ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Abstract Background: Malignant pleural effusion is a common problem in patients with advanced malignancies and compromised the short-lived survival of these patients. These effusions can be resistant to the treatment such as systemic chemotherapy, pleurodesis with sclerosantagents and recurrent drainage. Therefore, new therapeutic options are needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intrapleural chemotherapy with Cisplatin for the management of MPE in lung, breast and mesothelioma cancers. Materials and methods: Twenty-one cancer patients with MPE were enrolled in this study. Cisplatin was injected through a catheter at a dose of 30mg /m2, and this procedure was performed 3 times at intervals of two weeks. Patients were evaluated for side effects and responses to the treatment every two weeks and one month after the last treatment. Results: Among the assessable 18 patients, complete response and partial response were 9 (50%) and 4 (22.2%) patients, respectively (overall response rate 72.2%). Dyspnea was improved in 13 (72.2%) patients and had no change in 5 (27.8%) patients. One patient did not refer after the first intrapleural injection. Also two patients died during the study. None of the patients had side effects of grade 3 and 4. Conclusion: The results of this trial study showed that using of Intrapleural Chemotherapy with cisplatin in the management of patients with MPE in lung, breast and mesothelioma cancers is effective and safe.
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
SM Lung Cancer:
Research &
Therapy
Gr up
SM
How to cite this article Abedini A, Taghavi K, Seyedi SR, Fakharian A,
Masouleh SK, Kiani A. Comparison of Correlation of Farsi Translation of CAT
and SGRQ in Patients with COPD. SM Lung Cancer Res Ther. 2017; 1(1):
1003.
OPEN ACCESS
Introduction
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) causes signicant morbidity and mortality
worldwide, they are considered a huge burden on patients’ lives. Management of COPD has been
under prime focus lately as they impair the quality of life.
Management of chronic respiratory diseases was based on information obtained from
spirometry for years [1]. As these information could not depict a real image of patient’s wellbeing
[2] and the importance of measuring disease impact on life was known [1], Health Related Quality
of Life questioners (HRQL) were developed as a tool for assessment of health status and monitoring
quality of life in such patients [3].
Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) proposed symptomatic health
status questions like Dyspnea measurement and the frequency of exacerbations in addition to
objective tests like spirometry for COPD management [4]. Nowadays quality of life is considered
a goal in management of chronic respiratory diseases. For this aim to be achieved, numerous
questioners regarding quality of life has been introduced to measure the impact of COPD on daily
life and to evaluate the eectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation or to predict possible disease
exacerbation [5-8].
Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) has been traditionally known as gold standard
for evaluation of health status in this group of patients. e questionnaire is self-administered and
consist of 76 items in categories; activity, symptom and impact [3]. Symptom related questions
measures cough frequency, sputum production, wheeze or Dyspnea. Activity segment targets daily
activity limitations and impact segment try to evaluate the secondary consequences like depression
and involvement in everyday life. Each question has its own value ranged from zero (the best
condition) to 100 (the worst condition). Score for SGRQ is calculated for each segment separately [7].
Total score summarize the scores of all segments [7]. Although SGRQ is valid and reproducible [9] it
is rather time consuming and complicated and needs specialists to calculate scores, so it has limited
Research Article
Comparison of Correlation of Farsi
Translation of CAT and SGRQ in
Patients with COPD
Atefeh Abedini1, Kimia Taghavi1, Seyed Reza Seyedi1, Atefeh Fakharian1, Shahram
Kharabian Masouleh1, Arda Kiani2*
1Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung
Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases
(NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article Information
Received date: Aug 30, 2017
Accepted date: Sep 25, 2017
Published date: Sep 29, 2017
*Corresponding author
Arda Kiani, Tracheal Diseases Research
Center, National Research Institute
of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases
(NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran 1956944413,
Iran, Email: ardakiani@sbmu.ac.ir
Distributed under Creative Commons
CC-BY 4.0
Keywords COPD; Dyspneal; Spirometry
Abstract
Background: CAT and SGRQ are two health related quality of life questioners validated for application in
patients with COPD. Our purpose is to study the correlation of these questioners in COPD patients considering
separate features of disease including symptom, activity, impact and total score.
Material and Method: Between December 2014 and December 2015 validated Farsi translation of CAT
and SGRQ were administered to patients with clinically proven COPD in referral center of Masih Daneshvari
hospital, Tehran-Iran. The components of SGRQ score including symptom, activity, impact and total scores were
calculated using excel based SGRQ calculator. Informed consent was obtained from patients. CAT questions
similar to SGRQ were categorized into symptom (question number 1 to 3), activity (question number 4 and
5), and impact (question number 6 to 8), based on the meaning and concept of the questions. All data was
processed by spearman correlation coefcient analysis using SPSS software version 22.
Results: Ninety nine patients [73 male (73.7%) and 26 female (26.3%)] with COPD were studied. Mean age
was 57.46 ± 12.17 years old (31-87). The correlation between CAT and SGRQ in all components of questioners
including symptom (0.792), activity (r=0.657), impact (r=0.467) and total score (r=0.673) was signicant (p<
0.001).
Conclusion: Total scores of Farsi translation of CAT and SGRQ correlated signicantly as well as
the subdivided questions including symptom, activity and impact. Despite less number of questions, CAT
questionnaire is able to reliably assess the different aspects of COPD patients.
Citation: Abedini A, Taghavi K, Seyedi SR, Fakharian A, Masouleh SK, Kiani A.
Comparison of Correlation of Farsi Translation of CAT and SGRQ in Patients with COPD.
SM Lung Cancer Res Ther. 2017; 1(1): 1003. Page 2/4
Gr up
SM
Copyright Kiani A
application in primary care [10,11]. Aer its introduction, COPD
assessment test (CAT) is now considered a simple patient-completed
questionnaire and has been suggested as an easy and practical tool in
comparison to SGRQ with acceptable validity [12-14]. CAT is also
sensitive to changes in health status following an exacerbation and
can measure responses to rehabilitation eectively [11,15]. It eases
the relation between patient and physician in everyday practice.
CAT is composed of eight questions with six pointed scale (0 to
5) for each question in which zero means the best condition and 5
means the worst and total score is out of 40. CAT score has strong
correlation with SGRQ in term of validity in COPD patients [14].
Also it is shown to sensitively change according to disease course
and can identify possible exacerbations as well [16]. As mentioned
above CAT score reported as total score and is not split up to separate
parts like SGRQ. However the response to each item may be used to
estimate areas of life dominantly aected by respiratory disease.
In current study we divided CAT questions into three categories
of symptom related, activity related and impact oriented questions
according to the concept of each question, to evaluate the correlation
of each category between CAT and SGRQ.
Method
Between December 2014 and December 2015 validated Farsi
translation of CAT and SGRQ were administered to patients with
clinically proven COPD in Masih Daneshvari hospital, a referral
center for respiratory diseases in Tehran-Iran. ose subjects who
failed to complete the questionnaires for any reason were excluded.
e components of SGRQ score include symptom, activity, impact
and total score were calculated using excel based SGRQ calculator
by permission. CAT questions similar to SGRQ were categorized
into symptom (question number 1 to 3), activity (question number 4
and 5), and impact (question number 6 to 8), based on the meaning
and concept of the questions. Total score for CAT was calculated as
well. e reported scores in CAT questionnaire were compared to the
same score calculated in SGRQ. All data was processed by spearman
correlation coecient analysis using SPSS soware version 22.
Result
Ninety nine patients [73 male (73.7%) and 26 female (26.3%)]
with known COPD successfully completed both CAT and SGRQ
questionnaires were included in our study. Mean age was 57.46 ±
12.17 years old (31-87). Descriptive statistics for CAT, SGRQ and
their subgroup scores for symptom, activity and impact are shown
in Table 1.
e correlation between scores calculated in SGRQ as well as
CAT and their categorized components were analyzed by linear
regression. Spearman coecient (r), p value and linear regression
model in correlation between CAT and SGRQ is shown in Table 2.
As presented in this table in all components of questioners as well as
Total score the correlation between CAT and SGRQ was signicant
(p< 0.001) (Figures 1-4).
Table 1: Descriptive statistics for CAT.
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
CAT.S 99 4.00 15.00 10.6061 3.12272
CAT.A 99 5.00 15.00 11.3434 2.77070
CAT.I 99 .00 10.00 5.5051 2.31840
CAT. Total 99 15.00 40.00 27.0909 6.02222
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
SJ.S 99 20.40 100.00 75.5448 17.85951
SJ.A 99 38.40 100.00 78.5863 14.38860
SJ.I 99 30.70 99.38 64.8973 15.02080
SJ.Total 99 40.40 93.90 70.8436 14.69223
Valid N (list
wise) 99
Table 2: Correlation between CAT and SGRQ.
Figure 2: The positive correlation between total, symptom, activity and
impact scores between CAT and SGRQ respectively.
Figure 1: The positive correlation between total, symptom, activity and
impact scores between CAT and SGRQ respectively.
Citation: Abedini A, Taghavi K, Seyedi SR, Fakharian A, Masouleh SK, Kiani A.
Comparison of Correlation of Farsi Translation of CAT and SGRQ in Patients with COPD.
SM Lung Cancer Res Ther. 2017; 1(1): 1003. Page 3/4
Gr up
SM
Copyright Kiani A
Discussion
In current study we applied a question categorizing method
and divided CAT questions into 3 categories of symptom, activity
and impact score in order to study comparability of these scores
with scores calculated in SGRQ. According to our results symptom,
activity, impact and total scores in CAT questions were comparable
with similar SGRQ scores in our patients, as statistical analysis using
linear regression demonstrated signicant linear relationship between
each paired scores calculated in these questionnaires (p<0.001).
Knowing the signicance of COPD impact on patients’
lives contributed to development of health related quality of life
questionnaires is frequently used as assessment and monitoring
tools nowadays [1,3]. SGRQ has been known for years as the old
standard for health status assessment in COPD patients as it is a valid
and reproducible questionnaire [7,9]. is questionnaire however
is complicated, time consuming and requires specialist for score
calculation [10]. As a result, CAT, an easier and less time consuming
questionnaire with acceptable validity has been in center of attention
in recent years [14]. A study by Tsiligianni et al. introduced CAT and
clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ) as both reliable and valid tools
for health status assesment in patients with COPD [1]. Dodd et al.
conducted a study to determine possible changes in CAT score aer
pulmonary rehabilitation in 261 patients with COPD [11]. According
to their results CAT scores improved with pulmonary rehabilitation
in COPD patients and was a sensitive measure for distinguishing
categories of response to pulmonary rehabilitation. Jones et al.
investigated CAT sensitivity to changes in patients’ health status aer
COPD exacerbation [15]. Results indicated that CAT score is sensitive
and as responsive as more complex questionnaires to pulmonary
rehabilitation in COPD patients. Another investigation by Lee et al
introduced CAT as simple tool for identifying increased exacerbation
risk [16]. Results of this study, in other words, gave CAT a preventive
value given the questionnaire’s ability in recognizing those at risk of
an exacerbation.
Ringbaek et al. compared CAT, CCQ and SGRQ in terms of
quality of life assessment ability [17]. Results supported correlation
between SGRQ and CAT in patients suering from severe COPD
with advantage of CAT being easily completed by patients themselves.
Although CAT is a valid tool in health status assessment in
COPD patients, the questions are not split-up and a total score is
only reported, However SGRQ reports 3 separate scores according to
dierent segments in questionnaire targeting dierent aspects of life.
is scoring system can determine disease eects on dierent aspect
of life more specically. Nevertheless CAT seems to lack this ability as
only total score is reported.
Given widespread use of CAT questionnaire, nowadays as a
reliable, valid and sensitive assessment tool with possible predictive
ability for exacerbation as well as an easy and patient centered
questionnaire and considering our results at the same time, the idea
of categorizing questions may give CAT an additional ability of
specically predicting disease eect of dierent aspects of patients’
live. ese characteristics will make CAT a more comprehensive tool
and expands its application in dierent clinical settings.
Finally it should be mentioned that we administered standard
Farsi version of questionnaire in current study, considering the
results of a study conducted in our hospital, Farsi version of SGRQ is
consistent and compatible with the original English version and can
be used for quality of life evaluation in COPD patients(18, 19).
Limited number of subjects and patient selection from a single
center may be the limitation of our study. Of course additional studies
including more patients are required for determining the usefulness
of CAT categorized scoring strategy to specically assess the dierent
aspects of COPD patients.
Conclusion
Total scores of Farsi translation of CAT and SGRQ correlate
signicantly as well as their subdivided questions including
symptom, activity and impact. Despite little number of questions
CAT questionnaire is able to reliably assess the dierent aspects of
COPD patients.
Figure 4: The positive correlation between total, symptom, activity and
impact scores between CAT and SGRQ respectively.
Figure 3: The positive correlation between total, symptom, activity and
impact scores between CAT and SGRQ respectively.
Citation: Abedini A, Taghavi K, Seyedi SR, Fakharian A, Masouleh SK, Kiani A.
Comparison of Correlation of Farsi Translation of CAT and SGRQ in Patients with COPD.
SM Lung Cancer Res Ther. 2017; 1(1): 1003. Page 4/4
Gr up
SM
Copyright Kiani A
References
1. Pourdowlat G, Mosto, SS. Is There a New Indication and Route of
Administration for an Old Drug in Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) Secondary
to COPD? A Pilot Study. Respirology. 2013; 18: 27.
2. Fakharian A, Talischi F, Tafti SF. Evaluation of the validity and reliability of the
CAT (COPD assessment test) questionnaire among COPD patients attending
MasihDaneshvari Hospital. European Respiratory Journal. 2015; 46: PA725.
3. Farzanegan R, Farzanegan B, Alehashem M, Zangi M, Niakan Kalhori SR,
Sheikhy K, et al. Item Selection and Content Validity of the Risk Factors
of Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis Observation Questionnaire for ICU-
Admitted Patients. Tanaffos. 2017; 16: 22-33.
4. Jamaati HR, Malekmohammad M, Nayebi M, Mohammadi H, Teymori R,
Pajooh P. Relationship between the Severity of Airway Obstruction and
Inspiratory Muscles Dysfunction in COPD Patients. Tanaffos. 2009; 8: 37-42.
5. Tavakol M, Mohammadinejad P, Baiardini I, Braido F, Gharagozlou M,
Aghamohammadi A, et al. The persian version of the chronic urticaria quality
of life questionnaire: factor analysis, validation, and initial clinical ndings.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014; 13: 278-285.
6. Kaplan RM, Atkins CJ, Timms R. Validity of a quality of well-being scale as
an outcome measure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Chronic
Dis. 1984; 37: 85-95.
7. Shari L, Pourpak Z, Heidarnazhad H, Bokaie S, Moin M. Asthma knowledge,
attitude, and self-efcacy in Iranian asthmatic patients. Arch Iran Med. 2011;
14: 315-320.
8. Orenstein DM, Kaplan RM. Measuring the quality of well-being in cystic
brosis and lung transplantation. The importance of the area under the curve.
Chest. 1991; 100: 1016-1018.
9. Jones PW, Bosh TK. Quality of life changes in COPD patients treated with
salmeterol. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997; 155: 1283-1289.
10. Jones PW, Quirk F, Baveystock C. The St George’s respiratory questionnaire.
Respir Med. 1991; 85: 25-31.
11. Dodd JW, Hogg L, Nolan J, Jefford H, Grant A, Lord VM, et al. The COPD
assessment test (CAT): response to pulmonary rehabilitation. A multicentre,
prospective study. Thorax. 2011; 66: 425-429.
12. Bergner M, Bobbitt RA, Carter WB, Gilson BS. The Sickness Impact Prole:
development and nal revision of a health status measure. Med Care. 1981;
19: 787-805.
13. Jacobs JE, Maillé AR, Akkermans RP, van Weel C, Grol RP. Assessing the
quality of life of adults with chronic respiratory diseases in routine primary
care: construction and rst validation of the 10-Item Respiratory Illness
Questionnaire-monitoring 10 (RIQ-MON10). Qual Life Res. 2004; 13: 1117-
1127.
14. Jones PW, Harding G, Berry P, Wiklund I, Chen WH, Kline Leidy N.
Development and rst validation of the COPD Assessment Test. Eur Respir
J. 2009; 34: 648-654.
15. Jones PW, Harding G, Wiklund I, Berry P, Tabberer M, Yu R, et al. Tests of the
responsiveness of the COPD assessment test following acute exacerbation
and pulmonary rehabilitation. Chest. 2012; 142: 134-140.
16. Lee SD, Huang MS, Kang J, Lin CH, Park MJ, Oh YM, et al. The COPD
assessment test (CAT) assists prediction of COPD exacerbations in high-risk
patients. Respir Med. 2014; 108: 600-608.
17. Ringbaek T, Martinez G, Lange P. A comparison of the assessment of
quality of life with CAT, CCQ, and SGRQ in COPD patients participating in
pulmonary rehabilitation. COPD. 2012; 9: 12-15.
18. Marashian SM, Cheraghvandi A, Emami H. Investigation of Validity and
Reliability of Persian Version of the “St. George Respiratory Questionaire”.
Pajoohandeh Journal. 2007; 12: 43-50.
19. Darvishpoor Kakhki A, Masjedi MR. Factors Associated with Health-Related
Quality of Life in Tuberculosis Patients Referred to the National Research
Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in Tehran. Tuberc Respir Dis
(Seoul). 2015; 78: 309-314.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Background Laryngotracheal stenosis as a late complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation is a life-threatening event. In order to determine the related risk factors for this complication, which may vary among different countries, designing a valid questionnaire is necessary. The aim of this study was to select the items and evaluate the face and content validities of a questionnaire developed for assessment of risk factors of post-intubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) in patients admitted in the intensive care unit. Materials and Methods A mixed method study design was used in four steps in 2015, i.e., 1) a literature review, 2) focus groups with five experts in the field, 3) consultations with intensive care unit (ICU) specialists and thoracic surgeons, and 4) evaluation of content and face validity with 15 experts in a scientific panel using two self-administered questionnaires. Content validity index (CVI) was computed for individual items as well as the overall scale. Results We extracted the items from different sources of information. An initial version of the 52-item questionnaire was developed and classified into four domains including patient characteristics, intubation features, equipment-drugs, and complications. The items with an excellent modified kappa were included in the questionnaire. Five questions received more criticism instead of support and were removed (Item-CVI<0.55, fair modified kappa). The ones with an Item-CVI > 0.60 and a good modified kappa were revised, merged, or retained. The new 43-item questionnaire found a scale-level CVI, averaging (Scale-CVI/Ave) of 0.91. Conclusion The PITS risk factors questionnaire was developed and validated through item selection, expert opinions, and content validity index.
Article
Full-text available
Background Cisplatin has been associated with irreversible hearing damage. Up to now, there is no therapeutic intervention showing benefit in preventing Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors contributing to hearing impairment after cisplatin administration in Iranian patients. Methods Hearing thresholds of 124 patients before and after cisplatin administration were assessed with reference to pure-tone audiometry averages at several frequencies from 2006 to 2010. Mean values were calculated at each tested frequency in each ear at baseline and subsequent follow-up audiometry. Hearing impairment was assessed with the Münster score. Results The mean age at diagnosis and the median cumulative Cisplatin dose were 47.3 years and 453.8 milligrams, respectively. Bilateral hearing loss, mostly of grade 1, and tinnitus were detected in 26% and 3.2% of patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that a high cumulative dose of cisplatin was the most important risk factor for developing hearing damage (P=0.034). The most significant changes in the status of the auditory system and the most severe threshold shift from base line (35 dB) were observed at a frequency of 8 kHz. Also, patients who received higher individual doses of Cisplatin showed significantly more tinnitus (P=0.002). Conclusions The results are testament to benefits of routine audiometric monitoring program during cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Further research should be performed to understand other risk factors, such as genetic predictors of Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.
Article
Full-text available
Background: In tuberculosis (TB) patients, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is significant in self-management, which in turn can be effective in therapeutic acceptance and prevention of treatment failure due to multi-drug resistant TB. This study was conducted to evaluate HRQoL and associated factors in TB patients referred to the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD). Methods: In this study, patients were selected from TB clinics of the NRITLD in Tehran. In addition to an Iranian version of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), demographic and disease characteristic questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were then analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Two hundred five TB patients, with the average age of 42.33±17.64 years, participated in this study. The HRQoL scores in different domains ranged from 14.68±11.60 for role limitations due to emotional problems to 46.99±13.25 for general health perceptions. The variables of sex, marital status, education, job status, place of residence, and cigarette smoking, influenced the HRQoL scores in different dimensions. Conclusion: According to the study findings are the important variables that influenced the HRQoL of TB patients. The consideration of its can improve the HRQoL of TB patients.
Article
Full-text available
Reactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can occur in patients with latent tuberculosis (TB) with risk factors including chronic disease (i.e., malignancy). We herein describe the case of an immigrant from Hong Kong with lung cancer and no known TB disease who presents with reactivation of TB in the setting of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is the backbone of treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) however second-line treatment options are controversial particularly in patients with borderline performance status (PS) of 2. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and toxicity of weekly docetaxel versus gemcitabine in this clinical setting. Patients and methods: A total of 70 patients with advanced (stage IIIB, IV) NSCLC entered this single institute study. Cases of this study had experienced disease progression after the first-line platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, with PS 0- 2 in “Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group” scale. They were randomly assigned by stratified blocks to receive docetaxel 35 mg/m2 (Arm A, n=34) or gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 (Arm B, n=36) days 1, 8 and 15, every three weeks, for up to six cycles. Primary end point was progression free survival (PFS) and secondary end points were objective response rate, disease control rate, median overall survival (OS) and toxicity. Dose modification was permitted upon clinician’s discretion for each individual patient. Results: Median of PFS was 2.02 months in arm A and 2.63 months in arm B (HR= 1.279; 95% CI: 0.710-2.304, P= 0.551). Although median OS for arm A was numerically greater (9.2 months) than arm B (8.3 months) it was statistically non-significant (HR= 1.384; 95% CI: 0.632 to 2.809, P= 0.59). Objective response was higher in Arm B than that in Arm A (P= 0.20) but disease control rates were statistically different in both arms (P= 0.034). Statistically significant differences in term of leukopenia was seen in arm B (P= 0.013). Conclusion: This study, with limited number of cases, indicates that in advanced NSCLC, weekly docetaxel and gemcitabine are reasonable second-line treatment options with statistically similar effectiveness in terms of PFS and median OS with manageable toxicities in patients with PS 0-2.
Article
Background: COPD is known as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Morbidity in COPD patients is mainly due to the respiratory muscle dysfunction especially diaphragm and chest wall muscles. Respiratory muscle dysfunction is mostly seen in severe and progressive stages of the disease. COPD results in increased functional residual capacity (FRC). In severe cases of COPD, respiratory muscle dysfunction and FRC raise lead to the deterioration of hyperinflation. Materials and Methods: In our study, 30 COPD patients (28 males, 2 females) referred to Masih Daneshvari Hospital were evaluated. All cases were studied with the exact same body plethysmography equipment and the same technician. Results: The average age, height, weight and BMI of cases were 53 +/- 11 yrs,168.86+/-6.33 cm, 65.44+/-16.78 kg and 23.56+/- 6.32, respectively. The mean FEV1 according to the GOLD criteria was in the range of moderate to severe. Hyperinflation noted characterized by RV and reverse RVfTLC, was clearly noticed in our study (RV=225.9+/-82.11, RV/TLC%= 195+/-34.49). Conclusion: Based on our study results, there was a significant correlation between FEV1, hyperinflation (RV/TLC, RV), respiratory muscle function (Plmax/P1) and respiratory time cycle Ti/Ttot .It should be mentioned that there was a significant correlation between Plmax and Tension Time Index as well. ©2009 NRITLD, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease.
Article
Background: For COPD patients, influence of disease on quality of life is measured via questionnaires. In this study, the goal was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the short and easily translated COPD Assessment Test (CAT), Persian translation. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional pilot study with completion of the Persian translation of the CAT questionnaire by COPD patients attending the emergency room Masih Daneshvari Hospital during the time period between winter of 2012 and summer of 2012. The results of the questionnaire were compared with the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire, number of respiratory medications and frequency of visits to the emergency room. Results: In total, 32 patients participated in this study with mean age of 60±13years and 98% of the patients were men and 7% were women. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the CAT questionnaire was calculated to be 0.732. There was statistically significant correlation between the scores from the CAT questionnaire and the total scores from the SGRQ (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.590, P=0.010). Discussion: This pilot study showed that the CAT questionnaire was well accepted by the patients with almost all questions being answered. The reliability of the questionnaire using Cronbach's alpha coefficient was acceptable and the questionnaire score correlated with the total score on the SGRQ questionnaire.