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Abstract

The objectives of the present study were to demonstrate the antihyperuricemic effect of triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice in vivo, and to examine its inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (XOD), inflammatory mediators and DPPH radicals in vitro. The water extract of triphala was determined to contain the total phenolics and total flavonoids of 317.6 ± 9.2 mg GAE/g and 7.73 ± 0.26 mg QE/g, respectively. Oral administrations of triphala significantly reduced the plasma uric acid levels of potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice at doses of 1,000 and 1,500 mg/kg, as compared with control (p<0.05). Moreover, both doses of triphala treatments markedly inhibited the formation of uric acid due to inhibition of XOD activity in liver homogenates extracted from the hyperuricemic mice by about 70-80%. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of enzyme-kinetic data showed that triphala exhibited non-competitive inhibition on XOD activity in vitro with an inhibitory constant (Ki) of 590 μg/mL. Furthermore, triphala significantly suppressed the mRNA expressions of COX-II, TNF-α and iNOS in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, as compared with control (p<0.05), and decreased the expression of TGF-β IC50 values for inhibition of DPPH radical formation was calculated to be 21.9 ± 2.50 μg/mL. Antioxidant activities of triphala were determined to be 0.81 ± 0.07 g TEAC/g and 6.78 ± 0.29 mmol/100g, respectively, as assessed by ABTS and FRAP assays. In conclusion, this study provided in vivo and in vitro mechanistic evidence for the antihyperuricemic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of triphala for the first time, rationalizing its therapeutic usage for the treatment of hyperuricemia of gout.

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... CTPT has a composition similar to triphala, which has been shown to be beneficial for gouty arthritis (Naik et al. 2006;Sabina and Rasool 2008;Kalaiselvan and Rasool 2015). We have reported the pharmacological mechanisms associated with triphala (Sato et al. 2017). Recently, CTPT has been advertised as a food supplement which is beneficial to several diseases, including hyperuricemia in gout. ...
... We have examined the antihyperuricemic effect of triphala in a previous study (Sato et al. 2017), and found that the 1000 mg/kg oral dose of triphala reduced plasma uric acid concentration by about 40% and exhibited about 80% reduction of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver, in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice as compared with control, similarly with CPTP. Therefore, it was suggested that triphala and CTPT have comparable hypouricemic effects. ...
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Context: Chatuphalatika (CTPT), is a Thai herbal formulation mixture of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia belerica Linn. (Combretaceae), T. chebula and the fruit of T. arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. CTPT is considered to exert anti-inflammatory and antihyperuricemic effects, but there have been no reports to demonstrate these pharmacological effects in a quantitative manner. Objectives: To investigate the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antihyperuricemic effects of CTPT. Materials and methods: Antioxidant activities of CTPT extracts were measured in vitro by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and anti-inflammatory effect by measuring inflammatory mediator production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 macrophages. The mechanism of the hypouricemic effect was investigated using oxonate-induced hyperuricemic ddY mice treated with oral administrations of CTPT at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Results: Antioxidant activities of CTPT measured by ABTS and FRAP assays were 1.35 g TEAC/g extract and 10.3 mmol/100 g extract, respectively. IC50 for the inhibition of DPPH radical was 13.8 µg/mL. CTPT (10 µg/mL) significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of TNF-α and iNOS in RAW 264.7 cells. Lineweaver–Burk analysis of the enzyme kinetics showed that CTPT inhibited xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in a noncompetitive manner with the Ki of 576.9 µg/mL. Oral administration of CTPT (1000 mg/kg) significantly suppressed uric acid production by inhibiting hepatic XOD activity, and decreased plasma uric acid levels in hyperuricemic mice by approximately 40% (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antihyperuricemic effects of CTPT in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a possibility of using CTPT for the treatment of hyperuricemia in gout.
... Murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, #TIB-71; Rockville, MD, USA) were cultured in DMEM plus 10% FBS and 1% P/S and incubated under a temperature 37 • C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO 2 incubator as previously described [29]. The cells were grown in culture dishes. ...
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Mitrephora sirikitiae Weeras., Chalermglin & R.M.K. Saunders has been reported as a rich source of lignans that contribute to biological activities and health benefits. However, cellular anti-inflammatory effects of M. sirikitiae leaves and their lignan compounds have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of M. sirikitiae leaves and their lignan constituents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with the methanol extract of M. sirikitiae leaves and its isolated lignans, including (-)-phylligenin (2) and 3¢,4-O-dimethylcedrusin (6) significantly decreased LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) productions. These inhibitory effects of the extract and isolated lignans on LPS-induced upregulation of PGE2 and NO productions were derived from the suppression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production, respectively. In addition, treatment with 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (3) and mitrephoran (5) was able to suppress LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion and synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. These results demonstrated that M. sirikitiae leaves and some isolated lignans exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of secretion and synthesis of PGE2, NO, and TNF-α.
... The obtained extracts were high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantitative analyzed for gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid, and chebulinic acid followed the slightly modified from the previous study. [20] All standard substances (Sigma Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) were dissolved in methanol (1 mg/mL) as stock solutions. The desired concentrations of the standard were subsequently diluted in methanol before used. ...
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Background: Triphala, the Ayurvedic herbal formulation composed of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Combretaceae), and Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) fruits. It has been reported the cholesterol-lowering effect that the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was proposed as a key mechanism of action. Since, triphala formulations in equal proportion (1:1:1) and different ratios of its three fruit constituents (vata, pitta, and kapha) have been prescribed by the traditional practitioners due to the patient's body conditions. The biological activities of each formulation are needed to evaluate. Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate phytochemicals, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect, and HMG-CoA reductase molecular modeling of triphala extracts. Materials and Methods: Four triphala extracts were prepared by decoction and determined the contents of gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid, and chebulinic acid as markers using high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. The in vitro HMG CoA reductase assay was performed based on ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and molecular modeling was simulated using Autodock 1.5.6 to characterize the binding energy, ligand efficacy, and H-bond interaction. Results: All extracts contained gallic acid and chebulagic acid in the high contents, whereas ellagic acid and chebulinic acid were found in a small amount. The enzyme assay revealed pitta extract (at 10 μg/mL) was the most potent enzyme inhibition of 58.4% ± 0.40% (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the modeling results indicated that these four markers can interact the enzyme with different configurations and binding affinities. Conclusion: Pitta extract appeared to be a potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. It was a potential natural product as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia.
... The obtained extracts were high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantitative analyzed for gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid, and chebulinic acid followed the slightly modified from the previous study. [20] All standard substances (Sigma Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) were dissolved in methanol (1 mg/mL) as stock solutions. The desired concentrations of the standard were subsequently diluted in methanol before used. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Triphala, the Ayurvedic herbal formulation composed of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Combretaceae), and Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) fruits. It has been reported the cholesterol-lowering effect that the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was proposed as a key mechanism of action. Since, triphala formulations in equal proportion (1:1:1) and different ratios of its three fruit constituents (vata, pitta, and kapha) have been prescribed by the traditional practitioners due to the patient's body conditions. The biological activities of each formulation are needed to evaluate. Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate phytochemicals, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect, and HMG-CoA reductase molecular modeling of triphala extracts. Materials and Methods: Four triphala extracts were prepared by decoction and determined the contents of gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid, and chebulinic acid as markers using high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. The in vitro HMG CoA reductase assay was performed based on ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and molecular modeling was simulated using Autodock 1.5.6 to characterize the binding energy, ligand efficacy, and H-bond interaction. Results: All extracts contained gallic acid and chebulagic acid in the high contents, whereas ellagic acid and chebulinic acid were found in a small amount. The enzyme assay revealed pitta extract (at 10 μg/mL) was the most potent enzyme inhibition of 58.4' ± 0.40' (P = 0.05). Moreover, the modeling results indicated that these four markers can interact the enzyme with different configurations and binding affinities. Conclusion: Pitta extract appeared to be a potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. It was a potential natural product as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia.
... mRNA expression of inflammatory genes RAW 264.7 cells were seeded at a density 1 × 10 6 cells/well in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and 1% P/S, and maintained in a humidified 37°C, 5% CO 2 incubator for 24 h, as previously described. [11] Then, the culture medium was replaced with DMEM supplemented with 1% FBS and 1% P/S. The RAW 264.7 cells were divided into four groups, as follows: (1) Normal cells not stimulated with LPS; (2) Cells stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 12 h; (3) Cells treated with L. strychnifolium extract (1 μg/ml) for 4 h, followed by stimulation with 1 μg/ml LPS for 12 h; (4) Cells treated with 0.1 μM dexamethasone (as positive control) for 4 h, followed by stimulation with 1 μg/ml LPS for 12 h. ...
Article
Coalescence of traditional medicine Ayurveda and in silico technology is a rigor for supplementary development of future-ready effective traditional medicine. Ayurveda is a popular traditional medicine in South Asia, emanating worldwide for the treatment of metabolic disorders and chronic illness. Techniques of in silico biology are not much explored for the investigation of a variety of bioactive phytochemicals of Ayurvedic herbs. Drug repurposing, reverse pharmacology, and polypharmacology in Ayurveda are areas in silico explorations that are needed to understand the rich repertoire of herbs, minerals, herbo-minerals, and assorted Ayurvedic formulations. This review emphasizes exploring the concept of Ayurveda with in silico approaches and the need for Ayurinformatics studies. It also provides an overview of in silico studies done on phytoconstituents of some important Ayurvedic plants, the utility of in silico studies in Ayurvedic phytoconstituents/formulations, limitations/challenges, and prospects of in silico studies in Ayurveda. This article discusses the convergence of in silico work, especially in the least explored field of Ayurveda. The focused coalesce of these two domains could present a predictive combinatorial platform to enhance translational research magnitude. In nutshell, it could provide new insight into an Ayurvedic drug discovery involving an in silico approach that could not only alleviate the process of traditional medicine research but also enhance its effectiveness in addressing health care.
Article
Context Direct evidence of Triphala-drug interactions has not been provided to date. Objective This study was aimed to determine the effects of Triphala on cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro, and to investigate pharmacokinetic interactions of Triphala with CYP-probes in rats. Materials and methods Effects of Triphala on the activities of CYP isoforms and P-gp were examined using human liver microsomes (HLMs) and Caco-2 cells, respectively. Pharmacokinetic interactions between Triphala and CYP-probes (i.e., phenacetin and midazolam) were further examined in rats. Results Triphala extract inhibited the activities of CYP isoforms in the order of CYP1A2>3A4>2C9>2D6 with the IC50 values of 23.6 ± 9.2, 28.1 ± 9.8, 30.41 ± 16.7 and 93.9 ± 27.5 μg/mL, respectively in HLMs. It exhibited a non-competitive inhibition of CYP1A2 and 2C9 with the Ki values of 23.6 and 30.4 μg/mL, respectively, while its inhibition on CYP3A4 was competitive manner with the Ki values of 64.9 μg/mL. The inhibitory effects of Triphala on CYP1A2 and 3A4 were not time-dependent. Moreover, Triphala did not affect the P-gp activity in Caco-2 cells. Triphala, after its oral co-administration at 500 mg/kg, increased the bioavailabilities of phenacetin and midazolam by about 61.2% and 40.7%, respectively, in rats. Discussion and conclusions Increases observed in the bioavailabilities of phenacetin and midazolam after oral co-administration of Triphala in rats provided a direct line of evidence to show Triphala-drug interactions via inhibition of CYP1A and CYP3A activities, respectively. These results, together with the lack of time-dependency of CYP 1A2 and 3A4 inhibition in vitro, suggested that the inhibitory effect of Triphala is primarily reversible.
Article
Background: Triphala extract is a well known medicinal herbal formula which is usually prescribed by Thai traditional doctors to adjust the physiological functions of the body. Previous studies have reported that Triphala has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemia and anticancer properties. Though this herbal recipe is commonly used in Thailand, its human safety, especially in the oral form, has not been studied. We therefore conducted a clinical trial (Phase I). Objective: This study evaluated the safety of administering the aqueous extract of Triphala to healthy volunteers at 2500 mg/d. Design, setting, participants and interventions: An open-label, single-arm trial was conducted at Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand, between July 2017 and July 2018. The study enrolled 10 male and 10 female healthy volunteers; all were given Triphala (water extract; five capsules of 500 mg each) orally, once a day, at bedtime, for four consecutive weeks. Main outcome measures: Signs and symptoms, physical examinations, hematology and blood chemistry were assessed at the beginning of the trial and every week thereafter, for four consecutive weeks. After finishing the trial, on day 28, all volunteers were invited to a follow-up session on day 35 to evaluate the safety of the herbal recipe using the same measurements. Results: At the oral dose of 2500 mg/d, Triphala had no serious adverse effects in healthy volunteers. Moreover, it was found to have significantly improved the volunteers' high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels on day 35 and also reduced their blood sugar levels on days 14 and 35. Conclusions: We conclude that aqueous extract of Triphala is safe for healthy volunteers and that it elevates HDL-C levels and lowers blood sugar. Further clinical study should investigate its effects on HDL-C and blood sugar levels among the dyslipidemic and prediabetic groups. Trial registration: This trial was registered in the Thai Clinical Trial Registry with the identifier TCTR20180423002.
Article
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Antihyperuricemic effect Aquilaria crassna leaf extract has been commercially advertised to markedly reduce uric acid level after drinking with hot water in Thailand, whereas its experimental evidence has not been published yet. The present study was therefore conducted to investigate pharmacological activities of the water extract of A. crassna leaves, focusing on its inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activity in vitro and antihyperuricemic effect in plasma uric acid level in oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. Moreover, the residual xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect in the liver of mice treated with the extract was also determined. We found that A. crassna inhibited xanthine oxidase activity in with IC50 of 1.35±0.03 mg/ml. LineweaverBurk analysis showed that the inhibition of xanthine oxidase was non-competitive with Ki of 1.72 mg/ml. Oral administration of 3000 mg/kg of A. crassna extract significantly prevented the increase of uric acid level induced by potassium oxonate in mice, however, the lower doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg) showed no effect. Livers of mice treated with the extract at the doses of 1000 and 3000 mg/kg significantly decreased the production of uric acid through inhibition on xanthine oxidase activity approximately 47.2% and 63.6%, as compared with untreated hyperuricemic mice (P<0.01). However, the concentrations of A. crassna of which exhibit antihyperuricemic effect observed in the study were much higher than that of recommend dosage written in the commercial, therefore, we concluded that A. crassna leaves extract could not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity and the effect on urate excretion in the kidney by long term administration the extract is further needed.
Article
The present study was aimed to investigate the anti-arthritic effect of triphala and its underlying mechanism on adjuvant-induced rat model. For comparison purpose, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was used. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (0.1 ml) into the right hind paw of the Wistar albino rats. Triphala (100 mg/kg body weight [bwt]) was administered intraperitoneally (from 11th to 20th day) after the arthritis induction. Arthritis induction increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (LPO and NO), elastase, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-β, IL-17, IL-6 and MCP-1), inflammatory marker enzymes (iNOS and COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and transcription factors (NF-kB p65 and AP-1) in the paw tissues of rats. The levels of bone collagen were found to decrease with increased urinary constituents (hydroxyproline and total glycosaminoglycans) in arthritic rats. In addition, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed increased expression of NF-kBp65 and COX-2 in the paw tissues of arthritic rats. However, administration of triphala significantly inhibited the biochemical and molecular alterations in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats compared to indomethacin (3 mg/kg bwt) as evidenced by the radiological and histopathological analysis. In conclusion, our results suggest that triphala administration ameliorate bone and cartilage degradation during rheumatoid arthritis.
Article
Context: Triphala, an Indian Ayurvedic herbal formulation which contains Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Combretaceae) and Emblica officinalis L. (Phyllanthaceae), is used for treating bowel-related complications, inflammatory disorders, and gastritis. Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of triphala in arthritis-induced rats. For comparison purpose, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was used. Materials and methods: Arthritis was induced in Wistar albino rats by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 ml) into the foot pad of right hind paw. Triphala (100 mg/kg b wt, i.p.) was administered from day 11 to 18 after the administration of complete Freund's adjuvant. The activities/levels of lysosomal enzymes, glycoproteins, antioxidant status, and lipid peroxidation were determined in the paw tissues of arthritic rats. In addition, the inflammatory mediators were also measured in both the serum and the paw tissue of arthritic rats. Results: The levels/activities of lipid peroxidation (∼41.5%), glycoproteins (hexose ∼43.3%, hexosamine ∼36.5%, and sialic acid ∼33.7%), lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase ∼52.4%, β-galactosidase ∼22.9%, N-acetyl β-glucosaminidase ∼22.1%, and cathepsin-D ∼27.7%) were found to be decreased and the antioxidant status (SOD ∼75.6%, CAT ∼62.7%, GPx ∼55.8%, GST ∼82.1%, and GSH ∼72.7%) was increased in the paw tissues of triphala-treated arthritic rats. In addition, the inflammatory mediator levels in serum (TNF-α ∼75.5%, IL-1β ∼99%, VEGF ∼75.2%, MCP-1 ∼76.4%, and PGE2 ∼69.9%) and in paw tissues (TNF-α ∼71.6%, IL-1β ∼75.5%, VEGF ∼55.1%, MCP-1 ∼69.1%, and PGE2 ∼66.8%) were found to be suppressed. Conclusion: Triphala has a promising anti-inflammatory effect in the inflamed paw of arthritis-induced rats.
Article
In order to understand the factors responsible for the potent antioxidant and radioprotecting ability of triphala, it has been evaluated for radical scavenging ability, xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and phytochemical (phenolics) content. The radical scavenging experiments were carried out using fast reaction kinetic tools and the reactivity of triphala towards different radicals such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, DPPH and ABTS • •- - was determined. When triphala was tested for superoxide radical scavenging activity using xan- thine and xanthine oxidase assay, it was observed that in addition to reacting with superoxide radical, it also inhibited uric acid formation, indicative of xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibitory activity. Phytochemical ana - lysis showed that triphala is rich in phenols/polyphenols (38 ± ± 3%) and tannins (35 ± ± 3%), while flavonoids were found to be absent. HPLC analysis showed that triphala contains 73 ± ± 5 mg gallic acid per gram of triphala, which was found to increase to 150 ± ± 5 mg/g upon acid hydrolysis. Relevance of these studies to the antioxidant and radio protection properties of triphala has also been discussed.
Article
Guava fruit extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activity measured in methanol extract (AOAM), antioxidant activity measured in dichloromethane extract (AOAD), ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents. The ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays were used for determining both AOAM and AOAD, whereas the ORAC was used for determining only AOAM. Averaged AOAM [μM Trolox equivalent (TE)/g fresh mass (FM)] were 31.1, 25.2, 26.1, and 21.3 as determined by the ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays, respectively. Averaged AOAD (μM TE/g FM) were 0.44, 0.27, and 0.16 as determined by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays, respectively. AOAM determined by all assays were well correlated with ascorbic acid (0.61⩽r⩽0.92) and total phenolics (0.81⩽r⩽0.97) and also among themselves (0.68⩽r⩽0.97) but had negative correlation with total carotenoids (−0.67⩽r⩽−0.81).
Article
This study was designed to focus on the potential stress that xanthine oxidase could produce in copper-deficient rats fed fructose. Fructose consumption results in an excess production of uric acid due to an increased degradation of nucleotides. The enzyme xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of both hypoxanthine and xanthine. During the oxidation process free radicals are generated, which in turn, induce lipid peroxidation and premature death. Allopurinol -- a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase -- could alleviate the combined effects of fructose feeding and copper deficiency. Twenty-five male rats were fed for 4 weeks from weaning a copper-deficient or adequate diet containing fructose. Twelve rats were given a daily oral dose of 5 mg allopurinol/100 g b.wt. Two copper-deficient rats that were not treated with allopurinol died prematurely during the fourth week of the study. No mortality occurred in the group of copper-deficient rats that had been treated with allopurinol. Anemia was alleviated by allopurinol, which in turn, could be responsible for improved growth rate. Allopurinol was effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity in vivo as measured by the dramatic reduction of uric acid production. Lipid peroxidation, however, was not affected by allopurinol. It is concluded that the beneficial effects of allopurinol in copper deficiency do not appear to be related to prevention of oxygen radicals, but rather, to the protection against the catabolic destruction of purines, which in turn, increases nucleotide pool.
Article
In the present study, we have investigated the efficacy of Indian ayurvedic herbal formulation Triphala on monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice; an experimental model for gouty arthritis and compared it with that of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Indomethacin. The anti-arthritic effect of Triphala was evaluated by measuring changes in the paw volume, lysosomal enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-alpha in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. The levels of beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL). Triphala treatment (1 gm/kg/b.w. orally) significantly inhibited the paw volume and the levels of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha; however the anti-oxidant status was found to be increased in plasma, liver and spleen of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice when compared to control mice. In addition, beta-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase level were reduced in Triphala (100 microg/ml) treated monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated that Triphala exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect against gouty arthritis.
Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of triphala – A literature review
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Free radical scavenging reactions and phytochemical analysis of triphala, an ayurvedic formulation Allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, reduces uric acid levels and modifies the signs associated with copper deficiency in rats fed fructose
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MTT assay for cell viability: intracellular localization of the formazan product is in lipid droplets Comparison of ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays for estimating antioxidant activity from guava fruit extracts
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