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The Conservation of Mushroom in Ancient Egypt through the Present

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Abstract

Ancient Egyptians believed that the mushrooms were plants of immortality and called them “a gift from the God Osiris”. Egyptian pharaohs proclaimed mushrooms to be food reserved only for royalty; common people were not even allowed to touch them. Conservation of nature by ancient Egyptians was recorded on walls of temples and papyrus sheets. Egypt considered as the cradle of mycology when ancient Egyptians produced a number of hieroglyphic depictions of psychedelic mushrooms on temple’s walls and through hieroglyphic texts throughout the country. The majority of temples with countless pillars, e.g. Philae temple, are like huge mushrooms and both ancient Egyptian crowns, white and triple, were inspired from the primordia of Psilocybe cubensis. Many old dynastic ear studs and other structures obviously resembled mushrooms. The Hearst (1550 B.C.) prescriptions 89-92 deal with the treatment of skin abrasions or contusions. They recommend the application of moldy bread crumbs, salt, and rags. Here one may assume an ancient observation on the possibility of molds being helpful in preventing skin infections in connection with abrasions. Arab society for fungal conservation designed a series of mycological expeditions to underpin the achievement of specific fungal conservation aims. In 2013, the expeditions were operated for the first time in Egypt in which various habitats were screened in Nile Delta. Macrobasidiomycete specimens were collected from Nile Delta many times since February 2013. Order Agaricales came first among all surveyed orders by recording 80% of occurrence and Agaricaceae (30%) among all families of Agaricales. The Ganodermataceae was the most represented family in the Polyporales. The most common species of Ganoderma were G. resinaceum Boud., G. lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. and G. mbrekobenum Otto et al. on Causarina, palm and citrus trees. Ganoderma species were identified by morphological and molecular means. Dried basidiomata and pure culture of saprobic species were deposited in the Fungarium of Arab Society for Fungal Conservation, Suez Canal University, Egypt. Although basic research in Egypt is still needed to advance knowledge of fungi to the level of other kingdoms and the multitude of well�known species all clearly illustrate that Egyptian macrofungi are far from data deficient. Given the enormous potential of fungi to provide novel pharmaceuticals, chemicals and new technologies, the biotechnology industry has a vast, largely untapped resource for discovery of new chemicals and novel processes. It is important to protect the agroecosystems and fungi to ensure that rights of indigenous people to an appropriate share in resulting benefits are recognized. Egyptian mycologists are responsible to deliver this message to public and politicians. Egyptian conservation legislation is strongly focused on protecting animals, plants and fungi are still neglected. To solve such problems in Egypt collaboration between mycologists, amateur fungal groups, Arab Society for Fungal Conservation, Egyptian protectorates and Egyptian Environmental Affair Agency. The Mohamed bin Zayed Fund is thanked for support in producing this work.
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Background Few studies have assessed the epidemiology of hallucinogenic substance use among racial and ethnic groups of varying age cohorts. Use of psychedelic substances may differ among people of color (POC), due to factors such as stigma and discriminatory drug enforcement practices against POC. The lack of inclusion of POC in psychedelic research further underscores the importance of identifying differences in use among racial/ethnic groups and age cohorts. Methods Data from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was used for this analysis ( N = 56,313, unweighted), representative of the non-institutionalized U.S. population. Proportions of lifetime hallucinogen use by race/ethnicity were compared. Proportions of past year rates of use were compared to examine differences by race/ethnicity and age cohort. Results Approximately 15.9% of the U.S. population over 12 had used a hallucinogen at some point in their lifetime and 2.0% had used in the past year. Lifetime hallucinogen use was most prevalent among non-Hispanic White and multi-racial individuals, while Black/African Americans reported the lowest rates of use. White and multi-racial groups also reported the highest proportions of past year use among 12–34 year olds, and White individuals reported the highest proportions among 35–49 year olds. Hispanic individuals reported higher proportions of use among the 12–17 cohort, but lower proportions among the 26–49 year old cohorts. Black/African Americans reported the lowest rates of past year use among the 12–25 year old cohorts. 50+ and older cohorts reported the lowest rates of hallucinogen use in the past year. Limitations Data is cross-sectional and self-reported. “Race” is a social construction is subject to change over time, and NSDUH ethnoracial categories are limited. Institutionalized populations are not included in the study. Conclusions Significant differences in hallucinogen use among ethnoracial groups by substance and age cohorts were observed. Findings from this work may inform education, interventions, and therapeutic psychedelic research.
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Resumen Antecedentes y objetivo La intoxicación por hongos no es muy frecuente pero sí potencialmente grave: su sintomatología es ambigua y tardía, requiere de habilidad y conocimientos para identificar el agente causante, etc. Disponer de herramientas de consulta rápida y eficiente puede ser una ayuda valiosa en medios como urgencias y atención primaria. Teniendo en cuenta la utilización generalizada de dispositivos móviles, el formato app se presenta como un diseño óptimo. Hasta donde alcanza el conocimiento de los autores, existen pocas aplicaciones dedicadas a la toxicología y menos a los micetismos. El objetivo del desarrollo de MicoApp es proporcionar una herramienta que facilite, sin sustituir su criterio clínico, el diagnóstico clínico y de laboratorio de los facultativos ante una posible intoxicación por hongos. Materiales y métodos MicoApp ha sido desarrollada en un entorno key responsive adaptable a ordenadores personales y dispositivos móviles (smartphones, tabletas...) para ser utilizada con facilidad, relacionando aspectos de toxicología, medicina clínica, medicina de laboratorio y un diseño gráfico optimizado. Resultados y conclusiones Es un producto de distribución gratuita, orientado al paciente, que contempla las intoxicaciones más frecuentes, los hongos más representativos y que contextualiza los cuadros clínicos y resultados de laboratorio en esta problemática. El contenido de MicoApp puede ser traducido, ampliado o enmendado fácilmente, si ello fuera necesario.
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