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The Effectiveness of Low-Dye Taping in Reducing Pain Associated With Plantar Fasciitis

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Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders of the foot. Initial treatment of plantar fasciitis is typically conservative and may include heel padding, steroid injections, night splinting, calf stretching, ultrasound, foot orthoses, and taping. However, while custom foot orthoses are a common treatment method for plantar fasciitis, there is often a waiting period of a few weeks for them to be manufactured and delivered. Therefore, taping of the foot is often used as a temporary treatment to alleviate pain during the initial waiting period. Furthermore, taping may also be used as an alternative to foot orthoses for patients who may not tolerate the plantar pressures of an orthotic or for tight-fitting footwear that may not accommodate insoles. Specifically, the low-Dye taping (LDT) technique is one of the most frequently used methods, and recent literature has suggested that it may improve pain outcomes. Therefore, this critically appraised topic was conducted to determine the extent to which current evidence supports the use of LDT to reduce pain in patients with plantar fasciitis.
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The Effectiveness of Low-Dye Taping in Reducing Pain
Associated With Plantar Fasciitis
Laura A. Verbruggen, Melissa M. Thompson, and Chris J. Durall
Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders of the foot. Initial treatment of plantar
fasciitis is typically conservative and may include heel padding, steroid injections, night splinting, calf
stretching, ultrasound, foot orthoses, and taping. However, while custom foot orthoses are a common treatment
method for plantar fasciitis, there is often a waiting period of a few weeks for them to be manufactured and
delivered. Therefore, taping of the foot is often used as a temporary treatment to alleviate pain during the initial
waiting period. Furthermore, taping may also be used as an alternative to foot orthoses for patients who may
not tolerate the plantar pressures of an orthotic or for tight-tting footwear that may not accommodate insoles.
Specically, the low-Dye taping (LDT) technique is one of the most frequently used methods, and recent
literature has suggested that it may improve pain outcomes. Therefore, this critically appraised topic was
conducted to determine the extent to which current evidence supports the use of LDT to reduce pain in patients
with plantar fasciitis.
Keywords: physical therapy, foot, arch taping
Clinical Scenario
Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculo-
skeletal disorders of the foot.
15
Initial treatment of
plantar fasciitis is typically conservative and may include
heel padding, steroid injections, night splinting, calf-
stretching, ultrasound, foot orthoses, and taping. How-
ever, while custom foot orthoses are a common treatment
method for plantar fasciitis, there is often a waiting period
of a few weeks for them to be manufactured and deliv-
ered. Therefore, taping of the foot is often used as a
temporary treatment to alleviate pain during the initial
waiting period. Furthermore, taping may also be used as
an alternative for foot orthoses for the patients who may
not tolerate the plantar pressures of an orthotic or for
tight-tting footwear that may not accommodate insoles.
Specically, the low-Dye taping (LDT) technique is one
of the most frequently used methods, and recent literature
has suggested that it may improve pain outcomes when
compared to conservative treatment.
15
Therefore, this
critically appraised topic was conducted to determine the
extent to which current evidence supports the use of LDT
to reduce pain in patients with plantar fasciitis.
Focused Clinical Question
Is LDT, in conjunction with other conservative treat-
ments, more effective in reducing pain when compared
to other common modalities alone for patients with
plantar fasciitis?
Summary of Search, Best Evidence
Appraised, and Key Findings
The literature was searched for studies of level 3
evidence or higher that compared LDT to other
common interventions for plantar fasciitis.
The literature search returned 6 possible studies
related to the clinical question; 5 studies met the
inclusion criteria.
One study was excluded because it did not use pain
as an outcome measure.
Five level 2 studies that compared pain levels with
LDT versus comparison groups amongst indivi-
duals with plantar fasciitis were included.
Five studies reported a statistically signicant
reduction in pain with LDT.
15
One study showed that LDT corrected weight dis-
tribution and improved foot stability.
1
One study found that LDT and medial arch support
insoles reduced plantar fasciitis pain to a similar
extent.
2
Clinical Bottom Line
Current evidence supports the addition of LDT to con-
servative care in order to help reduce pain in individuals
The authors are with the Physical Therapy Program, University of
WisconsinLa Crosse, La Crosse, WI. Durall (cdurall@uwlax.edu)is
corresponding author.
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 2018, 27, 94-98
https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2016-0030
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc. CRITICALLY APPRAISED TOPIC
94
with plantar fasciitis.
15
Based on the reviewed litera-
ture, clinicians should utilize a multifaceted approach
when treating patients with plantar fasciitis. Specically,
clinicians should consider the use of LDT in conjunction
with other conservative measures, such as transcutane-
ous electrical nerve stimulation and infra-red treatment,
1
calf stretching,
2,3
and/or therapeutic ultrasound,
2,5
when
treating patients with plantar fasciitis. The LDT tech-
nique may be most benecial in reducing pain via long-
term (36 weeks) treatment.
1,2
Furthermore, since LDT
has been found to reduce pain and pain-related disability
to a similar extent as medial arch supports after a 3-week
period,
2
clinicians may consider using LDT as a viable
alternative to foot orthoses for patients with plantar
fasciitis.
Strength of Recommendation
There is Grade B evidence from 4 level 2 randomized
controlled trials (RCT)
1,2,4,5
and 1 level 2 controlled
clinical trial (CCT)
3
that support using LDT in conjunc-
tion with other interventions to reduce plantar fasciitis
pain. An additional level 2 RCT found LDT to be as
benecial as medial arch support insoles for plantar
fasciitis.
2
Search Strategy
Terms Used to Guide Search Strategy
Patient/Client Group: subjects AND plantar
fasciitis
Intervention/Assessment: low-Dye tape
Comparison: other conservative interventions not
including injections
Outcome: pain
Sources of Evidence Searched
PubMed
EBSCOhost
Sport Discus
Medline
Google Scholar
Manual search of reference lists
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
Inclusion
Studies investigating plantar foot pain associated
with plantar fasciitis
Studies comparing LDT to no care or to another
conservative intervention
Level 3 evidence or higher
Limited to humans
Limited to English language
Limited to the last 12 years (20052016)
Exclusion
Studies that did use pain as an outcome measure
Studies that included injections as an intervention
Results of Search
Many relevant studies were found, however, only 5
studies that met the criteria requirements were selected
for review (Table 1).
15
All 5 studies investigated the
addition of LDT to no care or common intervention
regimens for plantar fasciitis.
Best Evidence
The 5 studies were identied as the best evidence
and selected for inclusion in this critically appraised
topic (Table 2). Four articles were level 2 RCTs and
1 article was level 2 CCT based on the Oxford Levels of
Evidence 2011.
Implications for Practice, Education,
and Future Research
In each of the 5 studies reviewed, patients with plantar
fasciitis demonstrated statistically signicant reductions
in pain in response to LDT when combined with trans-
cutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and infra-red
treatment,
1
calf stretching,
2,3
and/or therapeutic ultra-
sound,
2,5
when compared to conservative management
without LDT. Out of the 5 studies reviewed, only 1 of
them investigated the effectiveness of LDT as a stand-
alone treatment variable.
4
Therefore, while LDT appears
to be benecial in reducing pain in patients with plantar
fasciitis, current evidence supports its use as part of a
multimodal intervention scheme rather than an isolated
treatment modality.
Treatment duration in the studies ranged from
3 days
3
to 6 weeks,
1
with the LDT technique used on
either a daily basis
35
or a 3 times per week basis.
1,2
Table 1 Summary of Study Designs of
Articles Retrieved
Level of
evidence
Study
design
Number
located Reference
2 RCT 4 Park et al
1
Abd El Salam et al
2
Radford et al
4
Sankhe et al
5
2 CCT 1 Landorf et al
3
Abbreviations: RCT, randomized controlled trial; CCT, controlled
clincal trial.
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Table 2 Characteristics of Included Studies
Landorf et al
3
Radford et al
4
Abd El Salam et al
2
Park et al
1
Sankhe et al
5
Study Design CCT RCT RCT RCT RCT
PEDro Score 5/10 7/10 7/10 5/10 6/10
Participants 105 subjects (M = 35, F = 70;
mean age 46.3) clinically
diagnosed with plantar fasciitis.
Treatment allocation was not
randomized. Subjects were
placed in a calf muscle
stretching plus low-Dye taping
group (LDT) or a calf muscle
stretching only group (control).
92 subjects (M = 37, F = 37;
mean age 50 [ ± 14]) clinically
diagnosed with plantar fasciitis.
Randomly assigned to low-Dye
taping with sham ultrasound
group (LDT) or sham ultra-
sound only group (control).
30 subjects (M = 23, F = 7)
between 40 to 60 years old with
unilateral plantar fasciitis.
Randomly assigned to low-Dye
taping group (LDT) with mean
age of 52.9 ± 4.542 years or
medial arch support group
(MAS) with mean age of
52.8 ± 4.003 years.
30 subjects divided into
low-Dye taping group
(LDT, n = 15; mean age
of 35.4 ± 5.03 years),
and a conservative
treatment group receiv-
ing TENS and infra-red
only (control, n = 15;
mean age of 35.9 ±
4.0 years).
52 subjects (M = 27,
F = 25) between 18- to
65-years-old and clinically
diagnosed with plantar
fasciitis. Randomly as-
signed to calcaneal taping
and ultrasound therapy or
low-Dye taping (LDT) and
ultrasound therapy.
Intervention(s)
Investigated
Both groups were advised to
perform calf muscle stretches
and were given advice on
appropriate footwear. The LDT
group received LDT at the rst
appointment and were
instructed to leave the tape on
for 35 days. Participants
returned for reassessment
23 weeks later where they
were asked to rate their pain
during the 35 days after the
initial baseline appointment.
Both groups received 1
3-minute treatment of sham
ultrasound to the painful heel.
The LDT group received LDT
and were instructed to leave the
tape on until their follow-up
appointment 1 week later.
Both groups received 3
treatment sessions on
alternating days over 3 weeks.
Subjects received calf stretching
and ultrasound to the plantar
aspect of the foot for 8 minutes,
at 1.2 W/cm
2
, 1 MHz, and
pulsed mode 1:2. The LDT
group had tape applied imme-
diately after and were instructed
to wear it until the next session,
removing it prior to the therapy
session. The MAS group
removed their MAS prior to
therapy and inserted them back
immediately after each therapy
session.
Both groups received
TENS (15 minutes) and
infra-red (5 minutes) to
painful area of foot in
30-minute sessions 3
times per week for
6 weeks. LDT group
received modied LDT
afterwards.
Both groups received 7
sessions on 7 consecutive
days of ultrasound therapy
(5 minutes, 1 W/cm
2
,
1 MHz, continuous mode).
Afterwards the calcaneal
tape or LDT was applied.
Outcome Measure(s) Pain (100-mm VAS) and a
verbal response to either Did
the strapping help?(LDT
group) or Did the stretching
help?(control group). Four
responses were allowed: yes, a
lot;yes, a little;no, not at
all;no, made it worse.
First step pain (100-mm VAS),
foot function, and general foot
health (Foot Health Status
Questionnaire).
Pain (10-cm VAS) and pain-
related disability (Manchester
Foot Pain and Disability
Schedule).
Pain (point VAS) and
stability using the
transfer area of the
center of gravity
(TAOCOG) using a
BioRescue device.
Pain (VAS) and Functional
Foot Index Questionnaire
(FFI).
(continued)
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Table 2 (continued)
Landorf et al
3
Radford et al
4
Abd El Salam et al
2
Park et al
1
Sankhe et al
5
Main Findings LDT group had signicant
improvements in pain (31.7 mm
difference on VAS scale)
compared to the control group
(P<.001). Statistically
signicant positive results for
the self-reported 4-point
response scale with 63.1% of
subjects in the LDT group
feeling that the LDT combined
with stretching helped a lot,
whereas only 40.0% of patients
in the control group felt a lot
of improvement from stretching
alone (P= .034). The between-
group effect size for pain was
0.62.
After 1 week of treatment, the
LDT group had signicant
improvements in pain (12.3 mm
difference on VAS scale)
compared to the control group
(P= 0.017). No statistically
signicant differences between
groups were found for the Foot
Health Status Questionnaire.
The between-group effect size
for pain was 0.22.
After 3 weeks, groups had
signicant improvements in
mean pain and pain-related
disability (P<0.05). Signicant
between-group differences in
mean pain and pain-related
disability was present at the
examination assessment, favor-
ing the MAS group (P<0.05).
The between-group effect size
for pain was 0.47.
Decreases in VAS
scores after the
intervention period
were signicantly
greater in the LDT
group (5.5 points)
compared to the control
group (1.9 points)
(P<0.05). Increases in
TAOCOG values were
signicantly greater for
the LDT group (255.2)
compared to the control
group (32.2, P<0.05).
The between-group
effect size for pain was
0.98.
After 1 week of treatment,
both groups showed a
signicant reduction in
pain. Calcaneal taping had
a decrease in FFI of
49.37% and LDT had a
decrease in FFI of 55.02%
(P= 0.001). The between-
group effect size for pain
was 0.71.
Conclusion LDT combined with calf muscle
stretching over a 35 day
interval signicantly reduced
pain associated with plantar
fasciitis compared with calf
muscle stretching only.
LDT was more effective than
sham ultrasound for reducing
rst step pain in patients with
plantar fasciitis after a 1-week
period.
LDT reduced pain and pain-
related disability with plantar
fasciitis to a similar extent as
medial arch supports after a
3-week period.
LDT combined with
TENS and infrared
treatments was more
effective for reducing
foot pain, correcting
weight distribution, and
improving foot stability
than TENS and infrared
over a 6-week period.
LDT combined with ultra-
sound therapy was more
effective in reducing foot
pain in a 7-day treatment
session when compared to
calcaneal taping and
ultrasound therapy.
Abbreviations: LDT, low-Dye taping; CCT, controlled clinical trial; RCT, randomized controlled trial; TENS, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation.
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Three of the studies investigated the effects of short-term
LDT treatment with a follow-up of 1 week or less,
35
while 2 of the studies examined long-term LDT treat-
ment by using a 3-week
2
and 6-week
1
follow-up. The
reviewed studies with the longest treatment durations
yielded the largest effect sizes,
1,3
suggesting that longer
courses of LDT treatment may be more benecial for
reducing plantar fasciitis pain. Large effects were mea-
sured in the study by Park and colleagues when LDT was
combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimula-
tion and infra-red for 6 weeks (effect size = 0.98).
1
Likewise, Landorf and colleagues found clinically
meaningful effects when LDT was combined with
advice on proper footwear and calf muscle stretching
for 2 to 3 weeks (effect size = 0.62).
3
In contrast, Rad-
ford and colleagues found that a 1-week trial of LDT
alone had a small effect on rst-step foot pain (effect
size = 0.22). Therefore, longer courses of LDT treatment
may be more benecial for reducing plantar fasciitis pain
than briefer treatment regimens. However, none of the
long duration studies
1,3
utilized nontreatment control
groups, making it difcult to assess the inuence of
natural healing alone over time.
The etiology of plantar fasciitis, although multifac-
torial, appears to involve a mechanical component that
produces untoward strain on the plantar fascia, leading to
an inammatory response.
14
Potential contributors to
plantar fasciitis include obesity, pes planus, prolonged
exposure to weight bearing activities, and limited ankle
range of motion.
15
Nonoperative management is usu-
ally multifactorial and may include custom foot insoles
to control heel pain, but these typically require a few
weeks to manufacture. Therefore, LDT may be bene-
cial during this waiting period to reduce plantar heel
pain.
15
Furthermore, LDT may be a viable alternative to
foot orthoses for individuals who cannot tolerate the
plantar pressures of an orthotic or for footwear that will
not accommodate conventional insoles (eg, ballet slip-
pers). Abd El Salam and colleagues found that LDT
reduced pain and disability with plantar fasciitis to a
similar extent as medial arch supports over a 3-week
period, although the clinical effect was modest (effect
size = 0.47).
2
When compared to another commonly used taping
technique for plantar fasciitis, calcaneal taping, LDT was
found to be more effective in reducing pain and increas-
ing foot function in affected patients.
5
Sankhe and
colleagues reported a moderate to strong between-group
effect size for the reduction of pain (effect size = 0.71),
suggesting that the LDT technique produces clinically
signicant improvements in pain compared to the calca-
neal taping technique. While the mechanisms whereby
LDT helps to ameliorate pain with plantar fasciitis is
uncertain, the benecial effects of LDT may be due to
mechanical efforts as it limits unwanted joint movement,
which protects further injury to the tissues and allows for
healing.
5
Specically, LDT has been shown to increase
navicular and arch height, reduce midfoot mobility,
increase sagittal plane ankle motion, and induce a
more even weight distribution throughout the medial
longitudinal arch.
1,6
These effects, in isolation or com-
bination, may reduce plantar fascia strain, thereby
decreasing pain and improving function.
As with the study by Sankhe et al comparing the
efcacy of calcaneal and LDT in the treatment of plantar
fasciitis,
5
there is a need to compare the relative efcacy
of other taping approaches on pain with plantar fasciitis.
There is also a need to utilize improved methodologies in
future studies on this topic. Most of the studies in this
review failed to blind their patients, therapists, or asses-
sors and had small sample sizes. In the future, larger,
well-controlled studies are needed to determine the
efcacy of LDT along with its ideal parameters. Addi-
tionally, since the studies in this review included only
older populations, future researchers should consider
studying the effect of LDT on a younger, athletic
population.
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... LDT taping with calcaneal-slings technique inverts the calcaneum to raise the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, unlike other taping methods that place the tape directly on the arch to support it. 29,30,31 Many studies found LDT taping to be beneficial in relieving heel pain. 30,32,33 A 2010 study by Tsai,et al,32 concluded that additional treatment with continuous kinesio taping for 1 week may alleviate the pain of plantar fasciitis better than a traditional physical therapy program alone. ...
... 29,30,31 Many studies found LDT taping to be beneficial in relieving heel pain. 30,32,33 A 2010 study by Tsai,et al,32 concluded that additional treatment with continuous kinesio taping for 1 week may alleviate the pain of plantar fasciitis better than a traditional physical therapy program alone. In contrast, in the current study taping was applied in 2 sessions per week for 4 weeks in both groups. ...
Background: Chronic plantar fasciitis has been historically treated with conventional physical therapy. The use of the Garston Technique® (GT) is a new intervention for the management of chronic plantar fascitis, but there is lack of evidence in the literature regarding its efficacy. Study objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the GT on pain, foot function and general foot health in patients with plantar fasciitis. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conducted from November 2020 to March 2021. The non-probability purposive sampling technique was used to select 30 patients. Setting: Madinah Teaching Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Participants: A total of 30 patients of both genders with a 6-week history of planter fasciitis and the presence of a calcaneus everted ≥2° were included in this study and randomly assigned to one of two groups. Intervention: Both groups received conventional physical therapy (CPT) for 4 weeks and the experimental group in addition received GT. Primary outcome measures: The primary outcome measures were pain, measured at baseline, after the second week and after the end of treatment (ie, the fourth week) on the visual analog scale (VAS); and general foot health and foot function, measured at baseline and after the end of treatment with the Modified Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). Results: The mean age of the study patients was 34.1 ± 6.67 years. There was significant improvement in pain in the GT group compared with the CPT group after the second (P = .005; partial η2 = 0.263) and the 4th (P = .000; partial η2 = 0.535) week of intervention. Foot function was also significantly improved (P < .05) in the GT group compared with the CPT group with a large effect size (Cohen's d = 0.080). But in the case of general foot health, no significant difference was observed between the groups at the end of the fourth week. Conclusion: The use of the GT combined with CPT shows significant results compared with CPT alone; ie, GT speeds up the recovery from heel pain and foot function in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis.
... However, the condition is associated with instability of the first metatarsus or talus, excessive eversion of the subtalar joint, eversion of the rear foot, and abduction of the mid-foot against the rear foot [5][6][7][8]. Pes planus may cause patellofemoral pain syndrome [6], tendinous synovitis of the tibialis posterior [9], or overuse syndrome, including plantar fasciitis [5,10]. The clinical symptoms of pes planus include pain in the plantar fascia and sudden fatigue due to a decrease in shock absorption in the foot during walking or running [11,12]. ...
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Pes planus is a medical condition of the foot wherein there is a flattening or lowering of the medial longitudinal arch. The abductor hallucis muscle starts at the heel bone and attaches to the medial side of the first toe. Whenever it contracts, it plays a key role in elevating the medial longitudinal arch. Hence, the abductor hallucis muscle should be strong enough to control the depression on the medial longitudinal arch. The peroneus longus muscle plantarflexes the ankle and everts the ankle and subtalar joint. If this muscle contracts more than the abductor hallucis muscle does, the medial longitudinal arch of the foot is depressed. This study aimed to investigate the effect of myofascial release of the peroneus longus before performing the toe-tap exercise for strengthening the abductor hallucis muscle in participants with flexible pes planus. This cross-over study included 16 volunteers with flexible pes planus. The participants performed a toe-tap exercise before and after the myofascial release of the peroneus longus. During the toe-tap exercise, the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis and peroneus longus were measured using a Delsys Trigno Wireless Electromyography System. The angle of the medial longitudinal arch was measured using Image J software. Photos in the sagittal plane were used. The peroneus longus activity and medial longitudinal arch angles were significantly decreased. On the other hand, the activity of the abductor hallucis significantly increased after the myofascial release of the peroneus longus before performing the toe-tap exercise (p < 0.05). Individuals with flexible pes planus should be encouraged to perform myofascial release of the peroneus longus before the toe-tap exercise to improve the abductor hallucis activity and to elevate the medial longitudinal arch.
... Adults with pes planus lack an elastic foot arch to attenuate the impact force [4]. This condition results in pain and impaired lower limb function, such as plantar fasciitis, plantar heel pain, posterior tibial stress syndrome and femoral patellar pain syndrome [5][6][7][8]. A previous study found that perimenopausal women with pes planus performed impaired postural balance compared with their counterparts with normal feet [9]. ...
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Objective: To investigate effects of taping techniques on arch deformation in adults with pes planus. Methods: The following databases were searched up to March 2020, including Web of Science, Pubmed, EBSCO, CNKI and Cochrane Library. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed by I2 index and funnel plots, respectively. In addition, Cochrane scale was used to evaluate the quality of research. Results: Navicular height for three antipronation taping techniques significantly increased immediately post tape compared with baseline (mean difference = 4.86 mm, 95% CI = 2.86-6.87 mm, Z = 4.75, p < 0.001). The highest increase was observed in Augmented low-Dye (ALD). Modified low-Dye (MLD) was second only to ALD (p<0.001). Navicular height after walking for 10 min was much higher than baseline (p<0.001), with MLD decreased smaller than ALD. Conclusions: ALD was the most effective taping technique for controlling foot arch collapse immediately post tape compared with baseline, followed by MLD. By contrast, MLD could possibly performed better than ALD in maintaining immediate navicular height after walking for 10 min. Low-Dye could make resting calcaneal stance position closer to neutral position. Although positive effects of Navicular sling, low-Dye and Double X taping interventions were observed, they could not maintain this immediate navicular height effect after a period of higher intensity weight-bearing exercise.
... Another study demonstrated an anti-pain effect of LDT by analysis of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores. A systematic review reported a significant decrease in pain sensation after an LDT intervention as a result of lower soft tissue sensitivity [36]. In addition, Domínguez-Martín et al. [37] observed higher PPT values for other muscles beyond the foot structures, such as the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, and erector spinae. ...
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Featured Application: Low-dye taping plays a crucial role in the management and treatment of lower extremity musculoskeletal pain and injury. The clinical efficacy of low-dye taping can be used in treatment for foot pain, plantar fasciitis, excessive foot pronation, and arch support. This application could be used by physical therapists, coaches, athletic trainers, as well as players themselves. Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes in plantar foot force distribution (i.e., the percentage of force and force distribution under the rearfoot and forefoot) and plantar pressure pain sensitivity maps in professional futsal players after long-term low-dye taping (LDT). The subjects (n = 25) were male futsal players (age 23.03 ± 1.15 years). During the experiment, a nonelastic tape was applied on the plantar foot surface according to the standards of LDP. The experimental protocol consisted of a 3-day cycle during which the plantar foot force distribution (FFD) and plantar pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured: (1) before the tape was applied, (2) 24 h after application, and (3) 72 h after application. The results revealed a significant decrease in the force distribution under the rearfoot (p ≤ 0.001) and forefoot (p ≤ 0.001) on the right and left sides. Moreover, the results showed an increase in the plantar pressure pain threshold in all regions of the foot (p ≤ 0.001). The results of this study suggest that plantar fascial taping can be an effective method for normalizing the force distribution on the foot and reducing the plantar pain threshold. The findings provide useful information regarding the prevention of and physical therapy of lower extremity injuries in soccer and futsal.
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BACKGROUND: Active interventions for pes planus, including short-foot exercises (SF) and toe-spread-out exercises (TSO), aim to continuously support the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) by activating the abductor hallucis (AbdH) muscle. However, compensatory movements, such as ankle supination and/or plantar flexion, often occur during these exercises. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a novel exercise, i.e., the toe-tap (TT) exercise on AbdH activity and MLA angle. METHODS: A total of 16 participants with pes planus participated in this study. Participants performed SF, TSO, and TT exercises. Electromyographic activity of the AbdH and MLA angle during three AbdH contraction exercises were recorded using surface EMG system and digital image analysis program, respectively. The differences in outcome measures among the three exercises were analyzed using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: The EMG activity of the AbdH was significantly greater during the TT exercise compared to the SF and TSO exercises. The MLA angle was significantly smaller during the TT exercise compared with the SF and TSO exercises. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the TT exercise could be effective in activating the AbdH and increasing height of the MLA, as part of a sports rehabilitation program for individuals with pes planus.
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Abstract Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. It occurs in patients of either sex, usually over the age of 40 except in active sportsmen when the patient, usually male, may be in his twenties. It is commonly found in people whose occupation involves prolonged standing or walking. Pain is made worse by activity, such as climbing stairs, walking, or running, may be present at night, and is often present when first getting out of the bed in the morning. It tends to be relieved by rest. The study aims in comparing the effectiveness of Calcaneal taping along with ultrasound therapy and Low dye taping along with ultrasound in reducing pain in Plantar Fasciitis.Randomized clinical trial has been conducted in outpatient department of Alva’s College of Physiotherapy and Alva’s Physiotherapy Clinic (Extension Unit). 52 patients with acute plantar heel pain are included in the study. They are randomly divided into two different groups. Group A: 26 (subjects receiving Calcaneal taping and ultrasound) and group B: 26 (subjects receiving Low dye taping and ultrasound). The subjects were evaluated for their current level of pain at the plantar aspect of foot during weight bearing using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Foot Function Index Questionnaire (FFI) was filled by the subjects respectively.In the comparison of Group A and Group B there was significant reduction in pain in Group B (p< 0.001). Low dye taping is significantly more effective than Calcaneal taping in reducing pain and increasing the foot function in patients with plantar fasciitis
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[Purpose] This study examined how the application of Low-Dye (LD) taping affected the pain and stability of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with plantar fasciitis who were divided into two groups: a Low-Dye taping group (LTG, n=15) and a conservative treatment group (CTG, n=15). [Methods] The treatments were performed three times a week for six weeks in both groups. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the pain and stability of patients with plantar fasciitis, and the transfer area of the center of gravity (TAOCOG) was measured to evaluate stability using a BioRescue device. [Results] In the within-group comparison of the VAS, the LTG and CTG values significantly decreased. In the post-test between-group comparison, the VAS pain decreased more significantly in LTG than in CTG. In the within-group comparison of the TAOCOG, the LTG value significantly increased. In the post-test between-group comparison, the TAOCOG value increased more significantly than in LTG than in CTG. [Conclusion] Utilizing Low-Dye taping for patients with plantar fasciitis appears to be an effective intervention method for reducing pain and enhancing stability.
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The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The purpose of these revised clinical practice guidelines is to review recent peer-reviewed literature and make recommendations related to nonarthritic heel pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(11):A1-A23. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.0303.
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Low-Dye taping is often used as a short-term treatment for plantar fasciitis. We evaluated the short-term effectiveness of low-Dye taping in relieving pain associated with plantar fasciitis. In this comparative study conducted at a university-based clinic, 65 participants with plantar fasciitis who received low-Dye taping for 3 to 5 days were compared with 40 participants who did not receive taping. Pain before and after treatment was measured using a visual analog pain scale. Analysis of the data was by the intention-to-treat principle, and a linear regression approach to analysis of covariance was used to compare effects. The visual analog pain scale score improved by a mean of 20 mm (from 44 to 24 mm) in the taping group and worsened by a mean of 6 mm (from 51 to 57 mm) in the control group. The analysis of covariance-adjusted difference in therapeutic effect favored the taping group by 31.7 mm (95% confidence interval, 23.6-39.9 mm) and was statistically significant (t = 7.71). In the short term, low-Dye taping significantly reduces the pain associated with plantar fasciitis. These findings are the first quantitative results to demonstrate the significant therapeutic effect of this treatment modality in relieving the symptoms associated with plantar fasciitis.
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Plantar heel pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders of the foot and ankle. Treatment of the condition is usually conservative, however the effectiveness of many treatments frequently used in clinical practice, including supportive taping of the foot, has not been established. We performed a participant-blinded randomised trial to assess the effectiveness of low-Dye taping, a commonly used short-term treatment for plantar heel pain. Ninety-two participants with plantar heel pain (mean age 50 +/- 14 years; mean body mass index 30 +/- 6; and median self-reported duration of symptoms 10 months, range of 2 to 240 months) were recruited from the general public between February and June 2005. Participants were randomly allocated to (i) low-Dye taping and sham ultrasound or (ii) sham ultrasound alone. The duration of follow-up for each participant was one week. No participants were lost to follow-up. Outcome measures included 'first-step' pain (measured on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale) and the Foot Health Status Questionnaire domains of foot pain, foot function and general foot health. Participants treated with low-Dye taping reported a small improvement in 'first-step' pain after one week of treatment compared to those who did not receive taping. The estimate of effect on 'first-step' pain favoured the low-Dye tape (ANCOVA adjusted mean difference -12.3 mm; 95% CI -22.4 to -2.2; P = 0.017). There were no other statistically significant differences between groups. Thirteen participants in the taping group experienced an adverse event however most were mild to moderate and short-lived. When used for the short-term treatment of plantar heel pain, low-Dye taping provides a small improvement in 'first-step' pain compared with a sham intervention after a one-week period.
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Plantar fasciitis is thought to develop because of repeated mechanical stresses. This study aimed to compare 2 means of foot arches support-low-Dye tape (LDT) and medial arch support (MAS)-in patients with plantar fasciitis. Thirty patients with unilateral plantar fasciitis (23 men and 7 women) were randomly assigned to the LDT or MAS groups. Both groups were assessed before and after experiment for pain and foot function. Both groups received 9 sessions over 3 weeks consisting of ultrasound and calf muscles stretching. They were instructed to maintain supportive intervention (LDT or MAS) throughout this period. Pre-post comparison showed reduced pain and improved function in both groups. Between-groups analysis showed non-significant difference in pre-VAS and pre-FPDS. Post-VAS and post-FPDS showed significant improvement in patients in MAS group. Results indicate that MAS is more convenient for short-term management of pain and disability in patients with plantar fasciitis than LDT.
Manickavasagam I. The effect of Calcaneal taping versus Low dye taping in treating patients with plantar fasciitisRandomized Clinical Trial
  • A J Sankhe
  • G Shukila
  • V I Rathod
  • J Alagesan
Sankhe AJ, Shukila G, Rathod VI, Alagesan J, Manickavasagam I. The effect of Calcaneal taping versus Low dye taping in treating patients with plantar fasciitisRandomized Clinical Trial. Int J Ther Rehabil Res. 2016;5(3):41-45. doi:10.5455/ijtrr.000000134
Clinical Practice Guidelines Linked to the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health From the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association
Clinical Practice Guidelines Linked to the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health From the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2014;44(11): A1-A23.