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PHARMACEUTICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF Hibiscus rosa sinensis MUCILAGE

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The present study gives the information about Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Various plant gums had been used in the development of pharmaceutical formulation; among them the gum obtained from the hibiscus has its own identity in pharmaceutical and pharmacological world. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is also known as Gurhal, Sanskrit japa, Hindi jasum etc. Various chemical constituents such as taraxeryl acetate, compestrol, cholesterol etc are present in the gum which is obtained from the different part of the plant, responsible for the different pharmacological activities. The hibiscus gum had been used for cosmetic and medicinal uses. The study on the Hibiscus rosa sinensis emphasized on the pharmacological activities such as it act as a antipyretic, anticonvulsive, anti-inflammatory etc.
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The Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2 (3), pp. 1822-29, Oct, 2013; www.tgjpr.com
Sargam et al. 1822
The present study gives the information about Hibiscus rosa sinensis.
Various plant gums had been used in the development of pharmaceutical
formulation; among them the gum obtained from the hibiscus has its own
identity in pharmaceutical and pharmacological world. Hibiscus rosa sinensis
is also known as Gurhal, Sanskrit japa, Hindi jasum etc. Various chemical
constituents such as taraxeryl acetate, compestrol, cholesterol etc are
present in the gum which is obtained from the different part of the plant,
responsible for the different pharmacological activities. The hibiscus gum
had been used for cosmetic and medicinal uses. The study on the Hibiscus
rosa sinensis emphasized on the pharmacological activities such as it act as
a antipyretic, anticonvulsive, anti-inflammatory etc.
KEYWORDS: Hibiscus rosa Sinensis, binder, disintegrants
INTRODUCTION
For health purpose more than three
quarter of the whole world’s population
depends on plants. For the medicinal
purpose more than 30% of total plant
species are used. More than 80,000
medicinal plants are used out of 2, 50,000
higher plants. Leaves, stems, bark, roots,
flowers are the different organs of the plant
from which the drug is obtained. Gum,
resins and latex are also some excretory
products of plants from which the drug is
prepared.1 When plants are grown under
the unfavorable condition or injured, then
they produce gum and it is usually a
pathological product. It is generally
translucent and amorphous substance.
These may be ionic and non ionic
polysaccharide and considered as plant
hydrocolloids. The process from which the
gum is produced is known as gummosis.2
Plant gums and mucilage’s are widely used
in pharmaceutical preparations by the
formulation of granules of desired
hardness, strength, and size. As binders,
they show adhesive qualities to powder.3
Hibiscus rosa sinensis mucilage is also
used as disintegrate and super disintegrate
in the pharmaceutical preparations.
Disintegrates are the substances which on
addition to the tablets and some other
encapsulated formulations in the aqueous
environment, shows the disintegration of
the tablet and capsule in small particles or
fragments, due to which the surface area is
increased and results in more rapid release
of drug substance. In terms of fast
dissolving tablets, disintegration has their
own importance and it has received
FULL LENGTH REVIEW ARTICLE ISSN 2277-5439
PHARMACEUTICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF
Hibiscus rosa sinensis MUCILAGE
Sargam*, Dharmendra Kumar, Garima Garg
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Baghpat Bypass Crossing, NH-58, Delhi-Roorkee, Highway, Meerut, 250005, U.P., India.
*Corresponding E-mail: sainisargam0119@gmail.com
Accepted 1st Sep, 2013
The Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2 (3), pp. 1822-29, Oct, 2013; www.tgjpr.com
Sargam et al. 1823
considerable attention. They work just
opposite to the efficiency of binder. Their
effect is enhanced when added during
granulation. The tablets are breakdown
into small granules and granules further
disintegrate into small pieces in the
solution by adding disintegrate either
intragranulary or extragranulary.4 Fast
dissolving tablets required less amount of
water. It dissolved into the saliva within few
seconds. These tablets are beneficial for
Geriatric and Pediatric patients.5
For too fluffy and non-
compressible pharmaceutical powders,
pharmaceutical glue is used to combine
and attach the particles of powder. This
pharmaceutical glue is known as binder.
The bonds of the binder between particles
remain same even when the solvent is
dried. Now-a-days binders are used in
large quantity.
For the sustained release matrix
tablets, Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaves
mucilage is used due to its good swelling,
good flow rate, and suitability for matrix
formulation.6 This mucilage is used as a
binder in various pharmaceutical tablets. It
has a glossy dark green leaves with
medium texture. In this plant flowers are
produced in a large abundance. For the
natural and pharmaceutical remedies, it is
most suitable plant. It is easily available all
over India. They perform various
pharmacological actions and used in many
pharmaceutical dosage form. 7 This review
article provides the information of utility of
plant Hibiscus rosa sinensis as
pharmaceutical excipient for the
development of various dosage form.
Simultaneously articles are also
concentrating on the pharmacological
application of plant in various disease.
DESCRIPTION
In Hindi Hibiscus rosa sinensis is
known as gurhal. The common name of
Hibiscus rosa sinensis are tropical
hibiscus, Chinese hibiscus. It belongs to
the Malvaceae family. This is a glabrous
shrub and widely cultivated in tropics. In
India it is a perennial ornamental shrub
which is available easily. The height of the
plant is between 7 to 12 feet and spread
from 6 to 10 feet. There are so many
pharmacological and pharmaceutical
importances of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. It
shows various pharmacological activities
such as aphrodisiac, laxative, oral
contraceptive, menorrhagic, antioxidant
etc. This plant also possesses anti-fertility
activity.8 The mucilage isolated from the
leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was
homogeneous on electrophorosis. It
contains acidic polysaccharide and showed
considerable anticomplementary activity.9
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
Some chemical constituents found
in Hibiscus rosa sinensis are compestrol,
stigmasterol, cholestrol, taraxeryl acetate,
beta- sitosterol fructose, glucose and
flavinoids. Hibiscetin, cyanin glucosides
and alkanes are also present.10
COSMETIC USES
Hibiscus rosa sinensis is used in
different fields in various preparations.
Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals are used to
promotes hair growth and prevent hair loss
and scalp disorder. It is used as a natural
emollient hair conditioner. For the hair
growth it is generally used with brahmi and
amla extract. It is used for the mild
shampoo for babies. It is also used to
produce black dye by using the ghee for
blacken the eyes and eyebrows. In China,
it is used in shoe-blacking and mascara.
The juice obtained from the petals is used
for this purpose.10
MEDICINAL USES
There are number of medicinal
uses of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Some are
as follows:
Its roots are used as demulcent for
cough.
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Sargam et al. 1824
Leaves show laxative and emollient
properties.
For treatment of venereal disease and
fevers, decoction of roots is used.
It is used as diuretics and used in kidney
trouble.
Leaves and flowers are used for the
growth of hair.
For abortion purpose, leaves and bark is
used.10
EXTRACTION OF MUCILAGE FROM
HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS
Freash leaves of Hibiscus rosa
sinensis was washed and dried. Complete
release of mucilage is obtained in water by
soaking crushed leaves in water 5-6 hrs
and boiling of 30 minutes. The marc from
solution was removed using 8 fold muslin
cloths. Acetone in a three times volume
was added to precipitate the mucilage. The
dried powder was obtained on heating over
50 degree centigrade, and passed through
sieve (number 80).11
PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVITY OF
HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS
1. SUPER DISINTEGRANT
Swathi S et al presented the effect
of Hibiscus rosa sinensis mucilage as
superdisintegrant in the fast dissolving
tablets by using freely and poorly soluble
drug. They have used fast dissolving
tablets of freely soluble tramadol
hydrochloride and levofloxacin as a poorly
soluble drug. In this, they compared two
superdisintegrants, one is natural
superdisintegrant such as mucilage which
is extracted from the Hibiscus rosa
sinensis and other one is synthetic super
disintegrant such as croscarmellose
sodium by taking in different concentration.
From this study we conclude that fast
dissolving tablets formed by using
mucilage have better disintegrating
property in comparison to synthetic
superdisintegrant.12
2. BINDER
Chitta Suresh Kumar et al,
disscused about the effects of the Hibiscus
rosa sinensis mucilage as a binder in the
matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium. In this
study hibiscus leaves mucilage is used. It
was concluded that Hibiscus rosa sinensis
leaves mucilage have significant property
for the sustain release of diclofenac
sodium. 14
Prakash Pawan et al, discuss about
the Hibiscus rosa sinensis as a binder
which is used in sustained release drug
delivery system. In this investigation, the
Hibiscus rosa sinensis mucilage was mixed
with matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium
and study about the release retardant
activity of formulation.15
Gauda Harikrishna kasani et al,
was used Hibiscuss rosa sinensis leaves
mucilage to formulate the propranolol
hydochloride sustained release floating
matrix tablets. In this, Hibiscus rosa
sinensis is used as matrix forming
material.16
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF
HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS
Antibacterial activity18
Ruban P,Gajalakshmi K discuss
about the antibacterial activity of Hibiscus
rosa sinensis flower extract. In this study,
the flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis
works against human pathogens. From the
disc and agar diffusion method they
evaluated the antibacterial activity. In the
result, cold extraction illustrates a
maximum zone of inhibition against E.coli,
Bacillus subtilis and hot extraction against
Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. It was
concluded that extract of Hibiscus rosa
sinensis have significant effect as
antibacterial activity.
Anticonvulsant activity19
V.S.Kasture et al cover the data on
the ethanolic extracts of flower of Hibiscus
rosa sinensis which is used to exhibit
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Sargam et al. 1825
anticonvulsant activity. The anticonvulsant
activity lied in the acetone soluble part of
ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis
flower according to bioassay guided
fractionation. This fraction saves the
animals from lithium-pilocarpine, electro
shock and kindling, and pentylene tetrazole
which are responsible for inducing
convulsion in mice. It was proved that the
ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis
showed significant anticonvulsive activity.
Analgesic Activity20
Alka Sawarkar et al studied on
Hibiscus rosa sinensis and identifed its
analgesic activity. . In recent study,
aqueous and alcoholic extracts obtained
from the dried leaves of Hibiscus rosa
sinensis. This extract has analgesic activity
and it is dose dependent. The extractability
percentage was found to be 20% in the
leaves.
Antioxidant activity21
Rajesh mandate, S.A Sreenivas et
al reported that the crude extract of
Hibiscus rosa sinensis showed antioxidant
activity. The name of some antioxidant
radical scavenger compounds which are
used as reference are butylated
hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxyltoluene
and tocoferol. In linoleic acid emulsion,
94.58 % oxidation is prevented by the
crude extract. But standard oxidants such
as BHA, BHT, and tocoferol restricts at
particular concentration of 60 μg/ml.
Natural antioxidants are obtained from the
crude extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis and
shows the effective result.
Anti-inflammatory activity22
Vivek tomar et al explains the anti
inflamatory activity of Hibiscus rosa
sinensis. So many inflammatory conditions
such as inflammation of blenorrhoea,
asthmatic bronchitis and oral mucosa is
treated by Hibiscus rosa sinensis. For anti
inflammatory activities, the methanolic
extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaves
were used. To check the inflammatory
activities, various animal models were
used in this study. Indomethacin was used
as standard drug against carragenan and
dextran induces inflammation.
Anxiolytic activity23
P Shewale et al studied the effect
of anxiolytic activity by using methanolic
extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower
with anthocyanidins in mice.
In this study, they concluded that by
involving of dopamine, nonadrenalin,
serotonin and gamma amino butyric acid
mechanism, the methanolic extract and
anthocyanidins possess potential anxiolytic
activity.
Antipyretic activity24
Sawarkar. A.R et al studied about
the effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis as an
anti pyretic in rats. The antipyretic activity
was determined by using the leaves of
Hibiscus rosa sinensis and v wistar rat.
Aqueous and alcoholic extract of Hibiscus
rosa sinensis were used to reduce the
increased temperature and compared with
the control group.
Wound healing activity 25
B.Shivnanda Nayak et al performed
their study on Sprague dawley rat by using
hibiscus rosa sinensis having wound
healing activity. Ethanolic extract of
Hibiscus rosa sinensis was used. Study
indicate that there was 86 % reduction in
wound area in those animals which were
treated with ethanolic extract of Hibiscus
rosa sinensis when compared against
control.
Anabolic effect26
Olagbende-Dada et al discuss
about the anabolic activity of Hibiscus rosa
sinensis leaf extract. Aphrodisiac plants
show anabolic activity due to involvement
in protein synthesis and therefore improve
the sexual ability in males. The properties
of this plant are similar to the androgen
which is a male hormone that’s why it is
The Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2 (3), pp. 1822-29, Oct, 2013; www.tgjpr.com
Sargam et al. 1826
also known as androgenic plant. The
aphrodisiac activity is reported in the cold
aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis.
There is a method to evaluate this over the
eight week of treatment and rat were used
as a experimental model.
Anti- anxiety activity27
Khan Mohammad Junaid et al
discussed about the anxiety induce
exploratory and locomotar activity
performed by Hibiscus rosa sinensis. It is a
medicinal plant which has a refrigerant and
calming effect. According to this study, for
determining the exploratory behaviour,
alcoholic and chloroform extracts of
Hibiscus rosa sinensis were used. From
the result the difference is obtained that the
ethanolic extract showed better
performance in comparison to chloroform
extract. There is no effect of the both
extract on the urination and defecation of
animals. According to the result Hibiscus
rosa sinensis showed anti anxiety activity.
Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis on
fertility and contraception28,29
David Hoffman discussed over the
fertility and contraception by using the
Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract. Only flower
showed the anti-fertility activity. The
antifertility action depends on the season.
During winter antifertility action was
maximum and minimum in summer.
Hibiscus rosa sinensis showed impact on
both, female reproduction as well as on
male. Flower extracts improves the
endocrine function as well as the
generation of sperm. By giving the flower
extract to the rat there are some changes
occurs such as reduction of weight of
testis, reproductive organs and pituitary
glands. After stopping the administration of
drug, the accessory sex organs activity
started again and confirmed the activity of
Hibiscus rosa sinensis as a antifertility
herb.
According to kholkute et al,
benzene hot extracts of Hibiscus rosa
sinensis was responsible for the postcoital
antifertility property to prevent the
pregnancy, the extract obtained from the
flowers of hibiscus were 100% effective.
CONCLUSION
According to the data obtained it is
concluded that the ethanolic extract of
Hibiscus rosa sinensis have
pharmaceutical and pharmacological
activities. The obtaining mucilage is a
natural polysaccharide which is widely
used. This extracted mucilage is used as
binder and disintegrant in tablet
formulation. This plant is effective for
herbal alternative to many diseases. Such
as antipyretic, anticonvulsive, etc. In fast
disintegrating tablets like levofloxacin and
tramadol, it is used as superdisintegrant.
This extracted mucilage is widely used for
the cosmetic and medicinal purpose.
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TABLE 1: Disintigrating property of Hibiscus rosa sinensis
Author name
Property
Drug
Proposal
Reference
Swathi.S, Neeharika V,
et.al
Superdisintegrant
Levofloxacin
Formulation for poorly
soluble tablets
[12]
Swathis.S, Neeharika V,
et al
Superdisintegrant
Tramadol
hydrochloride
For freely soluble
tablets
[12]
Harakatti prabhu K , et
al
mouthdisintegrant
Famotidine
Mouth disintegrant
tablet
[13]
Viral shah, Rucha patel
Oral disintegrant
Aceclofenac
For dispersable tablets
[11]
TABLE 2: Binder property OF Hibiscus rosa sinensis
Author name
Property
Drug
Proposal
Reference
Chitta Suresh et al
Binder
Diclofenac sodium
For sustained release
matrix tablets
[14]
Giresh k Jani et al
Diclofenac sodium
For sustained release
matrix tablets
[17]
The Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 2 (3), pp. 1822-29, Oct, 2013; www.tgjpr.com
Sargam et al. 1829
TABLE 3 30: Pharmacological effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in various extracts
Pharmacological
effects
Extract
Part used
Dose
Abortifacient effect
Ethanol (95%),water and
petroleum ether extracts
Leaves,
flowers, roots
200 mg/kg
Acid phosphatase
stimulation
(50%) Ethanolic and benzene
extracts
Flowers
150 mg/kg
Alkaline phosphate
inhibition
Benzene and ethanol/water
(1:1)extracts
Flower
75.0 mg/kg
Analgesic activity
Ethanol extract (70%)
Dried leaves
125 mg/kg
Androgenic effect
Benzene and ethanol(95%)
extracts
Dried flowers
250 mg/kg
Anticonvulsive effect
Ethanol extract
flower
-
Anti-fertility effect
Ethanol(95%) extract
Dried flowers
750 mg/kg
Antifungal activity
Ethanol/water(50%) extract
Dried leaves
-
Anti-gonadotropin
effect
Benzene extract
Dried flower
250 mg/kg
Anti implantation
effect
Benzene extract
Dried flowers
250 mg/kg
Antipyretic activity
Ethanol (70%) extract
Dried leaves
100 mg/kg
Antispasmodic activity
Ethanol/water(1:1) extract
Ariel part
-
Antispermatogenic
effect
Benzene extract dried
Dried flower
250 mg/kg
CNS depresent
activity
Ethnol/water(1:1) extract
Ariel part
500 mg/kg
Anti-inflammatory
activity
Ethanol (70%) extract
Dried leaves
100 mg/kg
Anti-viral activity
(80%) Ethanol extract
Freeze dried
plant
-
Anti-estrogenic
Effect
Benzene extract
Dried flowers
250 mg/kg
... There are also studies that show this mucilage is used as a natural excipient in many formulations [54,55]. The mucilage isolated from hibiscus is used as a sustained as well as rate controlling matrix for the release of various medicaments such as diclofenac sodium [56,57,58]. Studies have found that Hibiscus mucilage can be used as suspending agent and also superdisintegrant in tablet formulations [59][60][61][62][63][64]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the article was to obtain maximum information about plant mucilage, its sources and applications in the pharmaceutical industry. This study focuses on the scientific articles and books available in Internet resources and college library that deal with the sources, applications, extraction and isolation of plant mucilage. Mucilage is obtained mainly from plant sources and can be isolated easily. Due to the low cost, easy availability, non-toxicity, non-irritancy, and biocompatibility, mucilage is of great demand in the field of pharmaceuticals. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Abelmoschus esculentus L, Plantago ovata Forssk. and Aloe barbadensis L. are some common sources of mucilage. The isolation methods vary depending on the part of the plant where mucilage is present. It is commonly used as gelling agent, suspending agent, binder, and disintegrant. Since it is hydrophilic in nature, chances of deterioration are higher. In this review, different mucilage sources and their isolation methods are discussed in detail. Mucilage is used as excipient in many formulations of tablets, suspensions, gels, etc. The study explores the potential of plant mucilage as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulations. The biodegradable and biocompatible properties of this inexpensive excipient make it more favourable for the newer formulation development.
... To accelerate the growth of hair, flowers and leaves of the plant are used. Bark and leaves are used to terminate pregnancy (Kumar, 2013). The plant was originally located in the torrid zone of Asia. ...
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A vast majority of the world’s population lacks access to essential medicines and the provision of safe healthcare services. Medicinal plants and herbal medicines can be applied for pharmacognosy, or the discovery of new drugs, or as an aid for plant physiology studies. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the search for new chemical entities and the expression of resistance of many drugs available in the market has led to a shift in paradigm towards medicinal research. Herbal treatments, the most popular form of folk medicine, may become an important way of increasing access to healthcare services. Advanced Pharmacological Uses of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products provides emerging research exploring the theoretical and practical aspects of drug discovery from natural sources that allow for the effective treatment of human health problems without any side effects, toxicity, or drug resistance. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as ethnobotany, therapeutic applications, and bioactive compounds, this book is ideally designed for pharmacologists, scientists, ethnobotanists, botanists, health researchers, professors, industry professionals, and health students in fields that include pharmaceutical drug development and discovery.
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According to studies, continuous deterioration process is the result of skin aging because of protein & cellular DNA damage. The main purpose of this work is to formulate an anti-aging herbal cream by using natural ingredients. The natural API are pomegranate, ginseng and other ingredients are curcuma longa, amla, hibiscus, pipper-mint, green tea, vitamin E, coconut oil, olive oil, aloe vera, basil oil. Water-in-oil emulsion based cream is formulated using natural ingredient. All the combined ingredients can be concluded as multipurpose cream and future studies can be carried out on stability and irritancy test for cream on skin.
Chapter
The primary aim of this study is to access the salient herbal plants with the active constituent of potentially anti-hair fall activities. It also presents the various reasons behind hair loss ailments. As part of this study, a focus is placed on active phytochemicals within these medicinal plants or natural products in terms of various hair fall disease treatments. As natural products have a beneficial effect to minimize hair loss and have promoted the potential for new hair growth, it presents the medicinal values of natural plants in reference to safety and effectiveness for health.
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The primary aim of this study is to access the salient herbal plants with the active constituent of potentially anti-hair fall activities. It also presents the various reasons behind hair loss ailments. As part of this study, a focus is placed on active phytochemicals within these medicinal plants or natural products in terms of various hair fall disease treatments. As natural products have a beneficial effect to minimize hair loss and have promoted the potential for new hair growth, it presents the medicinal values of natural plants in reference to safety and effectiveness for health.
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The plant Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. belongs to family "Malvacecae" and Considering various medicinal properties of this plant, the leaves were collected and studied for Extractability percentage, analgesic.The herb Hibiscus rosa sinensis belonging to the family "Malvacecae" and is commonly known as jasvand. It is cultivated in garden throughout India native country probably china. The buds have a sweet odour and bitter taste, cooling, astringent, remove burning sensations of the body and relieves pain. In the present study aqueous, alcoholic Extracts of dried leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was prepared. The extractability percentage of leaves was 20%. The extract showed marked analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts produced significant results at both doses (P<0.01), the findings indicated the analgesic activity of the leaves of the plant.
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Various Plant gums like gelatin, acacia, alginic acid, guar gum etc have been used as binder in pharmaceutical formulations. But still finding novel binder are useful in the pharmaceutical industry for manufacture of tablets and capsules. The Cassia roxburghii seed gum was found for its binding property. The isolated gum was evaluated for its binding property like % of fine, stability and viscosity. The adhesive and cohesive property in tablet like hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate were evaluated on paracetamol tablets. All evaluation were compared with widely used standard sodium carboxy methyl cellulose and gelatin. The gum is prepared from seeds of Cassia roxburghii and the prepared gum was evaluated in different concentration like 1%, 1.5% and 2% which compared with the same concentration of sodium CMC and gelatin. The Cassia roxburghii seed gum was found to be more viscous than sodium CMC and gelatin. which also produce less fine. Only the marginal difference was found in the hardness of tablet when compared with standard sodium CMC and gelatin. It also showed linearity between concentration and hardness. Increased concentration of Cassia roxburghii seed gum from 2 to 6% increased the disintegration and dissolution time. Cassia roxburghii gum produce tablet with better mechanical property longer disintegration and dissolution time than those containing sodium CMC and gelatin. This suggest that Cassia roxburghii gum could be useful binding agent especially when high mechanical strength and slower release concern.
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To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development.
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Hibiscus rosa- sinensis L. (Malvaceae) is used in folk medicine for the treatment of pain and various inflammatory conditions such as the inflammation of oral mucosa, blenorrhoea, and asthmatic bronchitis. In the present study the methanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaves ( 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight orally) was studied for anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in various animal models. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in carrageenin and dextran induced rat paw edema using Indomethacine as standard which showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied in rats using acetic acid-induced writhing response and tail flick method by using Pethedine (5mg/kg body weight, intraperitonially) as standard. The extract showed significant dose-dependent analgesic activity in both the models.
Article
Natural gums and mucilage are biocompatible, cheap, readily available, and represent a potential source of excipients. The authors examine the functionality of mucilage extracted from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn as an excipient in a sustained-release tablet formulation. The dried mucilage was studied for particle size, mass loss on drying, viscosity, swelling ratio, bulk density, angle of repose, and compressibility. To study the matrix-forming properties of the dried mucilage, sustained-release tablets of diclofenac sodium were prepared by direct-compression techniques and 3 2 full factorial designs. Using these methods, the authors conclude mucilage extracted from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn is suitable as an excipient in sustained-release formulations.
Article
The ethanolic extracts of leaves of Albizzia lebbeck and flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis and the petroleum ether extract of flowers of Butea monosperma exhibited anticonvulsant activity. The bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the anticonvulsant activity lies in the methanolic fraction of chloroform soluble part of ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. lebbeck, acetone soluble part of ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinesis flowers and acetone soluble part of petroleum ether extract of B. monosperma flowers. The fractions protected animals from maximum electro shock, electrical kindling and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. The fractions also inhibited convulsions induced by lithium-pilocarpine and electrical kindling. However, they failed to protect animals from strychnine-induced convulsions. The fractions antagonised the behavioral effects of D-amphetamine and potentiated the pentobarbitone-induced sleep. The fractions raised brain contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin. These fractions were found to be anxiogenic and general depressant of central nervous system.
Superdisintigrants:an overview
  • Ps Mohnachandran
  • Pg Slndhumol
  • Ts Klran
Mohnachandran PS, Slndhumol PG, Klran TS: Superdisintigrants:an overview. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences review and research 2011; 6(1):105.
A review on recent patentson fast dissolving drug delivery system
  • G Prajapati
  • Ratnakar Bhupendra
  • Nayan
Prajapati G Bhupendra, Ratnakar Nayan: A review on recent patentson fast dissolving drug delivery system. Pharm Tech 2009; 1 (3):790-79.