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In this work, the special design of a pair of ski gloves has been assessed in terms of thermal comfort. The glove 2in1 Gore-Tex has a dual-chamber construction, with two possible wearing configurations: one called "grip" to maximize finger flexibility and one called "warm" to maximize thermal insulation in extremely cold conditions. The dual-chamber gloves has been compared with two regular ski gloves produced by the same company. An intermittent test on a treadmill was carried out in a climatic chamber: it was made of four intense activity phases, during which the volunteer ran at 9 km/h on a 5% slope for 4 minutes, spaced out by 5-min resting phases. Finger temperature measurements were compared with the thermal sensations expressed by two volunteers during the test.
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IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
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Thermal comfort of
dual-chamber
ski gloves
To cite this article: F Dotti et al 2017 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 254 182002
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17th World Textile Conference AUTEX 2017- Textiles - Shaping the Future IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 254 (2017) 182002 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/254/18/182002
Thermal comfort of dual-chamber ski gloves
F Dotti1, M Colonna2and A Ferri1
1Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Corso Duca
degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2Università di Bologna, Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials
Engineering, University of Bologna, Via Terracini 28, 40131, Bologna, Italy
E-mail: ada.ferri@polito.it
Abstract. In this work, the special design of a pair of ski gloves has been assessed in terms of
thermal comfort. The glove 2in1 Gore-Tex has a dual-chamber construction, with two possible
wearing configurations: one called "grip" to maximize finger flexibility and one called "warm"
to maximize thermal insulation in extremely cold conditions. The dual-chamber gloves has
been compared with two regular ski gloves produced by the same company. An intermittent
test on a treadmill was carried out in a climatic chamber: it was made of four intense activity
phases, during which the volunteer ran at 9 km/h on a 5% slope for 4 minutes, spaced out by 5-
min resting phases. Finger temperature measurements were compared with the thermal
sensations expressed by two volunteers during the test.
Introduction
Skin temperature is a nearly linear function of the perfusion of the hand, as it was demonstrated by
Laser Doppler measurements. Due to vasoconstriction, blood flow decreases of about 30% at 15°C
compared to 31°C [1]. Having small muscles, hands have a very low intrinsic heat production, which
has been estimated merely as 0.25 W [2]. Therefore it is important that hands have continuous heat
supply from the body core. A mean skin temperature of 15°C is said to be the lowest acceptable skin
temperature for sufficient dexterity and thermal self-perceived comfort [3]; however, much lower
temperatures of skin hands have been registered in cold environmental conditions.
Although fabric thickness influences thermal and evaporative resistance of fabric assembly, the
influence of air gaps under the clothing is more significant. Taking into account fit and thermal
comfort, the local ease allowance for cold protective clothing is suggested to be within 10mm. Fit is
extremely important also for gloves and it is plausible that both tight fit and loose fit are not ideal: in
the first case, conductive heat loss plays a major role while in the second case convective heat loss due
to air circulation in the glove can be relevant. Concerning gloves, specific norms such as EN
420:2010+A1 are available for protective equipment only [4]. The size of the glove is given by a
number between 6 and 11. The code is a conventional designation of hand size corresponding to the
hand circumference expressed in inches. In Table 1, the size of the hand reported in the standard is
shown.
2
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17th World Textile Conference AUTEX 2017- Textiles - Shaping the Future IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 254 (2017) 182002 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/254/18/182002
Tests in climatic chamber can be used to validate thermal insulation of garments in extreme conditions
[5].
Table 1. Hand and glove size, according to EN 420:2010
Hand/ glove size
Hand length
(mm)
6
160
7
171
8
182
9
192
10
204
11
215
In this work, the special design of a pair of ski gloves has been assessed in terms of thermal
comfort. The glove 2-in-1 Gore-Tex has a dual-chamber construction, with two possible wearing
configurations: (1) one called "grip" to maximize hand dexterity and (2) one called "warm" to
maximize thermal insulation in extremely cold conditions. Both subjective and objective parameters
related to thermal comfort have been monitored during the test. The final aim of the work was to
compare the thermal performance of the dual chamber glove with respect to two single chamber glove
models.
Experimental
The 2in1 Gore-Tex glove shown in Figure 1 was compared with two regular ski-gloves produced by
the same company and classified as Thermoplus 3000 (that is a product certified for temperatures up
to -15°C) and Thermoplus 4000 (that is a product certified for temperatures up to -20°C).
Figure 1. Dual-chamber ski gloves
The test in the climatic chamber was carried out by two healthy male volunteers of age 30 and 33, both
fitting size 8.5 gloves. Each volunteer carried out the wear trial three times (once for each type of
gloves) at the same hour to avoid the effect of circadian rhythms. Apart from the gloves, the outfit
made of ski-pant & jacket, warm fleece and underwear was the same in each wear trial.
The climatic chamber air temperature and humidity were respectively -10.46±0.33°C and
66.44±3.17%.
The physical activity test was made of two intense activity phases, during which the volunteer ran at 9
km/h on a 5% slope for 4 minutes, spaced out by 5-min resting phases. The test was preceded by 15-
min acclimatization walk at 3.5 km/h and followed by 10-min rest in the climatic chamber.
3
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17th World Textile Conference AUTEX 2017- Textiles - Shaping the Future IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 254 (2017) 182002 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/254/18/182002
During the test, thumb, middle and little finger temperatures were measured by means of
thermocouples (see Figure 2).
Figure 2. Location of the thermocouples for the measurements of finger tips temperature.
Thermal sensations experienced by the volunteers were collected through a questionnaire. During each
test, the volunteer was asked to express his subjective assessment of finger temperature any two
minutes. The bipolar scale used for subjective assessment of thermal environments as reported in UNI
EN ISO 28802:2012 norm [6] was adopted, with the following thermal sensations, which were
assigned a numerical value.
Table 2 Numerical values associated with thermal sensations
Subjective thermal
sensation
Associated
numerical value
Hot
+3
Warm
+2
Slightly warm
+1
Neutral
0
Slightly cool
-1
Cool
-2
Cold
-3
Results and discussion
The average temperature of the left and right hand fingers over the two volunteers is shown in Figure
3. It can be observed that finger temperature dropped during the initial acclimatization phase with any
gloves; however, the fall was steeper for 2-in-1-Grip than 2-in-1-Warm between 500 to 900 seconds,
confirming that 2-in-1-Warm configuration is more insulating. At the end of the acclimatization phase,
finger temperature was close to the acceptability limit of 15°C with 2-in-1-Grip and Thermoplus 3000
while was inside the comfort limit for Thermoplus 4000 and 2-in-1-Warm.
Due to metabolic heat production during the physical test, fingers temperature was restored to
initial value in case of 2-in-1-Warm and Thermoplus 4000 while it remained well below initial
temperature in case of Thermoplus 3000 and was only partially restored with 2-in-1-Grip.
The weave trend of finger temperature during the activity phases (between 900 and 2100 sec) is the
result of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction associated with intense activity and resting phase
respectively. As expected, vasodilatation contributed tremendously to restoring comfortable finger
temperature. The steepest increase in finger temperature was observed just after the end of the second
high intense activity phase and it was prolonged in the recovery phase. This peak was the result of two
combined effects: vasodilatation, which was maximum just before the end of the test, and convective
heat loss. Convective heat loss was evidently greater during the activity phase as the volunteer was
moving his hands while running. As the physical activity suddenly stopped, the hands were hanging
4
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17th World Textile Conference AUTEX 2017- Textiles - Shaping the Future IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 254 (2017) 182002 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/254/18/182002
down along the body with little movement and this change of posture reduced the effect of heat loss by
air convection.
However, some minutes after the end of the activity phase, the finger temperature reached a peak and
started decreasing again, as heat flow was not longer supported by high metabolic rate.
Figure 3 Average finger temperature of the dual-chamber gloves in comparison with the two reference
gloves Themoplus 3000 and Thermopus 4000.
The descending and ascending sections of the temperature curve were regressed with linear equations,
whose slopes give an idea of the glove thermal insulation. In Table 3, the regression lines are shown.
Table 3 Slopes of the linear regressions of temperature curves
Descending linear
equation slope
Ascending linear
equation slope
Thermoplus 4000
-0.012
+0.0051
2-in-1 Grip
-0.015
+0.0029
2-in-1 Warm
-0.012
+0.0059
Thermoplus 3000
-0.014
+0.0007
By comparing the slope values, it can be observed that the temperature drop was the steepest for 2-
in-1 Grip, followed by Thermoplus 3000, while Thermoplus 4000 and 2-in-1 Warm had the same
slope, meaning that they provided approximately the same thermal insulation.
For the ascending section, the steepest temperature increase was observed for 2-in-1 Warm, followed
by Thermoplus 4000, 2-in-1 Grip and Themoplus 3000.
Regarding the subjective assessments, the results of the questionnaire are shown in Figure 4. The four
phases shown in the figure are the following:
Phase 1: end of the acclimatization phase
Phase 2: end of the first intense activity phase
Phase 3: end of the second intense activity phase
Phase 4: end of the recovery phase
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
Average Fingers Temperature (°C)
Time (s)
Themoplus 4000
2in1grip
2in1 warm
Thermoplus 3000
5
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17th World Textile Conference AUTEX 2017- Textiles - Shaping the Future IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 254 (2017) 182002 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/254/18/182002
Figure 4 Thermal subjective assessments.
Wearing Themoplus 3000, Cold or Cool assessments were dominant throughout the duration of the
test while Cold assessment was limited to the acclimatization phase with Thermoplus 4000 and was
turned into Warm or Neutral assessments during and after the activity phase.
2-in-1-Warm and 2-in-1-Grip were in the middle: negative Cold assessments were restricted to the
acclimatization and first activity phase.
Thermal subjective sensations (expressed in numerical values) can be plotted versus finger
temperature as shown in Figure 5 for Thermoplus 4000 as example.
Figure 5 Subjective thermal sensation vs. finger temperature.
It can be observed that comfortable sensations (in blue) were associated with finger skin temperature
between 15°C and 30°C. Above 30°C finger temperature was considered uncomfortably Warm and
between 15°C and 20°C uncomfortably Cool or comfortably Slightly Cool.
Hot
Warm
Slightly Warm
Neutral
Slightly Cool
Cool
Cold
6
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17th World Textile Conference AUTEX 2017- Textiles - Shaping the Future IOP Publishing
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 254 (2017) 182002 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/254/18/182002
Acceptability assessments are shown in Figure 6. All gloves showed a certain discomfort in the
acclimatization and first activity phase while acceptability was achieved during the second activity
phase and was maintained until the end of the test, with the exception of Thermoplus 3000 which was
considered barely acceptable due to cold at the end of the test by one volunteer.
Figure 6 Acceptability of subjective assessments.
Conclusions
Thermal comfort of dual-chamber ski gloves has been assessed through wear trials in controlled
conditions in a climatic chamber. In any configuration, finger temperatures did not drop below the
comfortable limit of 15°C, suggesting that both configurations guarantee comfortable conditions
during physical activity comparable with downhill skiing in terms of metabolic rate. 2-in-1-Grip was
found to be more insulating than a reference glove certified for temperature as low as -15°C and 2-in-
1-Warm was slightly less insulating than a reference glove certified for -20°C.
Acknowledgments
The authors acknowledge the company LevelGloves for providing financial support to this work.
References
[1] Glitz KJ, Seibel U, Kurz B, Uedelhoven W, Leyk D 2005 Thermophysiological and self-
perceived sensations during cold exposure of the hands: data for a biophysical device. In:
Holmér I, KuklaneK, Gao C (eds) Environmental Ergonomics XI, Ystad, pp 564–566
[2] Raman ER, Vanhuyse VJ 1975 J Physiol 249 197–210
[3] Hamlet MP 1988 Human Cold Injuries. In: Pandolf K, Sawka M,Gonzalez R (eds) Human
performance: Physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes. Benchmark
Press, Indianapolis
[4] EN420: 2003+A1 Protective gloves - General requirements and test method
[5] Dotti F, Ferri A, Moncalero M, Colonna M 2016 Appl. Ergonomics 56 144
[6] UNI EN ISO 28802:2012 Ergonomic of the physical environment
Acceptable
Barely acceptable
Not acceptable
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate thermo-physiological comfort of three back protectors identifying design features affecting heat loss and moisture management. Five volunteers tested the back protectors in a climatic chamber during an intermittent physical activity. Heart rate, average skin temperature, sweat production, microclimate temperature and humidity have been monitored during the test. The sources of heat losses have been identified using infrared thermography and the participants answered a questionnaire to express their subjective sensations associated with their thermo-physiological condition. The results have shown that locally torso skin temperature and microclimate depended on the type of back protector, whose design allowed different extent of perspiration and thermal insulation. Coupling physiological measurements with the questionnaire, it was found that overall comfort was dependent more on skin wetness than skin temperature: the participants preferred the back protector with the highest level of ventilation through the shell and the lowest level of microclimate humidity.
Article
1. The rate of blood flow D through the hand and the rate of heat H transferred by that blood flow into the hand were measured on eleven subjects between 18 and 22 years old. The hand was immersed in water, at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40 degrees C. 2. The rate of blood flow was measured with a water-air displacement plethysmograph, which was adapted also to give heat loss measurements. 3. Comparison of the relative values of D and H at different temperatures gives information about the change in distribution of blood flow with temperature. On decreasing water temperature, the change in distribution starts at about 25 degrees C and continues gradually to about 15 degrees C, suggesting that more and more blood is shunted to deep veins. For one of the subjects, no change in distrubiton pattern was found.
Environmental Ergonomics XI ed I Holmér, KuklaneK and C Gao (Ystad) Thermophysiological and self-perceived sensations during cold exposure of the hands
  • Kj Glitz
  • U Seibel
  • B Kurz
  • W Uedelhoven
  • D Leyk
Human performance: Physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes
  • M P Hamlet
Hamlet MP 1988 Human Cold Injuries. In: Pandolf K, Sawka M,Gonzalez R (eds) Human performance: Physiology and environmental medicine at terrestrial extremes. Benchmark Press, Indianapolis
Thermophysiological and selfperceived sensations during cold exposure of the hands: data for a biophysical device
  • K J Glitz
  • U Seibel
  • B Kurz
  • W Uedelhoven
  • D Leyk
Glitz KJ, Seibel U, Kurz B, Uedelhoven W, Leyk D 2005 Thermophysiological and selfperceived sensations during cold exposure of the hands: data for a biophysical device. In: Holmér I, KuklaneK, Gao C (eds) Environmental Ergonomics XI, Ystad, pp 564-566
  • F Dotti
  • A Ferri
  • M Moncalero
  • M Colonna
Dotti F, Ferri A, Moncalero M, Colonna M 2016 Appl. Ergonomics 56 144 [6] UNI EN ISO 28802:2012 Ergonomic of the physical environment
  • F Dotti
  • A Ferri
  • M Moncalero
  • M Colonna
Dotti F, Ferri A, Moncalero M, Colonna M 2016 Appl. Ergonomics 56 144
Ergonomic of the physical environment Acceptable Barely acceptable Not acceptable
  • Uni
UNI EN ISO 28802:2012 Ergonomic of the physical environment Acceptable Barely acceptable Not acceptable