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Der Beitrag greift das Thema Lern- und Lehrvideos auf und zeigt die aktuellen Einsatzformen auf. Ebenso werden unterschiedliche Formate und Erstellungsmöglichkeiten dargestellt, die durch heutige Technologien teils auch mit überschaubaren finanziellen Ressourcen umgesetzt werden können. Darüber hinaus werden lerntheoretische Ansätze gelistet, die bis heute bekannt sind. Um die Produktion von Lern- und Lehrvideos zukünftig zu erleichtern, wird anhand einer Vorlage zur Entwicklung von Lern- und Lehrvideos, dem Lernvideo-Canvas, gezeigt, wie man an die Planung von Lern- und Lehrvideo-Projekten herangehen kann.
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Lern-&und&Lehrvideos:&Gestaltung,&
Produktion,&Einsatz&
von$Martin$Ebner$(Technische$Universität$Graz)$und$Sandra$Schön$(Salzburg$Research$
Forschungsgesellschaft)$
!
[Schlagworte]Video·Lehrvideo·Lernvideo·Webvideo·360-Grad-
Video·Videoproduktion·Videoformate·Videoeinsatz!
!
[Überblick]Der Beitrag greift das Thema Lern- und Lehrvideos auf und zeigt die aktuellen
Einsatzformen auf. Ebenso werden unterschiedliche Formate und Erstellungsmöglichkeiten
dargestellt, die durch heutige Technologien teils auch mit überschaubaren finanziellen Ressourcen
umgesetzt werden können. Darüber hinaus werden lerntheoretische Ansätze gelistet, die bis heute
bekannt sind. Um die Produktion von Lern- und Lehrvideos zukünftig zu erleichtern, wird anhand
einer Vorlage zur Entwicklung von Lern- und Lehrvideos, dem Lernvideo-Canvas, gezeigt, wie man
an die Planung von Lern- und Lehrvideo-Projekten herangehen kann.
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1!Einleitung!........................................................................................................................................................................!1
2!Einsatzmöglichkeiten!von!Lernvideos!..................................................................................................................!2
3!Formate!und!Entwicklung!von!Lernvideos!..........................................................................................................!3
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4!Gestaltung!von!Lernvideos!........................................................................................................................................!7
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5!Lernvideo-Erstellung:!Tipps!zur!Planung!............................................................................................................!8
6!Trend:!360-Grad-Videos!............................................................................................................................................!9
7!Zusammenfassung!und!Ausblick!-!Herausforderungen!an!Bildung!und!Forschung!..........................!10
Literaturhinweise!.........................................................................................................................................................!10
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1&Einleitung&
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[Definition!„Lern-!bzw.!Lehrvideo“!]!
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[Zielsetzung!des!Beitrags]!
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Anleitungen!und!Erklärungen!im!Alltag!
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Einsatz!im!Präsenzunterricht!
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Bestandteil!von!Blended-Learning-Settings!
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Online-Kurse!und!MOOC!
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Erstellung!durch!Lernenden![Lernen!durch!Lehren]!
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I^XC#30D+D8(\"4(jC%&"-.(C'(!B%2-#+C"-.(FD^23C.C,^6(ZLgJ(:=[[=?6(98(JZJ)J[<8(
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9OIad6(98g!]d!W6(784(E%#0(@0&"/+B0CD(z(DC(,0.+",0"(R05AS+B0CD(H%P(@0&"0"u(]CCGD(C"(M0P-"B(
EP5I6(dC&B0&D#0B#6(;<=L8(*".+"0(H%,Y",.+23(%"#0&4(3##X4gg5+PD0/8B0g((
e*Wd6(\8gNiRhWQ!W6(N8g9!!INE!dA7NWx6(I84(!B%2-D#+",()(R+0(FCB2-D#D(+"(]+.B%",DGC"#0_#0"(
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... Erklärvideos bilden eine Variante von Lehr-und Lernvideos (Ebner & Schön, 2017 Hülyas Äußerungen können so gedeutet werden, dass sie ein eigenes Päckchen »erfinden« (T 291) möchte, da das Päckchen aus dem Demo-Video den Päckchen auf dem Arbeitsblatt zu sehr ähnelt und sie nicht »ein gleiches Video« (ebd.) erstellen wollen. ...
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... Learning media usage must be used wisely, therefore the learning goals can be achieved easier. For example, the theory of Mayer stated, that the learning effect is higher when the learners are presented with pictures to the text, rather than just text alone [5]. ...
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Thesis
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Ein noch sehr wenig erforschtes Thema sind die sogenannten „student generated videos“, doch gerade diese würden für Schülerinnen und Schüler die Möglichkeit bieten, von den Konsumenten und Konsumentinnen des Lerninhalts zu Produzenten und Produzentinnen zu wachsen und ihren eigenen Lernprozess selbstständig zu organisieren. Daher beschäftigt sich diese Arbeit mit der Frage, wie gute Lernvideos von Schülerinnen und Schülern erstellt werden können. Dazu wird geklärt, was alles unter einem Lernvideo zu verstehen ist und zwischen welchen Arten man sich entscheiden kann. Beleuchtet wird auch der lernpsychologische Aspekt, der hinter der Technik steht und nicht immer ausreichend verwendet wird. Anschließend wird festgestellt, dass die Bezeichnung von „guten“ Lernvideos sich nicht so einfach beantworten lässt. Der Prozess, welcher sich hinter einem Lernvideo versteckt, wurde für Schülerinnen und Schüler, aber auch für alle interessierten Lehrpersonen zusammengetragen. Dieser setzt sich aus Zielen, Ideen, Planung, Aufnahme, Nachbereitung und Veröffentlichung zusammen. Was alles in Lernvideos erlaubt ist und was nicht, wird ebenfalls aufgeschlüsselt. Im Anschluss daran wird ein eigenes Lernvideo aus dem Fach Mathematik hergenommen, um die Anleitung tiefer zu reflektieren.
Thesis
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In dieser Masterarbeit wurde dem komplexen didaktischen Zusammenspiel im Inverted Classroom nachgegangen, wobei insbesondere die didaktischen Anforderungen analysiert wurden, die auf Hochschullehrende bei der Umsetzung eines Inverted Classroom zukommen. Dabei lag ein Fokus auf der Wissensvermittlung durch Lehrvideos. Für die empirische Forschung wurden sieben Expert_innen, die dieses Modell an verschiedenen Hochschulen einsetzen, interviewt. Die Befragung ergab, dass von den meisten Lehrenden Videos im Office Setting produziert werden, wobei nicht die Erstellung perfekter Videos im Vordergrund steht, diese jedoch sehr gut geplant und vorbereitet werden. Die Expert_innen führten an, keine interaktiven Fragen in Videos einzubauen, Videos werden aber auf vielfältige Weise in die Lernumgebung eingebunden. Die Selbstlernphase wird oft durch eine Aufgabenstellung mit der Präsenzphase verknüpft, die in dieser aufgegriffen und vertieft wird. Hierbei werden Methoden unterschiedlich angewendet, wobei für die Betreuung großer Studierendenkohorten beispielsweise Audience-Response-Systeme unterstützend eingesetzt werden können. Zudem ändert sich im Inverted Classroom die Rolle der Lehrenden, die durch hohes Wissen, von Flexibilität und einer hohen Interaktivität gekennzeichnet ist, und deren Bedeutung durch die Vielfältigkeit, die durch die Befragungen offengelegt wurde, klar ersichtlich wird.
Chapter
Der Einsatz digitaler Lernformate im Blended Learning bietet demnach Chancen in mindestens zwei Bereichen. Zum einen können digitale Lernformate direkt die Lernprozesse von Studierenden günstig beeinflussen, ihre Leistungen verbessern und zudem positive Effekte auf vielen weiteren Ebenen wie der Motivation oder des Selbstkonzeptes bewirken. Zum anderen generieren digitale Lernformate eine Fülle von Daten in vielfältiger Gestalt. Studierende erzeugen bei der Arbeit mit digitalen Werkzeugen Nutzungsdaten, wie Verweildauern und Aktivitätsprofile, sie produzieren Leistungsdaten aus digitalen Aufgaben, sie hinterlassen Textbeiträge in Foren und Chats. All diese Daten können genutzt werden, um mit Methoden von Learning Analytics (LA) und Educational Data Mining (EDM) zu analysieren, Schlüsse und Vorhersagen über studentisches Lernverhalten zu ziehen und die Lernangebote entsprechend zu optimieren.
Article
Der gesellschaftliche Megatrend der Digitalisierung macht ein Umdenken eingefahrener und traditioneller Strukturen von Lehr-/Lernszenarien notwendig und unumgänglich. Erklärvideos sind zum festen Bestandteil der Lernkultur junger Menschen geworden und beeinflussen Rezipierende oftmals unbewusst. Die Relevanz der Eigenproduktion von Erklärvideos für das Berufsfeld und die berufliche Fachrichtung Ernährung und Hauswirtschaft wird in diesem Beitrag aufgezeigt.
Article
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Educational content of many kinds and from many disciplines are increasingly presented in the form of short videos made broadly accessible via platforms such as YouTube. We argue that understanding how such communicative forms function effectively (or not) demands a more thorough theoretical foundation in the principles of multimodal communication that is also capable of engaging with, and driving, empirical studies. We introduce the basic concepts adopted and discuss an empirical study showing how functional measures derived from the theory of multimodality we employ and results from a recipient-based study that we conducted align. We situate these results with respect to the state of the art in cognitive research in multimodal learning and argue that the more complex multimodal interactions and artifacts become, the more a fine-grained view of multimodal communication of the kind we propose will be essential for engaging with such media, both theoretically and empirically.
Conference Paper
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In this research study a course, combining both computer-supported and face-to-face teaching using the concept of blended learning, has been designed. It is a beginners climbing course called "Klettern mit 360° Videos" (climbing with 360° videos) and the online part has been implemented as a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). This research study presents the background of the course, the course concept, the course itself and the results of the evaluation. To measure the difference between the pure online participants and the blended learning participants the MOOC has been evaluated independently from the blended learning course. It should be mentioned that all participants (whether pure online or both) evaluated the course in a positive manner. The use of technology enhanced learning realized by the concept of blended learning proved to be a well-suited method for this course setting. Furthermore, many advantages of computer based learning, blended learning and 360°-videos have been reported by the participants.
Chapter
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Offene Lizenzen erlauben nicht nur die Nutzung, sondern auch die Modifikation von Texten, Programmen und Bildern – oder eben auch von Bildungsressourcen, die als „offene Bildungsressourcen“ derzeit große Aufmerksamkeit erhalten (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, 2015). In diesem Beitrag wer- den die unmittelbaren Folgen der offen Lizenzierung, nämlich die damit ver- bundenen weiträumigen Nutzungsmöglichkeit, dargestellt und demonstriert, dass die offenen Lizenzen auch als ein Treiber für Kooperationen und Innovationen in der Bildung betrachtet werden können. Die Produktion und Nutzung der offenen Bildungsressourcen unterscheidet sich von traditionellen, proprietären Arbeits- und Produktionsweisen u. a. in Bezug auf Finanzierung, Entwicklung, Qualitätssicherung und Nutzung. Anhand der Rolle von OER für Open Educational Practice und mehreren Projekten (L3T 2.0, „Gratis Online Lernen“, dem Schulbuch-O-Mat-Projekt, dem MOOChub sowie COER16) wird dies dargestellt.
Article
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In populären Erklär- und Lernvideos kommen immer wieder Zeichen- und Legetechniken zum Einsatz, bei der Bilder live gezeichnet oder Papierfiguren hineingelegt und verschoben werden, um Lerninhalte zu verdeutlichen. Populär geworden ist diese Methode durch die Videoreihe von Common Craft "in Plain English", bei der die Funktionalität unterschiedlicher sozialer Anwendungen erklärt wird. Die Autorin und der Autor schreiben in Form eines Werkstattberichtes von ihren Erfahrungen bei der Erstellung und dem Einsatz von Lernvideos in der Legetechnik und geben Empfehlungen für Nachahmer/innen.
Article
In 2 experiments, mechanically naive college students viewed an animation depicting the operation of a bicycle tire pump that included a verbal description given before (words-before-pictures) or during (words-with-pictures) the animation. The words-with-pictures group outperformed the words-before-pictures group on tests of creative problem solving that involved reasoning about how the pump works. In a follow-up experiment, students in the words-with-pictures group performed better on the problem-solving test than students who saw the animation without words (pictures only), heard the words without the animation (words only), or received no training (control). Results support a dual-coding hypothesis (Paivio, 1990) that posits two kinds of connections: representational connections between verbal stimuli and verbal representations and between visual stimuli and visual representations and referential connections between visual and verbal representations.
Article
In three experiments, students read expository passages concerning how scientific devices work, which contained either no illustrations (control), static illustrations of the device with labels for each part (parts), static illustrations of the device with labels for each major action (steps), or dynamic illustrations showing the "off" and "on" states of the device along with labels for each part and each major action (parts-and-steps). Results indicated that the parts-and-steps (but not the other) illustrations consistently improved performance on recall of conceptual (but not nonconceptiual) information and creative problem solving (but not verbatim retention), and these results were obtained mainly for the low prior-knowledge (rather than the high prior-knowledge) students. The cognitive conditions for effective illustrations in scientific text include appropriate text, tests, illustrations, and learners.
Article
How can students be helped to understand scientific explanations of cause-and-effect systems, such as how a pump works, how the human respiratory system works, or how lightning storms develop? This chapter reviews some encouraging evidence that multimedia learning environments can promote constructivist learning that enables problem-solving transfer. It begins with a description of a multimedia learning scenario, a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, and a set of design principles that lead to constructivist learning. Then, results from more than 40 studies are reviewed. In combination, these studies explore the conditions under which multimedia environments promote problem-solving transfer of scientific and mathematical principles. The concluding section addresses the problem of how multimedia instructional messages can be designed to promote problem-solving transfer.
Article
Addressed the question of how learners' a priori perceptions of message categories relate to their perceived self-efficacy in handling them, and how perceptions relate to the amount of invested mental effort (AIME) and learning. The AIME was defined as the number of nonautomatic mental elaborations applied to material and measured by learners' self-reports. It was hypothesized that in the absence of instructions, AIME expended in elaborating materials varies as a function of initial perceptions even when the material warrants otherwise. TV and print were considered categories for which children have general perceptions. 124 6th graders were tested for their perceptions of self-efficacy with print and TV, perceived media realism, and attributions of failure and success with each medium. Half the Ss viewed a silent film, while the other half read a comparable text. Measures of AIME and achievement were then taken. As expected, Ss felt more efficacious with TV, and perceived it as more realistic and easy. Print was reported to demand more effort, but led to better inference making. Efficacy correlated positively with AIME in print and negatively in TV. Discussion focuses on the roles of a priori perceptions and AIME in learning. (44 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Multimedia learning occurs when students build mental representations from words and pictures that are presented to them (e.g., printed text and illustrations or narration and animation). The promise of multimedia learning is that students can learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures than from more traditional modes of communication involving words alone. This article explores a program of research aimed at determining (a) research-based principles for the design of multimedia explanations—which can be called methods, and (b) the extent to which methods are effective across different learning environments—which can be called media. A review of research on the design of multimedia explanations conducted in our lab at Santa Barbara shows (a) a multimedia effect—in which students learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone—in both book-based and computer-based environments, (b) a coherence effect—in which students learn more deeply when extraneous material is excluded rather than included—in both book-based and computer-based environments, (c) a spatial contiguity effect—in which students learn more deeply when printed words are placed near rather than far from corresponding pictures—in both book-based and computer-based environments, and (d) a personalization effect—in which students learn more deeply when words are presented in conversational rather than formal style—both in computer-based environments containing spoken words and those using printed words. Overall, our results provide four examples in which the same instructional design methods are effective across different media.
Article
This paper was the first initiative to try to define Web2.0 and understand its implications for the next generation of software, looking at both design patterns and business modes. Web 2.0 is the network as platform, spanning all connected devices; Web 2.0 applications are those that make the most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform: delivering software as a continually-updated service that gets better the more people use it, consuming and remixing data from multiple sources, including individual users, while providing their own data and services in a form that allows remixing by others, creating network effects through an "architecture of participation," and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experiences.
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