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Abstract

Background Food choices represent a highly significant approach to combat human obesity. Dietary intake of lipids, especially polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, is gaining popularity in the effort to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of obesity. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) nuts are an abundant source of these dietary fatty acids. Moreover, they are a rich source of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol with a variety of health-beneficial properties. Scope and Approach In this review, we summarize the literature reports examining physiological effects associated with pecan nuts consumption and described effects of their bioactive constituents. Key Findings and Conclusions The growing body of evidence suggests including pecan nuts into obesity management strategies. The consumption of pecan nuts can mitigate inflammation by reducing the extent of the synthesis of inflammatory mediator molecules. Pecan nuts can also counteract the pro-inflammatory effects of a diet rich in commonly overconsumed saturated fatty acids, characteristic of the Western diet. Additionally, consumption of pecans and other nuts has been linked to reduced risk of physiological parameters associated with cardiovascular disease or metabolic disorders. Diets enriched with tree nuts and peanuts can modulate the blood level of cholesterol, adiposity, and insulin resistance. Almonds and walnuts have been so far the most studied nuts, and studies with them have led to a greater understanding of the protective effects of diverse tree nuts on human physiology. In this review, we summarize the available data indicating that pecan nuts exert similar health-promoting benefits.

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... Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of walnuts and pecans, important sources of good fats and polyphenols (Atanosov et al., 2018), were also demonstrated in animal models (Table 1). Fisher et al. (2017) fed F344 male rats with walnuts (6% and 9% of the diet) for 15 weeks, and then the serum samples were tested on BV-2 microglial cells. ...
... The same effect was observed by Ajit et al. (2016) on a murine LPS stimulated astrocyte cell line: quercetin exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential, much more intense than cyanidine and cyanidin-3-O glucoside, which had comparable effects to rutin (Ajit et al., 2016). EGCG, found in considerable amount in hazelnuts, pecans, and pistachios (Rusu et al., 2018;Atanosov et al., 2018), restored renal dysfunction caused by oxidative stress and inflammation in kidney disease models through restoring Nrf2 signaling (Wang et al., 2015), followed by damping of Akt/ERK/NF-кB pathways (Ye et al., 2015). Also, EGCG activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) correlated with an anti-inflammatory response and restored sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) level, facilitating tissue repair and regeneration (Ye et al., 2015). ...
... However, even if HO-1 is considered to protect against cell death, its induction by EGCG did not protect lymphoblasts from apoptosis (measured by Annexin V binding assay) (Andreadi et al., 2006). Ellagic acid, found in walnuts, pecans, and pine nuts (Rusu et al., 2018;Atanosov et al., 2018), had a protective effect against acute hepatic injury induced by LPS/GalN in mice by activating Nrf2 system and diminishing inflammatory response via NF-кB inhibition (Gu et al., 2014). Anacardic acids (6-pentadecylsalicylic acids) are the major alkyl phenols present in cashew nuts -1.06 mg/g in raw and 0.65 mg/g in roasted cashew nuts (Trevisan et al., 2006), with important antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities (Suo et al., 2012). ...
Article
Background: In the quest for a healthier and longer life, nutrition plays a key role. Tree nuts have a complex, health-promoting phytochemical profile, including proteins, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, vitamins, minerals, and the consumption of this food group can postpone aging and inhibit many age-related diseases. Scope and approach: In this review we focus on the biologically active compounds from tree nuts and the mechanisms of actions their intake have on delaying aging and prevent diseases linked with aging. Key findings and conclusions: Scientific findings recommend the inclusion of tree nuts into the diet of mature adults. The consumption of tree nuts can mitigate the pro-inflammatory effects of Western diets and diminish the inflammation by decreasing the levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and inflammatory molecules. Tree nuts modulate the Nrf2/EpRE and NF-κB signaling pathways, present cytoprotection, stimulate antioxidant and detox enzyme systems, and reduce inflammatory conditions. Similarly to calorie restriction, tree nuts positively affect the same specific cell signaling pathways: down-regulate PI3K/Akt/mTOR and insulin/IGF-1, prevent mitochondrial dysfunctions, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Tree nut intake can hinder the installation of senescence-associated secretory phenotype and have a senolytic capacity. Through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action, they are potentially anti-tumoral. By inhibiting mTOR signaling pathways, but also via epigenetic mechanisms, such as obstructing DNA methylation or histone and microARN modulation, nuts act as carcinogenesis inhibitors. Consumption of tree nuts can positively influence many risk factors associated with chronic diseases related to aging, improve and extend healthspan and lifespan.
... Indeed, pecan kernel oil has been reported to be a good source of fat-soluble bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols (Miraliakbari and Shahidi, 2008;Bouali et al., 2013), and polyphenols (Kornsteiner et al., 2006;Bouali et al., 2020). Likewise, clinical studies have revealed that regular pecan nut supplementation ameliorates the lipid profiles that are related to cardiovascular risk (Atanosov et al., 2017). ...
... The potential health benefits of pecan kernel oil are often attributed to its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (Miraliakbari and Shahidi, 2008;Atanosov et al., 2017), primarily oleic acid (60-70% of total fatty acids) (Bouali et al., 2013;do Prado et al., 2013). ...
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An investigation on fatty acid, triacylglycerol, tocopherol, and xanthophyll contents and thermal properties of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) kernel oils from two cultivars was carried out. The main fatty acids were oleic acid, followed by linoleic and palmitic acids. The predominant triacylglycerols were OOL, OOO, and OLL (where O stands for oleoyl and L for linoleoyl). Pecan kernel oil is a rich source of tocopherols, mainly γ-tocopherol. Two xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) were investigated, and lutein was found to be the major one. Thermal behavior was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Pecan nut oil displayed melting and crystallization transitions at low-temperature zones. The difference between DSC parameter values provides a path for distinguishing among cultivars. These data promote pecan kernel oil as a potential source of bioactive compounds with nutraceutical properties (monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, and xanthophylls) and reveal, for the first time, the thermal properties of Carya illinoinensis oil.
... The phenolic compounds contained in this fruit are ellagic and gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, hydrolysable and condensed tannins [8]. It has been shown that phenolic compounds have antioxidant activity, which can help lower incidence of chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, and some types of cancer [9]. ...
... In our results, the mean for total phenolic content was 225 mg GA g −1 . Atanosov et al. [9] reported that the total phenolic content of pecan nuts between two walnut varieties was 20.16 mg GA g −1 and 15.56 mg GA g −1 for walnut (Juglans regia). On the other hand, Flores et al. [7] compared a two-year production which reports 82.41 mg GA g −1 in the low production year and 49.93 mg GA g −1 . ...
... K. Koch] is a Juglandaceae species belonging to the genus Carya [1]. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) nuts are found to be a rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), vitamins, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and so on [2]. As people are increasingly interested in various benefits related to human health, the total production of pecan nuts is on the rise [3]. ...
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Pecan husk is the primary waste by-product of the pecan industry and accounts for about one-third of the weight of a whole pecan. However, due to the perishability of pecan husk, it is easy to cause secondary pollution to the environment. In this study, freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), hot-air drying (HAD), and shade drying (SD) were used to determine the effects on phenolic compounds and some physicochemical properties of pecan husk. Results showed that the FD had the best effect on maintaining the uniform honeycomb structure and the color of pecan husk. The VD had the lowest residual enzymatic activity with the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of 32.31 ± 1.32%, and the peroxidase (POD) of 34.16 ± 0.66%. The FD extract had excellent phenolic compound [total polyphenol content (TPC) of 138.84 ± 2.73 mg GAE/g DW and total flavonoid content (TFC) of 38.48 ± 3.08 mg RE/g DW], antioxidant activities (the IC50 of DPPH, ABTS, and Superoxide anion were 530.41 ± 0.23, 461.53 ± 1.46, 318.07 ± 2.40 µg/mL, respectively), and antimicrobial activities decreased in the order of S. aureus (25.7 ± 0.2 mm), S. mutans (21.8 ± 0.3 mm), P.aeruginosa (18.8 ± 0.3 mm), and E. coli (16.1 ± 0.3 mm). In general, the results clarify the effect of drying methods on functional ingredients and provide guidance and suggestions for the reuse of pecan husk.
... In addition, walnuts are with comparatively the highest content of polyphenols (Vinson and Cai 2012). Overall, due to the high nutrient-density and favorable polyunsaturated to saturated fats balance, tree nuts are regarded as a healthy-choice meal for replacement of snacks and junk food, the latter easily consumed in modern world ( Atanosov et al., 2017;Rehm and Drewnowski 2017). ...
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Acorn oil has been receiving increasing attention due to its nutritional potentials. However, its application as a novel food ingredient has not yet been fully explored. This paper summarizes chemical composition, extraction methods, potential health benefits, and current applications of acorn oil, with the aim of providing suggestions for its exploitation. Acorn oil is an excellent source of essential fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and palmitic acids). Acorns are a rich source of tocopherols, with γ-tocopherol being the most abundant. It also contains various bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and sterols (mainly β-sitosterol). Diets enriched with acorn oil can be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and type 2 diabetes as well as offer antioxidant activity. Further studies should focus on producing better quality acorn oil such as the application of more innovative and optimized techniques that can increase its health benefits and hence utilization.
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Objective A study was conducted to determine the physicochemical quality and consumer acceptability of beef frankfurter-type sausages formulated with pecan nut paste and Mexican oregano oil (MO) of two varieties, Poliomintha longiflora Gray or Lippia berlandieri. Methods Frankfurters were processed under six treatment conditions: control (10.67% pork fat), MOP (control + 0.01% MOP), MOL (control + 0.01% MOL), MOP-N (control + 0.01% MOP + 6% pecan nut paste), MOL-N (control + 0.01% MOL + 6% pecan nut paste), and C-N (control + 6% pecan nut paste). The physicochemical properties and the consumer acceptability were determined. Results The addition of MO and nut did not influence the water holding capacity, drip loss, and luminosity of frankfurters, but those ingredients increased pH and shear force (p<0.05) and decreased redness (p<0.05) of frankfurters. Frankfurters were generally well accepted by consumers. However, general acceptability of sausages decreased with the addition of MO. Control sausages showed the highest acceptability. Conclusion MO and pecan nut paste do not affect drastically the quality of frankfurters. These results provide evidence that partial replacement of pork fat by pecan nut in frankfurters maintain a consistent physicochemical quality and its commercialization looks promising given consumers' acceptance.
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For the development of gelatinized dairy products that include emulsified pecan oil as an unsaturated fatty acid source the incorporation of hydrocolloids becomes necessary and their properties must be carefully selected. This work aimed to study gelatinized candies made with 0% milk fat dulce de leche with pre-emulsified pecan nut oil using combinations of gelatin (4.67 to 7 g/100 g) and high methoxyl pectin (1.33 to 2 g/100 g) as gelling agents. The effect of different drying methods (vacuum-oven at 35 °C for 24 h and freeze-drying) was evaluated. Control samples without drying were also studied. Dehydration conditions significantly (p < 0.05) affected aw, texture (hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, gumminess, springiness, and resilience) and color parameters (L*, a*, b*) of products, being higher than the effect of the gelling agent. Formulations were selected based on texture and aw criteria and sensory evaluated by appearance, color, texture, taste, and overall acceptability. Two formulations (one with 7% gelatin and 1.33% high methoxyl pectin content, and the other with 2% high methoxyl pectin and 4.67% gelatin content), both with low moisture content and vacuum-dried, exhibited good acceptability. These pecan oil-dulce de leche gummy candies would represent a healthier candy version, low in saturated fatty acids, and source of oleic acid.
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Cucurbitaceae family seeds are mostly discarded as agro‐industrial wastes. Gurum (Citrullus lanatus var. colocynthoide) is an underutilized wild cucurbit plant, closely related to desert watermelon, which is grown abundantly in some African countries. Gurum seeds can play a significant role in health and nutrition due to their high oil content. This review describes the nutritional composition of gurum seeds and their oil profile. Gurum seeds are a good source of oil (27–35.5%), fiber (26–31%), crude protein (15–18%), and carbohydrates (14–17%). Gurum seeds oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 (SFE), screw press, and solvent extraction techniques. The gurum seeds oil is composed of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) with a high proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2) and oleic acid (C18:1). Gurum seeds oil contains various bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, phytosterols, and polyphenols. It has been reported that solvent extraction gives a higher yield than the screw press and SFE, but the SFE is preferred due to safety issues. More studies are required for producing better quality gurum seeds oil by using novel extraction techniques that can increase oil yield. Practical applications: Gurum seeds, which are usually discarded as a waste product, have high oil content. The oil obtained from gurum seeds is found to be a good source of nutritionally beneficial constituents. This review built a strong base for gurum seed research and will help researchers to carry out further research on gurum seeds to emphasize its beneficial aspects. It will also help in better utilization of these gurum seeds to develop value‐added nutraceutical and food products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The United States is the world's leading producer, consumer and exporter of pecans and currently experiencing high demand for pecans from countries around the world. Environmental factors such as temperature, RH, light, etc., under pecan storage, transportation, and distribution can adversely affect its quality attributes such as color, texture, oil quality, and phytochemical content. The diminished pecan quality reduces consumer acceptability, hurting the profits of growers and processors. With over 1000 varieties, pecan is one of the most scantily examined research topics for its commercial importance, quality changes, and alteration in the phytochemical profile including degradation of phenolic and liposoluble compounds. Most importantly, there is no review that critically analyzes and discusses the changes in pecan quality during storage. This review scrutinizes the factors influencing the quality of pecans, the underlying concepts, and explanation of the causation of these transitions. The central objective is to provide a comprehensive analysis of work done on pecan quality so far and propose some future research ideas. This thorough piece of work is intended to serve the US pecan industry by helping them understand the scientific bases of quality change in pecans and suggest for them some methods to improve the pecan quality.
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Heat treatment can modify the allergenic potential, reducing allergenicity in specific proteins. Profilins are one of the important hazelnut allergens; these proteins are considered panallergens due to their high capacity for cross-reactivity with other allergens. In the present work, we evaluated the thermostability of hazelnut profilin, combining molecular dynamics simulation and immunoinformatic techniques. This approach helped us to have reliable results in immunogenicity studies. We modeled Cor a 2 profilin and applied annealing simulation, equilibrium, and production simulation at constant temperatures ranging from 300 to 500 K using Gromacs software. Despite the hazelnut profilins being able to withstand temperatures of up to 400 K, this does not seem to reduce its allergenicity. We have found that profilin subjected to temperatures of 450 and 500 K could generate cross-reactivity with other food allergens. In conclusion, we note a remarkable thermostability of Cor a 2 at 400 K which avoids its structural unfolding.
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Medicinal plants are potential sources for a wide range of complex compounds with probable anticancer activity. Ephedra foeminea Forssk. (E. foeminea), a medicinal plant found in the Eastern Mediterranean, has recently been gaining popularity as a cancer remedy; there is, however, a paucity of empirical evidence supporting this claim. In this study, the effect of E. foeminea ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water crude extracts on viability, migratory ability, and the steady-state mRNA levels of genes involved in these processes was, respectively, examined using MTT assay, wound healing assay, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). The study concludes that all extracts significantly reduce human osteosarcoma U2OS percentage viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with varying potencies. The least half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was observed in the water extract after 48 h incubation (30.761±1.4 μg/mL) followed by the ethyl acetate extract after 72 h incubation (80.35±1.233 μg/mL) and finally the ethanol extract after 48 h incubation (97.499±1.188 μg/mL). Ethanol extract significantly reduced U2OS percentage wound closure. On the other hand, both ethanol and water extracts considerably reduced the steady-state mRNA expression of beta-catenin, promoting both cell proliferation and migration in osteosarcoma by regulating target genes. Additionally, E. foeminea showed no hemolytic activity. These effects suggest that E. foeminea decreases U2OS cell viability and migratory ability by modulating the expression of critical genes involved in regulating these processes and is likely cytocompatible with human erythrocytes.
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Tree nuts are globally consumed. Their kernels are calorie‐rich, nutrient‐dense foods and contain several bioactive and health‐promoting components. While some nut crops have expanded through the world since ancient times (almond, hazelnut, walnut), more recently there has been a parallel development of underexploited promising species (Brazil nut, macadamia, pecan). Nut kernels have high lipid content, ranging from 40 to 80% depending on nut species and varieties. In general, nut oils contain significant proportions of nutritionally and medicinally desirable fatty acids and nutraceutical compounds (sterols, tocopherols, and other phenolics). A considerable genetic variability in oil content and composition is present in nut genetic resources worldwide. This suggests the possibility of different breeding lines focused to enhance oil yields, chemical and quality traits. Regarding extraction, screw‐pressing is suitable to achieve high oil recovery and good quality standards, but seed materials should be conditioned appropriately. Seed moisture content and pressing temperature appear as key variables to enhance oil recovery. This article presents an overview on chemical profiles, mechanical extraction and quality concerns of oils from the most widely produced tree nut crops. The revision is also aimed at identifying areas where knowledge is insufficient and to set priorities for further research. Practical applications: The review updates and increases knowledge about oils from tree nut genetic resources, encompassing genetic variability and environmental effects on oil yield and compositional traits. It also analyzes findings regarding oil extraction and provides useful insights to establish better conditions for achieving sustainable oil yields and good quality standards. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) skin is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and several studies have suggested the possibility of producing functional ingredients from this by-product of food industry. This investigation examined possible toxic effects of peanut skin polyphenolic extract (PSE) and its antioxidant properties using in vitro studies. PSE and its main component quercetin (QE) did not present any cytotoxicity on normal epithelial cells, rat ileum cells (IEC-18), monkey kidney cells (Vero) or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at concentrations with antioxidant effects. QE and PSE showed scavenging of the superoxide anion radical and cytoprotection, as well as reducing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in IEC-18 cells against menadione-induced oxidative stress. This suggests that peanut skin phenolic extract could be a potential functional ingredient for foods.
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Tree nuts play an important role in healthy diets, but their economic value and nutritional quality may be affected by their size and paternity. We assessed relationships between nut size and kernel recovery, the incidence of whole kernels, fatty acid composition and mineral nutrient concentrations in three macadamia cultivars, "Daddow", "816" and "A4". We determined to what extent differences in nut size and quality were the result of different levels of cross-or self-paternity. Small nuts of all cultivars had lower kernel recovery than large nuts, and small nuts provided lower incidence of whole kernels in "Daddow" and "A4". Small kernels had a lower relative abundance of the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid, in all cultivars and higher relative abundance of the unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, in "Daddow" and "A4". Small kernels had higher concentrations of many essential nutrients such as nitrogen and calcium, although potassium concentrations were lower in small kernels. Most nuts arose from cross-pollination. Therefore, nut size and kernel quality were not related to different levels of cross-and self-paternity. Identified cross-paternity was 88%, 78% and 90%, and identified self-paternity was 3%, 2% and 0%, for "Daddow", "816" and "A4", respectively. Small macadamia kernels are at least as nutritious as large macadamia kernels. High levels of cross-paternity confirmed that many macadamia cultivars are predominantly outcrossing. Macadamia growers may need to closely inter-plant cultivars and manage beehives to maximise cross-pollination.
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Nuts contain a vast array of phenolic compounds having important biological properties. They include substances allocated into the five major groups named phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic lignans and stilbene-derivatives. The complexity in composition does not allow setting a universal extraction procedure suitable for extraction of all nut phenolics. The use of non-conventional extraction techniques - such as those based on microwave, ultrasound and compressed fluids – combined with GRAS solvents is gaining major interest. Regarding these latter, ethanol, water, and ethanol-water mixtures have proved to be effective as extracting solvents and allow clean, safe and low-cost extraction operations. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on biological properties of natural phenolic compounds, especially on their role in the prevention of several diseases in which oxidative stress reactions are involved. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on nut phenolic extraction, their chemical profiles and bioactive properties.
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Plants are important source of antioxidant substances. When fed to production animals they help to protect the characteristics of the final product. The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the influence of herbal and vegetable blends in the broiler chickens diet on the oxidative status and physiochemical properties of their breast muscles. Four hundred male broiler chickens (ROSS 308) were randomly divided into four feeding groups (100 birds each) and reared on litter at stocking density of 11 birds/m 2 until 42 days of age. Chickens were fed ad libitum. The control group (C) received the standard commercial diet, while experimental groups E1, E2 and E3 diet with 2% herbal-vegetables mixtures as an additive (70% onion, 25% thyme, 5% mint or 90% ginger, 7% rosemary, 3% chili or 30% onion, 20% garlic, 25% oregano, 10% fennel, 5% mint, 5% turmeric,
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Pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cake (PNC) is a co-product from the oil extraction industry and its potential as an ingredient for the food industry are not well known. In this work, the nutritional composition and the functional properties of PNC were studied. Additionally, the influence of different solvents (ethanol, water, and acetic acid) on the phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity (reducing potential of the hydrophilic compounds – RPHC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl - DPPH, and total reducing capacity – TRC) of PNC extracts were established using a simplex-centroid design. PNC is a source of carbohydrates, protein, and dietary fiber (40.5; 21.87 and 13.01 g 100 g−1, respectively). The PNC exhibited a low energy value when compared to the raw nut (398.8 kcal 100 g−1 and 645.54 kcal 100 g−1, respectively). Mg, Mn and Co (416.74; 23.21 mg 100 g−1 and 59.00 μg 100 g−1, respectively) were the main minerals identified in PNC. The PNC also presented functional properties such as emulsifying and oil absorption capacities and a great ability to absorb water. Using the proposed solvent mixture system, the content of total phenolic compounds and condensed tannins recovered from PNC ranged between 172.43 to 2744.24 mg GAE 100 g−1, and 253.42 to 1376.44 mg CE 100 g−1, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the PNC extract was showed through its ability to reduce hydrophilic (172.06 - 1714.96 mg GAE 100 g−1) to transfer hydrogen atoms (12.55 - 74.11 % scavenging activity) and lipophilic compounds (509.87 - 2070.80 mg QE 100 g−1) using RPHC, DPPH, and TRC methods, respectively. Combining ethanol, water, and acetic acid at 30 °C for 15 min, positively affects the extraction of bioactive compounds from PNC, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The physicochemical, functional, phytochemical, and antioxidant properties demonstrate that pecan nut cake may represent a potential ingredient or additive for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.
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Background Peanut is a nutrient-rich popular food. However, it has been estimated that 1%–2% of the world's population are allergic to peanut, which can cause serious allergic reactions, including allergic shock and anaphylactic death in certain people. Thus, identifying peanut allergens and decreasing allergenicity have been serious and important food safety issues. Scope and approach Sixteen peanut allergens and their structure and IgE linear binding site are summarized in this review. Various techniques and means to reduce peanut allergenicity, including physical (heat, radiation, and high-pressure treatments), chemical (glycosylation, magnetic-bead adsorption, and acid treatment), and biological (microbial fermentation, enzyme catalysis, and genetic engineering) methods, are evaluated and compared. Key findings and conclusions Multiple allergens are present in peanuts. Their sequences, structures and allergenic characters have been examined extensively. Although Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 6 are the major allergens, individuals allergic to peanut often had IgE recognized multiple peanut allergens. Among the various methods capable of reducing peanut allergenicity, heating and high-pressure treatments appear to be practical and effective in general, and irradiation, acid treatment, and other physical and chemical may work under certain circumstances. Of note, fermentation has the advantage of improving tasting and reducing allergenicity at the same time. It is conceivable that combination of multiple methods will result in more effective means to reduce allergenicity of peanut and prevent the development of serious allergy.
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Dielectric properties of materials influence the interaction of electromagnetic fields with and are therefore important in designing effective dielectric heating processes. We investigated the dielectric properties (DPs) of pecan kernels between 10 and 3000 MHz using a Novocontrol broadband dielectric spectrometer in a temperature range of 5–65 °C and a moisture content range of 10–30% wet basis (wb) at three salt levels. The dielectric constant (ε′) and loss factor (ε′′) of the pecan kernels decreased significantly with increasing frequency in the radio frequency (RF) band, but gradually in the measured microwave (MW) band. The moisture content and temperature increase greatly contributed to the increase in the ε′ and ε′′ of samples, and ε′′ increased sharply with increasing salt strength. Quadratic polynomial models were established to simulate DPs as functions of temperature and moisture content at four frequencies (27, 40, 915, and 2450 MHz), with R2 > 0.94. The average penetration depth of pecan kernels in the RF band was greater than that in the MW band (238.17 ± 21.78 cm vs. 15.23 ± 7.36 cm; p < 0.01). Based on the measured DP data, the simulated and experimental temperature-time histories of pecan kernels at five moisture contents were compared within the 5 min RF heating period.
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Chacma baboons living in a human-modified environment in the Western Cape, South Africa ate 68 different plant species and 5 non-plant items. I recorded 3,976 feeding bouts which documented consumption of Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) 42.6% (1,692) and herbs and forbs 29.7% (1,1,80). Black wattle seeds provided fat (8.1%), protein (21.9%), dietary fiber (42.9%), carbohydrates (17.5%), and energy (1310 KJ/100 grams of seeds). They also provided micronutrients and in some cases concentrations that may have exceeded recommended amounts. The baboons ate 28 plants with known pharmacological properties. It is unclear what effect, if any, these plants and their medicinal compounds had on the baboons. Geophagy is common in this troop. Iron is not bioavailable, but whether soil eaten by this troop can mitigate other minerals that may be excessive or deficient is unknown. As humans transform the landscape, pristine environments are vanishing. This study documented how one troop exploited human-introduced species and incorporated small amounts of medicinal plants into their diet.
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Pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Juglandaceae), cultivation is one of the most rapidly expanding agro-industries in South Africa. A shift in production towards the North central (Vaalharts) region has evoked new interest in the insect pests and their potential damage-causing status. Surveys were conducted at three sites from October 2013 to June 2017 to identify the pestiferous and beneficial insect species, while concurrently (2015/16 and 2016/17 seasons), measuring the effect of 1 – 4x insecticide applications on nut mass and damage. The most prevalent pests represented five families, comprising of stinkbugs (Pentatomidae), snout weevils (Curculionidae), aphids (Aphididae), leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) and plant bugs (Miridae). At the highest frequency (4x), mist blower applications of a broad-spectrum insecticide (active: Cyfluthrin) showed no significant increase in nut value, compared with untreated controls at any of the three trial sites (Magogong, Tadcaster and Bull Hill). However, under the more marginal conditions at Bull Hill, the data did suggest a beneficial effect of the water x wind components (water control) on nut-set and development. At this site, the water control resulted in an 18.58% increase in nut value, seemingly linked to the October application in support of pollination/fertilisation; while still allowing overcompensation in response to insect herbivory. With only 2.61% of nuts harvested from controls considered as damaged (insect, physiological or microbe-related) and no significant benefit derived from any of the insecticidal treatments at any site compared to the water control, the perceived negative impact of locally occurring insect pests on nut development appears negligible.
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Introduction: The production of food by-products is a major problem nowadays, and their valorization as food ingredients for the development and formulation of new food products has increased. Every year’s tons of melon (Cucumis melo L.) seeds are discarded. This by-product is a good source of oil and has an interesting fatty acids profile [1–3 De Melo MLS, Narain N, Bora PS. Characterisation of some nutritional constituents of melon (Cucumis melo hybrid AF-522) seeds. Food Chem. 2000;68:411–414. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00209-5 De Mello MLS, Bora PS, Narain N. Fatty and amino acids composition of melon (Cucumis melo Var. saccharinus) seeds. J Food Compos Anal. 2001;14:69–74. doi:10.1006/jfca.2000.0952 Hu M-H., Ao Y. Characteristics of some nutritional composition of melon (Cucumis melo hybrid “ChunLi”) seeds. Int J Food Sci Tech. 2007;42:1397–1401. ]. Due to their low content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids this oil is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases [4 Dubois V, Breton S, Linder M, et al. Fatty acid profiles of 80 vegetable oils with regard to their nutritional potential. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol. 2007;109:710–732. doi:10.1002/ejlt.200700040[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]]. Materials and methods: This review focuses on the comparison among the composition of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids of melon seeds oil and the vegetable oils more consumed (palm, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and olive), as well as with oils extracted from other fruit seeds (mango, apricot kernel, paprika, blackcurrant, watermelon, pumpkin, cranberry and grape). Results: The fatty acid profile of melon seeds oil is very similar to soybean and sunflower oils, two of the most commonly used vegetable oils. It is also very analogous to grape seeds oil and paprika seeds oil, although grape seeds oil has a lower content of SFA. Melon seeds oil has a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, being linoleic acid the main fatty acid, whose level may reach 52–69 %. The oleic (12–32 %), palmitic (9–24 %), and stearic (5–9%) acids are also present in significant amounts. The content of linoleic acid in melon seeds oil is very similar to blackcurrant and watermelon seeds oils. Discussion and conclusions: The similarity of melon seeds oil with some of the most widely used vegetable oils, such as soybean and sunflower oils, has improved the interest in it valorization. Although this oil is not common in the food industry, its quality is enough to attain the market. Furthermore, since melon seeds are discarded, their use for oil production can answer to circular economy, without residues and environmental impact.
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This study aimed to evaluate the quality of frankfurter sausages containing pecan nut paste (PN) and Mexican oregano essential oil (MO) of two varieties (Poliomintha longi‐ flora Gray, MOP; and Lippia berlandieri, MOL). Frankfurters were processed under six treatments: control, MOP (control + 100 ppm MOP), MOL (control + 100 ppm MOL), MOP–N (MOP treatment + 6% PN), MOL–N (MOL treatment + 6% PN), and C–N (con‐ trol + 6% PN). PN and MO did not influence (p > 0.05) the proximate composition of sausages; lipid oxidation increased in treatments containing EO and PN after 7 days of storage. PN did not alter the content of MUFAs and PUFAs, however MO decreased the MUFAs. MOL–N and C–N showed the highest UFA/SFA ratio. It was concluded that the combination of PN with MOL or control formula could be a good strategy for increasing the ratio of UFA/SFA without compromising on frankfurter quality. Practical applications Pecan nut paste and oregano essential oil can be used to enhance functionality of frankfurters without altering the proximal composition of the product. The combi‐ nation of oregano (L. berlandieri) essential oil and pecan nut paste is a strategy for reducing the unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of the traditional emulsified meat products. These findings may be useful for the production of emulsified cooked sau‐ sages with healthier characteristics and offer an opportunity for the meat industry to improve its image and bring benefits to the society.
Chapter
Dietary consumption of nuts (e.g. walnuts, pistachios, and almonds) has recently received particular attention due to their high content of unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and other biologically active compounds and, thus, their potential beneficial health effects. Apart from nuts themselves, a growing interest towards virgin vegetable oils has also appeared in recent years, which goes beyond the virgin oil for excellence, the one produced from olives. The main reasons for this trend are marked by consumers that increasingly appreciate the taste and smell of oils related to the raw materials from which they come from as well as by their potential nutritional properties -resulting in novel gourmet and healthy oils- with added value for the consumers as compared to the most common industrial refined vegetable oils. The purpose of the current chapter is the analysis and discussion of the current knowledge on the extraction and processing of virgin pistachio (Pistachia vera L.) oil and particularly on the composition and properties of major (mainly the fatty acid) and minor components (tocols, phenolics, sterols, carotenoids, flavour and aroma compounds), which are directly related to their organoleptic and functional properties. Virgin pistachio oils are characterized by a high content in oleic acid (51–81%) -close to virgin olive oil-, linoleic acid (13–31%), phospholipids (8 g/kg), sterols (2.5–7.6 g/kg) and tocopherols (300–900 mg/kg). All those bioactive components possess known health-promoting effects, as well as a peculiar and appreciated sensory properties.
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The increase in chronic diseases has arisen interest to search for alternative treatments so that people can improve their quality of life. Thus, Carya illinoinensis is the subject of the present work which aims at determining whether it has antidiabetic activity. The plant was collected and its nuts were separated from their peels, dried and grinded and incorporated into the feed, in concentration of 6% and 10%, for the treatment of animals. The centesimal composition of this diet was also determined. From the nut was also obtained the fixed oil, for the profile of fatty acids, and the 70% hydroethanolic extract for the phytochemical analysis. The results have shown that species presents hypoglycaemic effect, high fat composition of unsaturated fatty acids and the presence of some phenolic compounds, directly related to the antidiabetic activity. Therefore, the specie presente benefits that can contribute to the binomial diet/health.
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Although biological and pharmacological effects of dietary natural products have been intensively studied, there has been no bibliometric analysis performed on this research field up to now. The current study has aimed to identify and analyze the manuscripts on dietary natural products and their potential to influence health and disease including studies using animal models. Data, including words from titles and abstracts, publication and citation data, have been extracted from Web of Science database and analyzed by the VOSviewer software. Our search has yielded 1,014 manuscripts. The ratio of original articles to reviews was identified to be 1.5:1. Over half of the manuscripts have been published since 2010. The manuscripts have been contributed by 4,301 authors from 1,445 organizations in 76 countries/territories and published in 499 journals. The results from the current study point out that scientific research focusing on the potential of dietary natural products to affect health and disease status (including animal model studies) is expanding, and suggests an increasing significance of this scientific area. With the progressive development and improvement of animal studies, it should be expected that animal models of different human diseases (especially civilization ones) would be an integral part of the research for the evaluation of pharmaceuticals originated from dietary natural products like plants or plant materials. Moreover, natural products can also be fed to animals to improve the quality of animal products, with numerous resulting functional effects.
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Although biological and pharmacological effects of dietary natural products have been intensively studied, there has been no bibliometric analysis performed on this research field up to now. The current study has aimed to identify and analyze the manuscripts on dietary natural products and their potential to influence health and disease including studies using animal models. Data, including words from titles and abstracts, publication and citation data, have been extracted from Web of Science database and analyzed by the VOSviewer software. Our search has yielded 1,014 manuscripts. The ratio of original articles to reviews was identified to be 1.5:1. Over half of the manuscripts have been published since 2010. The manuscripts have been contributed by 4,301 authors from 1,445 organizations in 76 countries/territories and published in 499 journals. The results from the current study point out that scientific research focusing on the potential of dietary natural products to affect health and disease status (including animal model studies) is expanding, and suggests an increasing significance of this scientific area. With the progressive development and improvement of animal studies, it should be expected that animal models of different human diseases (especially civilization ones) would be an integral part of the research for the evaluation of pharmaceuticals originated from dietary natural products like plants or plant materials. Moreover, natural products can also be fed to animals to improve the quality of animal products, with numerous resulting functional effects.
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Inhibition of target digestive enzymes is an accepted strategy to prevent diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are known for their ability to bind, inhibit, and precipitate enzymes, which makes them potential bioDrugs with an impact on the digestive process. PAC degree of polymerization (DP) is one of the structural features responsible for their differential inhibitory potency but the explanation for this phenomenon is still unclear. Pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis L.) kernels and nutshells are rich in oligomeric and polymeric PACs. We have used thiolysis and HPLC analyses to propose four theoretical model structures of PACs representative of four semipurified fractions obtained from pecan kernel and shell, which showed different inhibitory activity against intestinal lipases, amylases, and proteases. The noncovalent interactions between PACs and digestive enzymes were predicted by in silico methods through computational software. These observations are discussed in view of current literature on the biological effects of PACs with different DPs and allowed us to propose the hypothesis that “small oligomeric PACs could be digestive enzyme inhibitors due to their capacity to enter and bind the enzymes’ specific cavities better than polymers and oligomers of medium and high molecular weight.”
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Excessive fat deposition in obesity has a multifactorial aetiology, but is widely considered the result of disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Despite specific public health policies and individual treatment efforts to combat the obesity epidemic, >2 billion people worldwide are overweight or obese. The central nervous system circuitry, fuel turnover and metabolism as well as adipose tissue homeostasis are important to comprehend excessive weight gain and associated comorbidities. Obesity has a profound impact on quality of life, even in seemingly healthy individuals. Diet, physical activity or exercise and lifestyle changes are the cornerstones of obesity treatment, but medical treatment and bariatric surgery are becoming important. Family history, food environment, cultural preferences, adverse reactions to food, perinatal nutrition, previous or current diseases and physical activity patterns are relevant aspects for the health care professional to consider when treating the individual with obesity. Clinicians and other health care professionals are often ill-equipped to address the important environmental and socioeconomic drivers of the current obesity epidemic. Finally, understanding the epigenetic and genetic factors as well as metabolic pathways that take advantage of 'omics' technologies could play a very relevant part in combating obesity within a precision approach. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.
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Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition. Gene regulation properties of the functional components of olive oil, such as oleic acid, biophenols and vitamin E, point to a role for these molecules as natural homeostatic and even hormetic factors with applications as prevention agents in conditions of premature and pathologic aging. Therapeutic applications can be foreseen in conditions of chronic inflammation, and particularly in cancer, which will be discussed in detail in this review paper as major clinical target of nutritional interventions with olive oil and its functional components. © 2016 BioFactors, 2016.
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Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after 'junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore here, we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by 'junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine induced locomotor activity was used as a general 'read out' of mesolimbic function after 'junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a 'junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating 'junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after 'junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 07 July 2016. doi:10.1038/npp.2016.111.
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Natural products have always been exploited to promote health and served as a valuable source for the discovery of new drugs. In this review, the great potential of natural compounds and medicinal plants for the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, global health problems with rising prevalence, is addressed. Special emphasis is laid on natural products for which efficacy and safety have already been proven and which are in clinical trials, as well as on plants used in traditional medicine. Potential benefits from certain dietary habits and dietary constituents, as well as common molecular targets of natural products, are also briefly discussed. A glimpse at the history of statins and biguanides, two prominent representatives of natural products (or their derivatives) in the fight against metabolic disease, is also included. The present review aims to serve as an "opening" of this special issue of Molecules, presenting key historical developments, recent advances, and future perspectives outlining the potential of natural products for prevention or therapy of cardiovascular and metabolic disease.
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Prospective studies on the association of green tea with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence were scarce. This study examined whether green tea can reduce CHD incidence and have a beneficial effect on CHD-related risk markers in middle-aged and older Chinese population. We included 19 471 participants who were free of CHD, stroke or cancer at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, and were followed until October 2013. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the hazard ratios (HR) of CHD incidence in relation to green tea consumption. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the effect of green tea on 5-year changes of CHD-related biomarkers. Compared with non-green tea consumers, the multivariable-adjusted HR for CHD was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.81-0.98) in green tea consumers. Particularly, the reduced risk of CHD incidence with green tea consumption was more evident among participants who were male, more than 60 years old, overweight, or with diabetes mellitus. In addition, green tea consumption improved multiple CHD-related risk markers including total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, mean platelet volume, and uric acid. In conclusion, green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of CHD incidence in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations, and the association might be partly due to altered CHD-related biomarkers.
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Background: Lipofuscin (LF) is formed during lipid peroxidation and sugar glycosylation by carbonyl-amino crosslinks with biomacrolecules, and accumulates slowly within postmitotic cells. The environmental pollution, modern dietary culture and lifestyle changes have been found to be the major sources of reactive carbonyl compounds in vivo. Irreversible carbonyl-amino crosslinks induced by carbonyl stress are essentially toxiferous for aging-related functional losses in modern society. Results show that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main polyphenol in green tea, can neutralize the carbonyl-amino cross-linking reaction and inhibit LF formation, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Methods and results: We explored the mechanism of the neutralization process from protein, cell, and animal levels using spectrofluorometry, infrared spectroscopy, conformation antibodies, and electron microscopy. LF demonstrated an amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich with antiparallel structure, which accelerated the carbonyl-amino crosslinks formation and disrupted proteolysis in both PC12 cells and D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain aging mice models. Additionally, EGCG effectively inhibited the formation of the amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure of LF, and prevented its conversion into toxic and on-pathway aggregation intermediates, thereby cutting off the carbonyl-amino crosslinks. Conclusions: Our study indicated that the amyloidogenic β-sheet structure of LF may be the core driving force for carbonyl-amino crosslinks further formation, which mediates the formation of amyloid fibrils from native state of biomacrolecules. That EGCG exhibits anti-amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure properties to prevent the LF formation represents a novel strategy to impede the development of degenerative processes caused by ageing or stress-induced premature senescence in modern environments.
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Epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), found in the leaves of Camellia sinensis (green tea), has antioxidant- and scavenger-functions and acts neuroprotectively. It has been publicized as anti-aging remedy but data on potential cellular mechanisms are scarce. Recent studies claimed that EGCG specifically promotes neural precursor cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of C57Bl/6 mice, without changes at the level of immature and mature new neurons. We here analyzed the effects of EGCG on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in male Balb/C mice and saw a different pattern. Two weeks of treatment with EGCG (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) showed a dose-response curve that peaked at 2.5 mg/kg of EGCG with significantly increased cell survival without affecting cell proliferation but decreasing apoptotic cells. Also, EGCG increased the population of doublecortin-(DCX)-expressing cells that comprises the late intermediate progenitor cells (type-2b and -3) as well as immature neurons. After EGCG treatment, the young DCX-positive neurons showed more elaborated dendritic trees. EGCG also significantly increased net neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus and increased the hippocampal levels of phospho-Akt. Ex vivo, EGCG exerted a direct effect on survival and neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal precursor cells, which was absent, when PI3K, a protein upstream of Akt, was blocked. Our results thus support a pro-survival and a pro-neurogenic role of EGCG. In the context of the conflicting published results, however, potential genetic modifiers must be assumed. These might help to explain the overall variability of study results with EGCG. Our data do indicate, however, that natural compounds such as EGCG can in principle modulate brain plasticity.
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Growing evidence from animal studies supports the anti-diabetic properties of some dietary polyphenols, suggesting that dietary polyphenols could be one dietary therapy for the prevention and management of Type 2 diabetes. This review aims to address the potential mechanisms of action of dietary polyphenols in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity based on in vitro and in vivo studies, and to provide a comprehensive overview of the anti-diabetic effects of commonly consumed dietary polyphenols including polyphenol-rich mixed diets, tea and coffee, chocolate and cocoa, cinnamon, grape, pomegranate, red wine, berries and olive oil, with a focus on human clinical trials. Dietary polyphenols may inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, inhibit glucose absorption in the intestine by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), stimulate insulin secretion and reduce hepatic glucose output. Polyphenols may also enhance insulin-dependent glucose uptake, activate 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), modify the microbiome and have anti-inflammatory effects. However, human epidemiological and intervention studies have shown inconsistent results. Further intervention studies are essential to clarify the conflicting findings and confirm or refute the anti-diabetic effects of dietary polyphenols.
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Purpose: A systematic literature review was done to determine the relationship between elevated CRP and prognosis in people with solid tumors. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum acute phase reactant and a well-established inflammatory marker. We also examined the role of CRP to predict treatment response and tumor recurrence. Methods: MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms were used to search multiple electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS, EBM-Cochrane). Two independent reviewers selected research papers. We also included a quality Assessment (QA) score. Reports with QA scores <50% were excluded. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) methodology was utilized for this review (S1 PRISMA Checklist). Results: 271 articles were identified for final review. There were 45% prospective studies and 52% retrospective. 264 had intermediate QA score (≥50% but <80%); Seven were adequate (80% -100%); A high CRP was predictive of prognosis in 90% (245/271) of studies-80% of the 245 studies by multivariate analysis, 20% by univariate analysis. Many (52%) of the articles were about gastrointestinal malignancies (GI) or kidney malignancies. A high CRP was prognostic in 90% (127 of 141) of the reports in those groups of tumors. CRP was also prognostic in most reports in other solid tumors primary sites. Conclusions: A high CRP was associated with higher mortality in 90% of reports in people with solid tumors primary sites. This was particularly notable in GI malignancies and kidney malignancies. In other solid tumors (lung, pancreas, hepatocellular cancer, and bladder) an elevated CRP also predicted prognosis. In addition there is also evidence to support the use of CRP to help decide treatment response and identify tumor recurrence. Better designed large scale studies should be conducted to examine these issues more comprehensively.
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Background: The effects of nuts on major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including dose-responses and potential heterogeneity by nut type or phytosterol content, are not well established. Objectives: We examined the effects of tree nuts (walnuts, pistachios, macadamia nuts, pecans, cashews, almonds, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts) on blood lipids [total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides], lipoproteins [apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and apolipoprotein B100], blood pressure, and inflammation (C-reactive protein) in adults aged ≥18 y without prevalent CVD. Design: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Two investigators screened 1301 potentially eligible PubMed articles in duplicate. We calculated mean differences between nut intervention and control arms, dose-standardized to one 1-oz (28.4 g) serving/d, by using inverse-variance fixed-effects meta-analysis. Dose-response for nut intake was examined by using linear regression and fractional polynomial modeling. Heterogeneity by age, sex, background diet, baseline risk factors, nut type, disease condition, duration, and quality score was assessed with meta-regression. Publication bias was evaluated by using funnel plots and Egger's and Begg's tests. Results: Sixty-one trials met eligibility criteria (n = 2582). Interventions ranged from 3 to 26 wk. Nut intake (per serving/d) lowered total cholesterol (-4.7 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.3, -4.0 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (-4.8 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.5, -4.2 mg/dL), ApoB (-3.7 mg/dL; 95% CI: -5.2, -2.3 mg/dL), and triglycerides (-2.2 mg/dL; 95% CI: -3.8, -0.5 mg/dL) with no statistically significant effects on other outcomes. The dose-response between nut intake and total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was nonlinear (P-nonlinearity < 0.001 each); stronger effects were observed for ≥60 g nuts/d. Significant heterogeneity was not observed by nut type or other factors. For ApoB, stronger effects were observed in populations with type 2 diabetes (-11.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: -16.2, -6.8 mg/dL) than in healthy populations (-2.5 mg/dL; 95% CI: -4.7, -0.3 mg/dL) (P-heterogeneity = 0.015). Little evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions: Tree nut intake lowers total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ApoB, and triglycerides. The major determinant of cholesterol lowering appears to be nut dose rather than nut type. Our findings also highlight the need for investigation of possible stronger effects at high nut doses and among diabetic populations.
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability, which can decrease quality of life. In spite of numerous studies suggesting that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been used as a therapeutic agent for a broad range of disorders, the effect of EGCG on TBI remains unknown. In this study, a weight drop model was established to evaluate the therapeutic potential of EGCG on TBI. Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg EGCG or PBS intraperitoneally. At different times following trauma, rats were sacrificed for analysis. It was found that EGCG (100 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly reduced brain water content and vascular permeability at 12, 24, 48, 72 hour after TBI. Real-time PCR results revealed that EGCG inhibited TBI-induced IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA expression. Importantly, CD68 mRNA expression decreasing in the brain suggested that EGCG inhibited microglia activation. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results showed that administering of EGCG significantly inhibited the levels of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. TBI-induced oxidative stress was remarkably impaired by EGCG treatment, which elevated the activities of SOD and GSH-PX. Conversely, EGCG significantly reduced the contents of MDA after TBI. In addition, EGCG decreased TBI-induced NADPH oxidase activation through inhibition of p47phox translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane. These data demonstrate that EGCG treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for TBI and the underlying mechanism involves inhibition of oxidative stress.
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Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent an important pool for the identification of novel drug leads. In the past decades, pharmaceutical industry focused mainly on libraries of synthetic compounds as drug discovery source. They are comparably easy to produce and resupply, and demonstrate good compatibility with established high throughput screening (HTS) platforms. However, at the same time there has been a declining trend in the number of new drugs reaching the market, raising renewed scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources, despite of its known challenges. In this survey, a brief outline of historical development is provided together with a comprehensive overview of used approaches and recent developments relevant to plant-derived natural product drug discovery. Associated challenges and major strengths of natural product-based drug discovery are critically discussed. A snapshot of the advanced plant-derived natural products that are currently in actively recruiting clinical trials is also presented. Importantly, the transition of a natural compound from a "screening hit" through a "drug lead" to a "marketed drug" is associated with increasingly challenging demands for compound amount, which often cannot be met by re-isolation from the respective plant sources. In this regard, existing alternatives for resupply are also discussed, including different biotechnology approaches and total organic synthesis. While the intrinsic complexity of natural product-based drug discovery necessitates highly integrated interdisciplinary approaches, the reviewed scientific developments, recent technological advances, and research trends clearly indicate that natural products will be among the most important sources of new drugs also in the future. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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Previous research has shown inconsistencies in the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). To determine the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for CVD and for MetS in adults. NHANES 2005-2010 data were used to examine the associations of tree nut consumption with health risks in adults 19+ years (n = 14,386; 51 % males). Tree nuts were: almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, filberts [hazelnuts], macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts. Group definitions were non-consumers < ¼ ounce/day and consumers of ≥ ¼ ounce/day tree nuts using data from 24-h dietary recalls. Means and ANOVA (covariate adjusted) were determined using appropriate sample weights. Using logistic regression, odds ratios of being overweight (OW)/obese (OB) (body mass index [BMI] >25/<30 and ≥30, respectively) and having CVRF or MetS, were determined. Tree nut consumption was associated with lower BMI (p = 0.004), waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.008), systolic blood pressure (BP) (p = 0.001), Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (p = 0.043), and higher high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p = 0.022), compared with no consumption, and a lower likelihood of OB (-25 %), OW/OB (-23 %), and elevated WC (-21 %). Tree nut consumption was associated with better weight status and some CVRF and MetS components.
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Several translational studies have identified the differential role between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids at cardiovascular level. However, the molecular mechanisms that support the protector role of oleate in cardiovascular cells are poorly known. For these reasons, we studied the protective role of oleate in the insulin resistance and in the atherosclerotic process at cellular level such as in cardiomyocytes (CMs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs). The effect of oleate in the cardiovascular insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction, inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs were analyzed by Western blot, qRT-PCR, BrdU incorporation and cell cycle analysis. Palmitate induced insulin resistance. However, oleate not only did not induce cardiovascular insulin resistance but also had a protective effect against insulin resistance induced by palmitate or TNFα. One mechanism involved might be the prevention by oleate of JNK-1/2 or NF-κB activation in response to TNF-α or palmitate. Oleate reduced MCP-1 and ICAM-1 or increased eNOS expression induced by proinflammatory cytokines in ECs. Furthermore, oleate impaired the proliferation induced by TNF-α, angiotensin II or palmitate and the apoptosis induced by TNF-α or thapsigargin in VSMCs. Our data suggest a differential role between oleate and palmitate and support the concept of the cardioprotector role of oleate as the main lipid component of virgin olive oil. Thus, oleate protects against cardiovascular insulin resistance, improves endothelial dysfunction in response to proinflammatory signals and finally, reduces proliferation and apoptosis in VSMCs that may contribute to an ameliorated atherosclerotic process and plaque stability.
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Cisplatin is one of the first-line platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents for treatment of many types of cancer, including ovary cancer. CTR1 (copper transporter 1), a transmembrane solute carrier transporter, has previously been shown to increase the cellular uptake and sensitivity of cisplatin. It is hypothesized that increased CTR1 expression would enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin (cDDP). The present study demonstrates for the first time that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol from green tea, can enhance CTR1 mRNA and protein expression in ovarian cancer cells and xenograft mice. EGCG inhibits the rapid degradation of CTR1 induced by cDDP. The combination of EGCG and cDDP increases the accumulation of cDDP and DNA-Pt adducts, and subsequently enhances the sensitivity of ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent. In the OVCAR3 ovarian cancer xenograft nude mice model, the combination of the lower concentration of cDDP and EGCG strongly repressed the tumor growth and exhibited protective effect on the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin. Overall, these findings uncover a novel chemotherapy mechanism of EGCG as an adjuvant for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
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It is estimated that >90% of Americans do not consume sufficient dietary vitamin E, as α-tocopherol, to meet estimated average requirements. What are the adverse consequences of inadequate dietary α-tocopherol intakes? This review discusses health aspects where inadequate vitamin E status is detrimental and additional vitamin E has reversed the symptoms. In general, plasma α-tocopherol concentrations <12 μmol/L are associated with increased infection, anemia, stunting of growth, and poor outcomes during pregnancy for both the infant and the mother. When low dietary amounts of α-tocopherol are consumed, tissue α-tocopherol needs exceed amounts available, leading to increased damage to target tissues. Seemingly, adequacy of human vitamin E status cannot be assessed from circulating α-tocopherol concentrations, but inadequacy can be determined from “low” values. Circulating α-tocopherol concentrations are very difficult to interpret because, as a person ages, plasma lipid concentrations also increase and these elevations in lipids increase the plasma carriers for α-tocopherol, leading to higher circulating α-tocopherol concentrations. However, abnormal lipoprotein metabolism does not necessarily increase α-tocopherol delivery to tissues. Additional biomarkers of inadequate vitamin E status are needed. Urinary excretion of the vitamin E metabolite α-carboxy-ethyl-hydroxychromanol may fulfill this biomarker role, but it has not been widely studied with regard to vitamin E status in humans or with regard to health benefits. This review evaluated the information available on the adverse consequences of inadequate α-tocopherol status and provides suggestions for avenues for research.
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Epidemiological studies demonstrate robust correlations between green tea consumption and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular complications. However, underlying molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Health promoting actions of green tea are often attributed toepigallocatechingallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenol in green tea. Insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction play key roles in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and its cardiovascular complications. Metabolic insulin resistance results from impaired insulin-mediated glucose disposal in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, and blunted insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output that is often associated with endothelial/vascular dysfunction. This endothelial dysfunction is itself caused, in part, by impaired insulin signaling in vascular endothelium resulting in reduced insulin-stimulated production of NO in arteries, and arterioles that regulate nutritive capillaries. In this review, we discuss the considerable body of literature supporting insulin-mimetic actions of EGCG that oppose endothelial dysfunction and ameliorate metabolic insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver. We conclude thatEGCG is a promising therapeutic to combat cardiovascular complications associated with the metabolic diseases characterized by reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction that include obesity, metabolic syndromeand type 2 diabetes.There is a strong rationale for well-powered randomized placebo controlled intervention trials to be carried out in insulin resistant and diabetic populations.
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Obesity is a major health problem strongly increasing the risk for various severe related complications such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that produces biologically active molecules defined "adipocytokines," protein hormones with pleiotropic functions involved in the regulation of energy metabolism as well as in appetite, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, atherosclerosis, cell proliferation, and so forth. In obesity, fat accumulation causes dysregulation of adipokine production that strongly contributes to the onset of obesity-related diseases. Several advances have been made in the treatment and prevention of obesity but current medical therapies are often unsuccessful even in compliant patients. Among the adipokines, adiponectin shows protective activity in various processes such as energy metabolism, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge regarding the protective properties of adiponectin and its receptors, AdipoRs ("adiponectin system"), on metabolic complications in obesity and obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin, exhibiting antihyperglycemic, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, could have important clinical benefits in terms of development of therapies for the prevention and/or for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.
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Background: Tree nut consumption has been associated with reduced diabetes risk, however, results from randomized trials on glycemic control have been inconsistent. Objective: To provide better evidence for diabetes guidelines development, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of tree nuts on markers of glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases through 6 April 2014. Study selection: Randomized controlled trials ≥3 weeks conducted in individuals with diabetes that compare the effect of diets emphasizing tree nuts to isocaloric diets without tree nuts on HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR. Data extraction and synthesis: Two independent reviewer's extracted relevant data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI's. Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2). Results: Twelve trials (n = 450) were included. Diets emphasizing tree nuts at a median dose of 56 g/d significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = -0.07% [95% CI:-0.10, -0.03%]; P = 0.0003) and fasting glucose (MD = -0.15 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 mmol/L]; P = 0.03) compared with control diets. No significant treatment effects were observed for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, however the direction of effect favoured tree nuts. Limitations: Majority of trials were of short duration and poor quality. Conclusions: Pooled analyses show that tree nuts improve glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes, supporting their inclusion in a healthy diet. Owing to the uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for longer, higher quality trials with a focus on using nuts to displace high-glycemic index carbohydrates. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01630980.
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Nuts are rich in many bioactive compounds that can exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We reviewed the evidence relating nut consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Nuts reduce the postprandial glycemic response; however, long-term trials of nuts on insulin resistance and glycemic control in diabetic individuals are inconsistent. Epidemiologic studies have shown that nuts may lower the risk of diabetes incidence in women. Few studies have assessed the association between nuts and abdominal obesity, although an inverse association with body mass index and general obesity has been observed. Limited evidence suggests that nuts have a protective effect on blood pressure and endothelial function. Nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect, but the relation between nuts and hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not well established. A recent pooled analysis of clinical trials showed that nuts are inversely related to triglyceride concentrations only in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. An inverse association was found between the frequency of nut consumption and the prevalence and the incidence of MetS. Several trials evaluated the effect of nuts on subjects with MetS and found that they may have benefits in some components. Compared with a low-fat diet, a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts could be beneficial for MetS management. The protective effects on metabolism could be explained by the modulation of inflammation and oxidation. Further trials are needed to clarify the role of nuts in MetS prevention and treatment.
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The endothelium, which forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and lymphatics, is a highly metabolically active organ that is involved in many physiopathological processes, including the control of vasomotor tone, barrier function, leukocyte adhesion, and trafficking and inflammation. In this review, we summarized and described the following: (i) endothelial cell function in physiological conditions and (ii) endothelial cell activation and dysfunction in the main cardiovascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis, and hypertension) and to diabetes, cigarette smoking, and aging physiological process. Finally, we presented the currently available evidence that supports the beneficial effects of physical activity and various dietary compounds on endothelial functions.
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The development of a drug-resistant cell line can take from 3-18 months. However, little is published on the methodology of this development process. This article will discuss key decisions to be made prior to starting resistant cell line development; the choice of parent cell line, dose of selecting agent, treatment interval and optimising the dose of drug for the parent cell line. Clinically-relevant drug-resistant cell lines are developed by mimicking the conditions cancer patients experience during chemotherapy and cell lines display between 2-8 fold resistance compared to their parental cell line. Doses of drug administered are low, and a pulsed treatment strategy is often used where the cells recover in drug-free media. High-level laboratory models are developed with the aim of understanding potential mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy agents. Doses of drug are higher and escalated over time. It is common to have difficulty developing stable clinically-relevant drug-resistant cell lines. A comparative selection strategy of multiple cell lines or multiple chemotherapeutic agents mitigates this risk and gives insight into which agents or type of cell line develops resistance easily. Successful selection strategies from our research are presented. Pulsed-selection produced platinum or taxane-resistant large cell lung cancer (H1299, H460) and temozolomide-resistant melanoma (Malme-3M and HT144) cell lines. Continuous selection produced lapatinib-resistant breast cancer cell line (HCC1954). Techniques for maintaining drug-resistant cell lines are outlined including; maintaining cells with chemotherapy, pulse treating with chemotherapy or returning to master drug-resistant stocks. The heterogeneity of drug-resistant models produced from the same parent cell line with the same chemotherapy agent is explored with reference to P-glycoprotein. Heterogeneity in drug-resistant cell lines reflects the heterogeneity that can occur in clinical drug resistance.
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