ArticleLiterature Review

Environmental and health effects of the herbicide glyphosate

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Abstract

The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, has been used extensively in the past 40 years, under the assumption that side effects were minimal. However, in recent years, concerns have increased worldwide about the potential wide ranging direct and indirect health effects of the large scale use of glyphosate. In 2015, the World Health Organization reclassified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. A detailed overview is given of the scientific literature on movement and residues of glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water, their toxicity to macro- and microorganisms, their effects on microbial compositions and potential indirect effects on plant, animal and human health. Although the acute toxic effects of glyphosate and AMPA on mammals are low, there are animal data raising the possibility of health effects associated with chronic, ultra-low doses related to accumulation of these compounds in the environment. Intensive glyphosate use has led to the selection of glyphosate-resistant weeds and microorganisms. Shifts in microbial compositions due to selective pressure by glyphosate may have contributed to the proliferation of plant and animal pathogens. Research on a link between glyphosate and antibiotic resistance is still scarce but we hypothesize that the selection pressure for glyphosate-resistance in bacteria could lead to shifts in microbiome composition and increases in antibiotic resistance to clinically important antimicrobial agents. We recommend interdisciplinary research on the associations between low level chronic glyphosate exposure, distortions in microbial communities, expansion of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of animal, human and plant diseases. Independent research is needed to revisit the tolerance thresholds for glyphosate residues in water, food and animal feed taking all possible health risks into account.

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... This emerging contaminant is classified as a chronic aquatic hazard (category 2) and considered toxic to aquatic organisms with long-lasting effects (hazard statement H411) (INERIS, 2014). Since 2015, the World Health Organization has reclassified it as probably carcinogenic to humans (Myers et al., 2016;Van Bruggen et al., 2018). Glyphosate acts as a chelating agent that binds to micro-and macronutrients, altering many plant processes, pathogen resistance and bioavailability of elements in soils (Mertens et al., 2018). ...
... Acute toxicity tests with pure glyphosate or in commercial formulations show lethality at concentrations well above those observed in nature (Matozzo et al., 2020). Focusing upon the foodweb base is important as this is where photoautotrophic microorganisms, essential for healthy aquatic ecosystems, are found (Van Bruggen et al., 2018). In freshwater, green microalgae had a half maximum effective concentration (EC50) of 3.5 mg L -1 (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and 12.5 mg L -1 (Pseudokirchneriella costatum) after a 96-hour exposure to glyphosate (INERIS, 2014). ...
... The mode of action of glyphosate on these microorganisms is the same as that observed on terrestrial plants. Aromatic amino acid synthesis, respiration, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll production can be disrupted (Van Bruggen et al., 2018). Impaired electron transport in thylakoids and decreased antioxidant capacity inhibit photosynthetic activity and increase lipid peroxidation (Cruz de Carvalho et al., 2020). ...
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Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide whose use is now restricted because of its potential toxicity to human and environmental health. Its presence is observed even in aquatic ecosystems where this emerging contaminant affects primary producers such as phytoplankton. This study focuses on the cosmopolitan green microalga, Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck, 1890. The ecotoxicological effects of the commercial herbicide, Roundup®, were evaluated in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) using ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy over a five-day experiment. A dose-response relationship was investigated on a wide range of concentrations (0.1 to 25,000 µg L⁻¹). The population of FW-Chlorella was stimulated when exposed to concentrations from 10 to 5,000 µg L⁻¹ and inhibited otherwise. Chlorophylls and carotenoids exhibited their highest peak area values after four days, before their signal was depleted by day 5, regardless of Roundup® concentration. Conversely, cells of SW-Chlorella were stimulated at the highest concentrations (> 1 mg L⁻¹), as if glyphosate was acting as a source of phosphorous nutrient. The peak areas of chlorophylls and carotenoids increased in the presence of the contaminant, especially on day 3. The defense mechanisms activated during its adaptation to marine salinity (e.g., decrease in the chlorophyll/carotenoid peak area ratio) could have favored its resilience. Exposure to Roundup® caused a shift in the wavelength at maximum absorbance, which could introduce a bias when measuring peak heights at a single wavelength. The analysis of absorption spectra and the use of peak areas appear to be a promising approach for monitoring changes in photosynthetic pigments.
... Miscarriages, dermatological irritations, and respiratory problems have been reported after exposure to glyphosate. In addition, there are studies that have recorded an increase in infertility and malformations among pigs, as well as DNA damage and increased methylation in vitro [6]. ...
... In the present study, the compounds of interest have been associated with neurological and behavioral problems; liver and kidney lesions; cancer mainly of the breast, skin, liver, or kidney; thyroid gland problems; adverse effects on the reproductive system, such as changes in the function and morphology of the ovaries and sperm motility; pregnancy problems; oxidative stress; increased chances of obesity; and allergies. The fact that there is evidence of possible genotoxicity of these substances, namely glyphosate, PBs, and BPA, also raises concerns [6,[32][33][34][35]. ...
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Recently, an increasing number of chemical compounds are being characterized as endocrine disruptors since they have been proven to interact with the endocrine system, which plays a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis. Glyphosate is the active substance of the herbicide Roundup®, bisphenol A (BPA) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are used as plasticizers, while triclosan (TCS), methyl (MePB), propyl (PrPB), and butyl (BuPB) parabens are used as antimicrobial agents and preservatives mainly in personal care products. Studies indicate that exposure to these substances can affect humans causing developmental problems and problems in the endocrine, reproductive, nervous, immune, and respiratory systems. Although there are copious studies related to these substances, there are few in vivo studies related to combined exposure to these endocrine disruptors. The aim of the present pilot study is the investigation and assessment of the above substances’ toxicity in rabbits after twelve months of exposure to glyphosate (both pure and commercial form) and to a mixture of all the above substances at subtoxic levels. The lack of data from the literature concerning rabbits’ exposure to these substances and the restrictions of the 3Rs Principle will result in a limited number of animals available for use (four animals per group, twenty animals in total).
... However, all fish died one hour after the addition of th Likely, GLY alone did not cause mortality, and other compounds in the Rou the mixture very toxic. Indeed, as previously demonstrated [12], the adverse e herbicide on the aquatic ecosystem are attributable to the co-adjuvants. ...
... Likely, GLY alone did not cause mortality, and other compounds in the Roundup ® made the mixture very toxic. Indeed, as previously demonstrated [12], the adverse effects of this herbicide on the aquatic ecosystem are attributable to the co-adjuvants. ...
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Glyphosate is a component of commonly used herbicides for controlling weeds in crops, gardens and municipal parks. There is increasing awareness that glyphosate-based herbicides, in addition to acting on plants, may also exert toxicity in wildlife and humans. In this study, male and female adult zebrafish were exposed to 700 µg/L of glyphosate (GLY), for 28 days. We used the metabolomic approach and UHPLC-ESI-MS to analyze liver samples to investigate the adverse effects of glyphosate on hepatic metabolism. The impact of GLY was found to be sex-specific. In female, GLY exposure affected purine metabolism by decreasing the levels of AMP, GMP and inosinic acid, consequently increasing uric acid levels with respect to the control (CTRL). Exposure to GLY also caused a decrease of UMP levels in the pyrimidine metabolism pathway. In male, GLY exposure decreased the aminoadipic acid within the lysine degradation pathway. Transcript analysis of genes involved in stress response, oxidative stress and the immune system were also performed. Results demonstrated an increased stress response in both sexes, as suggested by higher nr3c1 expression. However, the hsp70.2 transcript level was increased in female but decreased in male. The results demonstrated reduced sod1, sod2, and gpx1a in male following exposure to GLY, indicating an impaired oxidative stress response. At the same time, an increase in the cat transcript level in female was observed. mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory interleukins litaf and cxcl8b.1 were increased in female. Taken together, the results provide evidence of disrupted nucleotide hepatic metabolism, increased stress inflammatory response in female and disruption of oxidative stress response in male.
... At present glyphosate is widespread utilize for agricultural production both in developing and industrialized countries. Because of the broad and intensive application of glyphosate and its accumulation in environment and its edible products various major concerns came to light in recent years about ill effects of glyphosate on animals, plants, human health and AMPA for water and soil quality [6]. ...
... Various adverse effect of glyphosate including mutagenesis, teratogenesis etc. are the most carcinogenic [7][8][9][10][11][12]. In 2015, the World Health Organization re-categorizes the herbicide glyphosate as carcinogenic to human [6]. Therefore for environmental point of view, by understanding adsorption of this herbicide is eminent for the prediction of its movement in aquifers and soil. ...
Article
A new sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of glyphosate herbicide in environmental and agricultural samples is developed. The reaction is based on diazotization followed by coupling of glyphosate with p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde. The resulted complex absorption spectra was observed at λmax = 420 nm. The effects of other metal ions and pesticides were also tested for selective determination of glyphosate. The analytical parameters were optimized and have been successfully applied for determination of glyphosate in various environmental samples such as soil, water and vegetables. This method has a lower limit detection of 6 μg of glyphosate. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 6.0 μg–24.0 μg glyphosate in 25 ml of the final solution at 420 nm. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation calculated are 0.0055 and 1.023, respectively. The molar absorptivity of the colored system is 1.91×10¹⁰ L mol⁻¹cm⁻¹ and Sandell's sensitivity is found 0.408×10⁻⁵ μg cm⁻². The proposed method is simple, sensitive, highly reproducible and time saving as compare to those complicated time consuming methods.
... This inhibitory mechanism towards a missing enzyme in animal tissues and its rapid degradation made glyphosate the herbicide of choice for many years. Unfortunately, many studies have shown the ability of Gly to accumulate in plants treated or grown on treated soils [4,5], in water [6,7] and, from there, to pass into animal tissues through the food chain [6,8]. Gly has been found in human urine samples and at higher concentrations in populations living in countries where its use in agriculture is broader, such as the USA [9]. ...
... This inhibitory mechanism towards a missing enzyme in animal tissues and its rapid degradation made glyphosate the herbicide of choice for many years. Unfortunately, many studies have shown the ability of Gly to accumulate in plants treated or grown on treated soils [4,5], in water [6,7] and, from there, to pass into animal tissues through the food chain [6,8]. Gly has been found in human urine samples and at higher concentrations in populations living in countries where its use in agriculture is broader, such as the USA [9]. ...
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The expansion of agriculture produces a steady increase in habitat fragmentation and degradation due to the increased use of pesticides and herbicides. Habitat loss and alteration associated with crop production play an important role in reptile decline, among which lizards are particularly endangered. In this study, we evaluated testicular structure, steroidogenesis, and estrogen receptor expression/localization after three weeks of oral exposure to glyphosate at 0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg body weight every other day in the field lizard Podarcis siculus. Our results show that glyphosate affected testicular morphology, reduced spermatogenesis, altered gap junctions and changed the localization of estrogen receptors in germ cells, increasing their expression; the effects were mostly dose-dependent. The result also demonstrates that glyphosate, at least at these concentrations, did not influence steroidogenesis. Overall, the data indicate that this herbicide can disturb the morphophysiology of the male lizard’s reproductive system, with obviously detrimental effects on their reproductive fitness. The effects of glyphosate must be considered biologically relevant and could endanger the reproductive capacity not only of lizards but also of other vertebrates, including humans; a more controlled and less intensive use of glyphosate in areas devoted to crop production would therefore be advisable.
... Until recently, glyphosate was considered to not persist in the environment, because it is removed rapidly from water by strong, rapid adsorptions to soil, where it is degraded by microbes (Rueppel et al. 1977;Sviridov et al. 2015). However, recent studies report the persistence of low levels of glyphosate and AMPA in the environment (e.g., Carles et al. 2019;Mercurio et al. 2014;van Bruggen et al. 2018), including at locations distant from presumed application sites (Battaglin et al. 2014;Platz 2020). These occurrences are often attributed to non-point sources such as runoff from application areas, transport in flowing water, or leaching in soil. ...
... We detected glyphosate in leachate at similar and higher concentrations to those detected in surface water by environmental monitoring programs (van Bruggen et al. 2018;Mercurio et al. 2014;Annett et al. 2014;Robichaud and Rooney 2021b). The higher concentrations reported here are likely a result of our constrained (5L) water-only test system, which limited glyphosate dissipation, and the lack of soil, to which glyphosate readily adsorbs. ...
Article
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Invasive plant management can support the restoration of native plant communities. Glyphosate-based herbicides are commonly used for management because glyphosate does not persist at toxic concentrations in water and soil; however, glyphosate can accumulate in the tissues of treated plants. This study investigated whether glyphosate-treated plants can release glyphosate in their leachate, and if so, whether leachate from glyphosate-treated versus untreated plants affects the germination and seedling growth of native plants. We sprayed industry-standard concentrations of glyphosate (Roundup WeatherMAX®) on two macrophyte taxa that are invasive in North America: Phragmites australis and Typha × glauca. Nine weeks after spraying, we submerged sprayed and unsprayed plant tissues in water to create leachate. We quantified glyphosate and the degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in leachate over 21 days, and assessed the effects of leachate from sprayed and unsprayed plants on the germination and growth of two co-occurring native macrophytes, Typha latifolia and Ammannia robusta. Leachate from both treated invasive plant taxa contained glyphosate and AMPA, with P. australis leaching more glyphosate on average than T. × glauca. Typha latifolia germination and growth was stimulated by leachate with and without glyphosate. Ammannia robusta exhibited mixed responses, with some indication that leachate and glyphosate residues exert temporary inhibitory effects. Our study demonstrated that glyphosate-sprayed plants can release glyphosate into the environment, but negative impacts from this leachate on the germination and growth of at least some native macrophytes are short-term (< 10 days). Nevertheless, early-stage growth can be important to successful establishment, and we therefore recommend that invasive plant managers consider species-specific effects of both glyphosate and leachate when planning restoration activities.
... Glyphosate and AMPA can appear residually at the cropping site and around it [22]. The principal effects of their residuality are the toxicity to soil microbial communities and the reduction in nutrient availability [65]. ...
... AMPA could be present in water as the degradation product of detergents; nonetheless, AMPA detection by detergents always corresponds to specific sites, such as plant treatment effluents and stormwater discharge [75]. Glyphosate has been detected in many water bodies, ranging from 2 to 430 μg L −1 [22]. In sediment samples from the United States, the glyphosate concentrations ranged from 397 to 476 μg L −1 [76]. ...
Article
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Since the introduction of glyphosate (N-(phosphomethyl) glycine) in 1974, it has been the most used nonselective and broad-spectrum herbicide around the world. The widespread use of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides is due to their low-cost efficiency in killing weeds, their rapid absorption by plants, and the general mistaken perception of their low toxicity to the environment and living organisms. As a consequence of the intensive use and accumulation of glyphosate and its derivatives on environmental sources, major concerns about the harmful side effects of glyphosate and its metabolites on human, plant, and animal health, and for water and soil quality, are emerging. Glyphosate can reach water bodies by soil leaching, runoff, and sometimes by the direct application of some approved formulations. Moreover, glyphosate can reach nontarget plants by different mechanisms, such as spray application, release through the tissue of treated plants, and dead tissue from weeds. As a consequence of this nontarget exposure, glyphosate residues are being detected in the food chains of diverse products, such as bread, cereal products, wheat, vegetable oil, fruit juice, beer, wine, honey, eggs, and others. The World Health Organization reclassified glypho-sate as probably carcinogenic to humans in 2015 by the IARC. Thus, many review articles concerning different glyphosate-related aspects have been published recently. The risks, disagreements, and concerns regarding glyphosate usage have led to a general controversy about whether glypho-sate should be banned, restricted, or promoted. Thus, this review article makes an overview of the basis for scientists, regulatory agencies, and the public in general, with consideration to the facts on and recommendations for the future of glyphosate usage.
... Thus, glyphosate as a stress factor may reduce bacterial susceptibility, either as a stress response or via mutations and change the bacterial response to antibiotics [12,[49][50][51][52][53]. In turn, the heavy use of antibiotics and other chemicals may lead to bacterial co-and crossresistance to glyphosate and other antimicrobials [8,46,54]. Notably, however, sensitivity towards antimicrobial compounds depends on the given concentration; thus, it is necessary to empirically determine at which level of glyphosate, and GBH, bacteria are resistant or susceptible. ...
Article
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Glyphosate is the world’s most widely used agrochemical. Its use in agriculture and gardening has been proclaimed safe because humans and other animals do not have the target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). However, increasing numbers of studies have demonstrated risks to humans and animals because the shikimate metabolic pathway is present in many microbes. Here, we assess the potential effect of glyphosate on healthy human microbiota. Our results demonstrate that more than one-half of human microbiome are intrinsically sensitive to glyphosate. However, further empirical studies are needed to determine the effect of glyphosate on healthy human microbiota.
... Part of glyphosate and its metabolite adsorbed to soil particles, due to soil erosion by the wind and/or run-off, end up into surface water bodies where it can persist in the SPM, be desorbed, biodegraded or accumulate in the sediment [43][44][45][46] . ...
Article
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Glyphosate is the best-selling herbicide worldwide. The toxicity on ecosystems and the possible effects on human health have long been at the centre of a complex controversy concerning the authorisation for its use. The peculiar chemical-physical properties of glyphosate, AMPA and glufosinate make their determination at trace levels in the water a real analytical challenge. All three compounds can be derivatised to less polar ones and FMOC-Cl (9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate) is the most common pre-column derivatisation reagent used for this analysis. It can be successfully combined with Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) to determine all three analytes in one method as part of water monitoring programs. The developed method aims to determine glyphosate with AMPA and glufosinate at sub-micrograms/L levels in groundwater, surface and water by UHPLC-MS/MS after derivatisation with FMOC-Cl. The novelty of this method is its high simplicity, robustness and sensitivity that allows the identification and quantification of the compounds at the detection limits required by the European regulations (0.1 μg /L). No pre-concentration or purification steps (by using Solid Phase Extraction cartridges) is necessary for our method saving time and on consumables costs. The method demonstrated an excellent linear relationship (R2 ≥ 0.999) in the concentration range from 0.025 μg /L to 10 μg /L for glyphosate and AMPA and 0.025 to 5 μg /L for glufosinate. The method Limit Of Quantification (LOQ) is 0.025 μg/L, the lowest among all previously published studies, and it was demonstrated according to the European SANTE guidelines.
... However, the scientific and public discussions about the health and environmental consequences of glyphosate use are still ongoing and will intensify as we get closer to the expiration date of approval (Kudsk and Mathiassen, 2020). While unintended effects on the environment and human health have been reported (Battaglin et al., 2014;Paganelli et al., 2010;van Bruggen et al., 2018), it is globally yet undecided, if these are too great for the future approval and use of glyphosate. ...
Article
In the discussion about glyphosate-based herbicides, the question of how repeated applications affect biodiversity has become prominent. However, approaches are lacking to assess direct glyphosate effects under real, on-farm field conditions. This paper focuses the effect of post-harvest and / or pre-sowing glyphosate use on weed density, richness, diversity and composition in arable cropping systems. An on-farm monitoring was conducted in Northeast Germany over the period 2014–2016. The pre-harvest weed survey took place on a total of 97 winter wheat fields. Farmers´ records of field management were obtained for the surveyed fields for the year in which a field was visited and also the nine previous years. A total of 66 species over the three survey years were identified shortly before harvest. Overall, the highest number of specimens were found for the species Viola arvensis Murray, Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve and Polygonum aviculare L. This study provided evidence that intensive glyphosate use in the recent past significantly sinks species richness by 31% and the true diversity by 40%. In contrast, weed density and weed community composition were not affected by past glyphosate use intensity. Indeed, we found that glyphosate-based or inversion tillage-based cropping systems induce different weed community patterns. The results of this study provide one more piece in the puzzle for the assessment of the impact of glyphosate use on the environment.
... Our study found that glyphosate made up almost 25% of the total herbicidal imports into Sierra Leone. A theoretical relationship was proposed that suggests glyphosate "may serve as one of the drivers for antibiotic resistance" [20]. A connection between exposure to glyphosate and "adaptive multiple antibiotic resistance" in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica to quinolones and aminoglycosides, has subsequently been demonstrated [21][22][23]. ...
Article
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There are no previous studies reporting the type and quantity of pesticides for farming from Sierra Leone and the impact of Ebola or COVID-19 on importation. This study reviewed imported farming pesticides by the Sierra Leone, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF), between 2010–2021. It was a descriptive study using routinely collected importation data. We found the MAF imported pesticides for farming only during 2010, 2014 and 2021, in response to growing food insecurity and associated with Ebola and COVID-19 outbreaks. Results showed insecticide importation increased from 6230 L in 2010 to 51,150 L in 2021, and importation of antimicrobial pesticides (including fungicides) increased from 150 kg in 2010 to 23,560 kg in 2021. The hazard class risk classification of imported pesticides decreased over time. Increasing amounts of imported fungicides could increase the risk of future fungal resistance among humans. We found that in responding to escalating food insecurity, the government dramatically increased the amount of pesticide importation to improve crop production. Further support is necessary to decrease the risk of worsening food shortages and the possible threat of emerging antimicrobial resistance. We recommend continued monitoring and surveillance, with further studies on the most appropriate response to these multiple challenges.
... In addition, residues were also found in the urine of 60-80% of the general population in the United States at medium and maximum concentrations of 2-3 and 233 µg/L, respectively. In Europe, residues were also detected in the urine of 44% of the population, although their average and maximum concentrations were lower: <1 and 5 µg/L, respectively [9,28]. ...
Article
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Glyphosate, a non-selective systemic biocide with broad-spectrum activity, is the most widely used herbicide in the world. It can persist in the environment for days or months, and its intensive and large-scale use can constitute a major environmental and health problem. In this systematic review, we investigate the current state of our knowledge related to the effects of this pesticide on the nervous system of various animal species and humans. The information provided indicates that exposure to glyphosate or its commercial formulations induces several neurotoxic effects. It has been shown that exposure to this pesticide during the early stages of life can seriously affect normal cell development by deregulating some of the signaling pathways involved in this process, leading to alterations in differentiation, neuronal growth, and myelination. Glyphosate also seems to exert a significant toxic effect on neurotransmission and to induce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction, processes that lead to neuronal death due to autophagy, necrosis, or apoptosis, as well as the appearance of behavioral and motor disorders. The doses of glyphosate that produce these neurotoxic effects vary widely but are lower than the limits set by regulatory agencies. Although there are important discrepancies between the analyzed findings, it is unequivocal that exposure to glyphosate produces important alterations in the structure and function of the nervous system of humans, rodents, fish, and invertebrates.
... This dominance is related to the increase in areas sown with genetically modified crops, such as soybeans, corn and cotton, that are resistant to the application of this herbicide (Dill et al., 2008;Duke and Powles, 2008). However, non-target organisms located in the vicinity of plantations are subject to exposure risks due to the dispersion of droplets by drift, since spray application of pesticides is still the most common practice (Lucadamo et al., 2018;Van Bruggen et al., 2018). Pollution from agricultural practices is considered a diffuse source due to the complexity involved in its identification, monitoring and control (Hatfield, 1993). ...
Article
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The active ingredient glyphosate is the most commercialized herbicide on the world market due to its capability in eliminating weeds. However, it can harm the development of non-target organisms and threaten environmental quality. This study analyzed the effects of potentially toxic concentrations of glyphosate on germination, growth, cell cycle and genomic stability of Lactuca sativa L., and identified the most sensitive variables for assessing the toxicity of this herbicide to this biomonitor. Seeds of L. sativa were germinated in Petri dishes containing a sheet of filter paper moistened with 5 mL of a concentration of glyphosate (1.34, 3.35, 6.70, 10.05, 13.40 mg L-1). Controls consisted of distilled water (negative) and 3 mg L-1 CuSO4 (positive). Macroscopic and microscopic variables were analyzed. The germination of L. sativa was not affected by the concentrations of glyphosate. Root length and shoot height of the plants and the mitotic index decreased from the lowest concentration tested on. The chromosomal anomaly index and frequency of micronuclei increased by 3.2 and 22 times, respectively, with the presence of the lowest concentration of glyphosate compared to the negative control. The observed phytotoxic and cytogenotoxic effects demonstrate the negative influence that glyphosate has on the development of L. sativa. Root length and microscopic variables showed the highest sensitivity. This study warns of the possible harmful effects that glyphosate can have on non-target organisms and suggests greater control over the use of this herbicide to mitigate its environmental impact.
... Samir et al. (2020) reported that the herbicide metribuzin causes fatigue, breathing problem, affect the central nervous system and in the case of female death of the embryo, birth defect. Several studies in the United States reported that the effects in the application of herbicide Glyphosate in crop production system cause types of cancer known as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Van Bruggen et al., 2018; on the environment, food chain, and soil ecosystem . The excess use of herbicide adversely affects human health, food quality, biodiversity in the aquatic ecosystem; soil microbial population, soil health, soil quality and air quality Yadav et al., 2015). ...
... 1999). Optimal control methods can be developed by identifying the appropriate herbicide dose and optimal plant response to spraying at different developmental stages (Benbrook, 2016;van Bruggen et al., 2018). The dose of herbicide that ensures optimal control effectiveness is related to environmental conditions (temperature, soil moisture, etc.); specific plant traits such as species, plant stand size, or developmental stage; and the application time. ...
Article
Knotweeds (Fallopia spp., syn. Reynoutria spp.) are among the most invasive plants globally, mainly due to their ability to regenerate from rhizomes and their extremely high biomass production. Spraying with glyphosate is a common control method, yet little is known about its effectiveness on underground rhizomes. In addition, there are concerns about the negative environmental impact of glyphosate. Therefore, it is essential to use appropriate dosages and application times to avoid overuse. Based on a pot trial and field experiments, we assessed the effectiveness of glyphosate concentration, application time, and influence of glyphosate on rhizomes from different soil depths to determine their effect on the aboveground and belowground parts of knotweed plants of different taxa. The study demonstrates that sampling rhizomes is a more consistently accurate indicator of knotweed regeneration rate than sampling shoots. Regeneration of shoots and rhizomes was affected differently by glyphosate spraying depending on the application time. The effect on rhizomes was much greater with early season spraying than late season spraying, which primarily reduced shoot biomass. However, no differences were found between rhizome vitality at different soil depths. F. sachalinensis was sufficiently controlled by early season foliar spray with 5% glyphosate (3.65 kg a.i. ha−1) in contrast to F. japonica and F. ×bohemica. For rapid and targeted control, early season foliar spray with 8% glyphosate (5.85 kg a.i. ha−1) is needed and, in the case of the hybrid, for a minimum of two consecutive seasons.
... Herbicides are applicated in large amounts for crop protection in the European Union, especially in northern member states [29]. Indeed, plant diversity decrease in agroecosystems [30][31][32][33] and environmental and health issues [34][35][36][37] have led to a recent European legislative push for a reduction in pesticide use [1, 2,16]. Furthermore, heavy reliance on herbicides is seen as the main driver for the expansion of herbicide resistance [38], as weeds are more likely to evolve resistance to herbicides when herbicide use is high [39][40][41][42]. ...
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We present an on-farm approach to measure the effect of crop diversification on farmers’ field economic values. Eleven years of data (2010–2020) on the chemical herbicide use, tillage practices and crop yields of 17 farms in north-eastern Germany were examined for winter wheat (WW) and winter oilseed rape (WOSR). We used a common conceptual framework to classify farmers’ crop sequences according to their susceptibility to weeds (‘riskiness’). Linear mixed models were used to analyse the relationship between crop sequence, tillage practice (inversion/non-inversion) and the response variables ‘total herbicide costs’, ‘crop yield’ and ‘economic income’. Our results indicate that farmers in the area surveyed commonly grow crop sequences with a high risk of weeds. The driving forces behind this classification are high ratios of winter cereals and WOSR in the sequences. The most interesting result of our analysis is that farmers’ total herbicide costs (THCfy) significantly decreased from a higher to a lower riskiness class. Diversified crop sequences decreased the THCfy for WWby up to 12 EUR ha􀀀1 and for WOSR by 19–56 EUR ha􀀀1. Considering the crop diversification effects, the combined influence of tillage and crop sequence seems to be important. Significant differences in crop yield between the riskiness classes were found in WW and WOSR solely in non-inversion tillage systems. Hence, the analysis of farmers’ ‘economic income’ revealed the great impact of crop diversification for non-inversion tillage systems. Indeed, we found that simplifying both crop sequence diversity and tillage intensity implies higher herbicide costs and, thereby, higher economic input. The best strategy for reducing herbicide costs inWWand WOSR cropping is to increase the use of summer crops or field grass as previous crops.
... Despite an abundant scientific literature reporting adverse environmental and health outcomes of GLY and GBH (for reviews: [14][15][16]), the adverse impacts of GBHs continue to trigger controversial debates in public, scientific and political spheres [17][18][19]. Ongoing debate has led to scrutiny of evaluation procedures and analytical methodologies [20]. ...
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Background Glyphosate is the declared active component of the most extensively used herbicides in the world, and is therefore widely present in the environment. Glyphosate urinary levels represent a relevant biomarker for each individual’s exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides. However, GLY urine level measurement is controversial because different detection methods have led to contradictory results, especially in the cases of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) versus liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS–MS) for urine, and ELISA versus high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection (HPLC/Fluo) for water. Methods We compared the ELISA method to the LC/MS–MS or HPLC/Fluo one by submitting to two laboratories (Biocheck, Germany and Labocéa, France, respectively) identical urine and water samples, spiked or not with precise concentrations of glyphosate, but also with two chemically similar molecules: glycine and aminomethylphosphonic acid, GLY’s analogue and primary metabolite, respectively. Results Both laboratories claimed similar glyphosate quantification threshold (LOQ): 0.08 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. Each one of the tested methods proved to be specific for glyphosate and therefore did not result in any cross-detection with glycine and aminomethylphosphonic acid. However, these methods showed differences both in reproducibility and reliability depending on the matrix used (water or urine). Conclusion While the ELISA method gave less accurate results than the HPLC/Fluo technique when applied to water samples, the glyphosate concentrations measured in urine were much more reliable and reproducible with the ELISA technology than those obtained with the LC/MS–MS one.
... Recent reports warn that glyphosate has negative effects on both terrestrial and aquatic organisms [5][6][7][8], however, the genotoxicity of glyphosate has been reported in invertebrates [9], fish and plants [10,11], amphibians [12][13][14], reptiles [15][16][17], birds [18], non-human mammals [19,20] and humans [2,21]. The genetic damage induced by glyphosate depends on the concentration and time of exposure [22,23], in addition, the use of adjuvants in commercial glyphosate-based formulations considerably increases the toxicity of the herbicide [22]. Glyphosate has been detected in blood of humans in a mean concentration of 0.0007-0.7 mM [10]. ...
Article
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Glyphosate is a controversial herbicide. Its genotoxicity and presence in various ecosystems have been reported. The use of ascorbic acid and resveratrol could protect different organisms from glyphosate-induced genetic damage. In the present study, specific genetic damage induced by glyphosate was evaluated in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus, Ambystoma mexicanum and human lymphocytes. Simultaneously, the antigenotoxic capacity of various concentrations of ascorbic acid and resveratrol was evaluated by means of pretreatment and simultaneous treatment protocols. The 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM concentrations of glyphosate induced significant genotoxic activity (p < 0.05) in human lymphocytes and in erythrocytes of the species studied, and could cause genomic instability in these populations. The reduction in genetic damage observed in human lymphocytes exposed to high concentrations of glyphosate is only apparent: excessive genetic damage was associated with undetectable excessive tail migration length. A significant (p < 0.05) antigenotoxic effect of ascorbic acid and resveratrol was observed in all concentrations, organisms and protocols used. Both ascorbic acid and resveratrol play an important role in maintaining the integrity of DNA. Ascorbic acid in Oreochromis niloticus, Ambystoma mexicanum reduced glyphosate-induced genetic damage to a basal level. Therefore, our data indicate that these antioxidants could help preserve the integrity of the DNA of organisms exposed to glyphosate. The consumption of antioxidants is a useful tool against the genotoxicity of glyphosate.
... GLUF-P is receiving increasing attention with its marketing. The demand for this type of herbicide is increasing dramatically [5][6][7], which has posed potential risks to human health and the ecological environment that should not be neglected [8,9]. According to scientific statistics, approximately two-thirds of the active ingredients of GLUF-P enter the soil and water or other environments after its application. ...
Article
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This study developed an analytical method to quantify glufosinate-P-ammonium (GLUF-P) in farmland soil using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with a fluorescence detector after derivatization. GLUF-P in farmland soil was extracted with a mixed alkaline solution and was further derivatized with 9-fluorenyl methyl chloroformate (FMOC) at 25 °C for 1 h. The derivatives were separated with an ACE-C18 column, gradient eluted with a mobile phase A of acetonitrile and a mobile phase B of 0.2% phosphoric acid solution, and finally determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection at an excitation wavelength of 254 nm and an emission wavelength of 279.8 nm. The limits of detection (LODs) in the four types of soil ranged from 0.004 to 0.015 mg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.0125 to 0.05 mg/kg. The mean recoveries of GLUF-P ranged from 94% to 119.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied between 2.8% and 9.0% when the spiked concentrations of GLUF-P were 0.1 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively. The coefficients of regression for the linearity equation were more than 0.99. The proposed method had high sensitivity and could be used for the determination of GLUF-P residues in farmland soil.
... G lyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are by far the most extensively used weed-killers worldwide, especially since the introduction of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in the 1990s (1,2). Glyphosate residues can spread widely and accumulate in soil, water, and plant products, raising concerns over human and environmental health (3). A recent systematic review and risk analysis concluded that glyphosate poses a moderate to high risk to freshwater biodiversity in 20 of the countries investigated (4). ...
Article
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Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) such as Roundup formulations may have the unintended consequence of selecting for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), as demonstrated in previous experiments. However, the effects of GBHs on ARGs remain unknown in natural aquatic communities, which are often contaminated with pesticides from agricultural runoff.
... Finally, biodiversity loss also occurs in connection with emissions resulting from agricultural processes (e.g. nitrogen and phosphate emissions, emissions of pollutants from the use of plant protection and growth aids, greenhouse gas emissions from animal production and land-use changes) [6,31,43,50,67,71,78,83]. ...
Technical Report
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Prevailing consumption patterns are coupled to a rapid destruction of natural and near-natural ecosystems and the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Currently, a comprehensive overview of existing policy recommendations and implementation measures to counteract the impacts of consumption on nature is not available. Likewise, an overview of effective formats (e.g. fact-based information, storytelling, using of social media, etc.) for the communication of the link between consumption and biodiversity are missing. Yet, communication between producers, consumers and decision-makers seems to be crucial in this regard. This paper aims at filling this gap. It summarises the state of knowledge on the impacts of current consumption patterns on biodiversity and ecosystem services and gives an overview of recommendations for policy action and proposed measures. Good and best practice examples of communication on sustainable consumption including aspects of biodiversity and ecosystem services are given. To foster a change towards nature friendly consumption, cooperation of key actors will be essential. Hence, this document also includes an overview of international networks, cooperations and initiatives of relevant stakeholders. It is based on a status quo analysis of the current state of findings, communication and cooperation related to consumption and its impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services.
... Glyphosate was detected in 8 from the 18 water samples analyzed with spectrophotometry, at concentrations between 0.25 and 2.2 ppm (Table 1); the highest in esteros. These concentrations are two to three orders of magnitude higher than average occurrences from several countries (Van Bruggen et al., 2018), and thus contradict the official perception of low or absent environmental impacts in Colombia (DIRAN, 2020). Table 1 show relatively high concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and phosphate related to glyphosate in saturated soil horizons, and ammonium related to glyphosate in esteros. ...
Conference Paper
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Glyphosate has been aerially sprayed in Colombia since decades for the purpose of illicit crop eradication and weed control. Although the most recent illicit crop eradication plan (PECIG) was halted in 2015, its reactivation is being currently attempted by the National Police Anti-Narcotics Directorate, on the grounds of glyphosate's allegedly innocuous nature, low environmental mobility, and well documented practices in Colombia's agroindustry. The lack of glyphosate environmental fate studies in Colombia suggests otherwise. The independent assessment presented here aimed to provide support to low-cost spectrophotometry for glyphosate monitoring, to document the occurrence of glyphosate within a natural reserve, and to provide a preliminary understanding of factors that influence glyphosate dispersion in overflow-savannah soils. Our research site serves as a case study to understand contamination risks to protected areas, regardless of the purpose of glyphosate application. The results show that short-range soil variability conditions a complex distribution of surface and subsurface water pockets, between which glyphosate transport happens. We found concentrations between 0.25 and 2.2 ppm in water samples at eight locations in the natural reserve; four of them in saturated soil horizons at ca. 1 m depth, three among them located at ca. 500 m inwards from the reserve's boundaries. High glyphosate concentrations are related to anomalous sulfate, phosphate, nitrate and ammonium contents in the water. These findings highlight the relevance of independent monitoring to update the perception of glyphosate's environmental impacts in Colombia, and argue for data-based regulatory frameworks and procedures, e.g. in relation to the width of buffer protection zones, and to the inclusion of more comprehensive approaches in monitoring programs, which should take into account-on a case-by-case basis-hydropedological complexities.
... However, they also indicate that aggregate economic outcomes may be small (Böcker et al. 2018;Mitter et al. 2019), despite large variations between crops and regions (Schmitz and Garvert 2012). Effects of the active substance glyphosate on nontargeted plants, animals, microorganisms, and humans have received close attention in recent years (Richmond 2018;Van Bruggen et al. 2018), and environmental onfarm effects have mostly been discussed with respect to potential risks for soil health and erosion (e.g., Silva et al. 2018). However, some interviewed farmers associate environmental outcomes of a new agronomic practice with direct or indirect impacts on their business. ...
Article
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Glyphosate is controversially discussed because of its alleged harmful effects on human health and the environment. Although it is approved until December 2022 in the European Union, the Austrian government discusses a national ban. Research on farmers’ intentions to deal with upcoming pesticide policy changes is limited and planned responses to a national glyphosate ban may inform accompanying measures and the development of weed management alternatives. Therefore, we have conducted 41 qualitative semi-structured interviews with farmers to explore their intended weed management if glyphosate-based herbicides were no longer available in Austria. The interviews were systematically analyzed, whereby the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) with its three social-psychological constructs served as guidance, i.e., attitude toward the planned behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control toward the planned behavior. We grouped farmers based on differences in their behavioral intentions toward glyphosate-free weed management, and identified four types of farmers by assigning group-specific attributes of the TPB constructs to the groups of farmers with similar behavioral intentions. Given a national glyphosate ban, the farmers intend to implement either mechanical or chemical alternatives, which would be solely applied or combined with changes in cultivation. Attitude toward the planned behavior, descriptive norms, and perceived behavioral control affect behavioral intentions, whereas injunctive norms do not differ much between the interviewed farmers. What unites the four types of farmers is that they would rather accept a glyphosate ban, if weed management alternatives with similar effectiveness and costs were available.
... Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide with bacteriostatic properties globally used to destroy unwanted vegetation in crop and non-crop areas and applied at concentrations usually higher than 30 mM (see reference [31] for details regarding glyphosate's mechanism of action). Besides the effects on the gut microbiota, glyphosate has been also associated with behavioral, developmental and/ or neurological changes in honey bee larvae, honey bee adults [32][33][34][35][36][37][38] and other non-target organisms [39][40][41]. ...
Article
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Background Similar to many other animals, the honey bee Apis mellifera relies on a beneficial gut microbiota for regulation of immune homeostasis. Honey bees exposed to agrochemicals, such as the herbicide glyphosate or antibiotics, usually exhibit dysbiosis and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. Considering the relevance of the microbiota–immunity axis for host health, we hypothesized that glyphosate exposure could potentially affect other components of the honey bee physiology, such as the immune system. Results In this study, we investigated whether glyphosate, besides affecting the gut microbiota, could compromise two components of honey bee innate immunity: the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides (humoral immunity) and the melanization pathway (cellular immunity). We also compared the effects of glyphosate on the bee immune system with those of tylosin, an antibiotic commonly used in beekeeping. We found that both glyphosate and tylosin decreased the expression of some antimicrobial peptides, such as apidaecin, defensin and hymenoptaecin, in exposed honey bees, but only glyphosate was able to inhibit melanization in the bee hemolymph. Conclusions Exposure of honey bees to glyphosate or tylosin can reduce the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria and lead to immune dysregulation.
... The waterborne derivatives of herbicides and pesticides negatively affect aquatic animals' health status and productivity (Dar et al. 2022;Naiel et al. 2020). Glyphosate is a very toxic herbicide involved in the protection against common herbs grown on crop farms and is known for its carcinogenic effects (Van Bruggen et al. 2018). Exposure to subchronic glyphosate led to oxidative stress, immunosuppression, inflammation, and apoptosis in various fish species Mohapatra et al. 2021;Yalsuyi et al. 2021). ...
Article
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The water-borne herbicides are involved in the toxicity of aquatic animals resulting in impaired health status and low productivity. Dietary medicinal herbs present a practical solution to relieve the impacts of herbicides toxicity on the performances of aquatic animals. Herein, we investigated the toxicity of commercial glyphosate-induced oxidative stress, immunosuppression, liver and kidney dysfunction, and the protective role of ginger or ginger nanoparticles in Nile tilapia. Fish were allocated into four groups: the first group presented the control without glyphosate toxicity and ginger feeding, the second group intoxicated with glyphosate at 0.6 mg/L and fed ginger free diet, the third group intoxicated with glyphosate and fed ginger at 2.5 g/kg, and the fourth group intoxicated with glyphosate and fed ginger nanoparticles at 2.5 g/kg. Fish were kept under the experimental conditions for four weeks, and the samples of blood and tissues were collected after 2 and 4 weeks. Markedly, fish exposed to glyphosate showed the highest ALT and AST activities, glucose and cortisol levels, and malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in gills and tissues. While fish in the control and fish intoxicated with glyphosate and fed ginger nanoparticles had the lowest ALT and AST activities, glucose and cortisol levels, and MDA levels after 2 and 4 weeks (P < 0.05). Fish fed dietary ginger had lower ALT and AST activities, glucose and cortisol levels, and MDA levels than the glyphosate intoxicated group after 2 and 4 weeks (P < 0.05). Interestingly, fish-fed ginger nanoparticles showed lower urea and creatinine levels and higher total protein, albumin, and globulin than the glyphosate intoxicated group (P < 0.05) and similar to the control (P > 0.05). Further, fish intoxicated with glyphosate and fed ginger nanoparticles had the highest GSH, lysozyme activity, and immunoglobulin levels after 2 and 4 weeks (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ginger nanoparticles are superior to the standard ginger form in enhancing the antioxidative and immune responses of Nile tilapia exposed to glyphosate.
... Modern agricultural practices have been proposed as contributing factors for gastro-intestinal disorders [130]. Crop desiccation using glyphosate has been attributed to carcinogenic and cytotoxic effects on the body [131]. Moreover, it has been suggested that glyphosate negatively affects gut microbiota and is especially harmful to commensal bacteria [130]. ...
Article
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Disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease (CeD) result in intestinal hyperpermeability or 'leaky' gut. The increased permeability of the intestinal barrier allows microbial metabolites, toxins, and pathogens to infiltrate the bloodstream and extraintestinal tissues, causing systemic inflammation. Despite differences in aetiology and pathophysiology, IBD and CeD share several extraintestinal manifestations such as neuroinflammation, neurological and psychiatric manifestations, and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). This narrative review focuses on the association between intestinal hyperpermeability with the brain and inner ear diseases. We postulate that the microbial metabolites and pathogens released from the gut increase the permeability of natural barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB). The barrier breakdown allows the spreading of inflammatory processes to the brain and inner ear, leading to disease. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; celiac disease; gut dysbiosis; microbiota; neuroinflammation; hearing loss
Article
Widespread use of the herbicide glyphosate in agriculture has resulted in serious environmental problems. Thus, environment-friendly technological solutions are urgently needed for the removal of residual glyphosate from soil. Here, we successfully isolated a novel bacterial strain, Chryseobacterium sp. Y16C, which efficiently degrades glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Strain Y16C was found to completely degrade glyphosate at 400 mg·L⁻¹ concentration within four days. Kinetics analysis indicated that glyphosate biodegradation was concentration-dependent, with a maximum specific degradation rate, half-saturation constant, and inhibition constant of 0.91459 d⁻¹, 15.79796 mg·L⁻¹, and 290.28133 mg·L⁻¹, respectively. AMPA was identified as the major degradation product of glyphosate degradation, suggesting that glyphosate was first degraded via cleavage of its C–N bond prior to subsequent metabolic degradation. Strain Y16C was also found to tolerate and degrade AMPA at concentrations up to 800 mg·L⁻¹. Moreover, strain Y16C accelerated glyphosate degradation in soil indirectly by inducing a slight alteration in the diversity and composition of soil microbial community. Taken together, our results suggest that strain Y16C may be a potential microbial agent for bioremediation of glyphosate-contaminated soil.
Thesis
Le glyphosate, substance active herbicide (SA) la plus utilisée dans le monde, est omniprésent dans les eaux de surface. L’évaluation de son écotoxicité et de celle des herbicides commerciaux à base de glyphosate (GBHs) est complexe et controversée. Le glyphosate et ses co-formulants peuvent être toxiques pour les poissons et leurs interactions ainsi que la transmission verticale de cette toxicité sont relativement peu étudiées. La toxicité directe et générationnelle d’une dose environnementale de glyphosate a été évaluée sur plusieurs générations de truites arc-en-ciel exposées chroniquement à la SA et à deux GBHs. L’état de santé des poissons a été déterminé via la mesure de paramètres biométriques, comportementaux et reproducteurs. L’immunité a été appréhendée lors d’infections virales expérimentales. Le métabolisme énergétique et le système antioxydant ont été suivis avec des marqueurs biochimiques. L’exposition directe aux contaminants n’a pas impacté la physiologie et la reproduction de la génération F0. Des perturbations du développement embryo-larvaire des descendances F1 et F2 ont été induites par les expositions directes, inter et transgénérationnelles ; avec un effet suggéré de la réexposition aux composés parentaux. Les modifications observées chez les stades précoces n’ont pas été détectées chez les truites juvéniles, bien que leur susceptibilité virale ait été affectée. La comparaison des effets du glyphosate et des GBHs semble montrer un rôle des co-formulants dans la modulation de la toxicité de la SA. Cependant, d’autres études sont nécessaires pour approfondir la compréhension liée aux mécanismes complexes de transmission de la toxicité du glyphosate.
Article
This study demonstrates the stereoselective degradation patterns and biodegradation mechanisms of metolachlor (MET) and napropamide (NAP) in integrated vertical flow constructed wetland (IVCW). The higher interphase transferability of NAP resulted in higher degradation rates of 90.60±4.09%. The enantiomeric fraction (EF) values of 0.38±0.02 and 0.54±0.03, respectively, recorded for the enantiomers S-MET and R-NAP, with higher herbicidal activities, demonstrated their highly selective biodegradation patterns. The antioxidant enzyme activities and fluorescence parameters of plants showed positive correlations with the degradation efficiency and enantioselectivity of MET and NAP. Adaptive regulations by plants promoted the proliferation of microbial genera like Enterobacter and unclassified_Burkholderiales, which could facilitate plant growth. Moreover, enrichment of the herbicide-degrading functional bacteria Terrimonas (5.10%), Comamonas (4.05%) Pseudoxanthomonas (4.49%) and Mycobacterium (1.42%) demonstrably promoted the preferential degradation of S-MET and R-NAP. Furthermore, the abundance of Ferruginibacter favored the use of R-NAP as carbon source to achieve co-removal of R-NAP and NO3⁻-N.
Article
Resumen El objetivo del artículo es contribuir a la comprensión y visibilización de los conflictos y controversias en torno al uso de agroquímicos en las provincias de Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero y Salta, Argentina. Se relevaron y sistematizaron fuentes de información secundaria, con el fin de llevar adelante un primer análisis contextual de los marcos regulatorios, las políticas públicas y la emergencia de procesos de construcción social de los riesgos ambientales y sanitarios. El análisis fue organizado en torno a tres dimensiones: normativa, político-institucional y territorial-sanitaria. En las tres jurisdicciones existen leyes específicas que regulan el uso de agroquímicos y cierta institucionalidad destinada a su implementación, control y monitoreo. No obstante, y en concordancia con lo ocurrido a nivel regional e internacional, el estudio relevó una multiplicidad de situaciones y/o eventos conflictivos que problematizan los impactos ambientales y sanitarios. La política relativa a la utilización de agroquímicos está fragmentada en múltiples regulaciones, instituciones y escalas de competencias, marco dentro del cual la política sanitaria y ambiental poseen un lugar rezagado. Más allá de ciertos avances, no hay reconocimiento oficial del daño a la salud y el ambiente generado por el uso de agroquímicos.
Chapter
While not all cancers result from environmental exposures, a significant number do. The development of cancer is not, however, the only response to chronic exposure. To understand the effects of chronic environmental exposure and, possibly, to identify vulnerable populations, it is helpful to look at other chronic exposure endpoints. The following chapter examines these endpoints, primarily in human populations, but also, as applicable, in higher animals that are environmentally exposed. Although cancer is the chronic health effect of concern in IARC’s work, reports of other chronic conditions related to prolonged exposure to pesticides or herbicides, linkages between these conditions, and the possibility of the subsequent development of cancer are important considerations.
Article
Objective: The aim: The aim of this research was the study of low dose roundup, a well-known herbicide, chronic poisoning on the state of the vegetative nervous system in albino rats. Patients and methods: Materials and methods: The state of vegetative nervous system was assessed by the method of variation pulsometry The two-week chronic roundup poisoning at a dose of 40 mcg/kg having been simulated on 30 albino rats. Results: Results: The chronic roundup poisoning was accompanied by impaired state of vegetative nervous system that revealed itself in the growing indices of variation pulsometry: tension index - 1.6 times (P<0.001), index of regulatory system activity - 1.52 times (P<0.001), vegetative balance index - 2.36 times (P<0.001), rhythm vegetative index - 1.39 times (P<0.001). Moderate regulatory system stress, requiring extra functional reserves to provide adaptation to environment, was observed. Such condition occurs in the process of adaptation to adverse environmental factors with impairing adaptive self-regulation mechanisms. Conclusion: Conclusions: Internal two-week use of the roundup on albino rats in a dose of 40 mcg/kg is accompanied by functional disorders of vegetative nervous system, which reveal themselves in the growing values of variation pulsometry. The results obtained were indicative of prevailing vegetative system sympathetic division as compared with parasympathetic one, as well as of disordered regulation of vegetative nervous system tone.
Article
Glyphosate (GLY) is one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide. Both GLY and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), its main degradation product, may be present in feedstuffs offered to dairy cows. Although the major proportions of ingested GLY and AMPA are eliminated with faeces, a potential degradation of GLY to AMPA in the rumen of dairy cows has been suggested. Considering that the rumen plays a central role in the pre-systemic metabolism of xenobiotics, this research aimed to investigate whether or not GLY and AMPA are metabolised in the ruminal environment of cattle. The distribution of both compounds between the fluid and solid phases of the ruminal content (RC) was also evaluated. RC from 3 steers were collected in an abattoir. Aliquots were incubated (3-6 h) in anaerobiosis with GLY (15 µg/mL) and AMPA (1.5 µg/mL). Metabolic viability of RC was assessed by the measurement of the sulpho-reduction of the anthelmintic derivative albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO) into albendazole (ABZ) in the absence (controls) or in presence of GLY and AMPA. Incubations of boiled (inactive) RC were used as controls. Samples were analysed by HLPC with fluorescence detection. Neither GLY nor AMPA were metabolised in metabolically active RC from cattle. Both compounds were predominantly found in the fluid phase compared to the solid (particulate) matter of RC. Neither GLY nor AMPA had a negative effect on the metabolic production of ABZ. A high metabolic stability of both compounds within the ruminal environment would be expected in vivo. Their presence in high proportion in the fluid phase of the ruminal content may give rise to a rapid flow of both GLY and AMPA to the posterior gastrointestinal tract. Negative effects on the ruminal biotransformation of therapeutically used drugs would not be expected when the herbicide and its degradation product are consumed with food.
Article
Cytotoxic effects of the market leading broad-spectrum, synthetic herbicide product Roundup Classic, its active ingredient glyphosate (in a form of its isopropylamine (IPA) salt) and its formulating surfactant polyethoxylated tallowamine (POE-15) were determined on two murine cell lines, a neuroectodermal stem cell-like (NE-4C) and a high alkaline phosphatase activity osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1). Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, effects on cell viability and cell cycles were examined in five flow cytometry tests, the two former of which were compared by the enzymatic-assay and the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. All of the tests indicated the NE-4C cells being more sensitive, than the MC3T3-E1 cell line to the treatments with the target compounds. Higher sensitivity differences were detected in the viability test by flow cytometry (7-9-fold), than by the MTT assay (1.5-3-fold); in the genotoxicity test by the Comet assay (3.5-403-fold), than by the DNA-damage test (9.3-158-fold); and in the apoptosis test by the Annexin V dead cell kit (1.1-12.7-fold), than by the Caspase 3/7 kit (1-6.5-fold). Cell cycle assays indicated high count of cells (~70%) in the G0/G1 phase for MC3T3-E1 cells, than in NE-4C cell (~40%) after 24 h. The order of the inhibitory potency of the target substances has unequivocally been POE-15 > Roundup Classic >> glyphosate IPA salt.
Article
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The aim of this empirical field research was to show potential differences due to the precise application of herbicides in the quality and size of the carrot root yield and the amount of working liquid used compared to those for control samples. Empirical verification of the effectiveness of the developed technology, confirmed by statistical analyses of the obtained results, allows for a comparative assessment of this method with the conventional method of herbicide application used in this study. Due to the methodology used, it can be assumed that for carrots, the years were a random factor, and the experiments carried out were a series. It can be assumed that in the analysis of a series of experiments, for each of the examined features there are no differences between the groups and there is no interaction of the groups with the years. The yields of the groups weeded manually, sprayed in a conventional way, and weeded with precise spraying did not differ in a statistically significant way. In the precise application, a 20-30% lower herbicide consumption was observed, which has an impact on the protection of the environment and improves the economic effect of carrot production.
Article
In this context, an innovative design of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) capped [email protected]−1 nanocapsules−based electrode was described for highly sensitive and selective detection of isoproturon herbicide. The [email protected]−1 nanocapsules were constructed by in−situ growth of nanoscaled HKUST−1 crystals on Cu2O core materials and subsequent encapsulation of Au nanoparticles inside the hollow HKUST−1 walls via galvanic replacement reaction between AuCl4⁻ and Cu2O. After a further surface imprinting−directing polymerization process in the presence of hydrophobic [email protected]−1, a high−performance electrochemical sensing platform was obtained and used for recognition and quantification of isoproturon. Under the optimal experimental conditions, a linear relationship was observed covering the linear range of 0.0010−45 μM with an ultra−low detection limit of 0.45 nM. In addition, the [email protected]−[email protected] modified electrode had higher sensing specificity for isoproturon in the application of water samples with recoveries in the range of 99.07−105.8% and a relative standard deviation of < 4%.
Article
The European Federation of Food, Agriculture, and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT) called for the immediate ban on glyphosate in the 2022 renewal process, promoting the use of natural herbicides and recommending against the use of other harmful or hazardous chemicals. The new chemical testing and selection research agendas should consider the hormetic effects of individual natural herbicides, and their potential mixtures, on targeted and non-targeted organisms to avoid stimulation of pests and negative effects on non-targeted organisms. New scientific research programs are needed to study the effects of mixtures of natural pesticides on soils, plants, animals, and microorganisms within the context of agroforestry.
Article
Glyphosate (GLY) is the most widely used organophosphorus herbicide in agriculture. The present study aimed to analyze the comprehensive toxicological effects of GLY on juvenile common carp and an epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cell line. In the in vivo experiments, exposure to GLY (5 and 15 mg/L) for 30 days induced liver inflammation and oxidative damage in common carp and changed the physical barrier of the intestine. Histopathological analysis of the intestine, liver, brain, and changes in oxidative stress biomarkers provided evidence of damage and immune system responses to GLY. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of 15 mg/L GLY on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was found in the brain, which may be an important reason for the significant decrease in both swimming distance and average acceleration of common carp. Cell experiments showed that 0.65 and 3.25 mg/L GLY inhibited the viability of EPCs. Furthermore, oxidative DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were observed in EPC cells following GLY exposure. Taken together, this study not only highlights the negative effects of GLY on common carp but also enriches the knowledge of the cytotoxicity mechanism to further clarify the comprehensive toxicity of GLY in common carp.
Article
Due to the production rates of sugarcane, nowadays, the sugarcane bagasse stemming in the sugar and alcohol industry is the agro-industrial waste produced in greater volume throughout in Brazil. In 2019, about 192 million tons of this waste were generated. The use of this waste has been the aim of researches around the world, with emphasis on applications that aim to meet the prerogatives of the concept of circular economy. Within this scenario, sugarcane bagasse (SB) was treated in an alkaline medium, forming an adsorbent material, SBNaOH. The effects of chemical treatment were evaluated for surface properties and for glyphosate removal in an aqueous medium. The adsorptive phenomenon was studied through isotherm tests. The results obtained were fitted to classical models of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The characterization indicated that the chemical treatment promoted an important change in the surface of the residue, increasing the surface area. SB and SBNAOH had a feasible behavior as adsorbent and good performance in the removal of the herbicide, presenting values greater than 65% of under all working conditions. The theoretical adsorption saturation governed by Dubinin-Radushkevich (qS) was in the order of 8.988 mg/g (R2=0.988) for SB at 120 minutes of contact and maximum adsorption capacity by Langmuir (Qmax) was 13.720 mg/g (R2=0.984) for SBNaOH at 40 minutes of contact. The process was governed by the exchange or sharing of electrons. The adsorbate is distributed heterogeneously on the SB surface, justifying the presence of active sites with greater ionic strength, and homogeneously on the SBNaOH surface (monolayer). In general, the treated sugarcane bagasse, coming from an agro-industrial residue, proved to be an alternative and promising biosorbent for the removal of glyphosate from aqueous systems, thus generating a new application of this residue.
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The One Health concept proposes that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are interconnected. Agricultural production is a critical component of One Health as food links the environment to human health. Food not only provides nutrients to humans but also represents an important pathway for human exposure to environmental microbes as well as potentially harmful agrochemicals. In addition, inappropriate agronomic practices can cause damage to the environment which can have unintended adverse impacts on human health. Therefore, improving agricultural production systems and protecting environmental health should not be viewed as isolated goals as they are strongly interlinked. Here, we used the nexus of soil, plant, and human microbiomes to discuss sustainable agricultural production from the One Health perspective. We highlighted three interconnected challenges faced by current agronomic practices: the transmissions of pathogens in soil‐human microbial loops, the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in agroecosystems, and the impacts of chemical pesticides on humans and environmental health. Finally, we propose the potential of utilising microbiomes for better sustainable agronomic practices to contribute to key goals of the One Health concept. This article use the nexus of soil, plant, and human microbiomes to discuss sustainable agricultural production from the One Health perspective. Three interconnected challenges are highlighted‐ the transmissions of pathogens in soil–human microbial loops, the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in agroecosystems, and the impacts of chemical pesticides on humans and environmental health. Finally, we propose the potential of utilising microbiomes for better sustainable agronomic practices to contribute to key goals of the One Health concept.
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There is an unprecedented interest in nature-based solutions for climate change mitigation and adaptation. But something very important is often missing from discussions of such solutions: the role of healthy soils. As habitats for plants and animals, as regulators of climate and water, and as the foundation of terrestrial ecosystems and the vast majority of our food production, soils are critical to all ecosystem services – including those that humans depend on for survival. Yet soil health is in jeopardy in many parts of the world, depleted by decades of industrial agriculture and land degradation, and further threatened by climate change. One third of the earth’s land is already degraded. This degraded land is home to about 3 billion people. At the same time, healthy soils can boost resilience to climate shocks and increase species diversity both above- and below-ground, making them a critical element of policies and practices for climate change adaptation and mitigation, biodiversity conservation, water resource management and sustainable development. This guidebook aims to demonstrate the importance of sustainable soil management (SSM) for adaptation to climate change, biodiversity conservation and the achievement of long-term food security. By adopting nature-based solutions such as ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA), farmers can dramatically increase their productivity while adapting to climate risks.
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South American agriculture focuses on extensive cereal and oilseed production destined mainly for the international market, followed by the horticultural production that takes place near urban centres. Extensive agriculture involves the use of fertilizers and pesticides for pest control. Among the latter, glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most commercialized. In recent years, the increasing appearance of glyphosate (GP)-resistant weeds has led to the repeated application of higher doses of these products. Residual levels of the herbicides and their metabolites have therefore been reported in the environment, as well as toxic effects in animals and humans. The natural ability of bacteria and fungi to transform organic compounds in the environment has shown great potential to bioremediate GP in the soil. Some fungal species isolated from pesticide-contaminated sites are especially promising for this purpose, thanks to their enzymatic activity and their fast growth under optimal conditions. The present article offers an overview of the situation in Argentina regarding the use of GP. It also summarizes the data available which show a growing need to develop GP bioremediation strategies in the soil, based on the isolation of GP-degrading microorganisms adapted to water shortage conditions, such as fungi.
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With the aim of evaluating the antigerminative activity of plant extracts, a miniaturized assay using 96-well plates (WP assay) was developed and compared to the long-established assay using Petri dishes (PD assay). The WP assay yielded results comparable to those of the PD assay using an ethanolic extract of the Himalayan balsam and lawsone as a standard. It also allowed the needed volume of the test solution to be cut by half and the number of required cress seeds to be cut by more than 1.5. The WP assay was then successfully applied to various extracts of Himalayan balsam, molecules (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), glyphosate, and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-MNQ)) and target seeds (radish, lettuce, and wheat). By being adapted to a 96-well plate format, the antigerminative WP assay is a promising alternative to the PD assay. Besides, its convenience and low resource consumption make it ready for accelerated and high-throughput screening, as well as automation.
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People are exposed to pesticides through food, drinking water, and the environment. These compounds are associated with several disorders, such as inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and a condition related to metabolic syndrome. The immunotoxicants or immunotoxic compounds can cause a wide variety of effects on immune function, altering humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity, resulting in adverse effects to the body. Here, immune system disorders are highlighted because they are closely linked to multiple organs, including the nervous, endocrine, reproductive, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, leading to transient or permanent changes. Therefore, this study reviewed the mechanisms involved in the immunotoxicity of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides in cells, animals, and humans in the past eleven years. According to the studies analyzed, the pesticides interfere with innate and adaptive immune functions, but the effects observed mainly on cellular and humoral immunity were highlighted. These compounds affected specific immune cells, causing apoptosis, changes in factor nuclear kappa B (NF-κB) expression, pro-inflammatory factors interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), chemokines (CXCL-c1c), and anti-inflammatory factor, such as interleukin 10 (IL-10). To verify the threats of these compounds, new evaluations with immunotoxicological biomarkers are necessary.HighlightsPesticides interfere with the innate and adaptive immune response.Cells, animals and human studies demonstrate the immunotoxicity of pesticides in the cellular and humoral immune response.Fungicides, herbicides and insecticides alter the immune system by various mechanisms, such as pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors.
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Objective: The aim of this study: to determine the different causes of anemia among anemic women of reproductive age and to define associations between severity of anemia with different patient characteristics. Patients and methods: Materials and methods: This is a community based cross-sectional study that was conducted between October and December 2020 among a sample of anemic women at reproductive age between (14-49 years), who attended the private clinic in Baghdad city. The sample consisted of 120 participants (100 non-pregnant women and 20 pregnant women). Socio-demographic characteristic data were collected including occupation, socioeconomic status, marital status, family history of anemia, history of Pica, and number of pregnancies. Questions related to the causes of anemia: Dietary habits, menstrual cycle duration and profusion, current pregnancy, Gastrointestinal blood loss (any form), any chronic illness (like connective tissue disease , inflammatory bowel diseases, hypothyroidism ,chronic infection) and auto-immune hemolytic disease. Baseline hematological parameter were included, hemoglobin level, Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red cell distribution width (RDW), Serum ferritin and ESR. Results: Results: A total of 120 women, the mean hemoglobin level was 9.43 g/dL. Iron deficiency anemia was the commonest type of anemia in 67.20% followed by inherited hemolytic anemia in 20%; auto-immune hemolytic anemia found in 5.6%, while megaloblastic anemia and anemia of chronic diseases forming 5.6% and 4% respectively. There is a significant association between severity of iron deficiency anemia and different age groups in addition to the amount of weekly consumption of red meat. Conclusion: Conclusions: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common form of anemia found in this sample followed by inherited cause of anemia. Many individual and socioeconomic factors were associated with the development of anemia in women of reproductive age. Giving special attention and important diagnosis of anemia for those groups of women especially during reproductive age who had a higher prevalence of anemia.
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Bradyrhizobium sp., a slow-growing nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium of legumes and common root endophyte of other plants, is closely related to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the uncultured putative pathogen associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB). In attempts to isolate Las on a low-nutrient medium that had been used for the isolation of several uncultured bacteria of the alpha subclass of proteobacteria, slow-growing Bradyrhizobium spp. were isolated and identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA. The individual isolates tested weakly positive (Ct = 31.2–36.0) with the USDA primers commonly used in qPCR assays for Las in foliar tissues. Direct DNA extracts from roots of HLB symptomatic trees that contained sequences of Bradyrhizobium sp. had Ct values ranging from 31.2 to 36.5; sequences of Las were not present in those samples. Potential cross-reaction between DNA of members of the Rhizobiales and sequences amplified by the Las primers were tested in silico with the Primer-BLAST tool in NCBI. Similar to Las, Bradyrhizobium generated predicted 16S rDNA amplicon sizes of 78–79 bp with the qPCR primers and of 1167-1172 bp with the conventional PCR primers. Bradyrhizobium sequences of 16S rDNA had 1–7 mismatches and only 1 mismatch at the 3′ end of qPCR and conventional PCR primers confirming potential cross-reactivity. As Bradyrhizobium is usually not found in foliage, the USDA qPCR primers can be safely used to check leaves for the presence of Las, but a threshold value of 31.0 is recommended for Las detection in roots. Other primers should be tested for potential cross-reaction with members of the Rhizobiales.
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Alternanthera philoxeroides is a problematic invasive plant in many regions of the world that is difficult to control once naturalised. It poses a threat to agricultural productivity, biodiversity and social amenity values of aquatic environments. Significant research has been conducted internationally, regarding the efficacy of different herbicides for control of A. philoxeroides. However, no studies have looked at key aspects of control for effective management in an early stage of invasion of aquatic environments, hindering eradication and control programmes. This study evaluates the efficacy of herbicides and surfactants on key A. philoxeroides response metrics, including control of above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass and production of viable stem fragments. This study concluded that glyphosate (isopropylamine salt) minimises viable stem fragment production post-herbicide application, compared with imazapyr and metsulfuron, thus reducing the potential for dispersal throughout catchments and waterways. In contrast, imazapyr and metsulfuron provided more effective control than glyphosate for A. philoxeroides growing on exposed embankments. We propose that an effective management strategy for early invasion of aquatic A. philoxeroides, using herbicides, would be to conduct initial applications of glyphosate to control overwater biomass and limit dispersal of viable stem fragments. Once infestations have been forced back to the embankment, imazapyr or metsulfuron treatments will provide longer term control.
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Cyanobacterial blooms occur in lakes worldwide, producing toxins that pose a serious public health threat. Eutrophication caused by human activities and warmer temperatures both contribute to blooms, but it is still difficult to predict precisely when and where blooms will occur. One reason that prediction is so difficult is that blooms can be caused by different species or genera of cyanobacteria, which may interact with other bacteria and respond to a variety of environmental cues. Here we used a deep 16S amplicon sequencing approach to profile the bacterial community in eutrophic Lake Champlain over time, to characterise the composition and repeatability of cyanobacterial blooms, and to determine the potential for blooms to be predicted based on time course sequence data. Our analysis, based on 135 samples between 2006 and 2013, spans multiple bloom events. We found that bloom events significantly alter the bacterial community without reducing overall diversity, suggesting that a distinct microbial community-including non-cyanobacteria-prospers during the bloom. We also observed that the community changes cyclically over the course of a year, with a repeatable pattern from year to year. This suggests that, in principle, bloom events are predictable. We used probabilistic assemblages of OTUs to characterise the bloom-associated community, and to classify samples into bloom or non-bloom categories, achieving up to 92% classification accuracy (86% after excluding cyanobacterial sequences). Finally, using symbolic regression, we were able to predict the start date of a bloom with 78-92% accuracy (depending on the data used for model training), and found that sequence data was a better predictor than environmental variables.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 19 May 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.58.
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Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ∼100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30 years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro and in vivo studies challenge the basis for the current safety assessment of glyphosate and GBHs. We conclude that current safety standards for GBHs are outdated and may fail to protect public health or the environment. To improve safety standards, the following are urgently needed: (1) human biomonitoring for glyphosate and its metabolites; (2) prioritisation of glyphosate and GBHs for hazard assessments, including toxicological studies that use state-of-the-art approaches; (3) epidemiological studies, especially of occupationally exposed agricultural workers, pregnant women and their children and (4) evaluations of GBHs in commercially used formulations, recognising that herbicide mixtures likely have effects that are not predicted by studying glyphosate alone.
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Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats. MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of both bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of indoor microcosms that were either exposed to each pesticide alone, a mix of herbicides, a mix of insecticides, or a mix of all five insecticides. Individual insecticides but not herbicides reduced the microbial diversity and richness and two insecticides, carbaryl and permethrin, also altered the microbial community structure. A mixture of herbicides had no effect on microbial diversity or structure but a mixture of insecticides or all five pesticides reduced microbial diversity and altered the community structure. These findings suggest that exposure of aquatic ecosystems to individual pesticides or their mixtures can disrupt aquatic microbial communities and there is need to decipher how these changes affect resident macroinvertebrate communities.
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A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR), Queensland, Australia) in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V5–V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem. Sites sampled represented the transition from less affected (upstream) to polluted (downstream) environments along the BR. Chemometric analysis of the combined datasets indicated a clear separation between the sampled environments. Burkholderiales and Cyanobacteria were common key factors for differentiation of pristine waters. Increased sugar alcohol and short-chain fatty acid production was observed by Actinomycetales and Rhodospirillaceae that are known to form biofilms in urban polluted and brackish waters. Results from this study indicate that a multi-omics approach enables a deep understanding of the health of an aquatic ecosystem, providing insight into the bacterial diversity present and the metabolic output of the population when exposed to environmental contaminants.
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The recent classification of glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was arrived at without a detailed assessment of exposure. Glyphosate is widely used as an herbicide, which might result in exposures of the general public and applicators. Exposures were estimated from information in the open literature and unpublished reports provided by Monsanto Company. Based on the maximum measured concentration in air, an exposure dose of 1.04 × 10 (-) (6 )mg/kg body mass (b.m.)/d was estimated. Assuming consumption of surface water without treatment, the 90th centile measured concentration would result in a consumed dose of 2.25 × 10 (-) (5 )mg/kg b.m./d. Estimates by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) of consumed doses in food provided a median exposure of 0.005 mg/kg b.m./d (range 0.002-0.013). Based on tolerance levels, the conservative estimate by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for exposure of the general population via food and water was 0.088 mg/kg b.m./d (range 0.058-0.23). For applicators, 90th centiles for systemic exposures based on biomonitoring and dosimetry (normalized for penetration through the skin) were 0.0014 and 0.021 mg/kg b.m./d, respectively. All of these exposures are less than the reference dose and the acceptable daily intakes proposed by several regulatory agencies, thus supporting a conclusion that even for these highly exposed populations the exposures were within regulatory limits.
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Glyphosate has been the most widely used herbicide during the past three decades. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classifies glyphosate as ‘practically non-toxic and not an irritant’ under the acute toxicity classification system. This classification is based primarily on toxicity data and due to its unique mode of action via a biochemical pathway that only exists in a small number of organisms that utilise the shikimic acid pathway to produce amino acids, most of which are green plants. This classification is supported by the majority of scientific literature on the toxic effects of glyphosate. However, in 2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) reported that glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are of potential toxicological concern, mainly as a result of accumulation of residues in the food chain. The FAO further states that the dietary risk of glyphosate and AMPA is unlikely if the maximum daily intake of 1 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw) is not exceeded. Research has now established that glyphosate can persist in the environment and therefore, assessments of the health risks associated with glyphosate are more complicated than suggested by acute toxicity data that relate primarily to accidental high rate exposure. We have used recent literature to assess the possible risks associated with the presence of glyphosate residues in food and the environment.
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Invasive species can have negative consequences on native reptile populations, especially on island systems. Chemical control can be a cost-effective way to control or eradicate invasive species. Chemical control is currently in use in New Zealand to limit impacts of non-native mammals and plants on a range of native biodiversity. However, it is important to consider the potential non-target risks of chemical control to native species that are likely already significantly reduced in number. We aimed to characterise the toxicity of several rodenticides and herbicides to reptiles and to provide a screening-level risk assessment of these chemicals applicable to native reptiles of New Zealand using the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, as a surrogate organism. We used the Up-and-Down testing procedure to estimate oral toxicity for all compounds. We tested five rodenticides (brodifacoum, coumatetralyl, pindone, diphacinone and cholecalciferol). Only pindone was toxic to fence lizards at concentrations below 1750 μg g–1 (LD50 = 550 μg g–1). We tested five herbicides (glyphosate, clopyralid, triclopyr, metsulfuron-methyl and haloxyfop-methyl) and one common adjuvant in glyphosate formulations (polyethoxylated tallowamine or POEA). Only triclopyr was toxic to fence lizards below 1750 μg g–1 (LD50 = 550 μg g–1). Toxicity does not necessarily imply risk. Using the pindone concentrations in accepted bait formulations in New Zealand, a 10 g lizard would need to ingest 4.7 g of pindone bait in a single day in order to achieve toxic levels, which is extremely unlikely. We used the highest acceptable application rate for triclopyr to estimate risk for reptiles and found minimal risk of acute toxicity from triclopyr applications. Taken together, our data suggest little risk of reptile acute toxicity from the tested rodenticides or herbicides in New Zealand, but research into sub-lethal effects is also required in order to make informed decisions about the ecological impacts of chemically controlling invasive species.
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There has been considerable international study on the etiology of rising mental disorders, such as ADHD, in human populations. As glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide in the world, we sought to test the hypothesis that glyphosate use in agriculture may be a contributing environmental factor to the increase in healthcare utilization among individuals with diagnosed ADHD. State estimates for glyphosate use and nitrogen fertilizer use were obtained from the USGS. We queried the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project net (HCUPNET) for state-level hospitalization discharge diagnosis data on all patients for all-listed ADHD cases from 2007 to 2010. The least squares dummy variable (LSDV) method and within the method using two-way fixed effects was used to elucidate the relationship between glyphosate use and all-listed ADHD hospital discharge diagnoses. A 1-kg increase in glyphosate use in one year positively predicts state-level all-listed ADHD discharge diagnoses the following year (coefficient = 5.54E-08, p<.01). A study of the effects of urbanization on the relationship between glyphosate use and ADHD indicates that the relationship is marginally significantly positive in urban U.S. counties (p<.025). Furthermore, total glyphosate use is strongly associated with total farm use of nitrogen fertilizers from 1992 to 2006 (p<.001). Glyphosate use is a significant predictor of state healthcare utilization for ADHD, with the effect concentrated in urban U.S. counties. We draw upon the econometric results to propose unique and exploratory mechanisms, borrowing principles from soil and atmospheric sciences, for how glyphosate-based herbicides may be contributing to the rise of ADHD in all populations.
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Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha(-1)) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance.
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Glyphosate is a globally popular herbicide to kill weeds and its wide applications may lead to accumulation in coastal oceans as a source of phosphorus (P) nutrient or growth inhibitor of phytoplankton. We studied the physiological effects of glyphosate on fourteen species representing five major coastal phytoplankton phyla (haptophyta, bacillariophyta, dinoflagellata, raphidophyta, and chlorophyta). Based on growth responses to different concentrations of glyphosate under contrasting dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) conditions, we found that phytoplankton species could be classified into five groups. Group I (Emiliania huxleyi, Skeletonema costatum, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) could utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth in axenic culture, but in the presence of DIP, they were inhibited by both 36-μM and 360-μM glyphosate. Group II (Karenia mikimotoi, Prorocentrum minimum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Symbiodinium sp., Heterosigma akashiwo and Alexandrium catenella) could not utilize glyphosate as sole P-source to support growth, and in the presence of DIP growth was not affected by 36-μM but inhibited by 360-μM glyphosate. Glyphosate consistently enhanced growth of Group III (Isochrysis galbana) and inhibited Group IV (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Chattonella marina) regardless of DIP condition. Group V (Amphidinium carterae) exhibited no measurable response to glyphosate regardless of DIP condition. This grouping is not congruent with the phylogenetic relationships of the phytoplankton species suggesting functional differentiation driven by environmental pressure. We conclude that glyphosate could be used as P-source by some species while is toxic to some other species and yet has no effects on others. The observed differential effects suggest that the continued use of glyphosate and increasing concentration of this herbicide in the coastal waters will likely exert significant impact on coastal marine phytoplankton community structure.
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In commercial agriculture, populations and interactions of rhizosphere microflora are potentially affected by the use of specific agrichemicals, possibly by affecting gene expression in these organisms. To investigate this, we examined changes in bacterial gene expression within the rhizosphere of glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) in response to long-term glyphosate (PowerMAX™, Monsanto Company, MO, USA) treatment. A long-term glyphosate application study was carried out using rhizoboxes under greenhouse conditions with soil previously having no history of glyphosate exposure. Rhizosphere soil was collected from the rhizoboxes after four growing periods. Soil microbial community composition was analyzed using microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Total RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil, and samples were analyzed using RNA-Seq analysis. A total of 20–28 million bacterial sequences were obtained for each sample. Transcript abundance was compared between control and glyphosate-treated samples using edgeR. Overall rhizosphere bacterial metatranscriptomes were dominated by transcripts related to RNA and carbohydrate metabolism. We identified 67 differentially expressed bacterial transcripts from the rhizosphere. Transcripts downregulated following glyphosate treatment involved carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and upregulated transcripts involved protein metabolism and respiration. Additionally, bacterial transcripts involving nutrients, including iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, were also affected by long-term glyphosate application. Overall, most bacterial and all fungal PLFA biomarkers decreased after glyphosate treatment compared to the control. These results demonstrate that long-term glyphosate use can affect rhizosphere bacterial activities and potentially shift bacterial community composition favoring more glyphosate-tolerant bacteria.
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The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (common trade name "Roundup") was first sold to farmers in 1974. Since the late 1970s, the volume of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) applied has increased approximately 100-fold. Further increases in the volume applied are likely due to more and higher rates of application in response to the widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds and new, pre-harvest, dessicant use patterns. GBHs were developed to replace or reduce reliance on herbicides causing well-documented problems associated with drift and crop damage, slipping efficacy, and human health risks. Initial industry toxicity testing suggested that GBHs posed relatively low risks to non-target species, including mammals, leading regulatory authorities worldwide to set high acceptable exposure limits. To accommodate changes in GBH use patterns associated with genetically engineered, herbicide-tolerant crops, regulators have dramatically increased tolerance levels in maize, oilseed (soybeans and canola), and alfalfa crops and related livestock feeds. Animal and epidemiology studies published in the last decade, however, point to the need for a fresh look at glyphosate toxicity. Furthermore, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer recently concluded that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans." In response to changing GBH use patterns and advances in scientific understanding of their potential hazards, we have produced a Statement of Concern drawing on emerging science relevant to the safety of GBHs. Our Statement of Concern considers current published literature describing GBH uses, mechanisms of action, toxicity in laboratory animals, and epidemiological studies. It also examines the derivation of current human safety standards. We conclude that: (1) GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; (2) Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air, especially in agricultural regions; (3) The half-life of glyphosate in water and soil is longer than previously recognized; (4) Glyphosate and its metabolites are widely present in the global soybean supply; (5) Human exposures to GBHs are rising; (6) Glyphosate is now authoritatively classified as a probable human carcinogen; (7) Regulatory estimates of tolerable daily intakes for glyphosate in the United States and European Union are based on outdated science. We offer a series of recommendations related to the need for new investments in epidemiological studies, biomonitoring, and toxicology studies that draw on the principles of endocrinology to determine whether the effects of GBHs are due to endocrine disrupting activities. We suggest that common commercial formulations of GBHs should be prioritized for inclusion in government-led toxicology testing programs such as the U.S. National Toxicology Program, as well as for biomonitoring as conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide widely used worldwide. However, its toxicity to non-targeted organisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide was evaluated on goldfish (Carassius auratus) after long-term exposure. Tissues of brains, kidneys and livers were collected and submitted to NMR-based metabolomics analysis and histopathological inspection. Plasma was collected and the blood biochemical indexes of AST, ALT, BUN, CRE, LDH, SOD, GSH-Px, GR and MDA were measured. Long-term glyphosate exposure caused disorders of blood biochemical indexes and renal tissue injury in goldfish. Metabolomics analysis combined with correlation network analysis uncovered significant perturbations in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, amino acids metabolism and nucleosides metabolism in glyphosate dosed fish, which provide new clues to the toxicity of glyphosate. This integrated metabolomics approach showed its applicability in discovering the toxic mechanisms of pesticides, which provided new strategy for the assessment of the environmental risk of herbicides to non-target organisms.
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Glyphosate (GPS) is an herbicide currently used on olive crops in Spain, and can be transported to the nearby reservoirs currently used for human consumption. The purpose of this work was to study the behaviour and environmental fate of GPS in water and sediments of the Vibora Reservoir, its tributary river, and the surrounding agricultural soils to assess the risk of water pollution of this reservoir. The adsorption of GPS by different matrices was as follows: heading of the reservoir sediment (Cabecera)>tail sediment (Cola)>soils>Vibora sediment. The highest amount of oxides (especially Fe oxides) was observed in sediments from Cabecera and Cola whereas the lowest values were recorded on Vibora sediment. Results indicate that the highest GPS adsorption is due to the amorphous oxides and the edge sites of the clay minerals. Glyphosate adsorption increased with decreasing pH from 8 to 7. The desorption percentage of GPS from the four soils studied ranged only from 0.40 to 1.22%. Desorption was almost irreversible for Cabecera and Cola sediments, with values between 0 and 1.1%. Conversely, Vibora sediment presented about 20% desorption, probably due to its coarse texture and lower levels of amorphous oxides. Hockey-stick first-order kinetics was the best descriptor for water glyphosate dissipation at the Cabecera and Cola locations, and simple first-order kinetic for the water from the tributary Vibora River. The half-lives (DT50) were between 6.3 and 11.0days. The rapid degradation of GPS in surface waters and its practically irreversible sorption on these soils and sediments implies that GPS use in similar agricultural areas is of very low environmental risk. This manuscript also outlines the importance of the presence of photo-sensitizers in waters in the degradation routes of GPS in reservoirs.
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Glyphosate is a very important herbicide that is widely used in the agriculture, and thus the exposure of humans to this substance and its metabolites has been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess DNA damage (determination of single and double strand-breaks by the comet assay) as well as to evaluate DNA methylation (global DNA methylation and methylation of p16 (CDKN2A) and p53 (TP53) promoter regions) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to glyphosate. PBMCs were incubated with the compound studied at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10?mM for 24?h. The study has shown that glyphosate induced DNA lesions, which were effectively repaired. However, PBMCs were unable to repair completely DNA damage induced by glyphosate. We also observed a decreased global DNA methylation level at 0.25?mM of glyphosate. Glyphosate at 0.25?mM and 0.5?mM increased p53 promoter methylation, while it did not induce statistically significant changes in methylation of p16 promoter. To sum up, we have shown for the first time that glyphosate (at high concentrations) may induce DNA damage in leucocytes such as PBMCs and cause DNA methylation in human cells in the concentrations range from 0.5 to 10?mM.
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Objectives: To investigate the occurrence and characteristics of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in faecal samples from horses at one equine clinic in the Netherlands. Methods: A total of 91 horses, including residents and patients, were sampled. ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli were identified by a combination disc diffusion test. Phylogenetic groups and MLST were determined. ESBL/AmpC genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing. Plasmids were characterized by transformation and PCR-based replicon typing. Subtyping of plasmids was done by plasmid MLST. Results: At least one E. coli isolate with a confirmed ESBL/AmpC gene was found in samples from 76 horses (84%). Although phylogenetic group B1 E. coli bla CTX-M-1 predominated, a diverse E. coli population was found, indicating that clonal nosocomial spread was not the only reason for the high occurrence found. MLST analysis revealed the presence of 47 E. coli STs, organized in four clusters of genetically related strains. ST10, ST641, ST1079 and ST1250 were most commonly found. With regard to the genes, bla CTX-M-1 was most prevalent ( n = 91), followed by bla CTX-M-2 ( n = 26). The most frequently found plasmid type was IncHI1, but plasmids belonging to the IncF, IncI1 and IncN groups were also identified. Conclusions: A high occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in faecal samples was found among horses in an equine clinic and the variety of STs, ESBL genes and plasmid types suggests nosocomial transmission. ESBL E. coli can cause difficult-to-treat infections in horses and prudent use of antimicrobials is warranted. A further assessment of the risks of transmission to persons in close contact with horses, such as caretakers or veterinarians, is crucial.
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In 2011, 14 Midwest trial locations evaluated tolerance of an AAD-1 and glyphosate-resistant corn hybrid to a 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix formulation applied single and sequential POST at V4 and/or V7 corn with and without a PRE application of 2,4-D dimethylamine (DMA). Herbicides were applied at 1X and 2X maximum use rates with 1X rates of 1120 g ae ha ⁻¹ for glyphosate and 2,4-D DMA and 1065+1120 g ae ha ⁻¹ for the 2,4-D choline+glyphosate premix, respectively. Crop response was greatest 2 d after 2X rate applications, resulting in 4 to 10% visible injury to corn across application timings. No brace root injury or effect on corn grain yield were observed.