attention has been paid to how consumers perceive and retain social media content, particularly marketing communications, when they are aware it will disappear. Across five studies we find that when viewers know content is ephemeral, their recall of the content is heightened compared to when they believe the content will be accessible later. We find that this increase in recall due to ephemerality is mediated by processing effort, such that when consumers believe content will disappear, they expend more effort processing the content than if the content is believed to be accessible again. Relevant to advertisers, we find this effect spills over to advertising embedded within ephemeral social media content. Our findings represent a novel means of increasing advertising recall, qualify past findings and theory, and suggest an important new stream of research.
... This is an example of the broader phenomenon of cognitive offloading, which has been defined as the use of physical action to alter the information processing requirements of a task so as to reduce cognitive demand (Risko & Gilbert, 2016). Everyday examples of cognitive offloading include diverse phenomena such as external normalization (tilting one's head in order to perceive a rotated image, reducing the need for mental rotation; Risko et al., 2014); using a GPS device instead of internal memory to guide navigation (Brügger et al., 2019); storing to-beremembered information in written form (Kelly & Risko, 2019;Lu et al., 2020;Risko & Dunn, 2015), on computers (Morrison & Richmond, 2020;Storm & Stone, 2014) or via photography (Barasch et al., 2017;Henkel, 2014;Soares & Storm, 2018); or searching for information on the internet via a search engine, rather than in internal memory (Ferguson et al., 2015;Fisher et al., 2015;Hamilton & Yao, 2018;Marsh & Rajaram, 2019). Here, we focus on the specific phenomenon of intention offloading; for a more general review, see Risko and Gilbert (2016). ...
Article
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How do we remember delayed intentions? Three decades of research into prospective memory have provided insight into the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in this form of memory. However, we depend on more than just our brains to remember intentions. We also use external props and tools such as calendars and diaries, strategically placed objects, and technologies such as smartphone alerts. This is known as ‘intention offloading’. Despite the progress in our understanding of brain-based prospective memory, we know much less about the role of intention offloading in individuals’ ability to fulfil delayed intentions. Here, we review recent research into intention offloading, with a particular focus on how individuals decide between storing intentions in internal memory versus external reminders. We also review studies investigating how intention offloading changes across the lifespan and how it relates to underlying brain mechanisms. We conclude that intention offloading is highly effective, experimentally tractable, and guided by metacognitive processes. Individuals have systematic biases in their offloading strategies that are stable over time. Evidence also suggests that individual differences and developmental changes in offloading strategies are driven at least in part by metacognitive processes. Therefore, metacognitive interventions could play an important role in promoting individuals’ adaptive use of cognitive tools.
... Electron microscopy is becoming more of a tool than a science, and although there are many programs to process and analyze data, there are few that serve as a digital notebook. While at first seemingly counter intuitive, current research into the human memory suggests that the brain is less likely to remember captured data than what is observed (Soares and Storm, 2018). This should seem familiar to any microscopist in discussing microscopy sessions with collaborators in that they "saw" additional features not apparent in the recorded data. ...
Preprint
With the increasing diversity in material systems, ever-expanding number of analysis techniques, and the large capital costs of next generation instruments the ability to quickly and efficiently collect data in the electron microscope has become paramount to successful data analysis. Therefore, this research proposes a methodology of nanocartography that combines predictive stage motion with crystallographic information to provide microscopists with a sample map that can both reduce analysis time and improve confidence in data collected. Having a road map of the stage positions linked to microstructural (e.g., interfaces and growing directions) and crystallographic orientation data (e.g., specific poles and planes) provides microscopists with the ability to solve orientation relationships, create oblique tilt series movies, and also solve complex crystallographic unknowns at extremely small scales with minimal information. Most importantly, it can convert any sample orientation relationships across microscopes to increase optimization and collaboration throughout the field.
... Barasch et al. [3] found that volitional photo taking improves the visual memory of an experience. In contrast, Soares and Storm [55] found that participants are less likely to remember objects they photograph than objects they only observe. The use of personal and family photos to serve as reminders of cherished memories was also examined by several papers including Golsteijn et al. [30] and Petrelli et al. [52]. ...
Article
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We tested the use of smartphones for retrieval of pictures of long-term, salient family events. Our goal was to replicate a study conducted a decade ago where participants used digital cameras. We found that smartphones affected picture retrieval in two contrasting ways. Overall, the constant availability of smartphones increased collection size. This increased the failure percentage for pictures downloaded to computer file system folders from an average of 43% in the original study to 71% in the current one. On the other hand, improved smartphone retrieval technologies including timeline, search, and face recognition reduced smartphone application retrieval failures to 29% on average. Overall, these two opposing tendencies canceled each other out, with no significant difference in failure percentage and retrieval time between the two studies. Results indicate that the magnitude of pictures is too much for us to manually handle and we must rely on technology for picture retrieval.
... One possibility is that these impairing effects of taking photos on later memory are attributable to cognitive offloading (Risko and Gilbert 2016), where the participants rely on the photo as a kind of external memory and thus do minimal memory-related processing. Evidence against this idea was obtained in a study by Soares and Storm (2018) in which participants went on a virtual museum tour: they found an impairing effect of taking photos on later memory in a condition where participants deleted their photos shortly after taking them. These findings raise the possibility that, rather than cognitive offloading, the activities in which people engage when taking a photo, such as finding the best angle or lighting conditions for taking the photo, could reduce encoding of the object or event and thus impair subsequent memory. ...
Article
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Human memory is prone to error and distortion. It has been proposed that memory's misdeeds can be classified into seven categories or ‘sins’. This article discusses the impact of media and technology on four memory sins: transience (forgetting over time), absent-mindedness (lapses in attention that produce forgetting), misattribution (attributing a memory to the wrong source), and suggestibility (implanted memories). Growing concerns have been expressed about the negative impact of media and technology on memory. With respect to transience, I review research regarding the impact of the Internet (ie, Google), GPS, and photographs. Studies have documented impaired memory following specific tasks on which people rely on media/technology (eg, poor memory for a route after using GPS), but have revealed little evidence for broader impairments (eg, generally impaired memory in GPS users), and have also documented some mnemonic benefits (eg, reviewing photos of past experiences). For absent-mindedness, there is strong evidence that media multitasking is associated with poor memory for a target task (eg, a lecture) because of attentional lapses, suggesting evidence that chronic media multitasking could be associated with broader memory problems, and emerging evidence that technology can help to reduce certain kinds of absent-minded errors. Regarding misattribution and suggestibility, there is clear evidence that manipulated or misleading photos are associated with false memories for personal events and fake news, but no evidence of broader effects on susceptibility to memory distortion. Further study of the impact of media and technology on the memory sins is a fruitful pursuit for interdisciplinary studies.
... Recent research has begun to investigate how and when people decide to use cognitive offloading as a strategy to support their prospective memory (Cherkaoui & Gilbert, 2017;Gilbert, 2015aGilbert, , 2015bGilbert et al., in press;Redshaw, Vandersee, Bulley, & Gilbert, 2018). Similarly, cognitive offloading has been studied in the context of problem solving (Chu & Kita, 2011), learning (Costa et al., 2011), mental rotation (Dunn & Risko, 2016), and retrospective memory (Finley, Naaz, & Goh, 2018;Henkel, 2014;Risko & Dunn, 2015;Soares & Storm, 2018;Storm & Stone, 2015). One goal of this research is to understand the mechanisms by which individuals decide whether or not to engage in cognitive offloading. ...
Article
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Background: Cognitive offloading is the use of physical action to reduce the cognitive demands of a task. Everyday memory relies heavily on this practice; for example, when we write down to-be-remembered information or use diaries, alerts, and reminders to trigger delayed intentions. A key goal of recent research has been to investigate the processes that trigger cognitive offloading. This research has demonstrated that individuals decide whether or not to offload based on a potentially erroneous metacognitive evaluation of their mental abilities. Therefore, improving the accuracy of metacognitive evaluations may help to optimise offloading behaviour. However, previous studies typically measure participants' use of an explicitly instructed offloading strategy, in contrast to everyday life where offloading strategies must often be generated spontaneously. Results: We administered a computer-based task requiring participants to remember delayed intentions. One group of participants was explicitly instructed on a method for setting external reminders; another was not. The latter group spontaneously set reminders but did so less often than the instructed group. Offloading improved performance in both groups. Crucially, metacognition (confidence in unaided memory ability) guided both instructed and spontaneous offloading: Participants in both groups set more reminders when they were less confident (regardless of actual memory ability). Conclusions: These results show that the link between metacognition and cognitive offloading holds even when offloading strategies need to be spontaneously generated. Thus, metacognitive interventions are potentially able to alter offloading behaviour, without requiring offloading strategies to be explicitly instructed.
... These results are consistent with a recent study where participants were instructed to either passively view a series of paintings, take photographs of the paintings, or use Snapchat (a photo-sharing-based social media platform) to document their experience of the paintings. Participants who used Snapchat demonstrated lower recall for the paintings than the other two groups [37]. ...
Article
Increased access to electronic devices and the ubiquity of social media has resulted in a rapid rise in the prevalence of students "multitasking" while in a classroom setting. While some data indicate the use of electronic devices in class can improve the classroom environment, other studies demonstrate the opposite finding. Moreover, it remains unclear if using social networking sites such as Instagram impacts performance on cognitive tasks when students are presented new material and, if so, what features of Instagram modulate this response. Therefore, in the current study we examined if social media use during or after being presented new information affected short-term memory in college students. Additionally, we assessed if the type or quantity of topics displayed had a modulatory impact on memory. Forty-five college-aged (18-24 years of age) students completed the Logical Memory Immediate Recall (LM I) component of the Wechsler Memory Scale IV, a measure of auditory recognition memory. Subjects were randomly divided into a group that completed the LM I without distraction (controls), a group that completed the LM I while scrolling through their Instagram feed, or a group that completed the LM I after scrolling through their Instagram feed. Subjects that used Instagram while being presented new information demonstrated worse short-term memory recall ability compared to subjects that did not use Instagram during the presentation (71.56% correct answers vs. 80.89%; p = 0.01). Recall ability in the group that used Instagram after hearing the story was not statistically different from the controls. Differences were not observed in the number of topics appearing in subjects' Instagram feeds and no correlation was found between the number of topics on a subject's Instagram feed and memory recall ability. Collectively, these results suggest that individuals who use their phones to browse Instagram during class or in social settings might have a reduced ability to retain the information given to them when compared to those that are not using their phones scrolling on social media.
... This is an example of the broader phenomenon of cognitive offloading, which has been defined as the use of physical action to alter the information processing requirements of a task so as to reduce cognitive demand (Risko & Gilbert, 2016). Everyday examples of cognitive offloading include diverse phenomena such as external normalization (tilting one's head in order to perceive a rotated image, reducing the need for mental rotation; Risko et al., 2014); using a GPS device instead of internal memory to guide navigation (Brügger et al., 2019); storing to-be-remembered information in written form (Kelly & Risko, 2019;Lu et al., 2020;Risko & Dunn, 2015), computers (Morrison & Richmond, 2020;Storm & Stone, 2014) or via photography (Barasch et al., 2017;Henkel, 2014;Soares & Storm, 2018); or searching for information on the internet via a search engine, rather than in internal memory (Ferguson et al., 2015;Fisher et al., 2015;E. J. Marsh & Rajaram, 2019). ...
Preprint
How do we remember delayed intentions? Three decades of research into prospective memory have provided insight into the cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in this form of memory. However, we depend on more than just our brains to remember intentions. We also use external props and tools such as calendars and diaries, strategically-placed objects, and technologies such as smartphone alerts. This is known as ‘intention offloading’. Despite the progress in our understanding of brain-based prospective memory, we know much less about the role of intention offloading in individuals’ ability to fulfil delayed intentions. Here, we review recent research into intention offloading, with a particular focus on how individuals decide between storing intentions in internal memory versus external reminders. We also review studies investigating how intention offloading changes across the lifespan and how it relates to underlying brain mechanisms. We conclude that intention offloading is highly effective, experimentally tractable, and guided by metacognitive processes. Individuals have systematic biases in their offloading strategies which are stable over time. Evidence also suggests that individual differences and developmental changes in offloading strategies are driven at least in part by metacognitive processes. Therefore, metacognitive interventions could play an important role in promoting individuals’ adaptive use of cognitive tools.
... O próprio processo de registro e apreensão do meio tem sido impactado pela tecnologia atual. Para tomarmos um exemplo, vejamos o chamado efeito "photo-taking-impairment"(Soares;Storm, 2018). Este efeito sugere que o ato de tirar fotos das coisas, proliferado pela popularização dos smartphones, pode interferir na nossa capacidade de observar e lembrar delas.Henkel (2013), em um interessante experimento realizado em um passeio guiado por um museu de arte, orientou as pessoas a observar alguns objetos expostos e de outros apenas tirar fotos. ...
Conference Paper
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Studying and teaching Architecture and Design is a versatile endeavour where creativity can channelise into Design and Form. This paper will be outlining the first Exercise of Basic Design which is the antecedent to all other exercises of the Architecture Undergraduate Program in India. As part of Semester 1 Design Studio, various studies were made on a Natural Object, which includes: Analyses, Abstraction and Design. These activities are meant to open the minds of the students and further enhance the learning process. The analyses covers the main components that make up Design: the Principles and Elements of Design. The Abstraction is limited to the way this Object can be disintegrated and re-imagined as Abstract Art or Abstract Design. The Design of it includes the final creativity factor put to work, arriving from the Abstraction to a usable product. An illustrated example has also been documented in the words of a student for visual understanding. The interplay between architectural studies and student psychology is significant and creativity is a critical skill that can be taught, nurtured and increased.
... For example, participants who typed information into a computer remembered much less of the information if they thought the information would be saved (Sparrow et al. 2011); the physical action was the same, but participant belief that they did not need to remember resulted in cognitive offloading. However this result is not uniform across all media: in another study, participants who took a photograph of an object remembered it worse than those who did not take a photograph, even when the participants immediately deleted the photograph (Soares and Storm 2017). Other studies have similarly found that for different types of tasks, requiring different mental capabilities, decisions to cognitively offload work differently (Eskritt and Ma 2014). ...
Chapter
Cognitive offloading refers to using tools like notes, calculators or spellcheckers to reduce the cognitive demands of a task. Assessment has a patchy history in attending to cognitive offloading. In some settings, such as exams, there are explicit rules that relate to cognitive offloading, such as the allowance or prohibition of textbooks and notes. However in other settings, particularly authentic open-ended tasks there is less clarity. This chapter proposes principles for incorporating cognitive offloading into assessment, with a focus on transparency, programmatic assessment, evaluative judgement and authentic assessment.
Article
Objectives: The prevalence of social media use in daily life is increasing; however, little is known about its cognitive costs and/or benefits. Social media use may help to offload memory to an external resource as well as to facilitate social relations, which could bolster or hinder everyday memory. Further, the relationship between social media use and memory may be moderated by age such that associations-whether positive or negative-could be exacerbated among older adults due to age-related declines. Methods: Using an 8-day daily diary study from the Midlife in the United States Refresher cohort (n = 782, 25-75 years), multilevel models examined the impact of daily social media use, age, and their interaction on same-day and next-day memory failures. Results: The concurrent model revealed that on days when social media use was high, individuals reported more memory failures. The lagged model further revealed that higher previous-day social media use was associated with more memory failures on the subsequent day, controlling for previous-day memory failures. These effects were not moderated by age. Post hoc analyses revealed no evidence of reverse-causation as previous-day memory failures did not predict next-day social media use. Conclusions: Although past research has consistently shown that social engagement is a protective resource for memory, social media use may be a risk factor for memory failures for adults of any age. These findings highlight the growing importance of understanding the implications of social media use.
Article
This article contends that Islamic prohibitions on certain types of figural imagery serve a dual function. In addition to fulfilling their traditional Islamic role related to preserving Allah’s sovereignty, such prohibitions also facilitate in preventing Islam’s essential message from being transformed via crass and sentimentalist reproductions of its most sacred symbols and figures. The article first defines the term ‘icon’ and then engages with the more recent discourse surrounding representation as meaning-making. It then connects Islamic aniconism to Marxist and post-structuralist concerns related to reification, commodification, and the transformation of sacred symbols into forms of personal property. The final part of this article engages with the rulings of Yusuf al-Qaradawi and Taha Jabir al-Alwani regarding figural imagery to show that these prohibitions are not absolute and that there are varying degrees of acceptability based on form, content, and purpose.
Article
Daily social media use has been previously linked to worse everyday memory functioning in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms that drive these associations are unclear. One pathway in which social media use may negatively influence memory functioning is through a decrease in emotional well-being. Therefore, using a daily diary study from the Midlife in the United States Refresher cohort (MIDUS; n = 782, 25–75 years old), the current study conducted a multilevel structural equation model to examine whether social media use influenced memory failures indirectly through positive and negative affect. Analyses revealed that daily negative affect, but not positive affect, was a significant mediator at the within-person level. On days when social media use was high, individuals reported greater negative affect and in turn, more memory failures. The potential underlying socio-evaluative effects that may drive the association between social media use, negative affect, and memory failures are discussed.
Chapter
In this chapter we reveal our hidden agenda: moral consensus. We do not think economics can or should restore the approach of earlier paradigms, each of which grew out of individual worldviews. We now live in a pluralistic world because we have rightly decided to stop using force to create coherent social worlds, and without such force, social worlds do not cohere in the same uniformity. We need a new approach for a new social world in which people do not all revere the same things. We propose consensus rather than uniformity. If we want to escape the Consumption paradigm, it is necessary for people who have different beliefs to agree with one another to some extent about transcendent moral claims that shape economic life.
Article
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This paper offers a framework for understanding how different kinds of memory work together in interaction with people, photographs and other resources. Drawing on evidence from two qualitative studies of photography and memory, as well as literature from cognitive psychology, distributed cognition and media studies, I highlight complexities that have seldom been taken into account in cognitive psychology research. I then develop a “blended memory” framework in which memory and photography can be interdependent, blending together as part of a wider activity of distributed remembering that is structured by interaction and phenomenology. In contrast to studies of cued recall, which commonly feature isolated categories or single instances of recall, this framework takes account of people’s histories of photographic practices and beliefs to explain the long-term convergence of episodic, semantic and inferential memory. Finally, I discuss implications for understanding and designing future memory research.
Chapter
In this chapter, we continue reporting the results of our comprehensive survey study on the interplay of internal and external memory in everyday life and how that is changing in the early twenty-first century (N = 476 Mechanical Turk participants). We report the descriptive statistics for questions about behaviors and experiences with internal memory and external memory. Specific topics include low-tech strategies, taking notes, reasons for external memory retrieval failures, passwords, phone numbers, backup practices, social media, and photos. Overall, results show that, for many, technology plays a large and increasing role in supporting human memory. We also introduce a distinction between episodic external memory and semantic external memory, which we will further address in Chapters 4 and 8.
Chapter
In this chapter we begin reporting the results of our comprehensive survey study on the interplay of internal and external memory in everyday life, and how that is changing in the early twenty-first century (N = 476 Mechanical Turk participants). After first describing data cleaning and scoring, we report the descriptive statistics for questions about attitudes and beliefs regarding internal memory, external memory, and their interplay. The overall pattern, based on participants’ self-reports, is that most think external memory enhances their everyday functioning, but they also think they would do fine without it, and they do not feel uneasy about their reliance on it. External memory is seen as augmenting human capability, not supplanting it. Furthermore, participants generally put considerable value in their external memories.
Article
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There is a growing consensus among scholars in neuroscience with regards to the adverse effects of technology on the cognitive functions of the human brain (Loh and Kanai, 2016). These include the processing of emotions, memory and the storage of lived experiences. In fact, this has been shown to be particularly applicable to regular users of smartphone-based mobile applications (Wilmer et al., 2017). Rather worryingly for today’s prevalently technology-based conception of what a smart tourism destination should deliver, recent research has shown that visitors’ intentions to preserve the memories of a visit to a tourism attraction by engaging with mobile media (e.g. taking photos and sharing them with others via social media) during their visit may actually prevent those same visitors (though perhaps not the recipients of their photos via social media) from remembering the very experience they are trying to preserve (Tamir et al., 2018; see also Soares and Storm, 2018). Furthermore, research has also shown that this ‘hyperconnected’ state of affairs may be altogether detrimental to visitors’ enjoyment of the overall experience (Barasch et al., 2017). For those tourists who can still boast an adequate level of battery charge on their smartphones after a busy visit spent updating social media profiles with new photos whilst trying to simultaneously absorb the multi-sensory experience offered by the tourist attraction, there is further bad news. Similar neurological research has shown that people who are over-reliant on satellite navigation systems for way-finding (say, back to the hotel or to a restaurant highly rated on Tripadvisor) tend to perform worse at finding their way in the absence of their digital aid than those who rely on paper maps (McCullough and Collins, 2019). Parallel research in tourism has argued that this ‘smart’ technology-enabled tourist may run the risk of alienation (or “e-lienation”, to use the term coined by Tribe and Mkono, 2017) from their surroundings and missing out on potentially enriching experiences offered by the tourism destination. All in all, this should be rather worrying news for aspiring and existing smart tourism destinations. Why? Well, given that memorable experiences remain arguably a desirable goal in the design and delivery of visitor experiences, it appears that technology could be actually conspiring to rewire our brains in the opposite direction (Ward, 2013). Should, then, smart tourist destinations strive to become more efficient at delivering other services instead of memorable experiences? Maybe, though this is perhaps particularly applicable to some of the earlier models in the smart cities longitudinal spectrum. In fact, there is growing consensus around the fact that technological innovation (Pinke-Sziva et al., 2019; Skeli and Schmid, 2019) can alleviate some of the effects of overtourism, particularly in the context of smart tourism destinations (Gretzel and Scarpino-Johns, 2018). This includes ‘smarter’ transport solutions, even if we know that residents and tourists will differ considerably in their assessment of urban mobility improvements (Albalate and Bel, 2010). However, all this is part of what smart cities (presumably) do already. Consequently, if the whole raison d'être of the ‘smart’ concept applied to tourism destinations rests mainly on the proviso of experience design and delivery, where do the insights from the latest neurological research leave smart tourism destinations? Should the next generation of smart tourism destinations re-consider their strategic focus altogether? This special issue of the International Journal of Tourism Cities (IJTC) on “Overtourism and the Marketing of Smart Tourism Destinations” attempts to shed light not only on the overtourism phenomena but also on a nascent field of research: the marketing and branding of smart urban tourism destinations. Inevitably, and given that both topics can hardly be considered in isolation, much of the research showcased in this special issue, including this editorial, explore also elements spanning the overtourism phenomena and the marketing and management of smart tourism destinations, chiefly from an urban perspective.
Article
Modern technology allows people to easily doctor their own photos (e.g., cropping out unwanted objects, applying color-changing filters). We examined whether editing and reviewing photos alters people’s memory of their experiences. In three experiments, participants photographed scenes, then edited their photos. In Experiment 1 (n = 54), editing photos by cropping out objects or applying a grayscale filter did not impact memory for the original experience. In Experiment 2 (n = 55), cropping objects from photos focused attention on the remaining objects, thereby increasing memory for the intact objects regardless of whether they were reviewed or not. Reviewing unedited photos where details were intact increased memory. In Experiment 3 (n = 39), applying a grayscale filter to photos did not impact memory for the color and content of the original scene, but reviewing photos improved recognition memory and memory for the scene’s color and content. Depending on the type of edit and cognitive demands, reviewing or editing photos can shape what is remembered.
Article
Background This study examined memory inhibitory control in adults with autism. Our interest stemmed from the idea that malfunctioning cognitive inhibition may contribute to symptoms such as thought perseverance and inflexibility of social interactions in this disorder. Method We drew from work in retrieval-induced forgetting which shows that retrieving items from memory causes forgetting of other competing information. We tested individuals with ASD (n = 19) and without ASD (n = 20) using a task whereby engaging in episodic future thinking (EFT) reduces the subsequent retrievability of related autobiographical memories (AMs). We also looked at a sample of AM and EFT narratives using an overall-richness measure expressed by a quantitative experiential index. Results Although adults with autism showed overall lower levels of richness in their AM and EFT productions, and contrary to our prediction, they demonstrated levels of memory inhibition that were comparable to controls. Conclusions The results suggest that memory inhibition, as measured by EFT-induced forgetting, is relatively intact in ASD and are discussed in terms of how automatic and effortful inhibitory processes in autism might be differentially affected.
Article
Empirical studies of the power of photographs on recollections of the personal past have produced a complicated set of results, with reports of both costs and benefits on recollection accuracy. The purpose of the selective review offered in the current paper is to cast in new light this complicated pattern of findings by calling for close attention to the acts of looking, including the timing of the looking in relation to acts of remembering. Incorporating a broad range of scholarly perspectives, the current article’s interdisciplinary component points to specific features of photograph-looking experiences that warrant further study. The current review provides an overview of benefits in memory for event and event details, indexed by enhancements in recall and recognition measures. The overview of costs includes reductions in the amount remembered as well as changes in belief about event occurrences. Reconstruction accounts of the basis for these effects follows the analysis of benefits and costs. The new perspective in the current review leads to intriguing directions for future research involving content of photographs, the ways they are obtained, and aspects of the photograph review experience.
Article
Are digital technologies affecting how we learn, what we know, and how we remember? We examine three aspects of these questions: the impact of the internet on cognitive skills, the way GPS is reshaping abilities to navigate physical space, and differences between digital and print reading. The goal of the analysis is to understand potential effects of digital technologies on educational practices and goals. We begin by reviewing research demonstrating the growing tendency to depend on digital devices and the internet to do our remembering for us. Regarding GPS, there is mounting evidence that reliance on GPS devices reduces our ability to navigate physical space on our own. Worryingly, studies indicate correlations between decreased navigational skills and dementia. Finally, the article documents how digital reading tends to lead to a more superficial approach to text than traditional print. Technologies have consequences, including in education. If digital technologies lead to diminished memory, lower our ability to find our way in physical space, and foster shallower reading, we need to consider the consequences for both formal and informal learning.
Article
Prior research has shown that people are more likely to remember information that is deleted from a computer than information that is saved on a computer, presumably because saving serves as a form of cognitive offloading. Given recent concerns about the robustness and replicability of this “Google Effect,” we conducted two experiments seeking to replicate and extend the phenomenon by identifying a potential boundary condition for when it is observed. In Experiment 1, we replicated the Google Effect, but only when participants experienced a practice phase demonstrating the reliability of the saving process. No evidence of a Google Effect was observed when participants experienced a practice phase demonstrating the saving process to be unreliable. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results of Experiment 1 in the reliable condition, while demonstrating the effect to be robust across 10 different topics of trivia statements. Taken together, these results suggest that the Google Effect is a replicable phenomenon, but that the perceived reliability of the saving process is critical for determining whether it is observed.
Article
People often report taking photos to aid memory. Two mixed-method surveys were used to investigate participants' reasons for taking photos, focusing specifically on memory-related reasons, which were split into two sub-types: photos taken as mementos, and photos taken as a means of offloading information. Participants reported their motivations for taking a sample of photos and then rated their recollective experience of each photographed event. Across both studies, participants reported recollecting events associated with a memento goal more vividly, more positively, and with more emotional intensity than events associated with an offloading goal. As expected, events photographed with a memento goal were also rated by participants to be more reflective of a shared memory system between the participants and the camera than were events photographed with an offloading goal. These findings suggest that people's motivations when taking photos tend to be associated with different types of recollective experiences, as well as different judgments about where personal information is located in a blended human-camera memory system.
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In studies of cued recall, responses to photographic stimuli have often been examined in isolation of related photography practices (e.g. taking, organising, or sharing images), and without considering how photographs are used. In contrast, photo-elicitation methods position photographs not simply as cues, but as meaningful artefacts around which accounts of the past are constructed. Drawing on photo-elicitation interviews, I examine cued recall from a distributed cognition perspective, proposing that it consists of varying combinations of several, potentially-distributed processes. First, looking at photographs can catalyse remembering by surfacing relevant ideas, followed by: stimulation (of feelings and emotions), simulation and narrative production, association, inference, and meaning-making. Using examples from my interviews, I consider how each process is socially and materially configured. I then discuss the role of diverse photographic practices in the convergence of these processes, and the implications for conceptions of cueing, recall, and autobiographical memory.
Article
The impact of technology on mindfulness is theoretically and practically important. We propose that photo-taking can naturally promote mindful attention to visual aspects of experiences. Such mindful photo-taking can increase enjoyment of and memory for experiences, generate positive mood, and heighten life-satisfaction. When people adopt a social or temporal outward-focused perspective, threats to mindful photo-taking may negate these positive consequences. A social outward-focus can arise when considering others’ evaluations of shared photos. A temporal outward-focus can arise with the principal objective and outcome of photo-taking: creating durable visual representations of experiences. Ultimately, reviewing photos provides visual memory cues, can improve memory, and allows people to reminiscence, although these benefits depends on the stock of accumulated photos.
Article
Social media provides an easy and ubiquitous means by which individuals can curate and share their personal experiences while also interacting with their friends, family, and the world at large. One means by which individuals can craft their personal past via social media is through their personal photographs. However, psychologists are only beginning to appreciate the mnemonic consequences associated with sharing personal photographs on social media. The aim of this manuscript is to distil the relevant, psychological research examining the mnemonic consequences associated with photography and sharing personal photographs on social media. To this end, we discuss how a psychological approach to memory has evolved from an individualist perspective to one that is beginning to appreciate the importance of a memory ecology. We then turn to photographs as an important component of one's memory ecology and how the act of photography and sharing photos on social media may have important consequences for how individuals remember their personal past. We then end with a discussion surrounding pertinent avenues for future research. We advocate that, moving forward, psychologists should better appreciate (1) the collective nature of social media, (2) an individual's memory ecology, and (3) the mnemonic consequences associated with social media silence . In addressing these issues, we believe that psychologists and memory researchers, more generally, will gain a fuller understanding of how, and in what way, personal photographs, and the act of sharing them via social media may shape the way individuals remember their personal past.
Article
People generate a variety of memory cues, such as mnemonic devices and to-do lists, to support memory for difficult information. Self-generated memory cues make difficult information understandable, create links to long-term memory, and ultimately support later retrieval. The primary challenge is generating a cue that is memorable across environmental and mental contexts. Yet, self-generated cues are more effective at supporting retrieval than normative (generic) cues because they are tied to personal experiences, distinctive, and strongly associated to the target information. The effectiveness of self-generated cues can be improved by training people in cue generation, by instructing people to generate stable cues, by combining cue generation with other beneficial strategies, and by using technology to support the creation and memory of the cues. People use their privileged access to their mental states and prior knowledge to flexibly generate memory cues that bolster their memory—useful for students, trainees, elders, and everyone else.
Conference Paper
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By capturing our experiences we often strive to better remember them in the future. However, the act of media capturing also influences these same experiences in the present, an area which is underexplored. This paper describes a study with the aim to inform the design of novel media capturing strategies. Adopting an approach of defamiliarization based on intervention and reflection, we strive to gain insights in the influences of future capturing technologies on the experience of a day out. We conducted an exploratory study in which 28 students went on a day out and used a variety of capturing strategies. Individual and group reflections on the experience during this day identified several important aspects that media capturing influences: engagement, perception & attention and social activity. The paper concludes with implications for design and proposes three potential future directions for media capturing, that instead of disturbing the moment enhance the experience.
Article
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Two studies examined whether photographing objects impacts what is remembered about them. Participants were led on a guided tour of an art museum and were directed to observe some objects and to photograph others. Results showed a photo-taking-impairment effect: If participants took a photo of each object as a whole, they remembered fewer objects and remembered fewer details about the objects and the objects' locations in the museum than if they instead only observed the objects and did not photograph them. However, when participants zoomed in to photograph a specific part of the object, their subsequent recognition and detail memory was not impaired, and, in fact, memory for features that were not zoomed in on was just as strong as memory for features that were zoomed in on. This finding highlights key differences between people's memory and the camera's "memory" and suggests that the additional attentional and cognitive processes engaged by this focused activity can eliminate the photo-taking-impairment effect.
Article
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In the present study, we examined whether note-taking as a memory aid may provide a naturalistic example of intentional forgetting. In the first experiment, participants played Concentration, a memory card game in which the identity and location of pairs of cards need to be remembered. Before the game started, half of the participants were allowed to study the cards, and the other half made notes that were then unexpectedly taken away. No significant differences emerged between the two groups for remembering identity information, but the study group remembered significantly more location information than did the note-taking group. In a second experiment, we examined whether note-takers would show signs of proactive interference while playing Concentration repeatedly. The results indicated that they did not. The findings suggest that participants adopted an intentional-forgetting strategy when using notes to store certain types of information.
Article
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Memory can be modified when reactivated, but little is known about how the properties and extent of reactivation can selectively affect subsequent memory. We developed a novel museum paradigm to directly investigate reactivation-induced plasticity for personal memories. Participants reactivated memories triggered by photos taken from a camera they wore during a museum tour and made relatedness judgments on novel photos taken from a different tour of the same museum. Subsequent recognition memory for events at the museum was better for memories that were highly reactivated (i.e., the retrieval cues during reactivation matched the encoding experience) than for memories that were reactivated at a lower level (i.e., the retrieval cues during reactivation mismatched the encoding experience), but reactivation also increased false recognition of photographs depicting stops that were not experienced during the museum tour. Reactivation thus enables memories to be selectively enhanced and distorted via updating, thereby supporting the dynamic and flexible nature of memory.
Article
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Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. During that same period, however, research on learning, memory, and metacognitive processes has provided evidence that people often have a faulty mental model of how they learn and remember, making them prone to both misassessing and mismanaging their own learning. After a discussion of what learners need to understand in order to become effective stewards of their own learning, we first review research on what people believe about how they learn and then review research on how people's ongoing assessments of their own learning are influenced by current performance and the subjective sense of fluency. We conclude with a discussion of societal assumptions and attitudes that can be counterproductive in terms of individuals becoming maximally effective learners. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 64 is November 30, 2012. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
Article
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We examine the effects of new technologies for digital photography on people's longer term storage and access to collections of personal photos. We report an empirical study of parents' ability to retrieve photos related to salient family events from more than a year ago. Performance was relatively poor with people failing to find almost 40% of pictures. We analyze participants' organizational and access strategies to identify reasons for this poor performance. Possible reasons for retrieval failure include: storing too many pictures, rudimentary organization, use of multiple storage systems, failure to maintain collections and participants' false beliefs about their ability to access photos. We conclude by exploring the technical and theoretical implications of these findings. Photography, PIM, Long term retrieval, Digital memories
Article
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This paper briefly reviews the evidence for multistore theories of memory and points out some difficulties with the approach. An alternative framework for human memory research is then outlined in terms of depth or levels of processing. Some current data and arguments are reexamined in the light of this alternative framework and implications for further research considered.
Article
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Forgetting is a normal and everyday occurrence that may sometimes reflect a complete loss of the mnemonic record or a failure to encode it in the first place. However, on many occasions with the help of cues we can eventually or suddenly recall a memory that seemed to be lost, thus highlighting the probability that many instances of "forgetting" may in fact reflect inaccessibility rather than true loss. We report here on our amnesic patient CR who presents an extreme example of this normal everyday forgetting. For 4 weeks, CR recorded regular personal autobiographical events both on a SenseCam (henceforth SC) and in a written diary form. Subjective and objective aspects of recall were measured each weekend both without any cues and then with either a SC or diary cue. We show that the SC enabled CR to recall significantly more detailed episodic memories than reading the diary and importantly we observed that the qualitative nature of these memories was different. We comment on the considerable potential of SC for therapeutic purposes.
Article
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SenseCam is a wearable digital camera that captures an electronic record of the wearer's day. It does this by automatically recording a series of still images through its wide-angle lens, and simultaneously capturing a log of data from a number of built-in electronic sensors. Subsequently reviewing a sequence of images appears to provide a powerful autobiographical memory cue. A preliminary evaluation of SenseCam with a patient diagnosed with severe memory impairment was extremely positive; periodic review of images of events recorded by SenseCam resulted in significant recall of those events. Following this, a great deal of work has been undertaken to explore this phenomenon and there are early indications that SenseCam technology may be beneficial to a variety of patients with physical and mental health problems, and is valuable as a tool for investigating normal memory through behavioural and neuroimaging means. Elsewhere, it is becoming clear that judicious use of SenseCam could significantly impact the study of human behaviour. Meanwhile, research and development of the technology itself continues with the aim of providing robust hardware and software tools to meet the needs of clinicians, patients, carers, and researchers. In this paper we describe the history of SenseCam, and the design and operation of the SenseCam device and the associated viewing software, and we discuss some of the ongoing research questions being addressed with the help of SenseCam.
Article
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Memory performance of 118 individuals who had been in close dating relationships for at least 3 months was studied. For a memory task ostensibly to be performed by pairs, some Ss were paired with their partners and some were paired with an opposite-sex partner from another couple. For some pairs a memory structure was assigned (e.g., 1 partner should remember food items, another should remember history items, etc.), whereas for others no structure was mentioned. Pairs studied together without communication, and recall was tested in individuals. Memory performance of the natural pairs was better than that of impromptu pairs without assigned structure, whereas the performance of natural pairs was inferior to that of impromptu pairs when structure was assigned.
Article
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The authors used paired-associate learning to investigate the hypothesis that the speed of generating an interactive image (encoding fluency) influenced 2 metacognitive judgments: judgments of learning (JOLs) and quality of encoding ratings (QUEs). Results from Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that latency of a keypress indicating successful image formation was negatively related to both JOLs and QUEs even though latency was unrelated to recall. Experiment 3 demonstrated that when concrete and abstract items were mixed in a single list, latency was related to concreteness, judgments, and recall. However, item concreteness and fluency influenced judgments independently of one another. These outcomes suggest an important role of encoding fluency in the formation of metacognitive judgments about learning and future recall.
Article
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This experiment examined 24- and 30-month-olds' understanding of photographs as reminders using a deferred imitation paradigm. The 24- and 30-month-olds visited a laboratory playroom and observed an experimenter demonstrating novel activities. Upon returning after a retention interval, half of the children viewed photographs depicting the activities they had viewed during their first visits as reminders of the event, as well as photographs of activities they had never seen. Children in both the reminder and the no-reminder groups were then asked to complete the originally modelled activities as a test of recall. Results indicate that although 30-month-olds recalled more activities than did 24-month-olds, children in the reminder condition at both ages recalled more activities than children in the no-reminder control condition. Results are discussed in terms of the development of representational understanding and long-term recall in young children.
Article
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This case study describes the use of a wearable camera, SenseCam, which automatically captures several hundred images per day, to aid autobiographical memory in a patient, Mrs B, with severe memory impairment following limbic encephalitis. By using SenseCam to record personally experienced events we intended that SenseCam pictures would form a pictorial diary to cue and consolidate autobiographical memories. After wearing SenseCam, Mrs B plugged the camera into a PC which uploaded the recorded images and allowed them to be viewed at speed, like watching a movie. In the control condition, a written diary was used to record and remind her of autobiographical events. After viewing SenseCam images, Mrs B was able to recall approximately 80% of recent, personally experienced events. Retention of events was maintained in the long-term, 11 months afterwards, and without viewing SenseCam images for three months. After using the written diary, Mrs B was able to remember around 49% of an event; after one month with no diary readings she had no recall of the same events. We suggest that factors relating to rehearsal/re-consolidation may have enabled SenseCam images to improve Mrs B's autobiographical recollection.
Article
How does volitional photo taking affect unaided memory for visual and auditory aspects of experiences? Across one field and three lab studies, we found that, even without revisiting any photos, participants who could freely take photographs during an experience recognized more of what they saw and less of what they heard, compared with those who could not take any photographs. Further, merely taking mental photos had similar effects on memory. These results provide support for the idea that photo taking induces a shift in attention toward visual aspects and away from auditory aspects of an experience. Additional findings were in line with this mechanism: Participants with a camera had better recognition of aspects of the scene that they photographed than of aspects they did not photograph. Furthermore, participants who used a camera during their experience recognized even nonphotographed aspects better than participants without a camera did. Meta-analyses including all reported studies support these findings.
Article
(This partially reprinted article originally appeared in Psychological Review, 1950, Vol 57, 94–207. The following abstract of the original article appeared in PA, Vol 24:5093.) An attempt has been made to clarify some issues in current learning theory by giving a statistical interpretation to the concepts of stimulus and response and by deriving quantitative laws that govern simple behavior systems. Dependent variables, in this formulation, are classes of behavior samples with common quantitative properties; independent variables are statistical distributions of environmental events. Laws of the theory state probability relations between momentary changes in behavioral and environmental variables. From this point of view it has been possible to derive simple relations between probability of response and several commonly used measures of learning, and to develop mathematical expressions describing learning in both classical conditioning and instrumental learning situations under simplified conditions.
Article
If you have ever tilted your head to perceive a rotated image, or programmed a smartphone to remind you of an upcoming appointment, you have engaged in cognitive offloading: the use of physical action to alter the information processing requirements of a task so as to reduce cognitive demand. Despite the ubiquity of this type of behavior, it has only recently become the target of systematic investigation in and of itself. We review research from several domains that focuses on two main questions: (i) what mechanisms trigger cognitive offloading, and (ii) what are the cognitive consequences of this behavior? We offer a novel metacognitive framework that integrates results from diverse domains and suggests avenues for future research.
Article
Experiences are vital to the lives and well-being of people; hence, understanding the factors that amplify or dampen enjoyment of experiences is important. One such factor is photo-taking, which has gone unexamined by prior research even as it has become ubiquitous. We identify engagement as a relevant process that influences whether photo-taking will increase or decrease enjoyment. Across 3 field and 6 lab experiments, we find that taking photos enhances enjoyment of positive experiences across a range of contexts and methodologies. This occurs when photo-taking increases engagement with the experience, which is less likely when the experience itself is already highly engaging, or when photo-taking interferes with the experience. As further evidence of an engagement-based process, we show that photo-taking directs greater visual attention to aspects of the experience one may want to photograph. Lastly, we also find that this greater engagement due to photo-taking results in worse evaluations of negative experiences.
Chapter
This chapter is concerned with the thinking processes of the intimate dyad. So, although we will focus from time to time on the thinking processes of the individual—as they influence and are influenced by the relationship with another person—our prime interest is in thinking as it occurs at the dyadic level. This may be dangerous territory for inquiry. After all, this topic resembles one that has, for many years now, represented something of a “black hole” in the social sciences—the study of the group mind. For good reasons, the early practice of drawing an analogy between the mind of the individual and the cognitive operations of the group has long been avoided, and references to the group mind in contemporary literature have dwindled to a smattering of wisecracks.
Article
With the continued integration of technology into people's lives, saving digital information has become an everyday facet of human behavior. In the present research, we examined the consequences of saving certain information on the ability to learn and remember other information. Results from three experiments showed that saving one file before studying a new file significantly improved memory for the contents of the new file. Notably, this effect was not observed when the saving process was deemed unreliable or when the contents of the to-be-saved file were not substantial enough to interfere with memory for the new file. These results suggest that saving provides a means to strategically off-load memory onto the environment in order to reduce the extent to which currently unneeded to-be-remembered information interferes with the learning and remembering of other information. © The Author(s) 2014.
Article
The most influential theory of group behavior that has ever been developed is currently in disfavor. This is the theory of the group mind. Social commentators once found it very useful to analyze the behavior of groups by the same expedient used in analyzing the behavior of individuals. The group, like the person, was assumed to be sentient, to have a form of mental activity that guides action. Rousseau (1767) and Hegel (1807) were the early architects of this form of analysis, and it became so widely used in the 19th and early 20th centuries that almost every early social theorist we now recognize as a contributor to modern social psychology held a similar view. McDougall, Ross, Durkheim, Wundt, and LeBon, to name just a few, were willing to assume that the group has a mental life that plays a part in the patterning of group behavior.
Article
This paper examines the ways in which photographic images can be used in narrative inquiry. After introducing the renewed interest in visual methodology the first section examines the ways in which researchers have utilised the camera or photographic images in research studies that are broadly similar to forms of narrative inquiry such as auto/biography, photographic journals, video diaries and photo-voice. It then draws on the published literature in relation to the author’s own empirical research into everyday photography. Here the extent to which the practices which are part of everyday photography can be seen as forms of story-telling and provide access to both narratives and counter-narratives, are explored. Ideas about memory and identity construction are considered. A critical area of argument centres on the relationship of images to other texts, and asks whether it is possible for photographs to narrate independent of written or oral word. It concludes with some remarks about how photographs can be used in research and as a resource for narrative inquiry. This necessitates a understanding of what it is people do with photographs in everyday life.
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore opposing theoretical viewpoints as they relate to and attempt to explain the effects of text underlining. The subjects were 67 provisionally admitted freshmen who were randomly assigned to one of four experimenter‐generated underlining or underlining and annotating conditions, or a fifth group who generated their own text marking. During two sessions, all subjects took a test of prior knowledge, read the assigned passage, and took a 24 item multiple‐choice test consisting of 12 high relevant and 12 low relevant questions. Data analysis supported the von Restorff effect as a theoretical explanation of text underlining since subjects in the high relevant groups answered more high relevant items correctly, while subjects in the low relevant groups answered more low relevant items correctly. Subjects who generated their own underlining did not perform significantly better than those who were given experimenter‐generated marking. Additionally, prior knowledge was not significantly related to the three dependent measures.
Article
"An attempt has been made to clarify some issues in current learning theory by giving a statistical interpretation to the concepts of stimulus and response and by deriving quantitative laws that govern simple behavior systems. Dependent variables, in this formulation, are classes of behavior samples with common quantitative properties; independent variables are statistical distributions of environmental events. Laws of the theory state probability relations between momentary changes in behavioral and environmental variables. From this point of view it has been possible to derive simple relations between probability of response and several commonly used measures of learning, and to develop mathematical expressions describing learning in both classical conditioning and instrumental learning situations under simplified conditions." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In monotonen Reihen artgleichen Materials, wie sie die klassische Gedächtnispsychologie verwendet hat, wirken intensive Kräfte, die die entstandene Lernwirkung aufzuheben tendieren. Reihenglieder, die nicht in so monotoner Häufung gegeben werden, erreichen deshalb weit höhere Reproduktionswerte als Glieder in Häufungsstellung. Indessen beruht die untersuchte Schädigung nicht einfach auf der Nachbarschaft vieler einander artgleicher Glieder, sondern auf Bereichsbildung und auf Absorption der Glieder in Bereichen, die durch gleichmäßigen Reihenverlauf begünstigt wird. Prüfung des Wiedererkennens anstatt der Reproduktion führt zu demselben Ergebnis, jedoch anscheinend in schwächerer Form. — Rückwirkende und vorwärtswirkende Hemmung sind Nebenformen im Prinzip der gleichen Schädigung. Dem niederen Grade, mit welchem die Bereichswirkung bei Prüfung des Wiedererkennens wirksam zu werden scheint, dürfte Ausbleiben einer vorwärtswirkenden und rückwirkenden Hemmung bei derselben Prüfungsart entsprechen.
Article
1. Überlegungen vonHöffding undvon Kries, sowie experimentelle Erfahrungen führen zu der Folgerung, daß die spezifischen Leistungen von Wiedererkennen und Reproduktion nur zustandekommen können, wenn zwischen aktuellem Geschehen und entsprechender Spur eine Zusammenhangsbildung nach Verwandtschaft stattgefunden hat. 2. Diese Zusammenhangsbildung nach Verwandtschaft ist formal analog der selektiven Ähnlichkeitswirkung bei Paarbildung im Wahrnehmungsfeld. Wenn daraufhin die Hypothese aufgestellt wird, daß es sich im Fall der Reproduktion um Paarbildung prinzipiell der gleichen Art, nur zwischen einem Prozeß und einer Spur, handelt, so müssen Zwischen-feldbedingungen spontane Reproduktion ähnlich beeinflussen, wie sie die spontane Entstehung von Paaren im Sehraum bestimmen. 3. In einer Anzahl verschiedener Verfahren wurde diese Folgerung jedesmal bestätigt gefunden. Die funktionellen Beziehungen von aktuellem Geschehen und Spuren scheinen hiernach einfachen Gestaltregeln auch dann zu folgen, wenn das aktuelle Geschehen nicht unmittelbar — wie bei einer Melodie — aus der jüngsten Vergangenheit hervorwächst.
Article
Spacing repetitions generally facilitates memory for the repeated events. This article describes a theory of spacing effects that uses the same principles to account for both facilitatory and inhibitory effects of spacing in a number of memory paradigms. Increasing the spacing between repetitions is assumed to result in the storage of greater amounts of information of three types or levels: contextual, structural (associative), and descriptive. Contextual information is encoded automatically, while the encoding of the structural and descriptive information depends on control processes utilized. Remembering involves accessing the stored information using retrieval cues containing information on any level that matches the stored information. The ultimate effectiveness of the spacing is controlled by this matching between the retrieval cues and the stored information. Previous experiments demonstrating the operation of these principles on the structural and descriptive levels are reviewed. Three new experiments are reported that illustrate interactions between stored information and retrieval cues based on contextual information.
Article
The advent of the Internet, with sophisticated algorithmic search engines, has made accessing information as easy as lifting a finger. No longer do we have to make costly efforts to find the things we want. We can "Google" the old classmate, find articles online, or look up the actor who was on the tip of our tongue. The results of four studies suggest that when faced with difficult questions, people are primed to think about computers and that when people expect to have future access to information, they have lower rates of recall of the information itself and enhanced recall instead for where to access it. The Internet has become a primary form of external or transactive memory, where information is stored collectively outside ourselves.
Article
Even when Ss fail to recall a solicited target, they can provide feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments about its availability in memory. Most previous studies addressed the question of FOK accuracy, only a few examined how FOK itself is determined, and none asked how the processes assumed to underlie FOK also account for its accuracy. The present work examined all 3 questions within a unified model, with the aim of demystifying the FOK phenomenon. The model postulates that the computation of FOK is parasitic on the processes involved in attempting to retrieve the target, relying on the accessibility of pertinent information. It specifies the links between memory strength, accessibility of correct and incorrect information about the target, FOK judgments, and recognition memory. Evidence from 3 experiments is presented. The results challenge the view that FOK is based on a direct, privileged access to an internal monitor.
Article
The major purpose of the review was to examine theoretical and empirical properties of the von Restorff phenomenon. A selection of studies that preceded the von Restorff article demonstrated that isolating an item by making it more vivid than the rest of the list yielded a positive influence on learning that item. Subsequent studies in a variety of contexts have been quite consistent in confirming that isolation facilitates learning of the isolated item. This review attempts to indicate some of the specific features and influences of the von Restorff effect. The final section of the article presents theoretical discussions and suggested attempts to explain the isolation effect. (2 p. ref.)
For creating travel memories, Russell Banks prefers words to images
  • R Banks
Banks, R. (2015, August). For creating travel memories, Russell Banks prefers words to images. PBS NewsHour,. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/creating-travel-memories-russellbanks-prefers-words-images/
Interpreting family photography as pictorial communication. In Image-based research: A sourcebook for qualitative researchers
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Chalfen, R. (1998). Interpreting family photography as pictorial communication. In Image-based research: A sourcebook for qualitative researchers. pp. 214-234.
Photos, photos everywhere. The New York Times Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com SenseCam: A wearable camera that stimulates and rehabilitates autobiographical memory
  • S Heyman
  • S Hodges
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  • K Wood
Heyman, S. (2015, July). Photos, photos everywhere. The New York Times,. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/ 2015/07/23/arts/international/photos-photos-everywhere.html Hodges, S., Berry, E., & Wood, K. (2011). SenseCam: A wearable camera that stimulates and rehabilitates autobiographical memory. Memory, 19(7), 685-696.
Can less be more? Contrasting limited, unlimited, and automatic picture capture for augmenting memory recall
  • E Niforatos
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  • G Ward
Niforatos, E., Cinel, C., Mack, C., Langheinrich, M., & Ward, G. (2017, June). Can less be more? Contrasting limited, unlimited, and automatic picture capture for augmenting memory recall. In Proceedings of the ACM on interactive, mobile, wearable and ubiquitous technologies.
Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum tour by reactivating them
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  • D L Schacter
St Jacques, P. L., & Schacter, D. L. (2013). Modifying memory: Selectively enhancing and updating personal memories for a museum tour by reactivating them. Psychological Science, 24(4), 537-543.
Photos, photos everywhere. The New York Times
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Heyman, S. (2015, July). Photos, photos everywhere. The New York Times,. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/ 2015/07/23/arts/international/photos-photos-everywhere.html