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This preface reviews criticisms of The Culture of Critique and expands on several issues important for understanding Jewish cultural influence, including Jews and the left and Jewish media influence. It also discusses the decline of ethnic consciousness among Euro-Americans and develops a theoretical perspective on Western individualism versus Jewish collectivism.
I respond to some comments by Nathan Cofnas in which he criticizes Edward Dutton's defense of my book, The Culture of Critique. In arguing against Dutton, Cofnas makes unfounded claims about The Culture of Critique.
Boas argued that anthropologists should make historical comparisons within well-defined regional contexts. A century later, we have many improvements in the statistical methodologies for comparative research, yet most of our regional constructs remain without a valid empirical basis. We present a new method for developing and testing regions. The method takes into account older anthropological concerns with relationships between culture history and the environment, embodied in the culture-area concept, as well as contemporary concerns with historical linkages of societies into world systems. We develop nine new regions based on social structural data and test them using data on 351 societies. We compare the new regions with Murdock's regional constructs and find that our regional classification is a strong improvement over Murdock's. In so doing we obtain evidence for the cross-cultural importance of gender and descent systems, for the importance of constraint relationships upon sociocultural systems, for the historical importance of two precapitalist world systems, and for strikingly different geographical alignments of cultural systems in the Old World and the Americas.
We can summarize our results as follows. First, the canonical model is not supported in any society studied. Second, there is considerably more behavioral variability across groups than had been found in previous cross-cultural research, and the canonical model fails in a wider variety of ways than in previous experiments. Third, group-level differences in economic organization and the degree of market integration explain a substantial portion of the behavioral variation across societies: the higher the degree of market integration and the higher the payoffs to cooperation, the greater the level of cooperation in experimental games. Fourth, individual-level economic and demographic variables do not explain behavior either within or across groups. Fifth, behavior in the experiments is generally consistent with economic patterns of everyday life in these societies.
Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the paternal origins of the Jewish Diaspora. A set of 18 biallelic polymorphisms was genotyped in 1,371 males from 29 populations, including 7 Jewish (Ashkenazi, Roman, North African, Kurdish, Near Eastern, Yemenite, and Ethiopian) and 16 non-Jewish groups from similar geographic locations. The Jewish populations were characterized by a diverse set of 13 haplotypes that were also present in non-Jewish populations from Africa, Asia, and Europe. A series of analyses was performed to address whether modern Jewish Y-chromosome diversity derives mainly from a common Middle Eastern source population or from admixture with neighboring non-Jewish populations during and after the Diaspora. Despite their long-term residence in different countries and isolation from one another, most Jewish populations were not significantly different from one another at the genetic level. Admixture estimates suggested low levels of European Y-chromosome gene flow into Ashkenazi and Roman Jewish communities. A multidimensional scaling plot placed six of the seven Jewish populations in a relatively tight cluster that was interspersed with Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations, including Palestinians and Syrians. Pairwise differentiation tests further indicated that these Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations were not statistically different. The results support the hypothesis that the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population, and suggest that most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora.
Human cooperation is an evolutionary puzzle. Unlike other creatures, people frequently cooperate with genetically unrelated strangers, often in large groups, with people they will never meet again, and when reputation gains are small or absent. These patterns of cooperation cannot be explained by the nepotistic motives associated with the evolutionary theory of kin selection and the selfish motives associated with signalling theory or the theory of reciprocal altruism. Here we show experimentally that the altruistic punishment of defectors is a key motive for the explanation of cooperation. Altruistic punishment means that individuals punish, although the punishment is costly for them and yields no material gain. We show that cooperation flourishes if altruistic punishment is possible, and breaks down if it is ruled out. The evidence indicates that negative emotions towards defectors are the proximate mechanism behind altruistic punishment. These results suggest that future study of the evolution of human cooperation should include a strong focus on explaining altruistic punishment.
Conservatives and liberals harmonize on few issues, but they are. at least, equally vehement in criticizing television entertainment. On the liberal side, women and minority groups claim that television’s unflattering portrayals of them perpetuate negative stereotypes. Conservatives object to the loose morality which they view as undermining the traditional American values of family, hard work, and patriotism. And myriad groups, from the PTA to the National Institute of Mental Health, worry that pervasive television violence is breeding aggressive individuals or even criminals.
The purpose of this article is to develop a model of life history theory that
incorporates environmental influences, contextual influences, and heritable
variation. I argue that physically or psychologically stressful environments
delay maturation and the onset of reproductive competence. The
social context is also important, and here I concentrate on the opportunity
for upward social mobility as a contextual influence that results in delaying
reproduction and lowering fertility in the interest of increasing investment
in children. I also review evidence that variation in life history
strategies is influenced by genetic variation as well. Finally, I show that
cultural shifts in the social control of sexual behavior have had differential
effects on individuals predisposed to high- versus low-investment
Available data strongly suggest that the household formation systems of all populations in preindustrial NW Europe shared common features that distinguished these populations from those in India, China, and many other preindustrial societies. Using censuses and similar data sources, this essay describes and contrasts household formation rules common to NW European simple household systems of the 17th and 18th centuries with those common to joint household systems. In NW Europe, late marriage was common for both sexes, and married people were almost always in charge of their own household (with the husband as head). Before marriage, young people often circulated between households as servants. In joint household systems both sexes married early and the young couple usually joined the husband' household. The paper devotes special attention to the way in which the splitting of joint households operated in different societies. Another section shows how a substantial proportion of young people in preindustrial NW Europe were servants at some stage. It is suggested that the institution of service may have been an essential part of the mechanism that adjusted fertility to prevailing economic conditions. -Author
An examination of community studies of peasant life reveals consistencies and variations in family structure. The findings demonstrate a strong patri-orientation, the rarity of polygyny, and the absence or weakness of larger kin-based corporate structures in the forty-six communities analyzed. Three patterns of family structure, each closely associated with a particular mode of inheritance, were found: (1) patrilocal stem with patrilineal impartible inheritance, (2) patrilocal joint with patrilineal partible, and (3) nuclear with bilateral inheritance. Proceeding from ecological presuppositions, the factors of (1) land scarcity and (2) the dominant state organization were examined as potentially salient influences. The data indicate that while land scarcity appears to be a contributory influence in the development of stem families, the variations in family structure are best accounted for not simply by the existence of the larger political community, but more specifically by the social and political forces emanating from the centers of power.
This listing is based on several sources: Editors of Fortune (1936); To Bigotry No Sanction. A Documented Analysis of Anti-Semitic Propaganda
McConnell's comments were made on an email discussion list, September 30, 2001.
2. This listing is based on several sources: Editors of Fortune (1936); To
Bigotry No Sanction. A Documented Analysis of Anti-Semitic Propaganda.
Prepared by the Philadelphia Anti-Defamation Council and the American
Jewish Committee. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Anti-Defamation Council
2-46) study of U.S. military officers but is representative of commonly held attitudes in the early 20th century. 7Reform Judaism Nears a Guide to Conversion
New York Times
The following is based on Bendersky's (2000, 2-46) study of U.S. military officers but is representative of commonly held attitudes in the early 20th
7. "Reform Judaism Nears a Guide to Conversion." New York Times, June
8. Jewish pressure for altering traditional Roman Catholic attitudes on Jewish responsibility for deicide are recounted in Lacouture (1995, 440-458) and
further elaborates this basic difference to include four variants ranging from West, West/central or middle, Mediterranean
Laslett (1983) further elaborates this basic difference to include four
variants ranging from West, West/central or middle, Mediterranean, to East.
10. Barfield (1993).
Sagi et al. suggest temperamental differences in stranger anxiety may be important because of the unusual intensity of the reactions of many of the Israeli infants. The tests were 24Keeper of the Flame: A Blacklist Survivor
Los Ang Times Rec Ed
See Grossman et al. (1985) and Sagi et al. (1985. Sagi et al. suggest
temperamental differences in stranger anxiety may be important because of the
unusual intensity of the reactions of many of the Israeli infants. The tests were
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Angeles. Times, October 3.
25. See www.otal.umd.edu/~rccs/blacklist/.
26. Discussions of Jewish ownership of the media include: Ginsberg 1993,
Racists, Bigots and the Law on the Internet
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Another sewer rat appears
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