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User Experience Design (UXD) of Mobile Application: An Implementation of a Case Study


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The success of an application is tied directly to the degree of the user acceptance. Analyzing user expectation and acceptance prior to the development process is vital to make a successful product. User experience design (UXD) is the research field which identified users' needs, expectation and acceptance when there is an interaction with a product or service. Due to the lack of UXD guidelines, we will be presenting the UXD strategy for mobile flight booking ticket application (MFBTA). MFBTA is a complex application that has various type of transaction inclusive the dynamic interaction and ecommerce component that requires perceivable UXD elements. Based on the observation, it shows that UXD in MFBTA is yet to be improved in order to achieve a high degree of user acceptance and expectation.
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e-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 9 No. 3-3 197
User Experience Design (UXD) of Mobile
Application: An Implementation of a Case Study
Mariam Azwa Yazid and Azrul Hazri Jantan
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology,
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
AbstractThe success of an application is tied directly to the
degree of the user acceptance. Analyzing user expectation and
acceptance prior to the development process is vital to make a
successful product. User experience design (UXD) is the
research field which identified users’ needs, expectation and
acceptance when there is an interaction with a product or
service. Due to the lack of UXD guidelines, we will be presenting
the UXD strategy for mobile flight booking ticket application
(MFBTA). MFBTA is a complex application that has various
type of transaction inclusive the dynamic interaction and
ecommerce component that requires perceivable UXD elements.
Based on the observation, it shows that UXD in MFBTA is yet
to be improved in order to achieve a high degree of user
acceptance and expectation.
Index TermsBooking Application; Experience Design; Use
Mobile Flight.
Recently, most companies have made great efforts to utilize
the mobile application in expanding their respective
businesses. Designing a good mobile application however has
become a primary issue for the companies which eagerly keen
to maximize their profit by promoting their service and
product in the competitive market. It is difficult to define a
successful mobile application because it is tied directly to the
user acceptance in which it may vary with each other.
User experience covers the whole product or service
acceptance. It touches all aspects inclusive of pragmatic and
hedonic of a product. The pragmatic or instrumental refers to
the utilitarian aspects, such as usefulness and ease of use, and
hedonic or non-instrumental to the emotional and experiential
aspects of product use[1]. UXD has become an important role
in development of mobile application because it has huge
influence on product success or failure.
Airlines industry also did not leave behind in providing
more convenient way for their clients to access the flight
information and manage their booking ticket. More airlines
company were expected to adopt the mobile application as
their marketing strategy [2]. As Reported by [3], 32% of
global online sales were represented by airline ticket
reservation which can be the evidence the user has started to
shift their preference from purchasing the airlines ticket from
the agency to purchase it directly from the airlines company
by using an application. Mobile flight booking ticket
application (MFBTA) has become the marketing tools which
provides flight bookings, baggage services and flight
information search functionalities to travelers [2].
The MFBTA was taken as a case study to identify the best
UXD approach that is required to achieve the high user
acceptance and expectation. Producing a good mobile
application is not an easy task, the designer having a hard time
to identify what does the users really need by using their own
judgment and perception as an application users [4][5]. It is
important to the airlines company to carefully define their
user experience requirement up-front before the development
process commerce and the application is declared completed.
Modification and enhancement of UXD requires a lot of
effort when the changes need to be implemented after the
system is completed [6].
With the limited source of the UXD guidelines for the
application designer, we will be presenting the fundamental
of UXD strategy that can be adopted by the designer in order
to develop the MFBTA. Based on our finding, the UXD of
MFBTA is yet to be improved in order to achieve a high
degree of the user acceptance and expectation.
This paper starts with the comprehensive related works
covering the user experience on various type of mobile
application. It then presents the case study of the UXD on
MFBTA where is this section we share the UXD strategy for
MFBTA. Then, the discussion section will discuss on the
improvement that is required on the UXD for MFBTA. And
finally, we present the conclusion and future work in section
Research related to user experience has gained
considerable interest from both scholar and practitioner.
Generally, the research field of user experience is seen to
include all factor which affect the user’s interaction and
experience of system or product [1].
Chen’s UX assessment model has been adopted in [7].
Brasil 9+ is a mobile application for BlackBerry 10 that offers
a service to add the ninth digit to the left of the current mobile
numbers. The UX assessment was conducted to identify the
main criteria that influence the experience of Brasil 9+. The
details of UX assessment were shown in Table 1. Based on
the users’ feedback, they were uncomfortable to leave the
application running on the background while doing another
A study to access the children’s experience after using the
early education mobile application called MFolktales was
conducted by [8]. The assessment was conducted among the
kindergarten students aged between 5 to 7 years old with their
teacher assistance. The User Experience Question (UEQ) has
been adopted and modified to suit the requirement of the
application and situation. Based on the result, attractiveness
gives the highest score among other elements like efficiency,
perspicuity, dependability, stimulation and novelty.
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198 e-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 9 No. 3-3
Table 1
Brasil9+ UX Assessment [7]
UX Elements
How much the application is need to the users
Does the application meets its functionality
Does the interface intuitive
Does the setting of the devices sufficient for the
Does the devices meets the application requirement
Can the user perform other task while using the
The place where the user is in might to use the
In [9], a set of standard-compliant UXD guidelines to assist
the visually impaired (RP) person in accessing visual data on
health mobile application has been proposed. Increased data
exposure, data accessibility, information acquisition and data
search were the proposed guidelines to improve the UX for
visually impaired person.
A research to identify UX elements requirement while
performing a task on a small screen has been conducted by
[10]. The research was intended to understand the impact of
the user interface design and the home page design that can
lead to the positive behavioral intention to use and to predict
the user satisfaction with their mobile web browsing
experience. Easy to use, interactivity, behavioral intent,
recall, user friendliness, easy of learning and user satisfaction
are the UX parameters that are used for the evaluation. Based
on the result, the users prefer to perform simple and more
intuitive actions and expect to find the information of interest
The study to investigate the differentiating aspect of left or
right handed user experience on the touch mobile screen has
be performed by [11]. There was a relation between user
experience with the both handedness and the layout of the
application in terms of entry speed, accuracy rate and
inclusive interface.
Based on the review on previous research [7], [8], [9], [10],
[11] the UXD for mobile application is summarized in Table
2. Table 2
UXD for mobile application [7], [8], [9], [10], [11]
UXD Elements
Ease of use
User interface
User satisfaction
Behavioral intent
In the context of airlines industry, mobile application has
become a new marketing tool which can provide more
convenient way for the travelers to perform flight booking
ticket, baggage service, flight searching, seat selection,
participating in loyalty program, using the e-payment method
and manage their booking [2], [12]. It also helps the airline
companies to reduce cost because travel agencies’ role is no
longer relevant. Consequently, as a result it helps bridge the
gap with customers.
It is important for airlines industry to develop a mobile
application that serves their customers’ acceptance and
expectation. An interactive design in MFBTA is a must to
make sure the sustainability of the airlines company in current
competitive and limited market. Design strategy based on
UXD can be adopted as a guideline to develop the MFBTA.
MFBTA should be simple and focused type of application.
The operation must be accomplished with ease and using only
minimal number of keystroke [13]. Since the MFBTA is still
in the early adoption in airlines industry, not many references
were found regarding the UXD for MFBTA. We will be
presenting the UXD strategy for MFBTA as follows:
A. Ease of Use
Ease of use elements can be divided into three sub elements
which cover the usability, navigation and data accessibility
aspects. There are many definition of usability, however we
define usability as how an application can serve their user to
achieve their specified goals in specified context of use. The
basic functionalities of MFBTA should cover the flight
search, flight selection, booking ticket, payment procedure.
All of the functionalities must be designed to help the user to
perform the task more efficiently compared to what they
experienced before.
The navigation should be designed intuitive, predictable
and consistent. Navigation pattern should be simple enough
to make both new and returning users were able to figure out
how to move through the application with ease. Number of
steps taken to complete a transaction gives a huge impact to
the ease of use elements. Designer should try to minimize the
steps count to simplify the process. MFBTA users might use
the application on the go which the user will not want to spend
lots of time just to complete a single transaction
Data accessibility aspects always are the hardest part to be
catered in MFBTA. The data must also be readily available,
which means it is easily locatable, for consumption by a user
at any time. The calculation of the fares and the seat
availability must be real time and accurate to make MFBTA
Validation also contributes to the ease of use elements.
Real time validation helps the users aware of the mistake that
they did earlier before they will click the submit button. Color
is one of the best tools to use when designing validation. It
works on an instinctual level, adding red to error messages,
yellow to warning messages, and green to success messages
is incredibly powerful. In overall, the ease of use should
always make the users feel comfortable and the function of
the application should be able to help users in completing the
task more effectively[14].
B. Learnability
Learnability is the degree of ease and speed taken for the
user to get familiar with the use of a new product. With high
learnability, users can intuitively learn to use a product
without training or manuals, user guide or FAQ (frequently-
asked-questions) list.
MFBTA is a complex application which supports online
transaction. The user might require performing the flight
booking in an ad-hoc situation where the user does not have
any experience using the MFBTA. This scenario must be
considered in the designer perspective on how to make the
new users can accomplish basic task on the first time they use
the application without referring to any instructions. Easiness
of finding how to proceed to the next page shows more
significant association with user’s level of familiarity [3].
The interaction design must be very clear, consistent and
User Experience Design (UXD) of Mobile Application: An Implementation of a Case Study
e-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 9 No. 3-3 199
visible enough to help the users to easily infer the steps. The
layout of the application must adopt the discoverability,
which is the degree of ease in which the user can find all the
elements and features of a new system when they first
encounter it.
Learnability is important to keep the users using the
application and does not give up along the way before the
transaction completed.
C. User Interface
User interface is a graphical touch-sensitive display on a
mobile device. It is the first thing the user sees and gives the
impression of the application capability. For MFBTA, the
user interface should be designed interactive, effective,
intuitive and user friendly.
The use of visual aids improves the completion time and
helps the user to get more understanding of the presented
information. The right choice of icon is a key to convey the
right information [15]. The icon must be simple and
meaningful which can enhance user perception on its
The selection of fonts size and color gives huge impact on
the user experience. The colors should reflect the application
palette, and also meeting appropriate contracts ratios. The
designer should be able to consider the limitation on the
screen size of the mobile application versus the font size and
type. The font size should be considered based on the average
distance of users’ eyes to the screen while on the move.
Important information such as date and time of travel, ticket
pricing should be in bold format as a highlight to get the
users’ attention. It is important to highlight most sought
information since mobile users do not have time to review all
the information
A good user interface should help the user to minimize user
mistake. The input box design can be optimized with the text
field determines what kind of characters are allowed to be
filled in. Zooming function should be in place for MFBTA to
help the user locating and enlarging information for details.
Zooming function on the input box has a significant affect to
the users when they see their inputs data
Mobile devices have a limited view compared to pc screen,
it is important that the interface layout maximize this
constraint. Vertical alignment can be adopted for the layout
compare to horizontal because there is a tendency that not
everything will be fitted into the screen display.
D. User satisfaction
A good application should attract the satisfaction feeling
that accompanies the sense of completion when something
meets or exceed the expectation in a good way. User should
be having a pleasant and wonderful experience during the
interaction with the application.
For MFBTA a progress bar can be used to increase the user
satisfaction when a long form can feel daunting, but seeing a
progress bar fill up at the top of the page encourages users to
complete the transaction. Progress bar also important to
indicate the process status is still active.
By adding a little treat to celebrate the user’s success when
the action finally completes, it can deliver the jolt of
satisfaction to the users. For example, instead of displaying a
scrolling page with 15 form fields on it, break the form into
multiple chunks, creating moments of satisfaction after each
section the user complete.
User satisfaction can be enhanced by making some visual
change to the interface whenever the interaction occurs. For
an example, button might change color or a message box pop
up on the screen. Brief friendly and positive message can be
used such as “Congratulations!” at the top of a screen can
encourage users.
E. Security
Security and trust has been important factors in many e-
commerce user studies [4]. Same goes to the MFBTA where
there is a financial transaction required while booking the
flight ticket. MFBTA must be designed with secured
transaction and environment. Security pin must be
implemented when the transaction requires the connection to
the third-party application outside the control of MFBTA.
A login credential must be in place for MFBTA to ensure
only the real person with an account with the airlines
company accessing the application.
QR (Quick Response) code can be adopted as the output of
the process. All the passenger details and flight information
were encrypted in a QR image. User should not be worried
on the security of the information because only the QR reader
can decrypt the information.
F. Behavioral Intent
Behavioral intent is a subjective norm that predicts the
determination of the customers to continue to use an
application. A good UXD is able to provide user with relevant
information and fulfil their expectation so that the user will
bookmarks the system and revisit again in the future[14].
Reducing user errors and application errors can influence
the users’ intention to use the application. Having a
suggestion tools such as listing the attractive places and
activities on the destination is one of the method to attract the
users to use the application.
G. Environmental
A good mobile application should be able to be adapted
with various platform of mobile phone. Same goes to
MFBTA where it should support various types of mobile
devices regardless of the screen size and operating system
(OS). The MFBTA design should be adaptive enough to
differentiate the difference types of the mobile devices.
The MFBTA should allow user to perform transaction
through their mobile device anytime and anywhere. It is
easier to carry a mobile phone compared with carrying a
notebook, to perform any online transaction [14].
The above seven UXD strategy can be adopted to develop
the MFBTA. The UXD strategy touch on the various
elements that can be the guidelines for the designer to develop
a good MFBTA
Quite extensive research has been done to identify the best
approach of UXD in the development of a mobile application.
It is critical for the application designer to understand the
UXD to ensure the application achieve the highest level of
user expectation and acceptance.
Based on the previous study, we have derived the UXD
strategy for MFBTA. There were seven elements that has
been explained under the strategy which were the ease of use,
learnability, user interface, user satisfaction, security,
behavioral intent and environmental. All of these seven
elements play a significant role to develop a good user
Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering
200 e-ISSN: 2289-8131 Vol. 9 No. 3-3
experience for MFBTA.
However, it is better if we can extend more efforts to
understand the ease of use, user interface and environmental
elements compared to other elements that has been
highlighted in the dotted box in Figure 1. Those are the
elements that have the highest influence on users’ needs,
expectation and acceptance of the MFBTA. Designer also
neglected those three elements in their design. More
characteristic of ease of use, user interface and environmental
elements should be identified in order to improve the MFBTA
Airline companies are competing with each other to sustain
in the industry. As the competition is so cruel, there is a need
to continue improving the MFBTA services.
Figure 1: UXD for MFBTA Strategy
The airlines industries are currently in transition to adopt
the MFBTA as their main tool to attract customers. Many
airlines companies may not have sufficient knowledge on
building up a good MFBTA that caters all user expectation
and acceptance. Therefore, in this paper, we have concluded
with seven UXD strategies for the MFBTA that can be used
for the designer who are involved in developing the mobile
application for airline industry. It is critical that the product
designers, developer and product managers understand the
best ways to make this process really simple for users and
with minimal fuss.
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... User experience (UX) deals with user-related factors (users' tendencies, expectations, needs, motivations, and moods), system-design-related factors (complexity, purpose, usability, and functionality) and the context or environment where the interaction takes place [5]. UX covers the overall acceptance of a product or service that includes various aspects, including the pragmatic and hedonic of a product [6] that deals with the ease of use of an application that fits users' feelings and emotions when using the application [7]. Usability is a quality attribute that assesses the ease of the system interface of an application [8]. ...
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Abstract Understanding processes underlying technology adoption or non-adoption is an important research theme often addressed using the technology acceptance model (TAM) approach. The objective of this research was to investigate most influential user experiences in successful and unsuccessful technology adoptions using user experience related concepts and methods in conjunction with the TAM. Participants (N = 76) described their most influential user experiences related to one successful and one unsuccessful technology adoption process and evaluated both experiences using rating scales, including the central TAM related scales and user experience related scales probing emotions, psychological needs, user values, task load, and the impact of technology on the user's well-being. The results suggested that user experience and technology acceptance related viewpoints can complement each other in order to gain a more holistic understanding of the factors affecting the success or failure of technology adoptions, and the results showed how these variables typically behave in both contexts. The overall valence of user experience was significantly affected by perceived usefulness, the fulfillment of psychological needs, and the salience of negative emotions in the most influential user experiences of successful adoptions, and by perceived usefulness, output quality, and the salience of negative emotions in the unsuccessful adoptions.
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Mobile apps development has been gaining popularity in Malaysia over the past 3 years. An app usually refers to a software application or programme. Although the development of software applications have been around for decades, app development on mobile devices reached the shores of Malaysia, mainly due to the popularity of Apple's App Store. Software development and complex object-oriented programming have been the exclusive harbour of technology hobbyists, IT professionals and business executives for many years. The flourishing presence of Web applications and the over-whelming influence of social media has augmented our need for greater connectivity, sharing and online presence. These have allowed smartphones and gadgets to become mainstream. This paper looks at how a design institution in Malaysia provides the growth of mobile apps development, and in supporting the national agenda to drive the Malaysian web and mobile application development industry to global standards. The paper highlights the practice and education of user-centered interface design towards mobile apps development in the country.
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Abstract—Mobile apps form a special domain for designing user experience (UX). Interactions with the device should be designed such that the time span of the users' actions is shorter than in the desktop space; actions must be simple yet focused. Moreover, interactions must be accomplished with ease, using only a minimal number of finger presses or keystrokes. At the same time, the devices themselves introduce platform specific restrictions and guidelines regarding how UX should be addressed. In this paper, we report results from a study where the contributions of different actors to UX are addressed in the development of mobile enterprise apps. In conclusion, the study indicates that for simplest applications, the best UX specialists are actually the developers who know all platform-specific customs, whereas for more complex apps, special UX role is needed in order to manage the big picture.
Conference Paper
Researchers in mobile commerce has previously examined the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in various contexts, including on user perception and adoption. However, little has been done on understanding the continuity usage factors of mobile commerce services. Our research filled this gap, specifically in the Malaysian airline industry. Interestingly, security and social pressure are no longer a concern, but good UX design and ease of use prevails.
Conference Paper
Recently, the use of technology is growing fast and most of industries apply technology in their business including Airline Industry. The improvement of technology world has forced airline companies into hard competition among them. E-ticket help to ease the process of online transaction between company and customer. This study examines the e-satisfaction of using airlines e-ticketing system in Malaysia based on customers point of view. Using the survey questionnaire method, more than 500 questionnaire were distributed and 508 were used for analysis. In order to get the hypotheses results, the SEM analysis technique has been applied to this study. The target respondent for this study is among internet users who had used any Malaysia airlines e-services. Finding indicate that e-CRM pre-purchase and post-purchase have a positive effect on customer satisfaction and have a positive significant relationship. This finding reveals that most of the respondents are satisfied with the e-services provided by airlines in Malaysia and this level of customer satisfaction will lead to loyalty and indirectly the both customer and company is developing the long-term relationship.
The purpose of this work is to present a practical study on the key factors of usability in small-sized mobile touch-screen applications. Though using smart phones has brought great easiness in our daily life in many ways, many smart phone applications often remain underutilized due to the poor consideration of end-users in the development phase, thus decreasing potential profit of companies. In this paper, we investigate usability problems for a mobile flight booking application on touch-screen phones, and suggest practical solutions. The application is a critical one that can represent the cases of a wide number of smart phone applications. Main expectations of users are presented from HCI (Human Computer Interaction) perspective and discussed through the case study. Questionnaire and interview methods were used for collecting data. Prototype has also been utilized to verify users' expectations of mobile flight booking more accurately. The interviewees who were in the range of ages 18-40 have been randomly selected for this study, which could be also considered as a realistic set because of their diversity. Results have revealed that users are very much concerned about the easiness and the lucidness of functions. Usability is a highly considerable subject for users to prefer a mobile flight booking application over booking tickets via online or agencies.
Conference Paper
The ways people consume content and use applications with different types of devices are fundamentally different. When designing applications for enterprise use, user experience (UX) must typically be addressed during the upfront design of the application. Due to the importance of upfront design regarding UX, the product owner (PO), responsible for the success of the product, must manage UX related tasks. In this paper, we present results of a study on the views of a PO to UX of mobile apps. The study is based on long-term data from three mobile app projects that were supervised by a single PO to reflect how the view evolves over time. As a result, we show that the fashion UX work is included in a project has a significant impact on the outcome and the satisfaction of the PO.