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Smartphone use undermines enjoyment of face-to-face social interactions

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Abstract

Using a field experiment and experience sampling, we found the first evidence that phone use may undermine the enjoyment people derive from real world social interactions. In Study 1, we recruited over 300 community members and students to share a meal at a restaurant with friends or family. Participants were randomly assigned to keep their phones on the table or to put their phones away during the meal. When phones were present (vs. absent), participants felt more distracted, which reduced how much they enjoyed spending time with their friends/family. We found consistent results using experience sampling in Study 2; during in-person interactions, participants felt more distracted and reported lower enjoyment if they used their phones than if they did not. This research suggests that despite their ability to connect us to others across the globe, phones may undermine the benefits we derive from interacting with those across the table.

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... It appears that phubbing negatively affects human interactions. Phubbing may lead to being less satisfied with an interaction and enjoying it less (e.g., Dwyer et al., 2018). This happens because phubbing disengages a person from their partner by taking attention away from the other person, which results in feeling less connected, more distant, and less empathetic (Kushlev & Dunn, 2019;Kushlev & Heintzelman, 2018;Misra et al., 2016). ...
... Phone-use time. Phone-use time was assessed to capture the mere effect of having a phone present (e.g., Dwyer et al., 2018;Misra et al., 2016). Table 2 offers correlations of phone-use time and partner phone-use time with phubbing, partner phubbing, and the measured predictors. ...
... However, we found that valuing the interaction more decreased phone use, but not co-present phone use. This suggested that using a phone in general might lower the valuing of an interaction, in line with previous research (e.g., Dwyer et al., 2018;Misra et al., 2016), or vice versa, that is, a less valued conversation might increase phone use. This may suggest that if an interaction is valued less, people more easily disengage from it by using their phone. ...
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Phubbing-ignoring another person in order to use a smartphone instead-is an increasingly common behavior that disrupts interactions and harms relationships. Using the frameworks of the Theory of Planned Behavior and an interaction value approach, we examined driving factors of phubbing frequency. Four pre-registered predictors were tested: attitudes towards phubbing, subjective norms of phubbing, interaction value, that is, the extent of valuing a social interaction, and perceived interaction value of the partner. After having had lunch together, a total of 128 participants in 64 dyads filled out a survey assessing the four predictors. Dyadic linear mixed model analyses confirm that a more positive attitude towards phubbing increases phubbing, as well as being phubbed. Moreover, we disentangled screen-sharing time (i.e., using a phone together), phone use, co-present phone use (i.e., using a phone alone), and phubbing: we found that valuing the social interaction more decreased phone use, but not phubbing, and holding more accepting subjective norms on phubbing increased co-present phone use, but not phone use in general. We further found that the person that used their phone first, phubbed more. Overall, this research extends our understanding of the factors driving phubbing and may be fruitfully harnessed to reduce phubbing.
... Central to these explorations is the belief that digital technology can and does play a vital role in enhancing how we work, learn, socialize and accomplish everyday life tasks. At the same time, concerns about the potentially addictive, socially isolating nature of technologies have surfaced (Dow Schüll, 2014;Dwyer, Kushlev, & Dunn, 2018;Turkle, 2017;Wells & Horwitz, 2021) to the extent that excessive Internet use and online gaming have been classified as mental health disorders (World Health Organization, 2018). Although such classifications have been critiqued (e.g., Kardefelt-Winther, 2014), the leaking of internal Facebook (now Metaverse) documents in 2021 by former employee Frances Haugen confirmed what many had long suspected: digital technologies can be harmful to both personal and societal well-being (The Wall Street Journal, 2021). ...
... In the area of mental health, for instance, Morton, Hole, Murray, Buzwell, and Michalak (2019) called attention to the effort required by people with Bipolar Disorder (BD) to engage in the daily practice of self-monitoring using mHealth apps, and that, for some, it is "an unpleasant reminder [of] living with BD" (p. 2). Other studies have reported increased negative affect after engaging with mental health apps (Nicholas, Fogarty, Boydell, & Christensen, 2017), and linked smartphone distractions with worsened mood and increased feelings of boredom (Dwyer et al., 2018). Surprisingly, Sanches et al.'s (2019) review of a decade of HCI papers on anxiety, depression and bipolar disorder found that, "from the total of 139 papers, two thirds (91 papers) do not mention any ethical concerns or values" (p. 6). ...
... As we design technologies and envision how they can be used, we should think about desired engagement profiles. Making space for disengagement could promote a more balanced approach to use that reduces feelings of guilt or "time wasting" and allows them time for aspirational activities (Hiniker et al., 2016) or real-world social interactions (Dwyer et al., 2018). We must be aware, however, that providing tools to help users stop using specific technologies or use them less frequently may not be enough. ...
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User engagement has become a much-cited construct in human-computer interaction (HCI) design and evaluation research and practice. Constructed as a positive and desirable outcome of users' interactions, more frequent and longer interactions are considered evidence of engagement. Disengagement, when discussed, is considered a best avoided outcome of technology use or a solution to problematic technology use. In the case of the former, disengagement may signal usability issues or user disinterest, while the latter emphasizes that some engaging interactions can result in negative consequences (e.g., addiction) for end-users. In this paper, we draw upon examples from HCI research and digital tools to present a more nuanced understanding of the symbiotic relationship between engagement and disengagement in order to propose a new definition and novel ways to model disengagement. Further, we challenge generalizations that dichotomize engagement (positive, continuous, accompanied by high interactivity and beneficial to end-users) and disengagement (negative, stopping use or detrimental use) and invite readers to interpret engagement in the context of desirability with respect to users' goals and perceived agency. We concluded with implications that invite the reader to make space for disengagement and move beyond usage data in the evaluation of engagement. This paper is a call to step away from the practice of engagement-for-engagement's sake, and to reflect on whether and when engagement is meaningful and desirable for end users.
... A particular focus of our study was on the practice of these family mealtime routines in a large, heterogeneous sample of families living in Germany. We additionally investigated smartphone use because digital devices are increasingly replacing TV use (Breunig et al., 2020) and their use have been shown to potentially decrease family mealtime enjoyment (Dwyer et al., 2018). ...
... Many studies examined the impact of individual family mealtime routines on various child health outcomes (e.g., fruit and vegetable intake, diet quality, BMI; for a meta-analysis see Dallacker et al., 2019). Only a handful of studies considered two different mealtime routines (e. g., Dwyer et al., 2018;Feunekes et al., 1995;Fulkerson et al., 2014;Trofholz et al., 2017). Since a complex social situation such as a family meal is likely not sufficiently described by one or two behavioral routines it means that our knowledge about this paradigmatic social institution family meal is severely limited. ...
... In summary, media consumption in general and mealtime atmosphere have been found to be negatively correlated. More specifically, TV consumption at family meals was negatively associated with mealtime atmosphere (Trofholz et al., 2017); restaurant meals with family and friends were less enjoyable and associated with a lower sense of well-being when smartphones lay on the table (Dwyer et al., 2018), and general media use was related to lower quality of family communication (Fulkerson et al., 2014). In contrast, link between mealtime atmosphere and the meal's duration has received scant attention: One diary study showed that the duration of a face-to-face social interaction predicted participants' happiness (Vlahovic et al., 2012), and there are indications that this finding generalizes to the duration of social interaction at family meals and positive atmosphere (Feunekes et al., 1995). ...
Article
Children eat most of their meals in a family context, making family meals a key environment in which to learn about healthy food. What makes a family meal “healthy”? This diary study examined the practice of seven family mealtime routines (e.g., positive mealtime atmosphere, parental modeling, and longer meal duration) and their predictive value for children's healthier nutrition focusing on everyday family meal settings. Over 7 consecutive days, parents from N = 310 families (Mage = 42 years) described their most important family meal of the day and food intake for an index child (Mage = 9 years) and indicated what mealtime routines were practiced during the family meal. On average, each parent responded to 5.6 (SD = 1.4) of seven daily surveys. Mean correlations between mealtime routines were small (rs between −0.14 and 0.25), suggesting independent and distinct routines. Creating a positive atmosphere and turning TV and smartphones off were reported most often (on average, 91.2% and 90.5%, respectively). Parent's fruit and vegetable intake and creating a positive mealtime atmosphere were the strongest predictors for children's higher nutritional quality (i.e., higher vegetable and fruit intake; ps < .001). Findings indicate that mealtime routines obtained from independent meta-analyses represent distinct routines. Families practiced these independent and distinct routines to different degrees. Parental modeling and a positive mealtime atmosphere were most predictive of healthier child nutrition in daily family meal settings. More experimental research is needed to better understand causality and provide a better basis for effective interventions.
... For example, people might in principle want to focus on working without browsing social networking sites but might simply fail to do so when constantly exposed to distracting notifications. Previous research has found that smartphone use distracted people from work, study, and face-to-face communication (e.g., Dwyer et al., 2018;Thomée et al., 2012). Moreover, frequent distractions from ongoing tasks to smartphone use occupy people's cognitive resources (Thornton et al., 2014), thereby influencing the performance of ongoing tasks. ...
... An a priori power analysis using G*Power software, version 3.1 (Faul et al., 2009), with a power of 80% (1 − β), an α level of .05, and a medium effect (d = 0.5; according to previous studies: Dwyer et al., 2018;Kushlev et al., 2019) was conducted to determine the sample size, resulting in a sample size of 128. One hundred thirty-eight undergraduate and postgraduate students with smartphones who were in groups of 3 to 5 friends (37 groups) were recruited from the campus online forum. ...
... Each group was randomly assigned to either the smartphone (67 participants; 19 groups) or the smartphoneless (62 participants; 16 groups) condition without revealing the purpose of the study. The manipulation of frequent smartphone use in this study was similar to that of Dwyer et al. (2018), which simulated frequent smartphone use in everyday social situations. As long as smartphones emerges, frequent information reminders and long-term use habits will lead to high-frequency use. ...
Article
In the era of technology, smartphone use occupies an important position in our lives. The present research focused on the psychological consequence of frequent smartphone use and possible way to remedy it. We proposed that frequent smartphone use could damage people’s sense of control and in turn trigger nostalgia. Moreover, nostalgia could directly compensate for the low sense of control induced by frequent smartphone use. Five studies ( N = 918) were conducted. Study 1 found through a field study that frequent smartphone use increases nostalgia. Studies 2 and 3 found through 14-day tracking and a laboratory experiment that frequent smartphone use decreased people’s sense of control and then triggered nostalgia. Furthermore, nostalgia could enhance the low sense of control, and it worked by increasing self-esteem (Studies 4 and 5). The findings show the negative impact of frequent smartphone use, and nostalgia is an effective way to remedy it without preventing people from using smartphones.
... The existing literature reported that smartphone overuse can lead to social isolation [48,49] or reduce face-to-face communication [50,51]. A recent study from Kuwait demonstrated a significant relationship between a high level of social isolation and smartphone addiction among university students [48]. ...
... The participants also perceived that the overuse of smartphones leads to diminished face-to-face interaction (everyone around you is on the mobile: there is no conversation between them (Student N-4)) and social isolation (It (smartphone) also might lead to social problems causing isolation and not being integrated into society (Staff N-6)). The finding of other studies confirms the negative effects of overusing smartphones on social isolation [48,49] and reductions in face-to-face communication [50,51]. ...
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Smartphone overuse and addiction is a growing concern worldwide. However, there are limited studies about smartphone addiction and its impacts on university students in Saudi Arabia. This qualitative study aimed to elicit students’ and university staff’s perspectives and experiences about smartphone overuse/addiction in Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Saudi Arabia. Fifteen undergraduate students and 18 university staff (13 lecturers and five professionals) were recruited for the purpose of this study. The study data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. The qualitative data comprising 33 participants (students and staff) identified four major themes including the perception of smartphone use; causes of smartphone overuse; negative impacts of smartphone overuse; and strategies to reduce the overuse of smartphone. The overall findings confirmed that students and staff alike held both positive and negative perceptions about using a smartphone. Potential factors leading to smartphone overuse included personal factors (extended free time and low self-confidence, irresponsibility/escaping certain social gatherings/passing the time); smartphone factors (reasonable price, attractive advertisements (ads), and engaging smartphone Apps); and social factors (social pressure and fear of losing a connection). The main negative impacts of smartphone overuse were found to be related to low academic productivity, poor physical health (body pain, lack of sleep, and low exercise), compromised mental well-being (stress and negative emotions), and decreased socialisation (social isolation and a reduction in face-to-face communication). Our findings suggested that awareness campaigns about smartphone overuse, promoting family and social events, encouraging physical activities, and limiting internet use can reduce smartphone usage among university students. This finding has significant implications for decision-makers.
... Mobile devices have fundamentally changed how people interact with the world. Using a field experiment at a café and intensive experience sampling, Dwyer et al. (2018) found that mobile device usage is distracting and compromises benefits and enjoyment of in-person interactions. Mobile devices have also changed recreation experiences (Amerson et al., 2020). ...
... In contrast, research of long-distance backpackers suggests benefits to using communication technologies such as for communication and navigation (Harris, 2020;Hyatt et al., 2020). Sub-populations of visitors (Groups 1 and 3, Table 2) reported low agreement for positive experiential outcomes of mobile device usage (e.g., 'I like being constantly connected'), and high agreement for negative experiential outcomes of mobile device usage (e.g., 'Being constantly connected decreases my enjoyment of outdoor experiences'), which aligns with Dwyer et al. (2018). Our results align with past recreation and tourism research that has reported a variety of experiential outcomes related to mobile device usage. ...
Article
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Worldwide mobile devices have become ubiquitous including for visitors to parks and protected areas. Wireless communication technologies, such as Wi-Fi access and cellular network service, are also common but not all parks and protected areas provide these services. Wireless communication technologies could alter the visitor experience, however little is known about visitor preferences for Wi-Fi access and cellular network service nor about experiential outcomes of mobile device usage in natural settings. Therefore, the purpose of this research was twofold: to understand visitor preferences for Wi-Fi access and cellular network service, and experiential outcomes of mobile device usage. The study site for this research was Shenandoah National Park (n = 1442). Using k-means clustering analysis, data were clustered into visitor groups and statistically compared to gain insight into patterns of responses. Visitors mostly reported neutral preferences for Wi-Fi access and cellular network service except for cell service park-wide in all national parks was reported as important. One group of visitors (n = 239) reported that these technologies were unimportant and mobile device usage diminishes their experience. Analysis was also conducted to investigate preferences across age, which showed older demographics reported both cell service park-wide and cell service park-wide in all national parks as important. This information is relevant for management decisions regarding wireless communication technologies access and avail- ability within parks and protected areas.
... In addition, some empirical support exists for the idea that when people go online to communicate with others while they are also with face-to-face company (i.e., when there is a sort of 'double' social interaction happening), this may undermine connectedness to the face-to-face company (Brown et al., 2016;Dwyer et al., 2018;Kushlev & Heintzelman, 2014). What is unclear, however, is whether such potential negative effects of double social interactions apply only to the social experience of the face-to-face company, or also to the experience of one's online company. ...
... Based on previous studies (Brown et al., 2016;Dwyer et al., 2018;Kushlev & Heintzelman, 2014), we expected that communicating online while also interacting face-to-face would undermine the affective and social benefits of both types of interaction. This expectation was partially confirmed, as participants reported higher levels of loneliness and negative affect when in a 'double interaction' compared to a 'single' face-to-face interaction. ...
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To better understand the development of mental health problems, it is of fundamental importance to focus on both adolescence – as this is the age period where most psychopathology develops – and social processes – as psychological distress is largely interpersonal in nature. In addition, certain parenting styles are strong predictors of both social and mental health outcomes. However, relatively little is known about how these different factors interrelate in adolescent day-to-day life. Within this dissertation, we draw on data collected with the Experience Sampling Method to gain a greater, more ecologically valid insight into the relationship between parenting, social processes, and psychopathology in adolescents.In Chapter 3, we present the case for why assessments of social processes require a greater consideration of ecological validity – and of daily life. Social cognition assessments in psychosis are discussed, but the arguments posited here are relevant for all types of social assessments in mental health research.In Chapters 4 to 6, the interrelationships between parenting, psychopathology, and daily-life social interactions are studied in three empirical studies using two large adolescent experience sampling data sets. In Chapter 4, we find how parental care and control are largely related to the experienced quality of daily-life social interactions rather than to its quantity. A similar finding is reported in Chapter 5, where we see consistent associations between the quality of daily-life social interactions and mean psychopathology level – and less consistent relationships between the quantity of social interactions and psychopathology. Finally, in Chapter 6, these relationships are investigated in one comprehensive model, including more specific parenting styles, and daily social interactions in different companies. In this model, paternal autonomy support and an altered quality of daily social interactions have unique associations with psychopathology levels. Taken together, these findings indicate a particular relevance of the quality of day-to-day social interactions for better understanding psychopathological development. As the social lives of contemporary adolescents are happening largely online as well as offline, in Chapter 7, we assess how adolescents experience online vs. face-to-face social interactions at the moment that they engage in them. We find how participants report more affective benefits when engaging in face-to-face interactions compared to online interactions, and, in contrast to our hypotheses, we report no moderating effects of social resources on the strength of these benefits. The investigation of adolescents` social lives and their relation with mental health became much more relevant as COVID-19 hit, when restrictions prevented people from interacting with each other. In the last study, presented in Chapter 8, we investigate differences in young people’s mental health and day-to-day social interactions, from before the pandemic to early in the pandemic (May 2020). We find how face-to-face interactions decreased and online interactions increased, but more surprisingly, that general psychopathology levels were lower than expected and that anxiety levels had even decreased. Moreover, the relationship between the quality of social interactions and psychopathology had become stronger during the pandemic, indicating the relevance of high-quality social interaction during times of social deprivation. In sum, in this thesis, I target the uniquely relevant momentary social interaction to better understand the social development of young people – and to assess when this might go awry. Across all studies, the quality of social interactions seems fundamentally important. Cross-level relationships seem to exist between general parenting perceptions and how social interactions are experienced in the moment, and between those daily-life social experiences and psychopathology levels. Future research should further disentangle these processes longitudinally to gain greater insight into the temporal ordering of these relationships. Finally, for the development of momentary interventions aimed at relieving social distress, a focus on the quality rather than the quantity of social behaviors is likely most helpful.
... At the same moment, few college student became addiction to the smartphone. So far there were very few of them was exposing negative contents in their status whatsApp and at instagram [12]. Fortunately after having addressed by some senior college students the negative contents was disappeared. ...
... Remarkably, the mere presence of a smartphone has been shown to decrease connection quality in face-to-face conversations (Dwyer et al., 2018). Even a small lag on a video call can diminish one's sense of connection to the other person on the call. ...
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While human beings have a right to digital experiences that support, rather than diminish, their psychological wellbeing, technology designers lack research-based practices for ensuring psychological needs are met. To help address this gap, we draw on findings from over 30 years of research in psychology (specifically, self-determination theory) that has identified contextual factors shown to support psychological wellbeing. We translate these findings into a list of 14 heuristics and 28 design strategies to provide technology makers with theoretically grounded, research-based, and actionable ways to support wellbeing in user experience.
... Sherry Turkle (2012Turkle ( , 2015 has voiced concerns that people rely on mobile technology moreso than those that they communicate with through it. Although MMC can increase well-being through connectedness, it can also reduce well-being by distracting from (Dwyer et al., 2018) or even supplanting face-to-face interaction (Epley & Schroeder, 2014). In some cases, the mere presence of a smartphone can diminish the sense of connectedness with co-present others (Przybylski & Weinstein, 2012), although this effect may be attenuating in light of changing norms (Allred & Crowley, 2017). ...
Article
In recent decades, mobile media and communication have become integral to human psychology, including how people think and feel. Although the popular press, parents, and educators often voice concerns about the integration of mobile media into everyday life (e.g., “smartphone addiction”), the growing body of scholarship in this area offers a mix of positive, negative, and conditional effects of mobile media use. This review article traverses this variegated scholarship by assembling cognitive and affective implications of mobile media and communication. It identifies information processing, offloading, spatial cognition, habit, attention, and phantom vibrations as cognitive themes, and feelings of pleasure, stress/anxiety, safety/security, connectedness, and control as affective themes. Along the way, it helps bring structure to this growing and interdisciplinary area of scholarship, ground psychological work on mobile media in theorizing on technological embedding, inform academic and public debates, and identify opportunities for future research.
... This theme adds credence to previous research showing that smartphone distractions can hamper enjoyment, personal connections, and satisfaction with others. 19,[40][41][42][43] Another well-being related finding of this study was the positive effects on sleep. "I found keeping my phone away from my bed helped me fall asleep before midnight, rather than staying up until 1-2 a.m. ...
Article
Objective. To determine pharmacy student reactions to and experiences with an intervention based upon the principle of salience to reduce psychological attraction and attention to smartphones. Method. For a period of 3 weeks, participants were directed to change their smartphone's color setting to grayscale mode, turn off social media notifications, remove social media icons from smartphone home screen, and place the device away from bed when sleeping. A thematic analysis was performed on responses to an anonymous, open-ended survey question that asked participants to record any positive/negative changes to their life and well-being as a result of participating in the study. Results. Thematic analysis revealed twenty unique themes, which provided a variety of notable observations including a reduction in both smartphone and social media use, reduced allure because of grayscale mode, frustrations caused by grayscale mode, increased productivity, and general improvements in sleep, face-to-face interactions, and overall well-being Conclusion. Results of this study provide initial evidence that changes to smartphone settings and physical placement at night may lead to positive outcomes. Participants reported primarily positive effects regarding well-being and reduced smartphone usage as a result of participating in the study. In many cases, less time on smartphones meant improved sleep, more productivity, more time for social/leisure activities, improved face-to-face interactions, and/or improvement in well-being.
... The focal employee's poor detachment in the eyes of the spouse may signal that the employee is not fully committed to the relationship, which likely erodes relational well-being. In a similar vein, research has shown that everyday interruptions in a couple's interactions due to technology use may provoke conflict and negative perceptions of the couple's relationship quality(Dwyer et al., 2018;McDaniel & Coyne, 2016;Wang et al., 2017). We therefore propose the following:Hypothesis 2. Within individuals, mobile work has a negative indirect relationship with the spouse's relationship satisfaction through a decrease in spouse perception of the employee's psychological detachment from work.We further argue that the focal employee's state resilience is influenced not only by their own recovery experience but also by significant others. ...
Article
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Drawing from the effort-recovery model and the work-home resources model, we investigate the linking mechanisms between daily mobile work and next-day psychological withdrawal behavior. Using a recovery lens, we propose that an employee’s mobile work negatively relates to state resilience via psychological detachment from work on a daily basis. In light of a work-to-home process, we suggest that the focal employee’s daily mobile work negatively relates to the spouse’s relationship satisfaction via spouse perception of the employee’s psychological detachment. In light of a home-to-work process, we also focus on state resilience as a mediator that translates diminished recovery and home outcomes into psychological withdrawal behavior. We tested our hypotheses using experience sampling data from 106 couples for 15 consecutive workdays. Results showed that the focal employee’s mobile work was negatively associated with state resilience through decreased psychological detachment. On days when the employee engaged in mobile work more frequently, the spouse perceived the employees’ psychological detachment as being weaker; moreover, the spouse experienced lower relationship satisfaction. Overall, the employee’s daily mobile work was positively and indirectly associated with next-day psychological withdrawal behavior via psychological detachment and state resilience. The spouse’s relationship satisfaction did not relate to the employee’s state resilience.
... Participants were asked not to consume other drinks (with exception of water) due to the interference on the flavor. They were also asked not to use smartphones or other technologies due to the interference these could cause on the attention and enjoyment of the experience at the wine bar [41][42][43], as well as on time perception [44], which is a variable of interest. Notepads and pens were available for those participants who wanted to write. ...
Article
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There is lack of research on effects of red wine on consciousness when drank in wine bars designed to enhance the pleasurableness of the wine drinking experience. Effects of a moderate dose of red wine (≈ 40.98 g of ethanol) on consciousness were examined in a naturalistic study taking place in a wine bar located in one of the most touristic areas of Lisbon, Portugal. One hundred two participants drank in one of three conditions: alone, in dyad, or in groups up to six people. Red wine increased pleasure and arousal, decreased the awareness of time, slowed the subjective passage of time, increased the attentional focus on the present moment, decreased body awareness, slowed thought speed, turned imagination more vivid, and made the environment become more fascinating. Red wine increased insightfulness and originality of thoughts, increased sensations of oneness with the environment, spiritual feelings, all-encompassing love, and profound peace. All changes in consciousness occurred regardless of volunteers drinking alone, in dyad or in group. Men and women did not report different changes in consciousness. Older age correlated with greater increases in pleasure. Younger age correlated with greater increases in fascination with the environment of the wine bar. Drinking wine in a contemporaneous Western environment designed to enhance the pleasurableness of the wine drinking experience may trigger changes in consciousness commonly associated with mystical-type states.
... Excessive use of the smartphone has been linked with impairments in mental health , social interactions (Dwyer et al., 2018;Kushlev et al., 2019), and productivity . Most questionnaires examining excessive smartphone use have adopted an addiction framework, hence, tested if excessive smartphone use falls into the category of addictive behaviors (Kwon, Lee, et al., 2013;Lin et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background: Despite the benefits that may result from smartphone use, evidence increasingly indicates that smartphone use may also have negative consequences when used in a disordered manner. One major concept in this research domain is a putative smartphone use disorder. Objective: It is not known how a positive evaluation or acceptance of the smartphone, indicated for example by Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) variables, is associated with its increasing use and consequently tendencies towards smartphone use disorder. Methods: To close this research gap, an online survey with N=698 smartphone users (n=330 men, n=368 women) was conducted to study potential links. All participants completed a TAM measure, provided information on daily smartphone use for personal and business use, and completed a scale assessing tendencies towards smartphone use disorder. Results: Overall, TAM variables were positively related to smartphone use and tendencies towards smartphone use disorder. Descriptively stronger correlations of TAM with smartphone use were found in the personal use context compared to the business use context. Moreover, significantly stronger correlations of TAM scales with smartphone use disorder tendencies were found compared to the associations between TAM scales and daily smartphone use. Moreover, user gender also played a role in these relationships. Conclusion: Potential explanations for the exploratory findings are discussed and limitations and potential avenues for future research are provided, such as conducting longitudinal studies to causally investigate the associations between TAM and smartphone use (disorder tendencies).
... For example, more frequent digital messaging, such as checking email or phone notifications, has been linked to experiencing greater stress and negative affect in both correlational and experimental research (Fitz et al., 2019;Kushlev & Dunn, 2015;Mark et al., 2012Mark et al., , 2016. In addition to increasing stress and negative emotions, digital communication has been shown to decrease positive emotion and social connectedness by interfering with the benefits of simultaneous face-to-face interactions (Dwyer et al., 2018;Kushlev & Leitao, 2020). Because digital communication has increased during the pandemic (Bugel et al., 2020), these negative aspects of digital interactions may be magnified. ...
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Who thrives while socially distancing? In this exploratory study, we polled over 500 participants from the United States on April 8, 2020—during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic when the practice of social distancing was at its peak. Above and beyond other social and nonsocial activities, living arrangements, employment circumstances, personality traits, and demographics, people who spent more time interacting with close others—in person or online—felt more socially connected. In contrast, people who spent more time interacting with weak ties, specifically online, experienced greater negative affect and more stress. In sum, much like in-person interactions, online social interactions are associated with greater social connectedness, but unlike in-person interactions, online interactions are simultaneously related to greater negative affect and more stress.
... At the same moment, few college student became addiction to the smartphone. So far there were very few of them was exposing negative contents in their status whatsApp and at instagram [12]. Fortunately after having addressed by some senior college students the negative contents was disappeared. ...
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The purpose of this study to discover the impact of Smartphone on human psychological well-being. This study is done from the perspective of Empirical Phenomenological Research, Qualitative. The method to collect the data is observation and inventory / an unstructured interview. The observation is done among Timorese universitarian in Malang. At the same time, had been done an interviewed on 15 subjects. The analysis the data is using descriptive through phenomenological, eidetic and transcendental reduction. The Result of the research shown that there are two impacts of the smartphone on universitarian such as positive negative. There are positive impacts because the utilization of smartphone is facilitating universitarian to reach psychological wellbeing. It became a smartphone been used to obtain well-being by communicating and chatting with family and friends. The further positive function is facilitating universitarian to develop their human resources/skill by studying. The negative impact was the frequencies of using the smartphone. Some universitarian used most of their time to play games (irritating-eyes). Some of them are using headset frequently it is trouble for hearing. Therefore universitarian needs to wisely use the smartphone.
... While there are numerous benefits that can be derived from the use of smartphones, there has been an increased focus on their negative consequences for the mental and physical health of users. Phubbing as a form of behavior detrimentally affects the quality of social interactions between people, as it is generally perceived to be disrespectful (Anshari et al., 2016;Dwyer et al., 2018). Importantly, phubbing takes place at any time and at any location, from family meals to formal work meetings and conferences, as well as social gatherings with family and friends. ...
... As a result, mobile technology is able to quell stress and anxiety at key times -and drive such feelings at other times (Carolus et al., 2019;Cheever, Rosen, Carrier, & Chavez, 2014;Melumad & Pham, 2020). In many cases, the resulting user-device connection is strong enough to disrupt or displace other cognitive and affective processes (e.g., memory, face-to-face interaction; Dwyer, Kushlev, & Dunn, 2018;Ward, 2013). This connection is also likely shaped by individual differences (e.g., Big Five; see Stachl et al., 2020). ...
Preprint
In this chapter, we chart parallel lines of research on mobile technology and daily mobility. Specifically, we review how people engage with mobile technologies in-place and on-the-go, as well as their broader connection with their mobile devices. In each section, we review and link perspectives from psychology and mobility studies towards an integrative understanding of mobile media use. We then survey emerging mobile methodologies with potential for interdisciplinary work. To conclude, we collapse these boundaries – between being in-place and on-the-go, and mobile technology and daily mobility – to consider the trajectory of future research on the psychology of mobile technology.
... Of course, when people's own smartphones are present, the temptation to use them might still be detrimental for social interactions or creativity [19,98,99]. In Misra et al. [13] for instance, acquaintances in the mere presence of their own mobile devices experienced a lower relationship quality, although similarly to Przybylski and Weinstein [12], this finding remains to be replicated. ...
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A 2013 article reported two experiments suggesting that the mere presence of a cellphone (vs. a notebook) can impair the relationship quality between strangers. The purpose of the present research is twofold: (1) closely replicate this article’s findings, and (2) examine whether there may be an impact of the mere presence of a phone on creativity, whether at a group- or an individual- level. In two experiments ( N = 356 participants, 136 groups), we followed the original procedure in the 2013 article. In particular, groups of participants who had never seen each other before the study had a conversation in the mere presence of either a smartphone or a notebook. The participants then carried out creative tasks, in groups (Studies 1 and 2) or alone (Study 1). In both studies, we failed to replicate the original results on relationship quality. We also failed to find any effect of the mere presence of a phone on creativity. We discuss possible reasons which may have caused differences between our results and the original ones. Our main conclusion is an effect of the mere presence of a phone on relationship quality and creativity is at minimum harder to find than what was previously assumed in the literature. More generally, this research contributes to qualify the view that smartphones are harmful.
... The consequences of using smartphones in terms of the quality of social interactions between individuals has generated a great deal of interest as evidenced in publications on phubbing. Specifically, the study by Dwyer et al. (2018) found that smartphones can decrease the quality of interpersonal interactions. People avoid face-to-face interactions with other people, thereby losing the art of communication. ...
Article
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The practice of phubbing has become an emerging phenomenon of worldwide interest to researchers. The cause is due to the fact that smartphones are ubiquitous and are often used in co-present interactions. This behavior is generally considered inappropriate and is called “phubbing”. Phubbing, as described by Chotpitayasunondh and Douglas (2018), is the act of snubbing someone in a social setting by looking at one's phone instead of paying attention to the other person. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of research studies on phubbing through a review of the current literature. To do this, a search was carried out in an international database, finding 84 relevant articles in English that appeared in peer-reviewed journals published between 2012, the year in which the term ‘phubbing’ appears, and January 2020. The review covers the main fields of research studies on phubbing behaviors. Likewise, the results of the study show the distribution of published articles on phubbing by year that detail the type of study and the methodological approach and, finally, the research journals that have published articles on phubbing. The results of this review are expected to stimulate and guide future research in this field.
... The phubber is the person engaging with his mobile during a person-to-person interaction, while the person/ group being phubbed is/are called phubbee(s) [1]. When phubbing occurs, people report a feeling of distractibility, decreased level of joy regarding the person-to-person communication [11], less quality of communication [12] and a decreased level of interpersonal trust [13]. While many agree that phubbing is annoying and not acceptable, this behavior has seen an increased number of people engaging in it. ...
Article
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Background: The rapid increasing rate of mobile and internet users in Lebanon, predisposes us to a high dependency on smartphones, leading to more phubbing. Phubbing has been found associated with many psychological factors. Thus, the main objectives of this study was (1) to evaluate the association between phubbing and temperaments, and (2) assess the mediating effect of self-esteem and emotional intelligence in the association between phubbing and temperaments among a sample of Lebanese adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study, carried out between August and September 2020, enrolled 461 participants aged between 18 and 29 years old. Participants were recruited from all districts/governorates of Lebanon (Beirut, Mount Lebanon, North Lebanon, South Lebanon, and Bekaa) using the snowball technique. The Generic Scale of Phubbing, Rosenberg Self‐Esteem Scale, Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test and TEMPS-M were used to assess phubbing, self-esteem, emotional intelligence and temperaments respectively. Results: Our results showed that higher depressive temperament (B=1.21) was significantly associated with more phubbing, whereas higher self-esteem (B=-0.32) was significantly associated with less phubbing. Regarding the mediating effect, self-esteem partially mediated the association between depressive temperament and phubbing (21.02%), whereas emotional intelligence had no mediating effect on the association between temperaments and phubbing. Conclusion: A strong correlation between phubbing and temperaments has been found in our study with a partial mediating effect of self-esteem in this association. Our findings might be a first step for raising awareness to develop the etiquette of using smartphones by providing media education to families, and good media usage habits.
... Además, la conducta de phubbing interfiere en diferentes aspectos como son la dinámica de la relación, el tiempo de compartir juntos, y la certeza de la confianza entre los miembros de la díada. De esta manera, el celular se convierte en un objeto distractor para la pareja y contribuye a sentir desconfianza (Dwyer, Kushlev & Dunn, 2018). En congruencia con la evidencia expuesta, estudiar las interacciones que se producen entre los integrantes de la pareja (Beam, Marcus, Turkheimer & Emery, 2018), se hace imperativo, particularmente porque dichas interacciones son un indicador subjetivo de la calidad de la relación y del bienestar psicológico de sus integrantes. ...
Article
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El uso del teléfono celular puede desarrollar la conducta conocida como phubbing. Un fenómeno de la era digital que se define como el acto de ignorar a una persona por brindar atención al celular. El phubbing puede causar malestar en la relación de pareja que provoca conflictos y contribuye a la insatisfacción relacional. No obstante, es un tema escasamente estudiado en la cultura latinoamericana. Por esto, se propuso desde la perspectiva cuantitativa un estudio no experimental transversal con el propósito de analizar la relación entre la conducta de phubbing, la comunicación tecnológica y la calidad de la relación en la cultura puertorriqueña. La muestra se compuso de 215 participantes en algún tipo de relación de pareja (noviazgo, matrimonio o en convivencia) con promedio de edad de 33 años. Se aplicaron tres escalas para medir las variables propuestas: comunicación tecnológica, phubbing y calidad diádica. Los datos fueron sometidos a diversos análisis estadísticos: análisis factorial confirmatorio, modelo estructural y análisis post-hoc. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el phubbing está presente en la pareja puertorriqueña. Los hallazgos muestran que el phubbing está relacionado positivamente con la comunicación tecnológica, mientras que tiene un efecto negativo en la calidad de la relación de pareja. En contraste, la comunicación tecnológica no evidenció un efecto en la calidad de la relación. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de diferencias generacionales. Se concluye que la comunicación mediada por un celular cumple un rol significativo en el contexto de la pareja puertorriqueña que amerita continuar su estudio en futuras investigaciones.
... Distraction from devices, a growing area of concern, was a key area in parental narratives consistent with literature [129]. Distractibility has been associated with decreased academic performance, lower enjoyment in social situations, and diminished memory for experiences [130][131][132][133][134][135]. Safety and data security were also expressed concerns. ...
Article
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Parenting in the digital age has been characterized as one of the most challenging tasks of the modern era. Parents are ambivalent about their mediating role. However, problematic aspects of adolescent online use have not been adequately addressed in education. The present study investigated parental perceptions of intervention needs within schools to prevent excessive/problematic use, enhance parent-child communication, and reduce family conflicts. Nine interviews with parents of adolescents residing in the UK were carried out and analyzed utilizing thematic analysis. Three main themes emerged as parental proposals: (i) schools as digital education providers and prevention hubs, (ii) provision of mental health literacy to raise awareness, resolve ambiguity regarding impacts and mitigate excessive use and impacts, and (iii) psychoeducation and upskilling. The third theme related to impacts from time spent on screens (time displacement), content-related impacts, and context-related impacts. The present study offers recommendations for media literacy during adolescence beyond e-safety (i.e., addressing interpersonal communication problems, privacy vs. disclosure issues), based on parents' views, and provides new insights for media and emotional health literacy collaboration efforts. Future work should investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of such interventions to support the emotional health of young people and prevent problematic internet use escalation.
... On the one hand mobile phones can have positive effects as they allow partners to stay in touch, and show interest when he or she is not around (Murray & Cambell, 2015;Pollmann, Norman, & Crockett, 2021). On the other hand, when a mobile phone is used in the presence of one's partner, it can distract from the present conversation and be a source of annoyance and conflict (Miller-Ott & Kelly, 2015;Dwyer et al., 2018;Przybylski & Weinstein, 2013). ...
Article
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Previous research showed that phone use during co-present interactions with one’s partner (partner phubbing) is negatively related to relationship satisfaction. In two cross-sectional surveys (N = 507 and N = 386) we confirmed this finding and also extended it by focusing on the mediating role of feelings of exclusion, perceived partner responsiveness, perceived intimacy, conflict about phone use, and feelings of jealousy. Results of both studies demonstrate that the link between partner phubbing and relationship satisfaction was mediated by feelings of exclusion, less perceived partner responsiveness, and less intimacy. We observed no significant mediation effects of conflict over phone use and jealousy when the three significant mediators were taken into account. In contrast to previous work, this suggests that conflict and jealousy are not the primary mechanism through which pphubbing results in reduced relationship satisfaction. Moreover, we demonstrated that shared phone use moderates the adverse effects of pphubbing. This means that by involving and informing a partner about one’s phone activities, it is possible to reduce feelings of exclusion, maintain more responsiveness and intimacy in the conversation, and consequently reduce detrimental relationship effects. Full article (open access) here: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106932
... Phubbing may be felt as distracting and undermining the benefits of social interactions [11]. It may decrease the quality of communication and relationship satisfaction by lessening the feeling of being together [12], may be negatively perceived by its "victims" as well as those who do it themselves [13], and is starting to be viewed as inevitable in today's societies [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Smartphone use has changed patterns of online and offline interaction. Phubbing (i.e., looking at one’s phone instead of paying attention to others) is an increasingly recognized phenomenon in offline interaction. We examined whether people who phub are more likely to have lower social intelligence, whether phubbing is considered more annoying than being ignored due to reading a magazine, and if people describe smartphones and magazines differently as sources of social distraction. We collected two survey samples (N = 112, N = 108) for a cartoon-based role-playing experiment (the Bystander Inaccessibility Experiment) in which a smartphone user and a person reading a magazine ignored the respondents’ conversational initiatives. Annoyance in each scenario was measured, and written accounts were collected on why the respondents rated the scenarios the way they did. Other measures used included the Generic Scale of Phubbing, Generic Scale of Being Phubbed, and Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale. The results showed that participants in both samples were more annoyed by phubbing than by being ignored due to reading a magazine. Linear regression analyses showed that phubbing was associated with lower social intelligence, even after adjusting for confounding factors. The annoyingness of phubbing was explained with negative attitudes toward smartphones, which were assumed to be used for useless endeavors, while magazines were more appreciated and seen as more cultivating. The role of bystanders’ epistemic access to the smartphone user’s activities is discussed.
... However, little is known about middle and high school boys' depression, particularly those from low-income households since COVID-19. The advent of the smartphone has discouraged students to play outdoor activities and has decreased the frequency of and quality of interactions when meeting up in person with their friends [27][28][29][30][31]. Boys tend to show more preference for outdoor activities than girls [32], including physical activities such as football or basketball. ...
Article
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Even though boys’ depression has become important, and their smartphone use has increased since COVID-19, little is known about low-income middle and high school boys’ depression in the context of whether they have siblings. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between smartphone addiction and depression as well as the moderating effect of being an only child on the relationship. Participants were limited to middle and high school students whose families were regarded as having a low-income. A total of 129 low-income boys were selected for the final sample. The PROCESS macro 3.4 for Statistical Product and Service Solutions was used to identify the moderating effect. Smartphone addiction was positively related to depression among low-income male students. Being an only child significantly moderated the relationship between smartphone addiction and depression. This study contributes to understanding the importance of examining mental health problems among middle school boys since COVID-19, particularly among low-income boys. It is necessary to provide tailored mental health services for middle school boys in low-income families. Alternative activities and social programs should be provided for adolescent boys who are only children to safely socialize with friends and peers without a smartphone.
... An ESM study among 174 young adults 162 supports this idea (Kushlev & Heintzelman, 2018): FtF interactions were associated with better 163 mood compared to no social interaction. However, this effect was significantly diminished when 164 participants simultaneously used CMC (i.e., were engaged in mixed episodes; Dwyer et al., 2018;165 Kushlev & Heintzelman, 2018). 166 ...
Preprint
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Decades of research show that people’s social lives are linked to their well-being. Yet, research on the relationships between social interactions and well-being has been largely inconclusive with regard to the effects of person-situation interactions, such as the interplay between contextual factors (e.g., interactions occurring in physical vs. digital contexts, different interaction partners) and dispositional tendencies (e.g., Big Five personality traits). Here, we report on exploratory and confirmatory findings from three large studies of college students (Study 1: N = 1,360; Study 2: N = 851; S3: N = 864) who provided a total of 139,363 experience sampling surveys (reporting on 87,976 social interactions). We focus on the effects of different modes of communication (face-to-face [FtF] interactions, computer-mediated communication [CMC], and mixed episodes [FtF + CMC]) and types of interaction partners (close peers, family members, and weak ties). Using multilevel structural equation modeling, we found that FtF interactions and mixed episodes were associated with highest well-being on the within-person level, and that these effects were particularly pronounced for individuals with high levels of neuroticism. CMC was related to lower well-being than FtF interactions, but higher well-being than not socializing at all. Regarding the type of interaction partner, individuals reported higher well-being after interactions with close peers than after interactions with family members and weak ties, and the difference between close peers and weak ties was larger for FtF interactions than for CMC. We discuss these findings with regard to theories of person-situation interactions and research on well-being and social interactions.
... One of the advantages put forth by e-learning is being able to communicate remotely, but not face to face, so there is a fear that this can affect the way learners interact with others in their daily life (Wieckowski & White, 2017;Nasaescu, Lopez, Liorent, Ruiz, & Zych, 2018;Paechter & Maier, 2010). From this problem, they fear that the technique of direct or face to face interactions through learning will be lost if the learning is solely by e-learning (Delbosc & Mokhtarian, 2018;Holmgren, 2012;Dwyer, Kushlev, & Dunn, 2018;Luaran, Samsuri, Nadzri, & Rom, 2014). ...
Technical Report
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Penelitian pemahaman konsep sains, khususnya ilmu fisika, secara umum meliputi tiga bagian utama, yaitu pengembangan instrumen tes diagnostik, identifikasi tingkat miskonsepsi, indentifikasi penyebab miskonsepsi dan remediasi miskonsepi. Tes diagnostik telah dikembangkan mulai dari bentuk two-tier, three-tier dan four-tier. Kelemahan bentuk-bentuk tes diagnostik tersebut belum mencerminkan tingkat konfidensi peserta tes pada saat memilih alasan dan menulis alasan terbuka. Sedangkan remediasi telah dilakukan dengan berbagai cara atau metode, diantara menggunakan model conceptual change (CC), praktikum konvensional, virtual lab., modul pembelajaran mandiri (seft-module), dll. Selama ini baik identifikasi, maupun remediasi miskonsepsi dilakukan secara manual. Kelemahan tes konvensial berbasis pensil-pen memerlukan waktu analisis terlalu lama, sehingga peserta tes tidak mendapatkan feedback atau penjelasan konsep yang benar setelah selesai mengerjakan tes, dengan demikian tidak terlaksana proses remediasi miskonsepsi. Oleh karena itu, dalam penelitian sekarang ini akan dikembangkan paket pembelajaran berbasis E-Learning yang beorientasi pada pengurangan persentase miskonsepsi pada diri peserta didik, yang disebut dengan E-RemMis (paket modul E-Learning terintegrasi simulasi PhET untuk Remediasi Miskonsepsi). Penelitian menggunakan menggunakan metode penelitian dan pengembangan (Research and Development, R&D). Model pengembangan modul terintegrasi simulasi PhET dan tes diagnostik berbasis E-Learning mengacu pada Model ADDIE, dimulai dari tahap Need Analysis dan berakhir dengan tahap Evaluation. Kegiatan pengembangan secara umum ada dua bagian utama; pertama, pengembangan modul dan tes diagnostik four-tier secara manual dan kedua, kegiatan pemetaan tes kedalam bentuk Web Based Form untuk dimasukkan ke web www.elearning.unsyiah.ac.id atau web www.ocw.unsyiah.ac.id
... Smartphones are used for a variety of purposes and functions, beyond the traditional phone activities (i.e., calling and texting), such as to stay on top of the news, look for jobs, find a date, shop or read a book (Perrin, 2017). Smartphones are often used during real-life conversations between adults, which undermines enjoyment from in-person interaction (Dwyer et al., 2018), reduces perceived conversational quality (Vanden Abeele et al., 2016), and negatively affects romantic intimacy (Amichai-Hamburger & Etgar, 2016). ...
Article
This study assessed the effects of maternal smartphone use on mother–child interaction. Thirty‐three Israeli mothers and their 24‐ to 36‐month‐old toddlers (16 boys) from middle‐high socioeconomic status participated in three within‐subjects experimental conditions: maternal smartphone use, maternal magazine reading, and uninterrupted dyadic free‐play. The mothers produced fewer utterances, provided fewer responses to child bids, missed child bids more often, and exchanged fewer conversational turns with their children when engaged with a smartphone or printed magazines compared to uninterrupted free‐play. The quality of maternal responsiveness was also decreased. These findings suggest maternal smartphone use compromises mother–child interaction, which given smartphone ubiquity in daily life may have negative effects on child development in various domains, including language, cognition, and socioemotional regulation.
... Ho et al. (2018) explica que la calidad de la comunicación es más importante que la cantidad de tiempo para promocionar el bienestar y la armonía familiar. Según Dwyer et al. (2018), el uso del teléfono móvil reduce el disfrute y distrae a las personas durante una comida, es decir, afecta las interacciones sociales. Ang et al. (2019) encontraron que el uso excesivo del teléfono móvil por parte de adolescentes tiene un efecto negativo en la comunicación familiar y arruina las relaciones con los parientes más cercanos. ...
Article
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La interacción social es pieza fundamental en el desarrollo del ser humano; sin embargo, los teléfonos inteligentes y el internet vienen cambiando la forma cómo los adolescentes interactúan con sus pares y familias. Es por ello, que en el contexto del aislamiento social por Covid-19, es importante conocer la relación entre el phubbing, el clima familiar y la autoestima de los adolescentes. La investigación tuvo un enfoque cuantitativo, correlacional, no experimental y participaron 322 adolescentes de la ciudad de Lima, Perú. El phubbing se relaciona negativamente con la autoestima (-.47) y con el clima familiar (-.48). Se evidenció una correlación positiva y grande entre la autoestima y el clima familiar (.51); además, no se encontró diferencias significativas según género, edad, tipo de escuela o modalidad de estudio. El phubbing y la autoestima presentaron resultados diversos según el tipo de familia. Finalmente, se observó que la cantidad de horas de conexión al móvil se relaciona negativamente con la autoestima y el clima familiar, pero de manera positiva con el phubbing. En conclusión, las conductas asociadas al phubbing se relacionan negativamente con el clima familiar y con la autoestima; convirtiendo al phubbing en un peligro para el desarrollo de los adolescentes.
... The improvement in social capabilities achieved by the sustainable growth of interactions and relationship management is believed to enable the identification, organisation and resolution of socio-economic social challenges (Lee 2018). The recent development of smartphone technology has enabled instant interactions with friends and business partners, thereby potentially allowing improved benefits of social interactions (Dwyer, Kushlev & Dunn, 2018). It has been empirically proven that social interactions and high-quality relationships are significant in many facets. ...
Article
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Background: The rapid increase in the pace of globalisation has been met with increased calls for sustainability as a means to entrepreneurship development. As entrepreneurship and sustainability continue to gain recognition, entrepreneurial intensity has emerged as a critical component of the ecosystem. The entrepreneurial intensity notion conceptualised the extent and frequency of innovation, risk taking, and proactiveness within an organisation. Aim: This study investigated how social interaction and relationship quality, referred to as social capabilities, influences entrepreneurial intensity. Setting: The population comprised all small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Zimbabwe. An online questionnaire constructed using Google Docs was posted on Masvingo centred Facebook and WhatsApp groups from 15 October 2018 to 19 December 2018. Methods: Based on an extensive review of the theoretical and empirical literature, hypotheses were formulated and then tested using the structural equation modelling framework. The study was based on a sample of 312 SMEs selected through convenience sampling, and data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire based on a five-point Likert scale. Results: The study results back the propositions that social interaction and relationship quality are strongly and positively related to entrepreneurial intensity. Conclusion: In light of the findings, several recommendations are made, but generally, to promote superior innovativeness, risk taking and proactiveness, firms must concentrate on steering up and refining their social capabilities.
... Mobile phone addiction has become a worldwide problem and received growing research attention over recent years (Lepp et al., 2014;. A large number of studies have revealed that mobile phone addiction was closely associated with series of internalizing and externalizing difficulties, such as negative emotions (Elhai et al., 2017), low well-being (Horwood and Anglim, 2019), low self-esteem (Romero-Rodríguez et al., 2020), interpersonal difficulties (Dwyer et al., 2018), and poor sleep quality (Liu et al., 2017b). Furthermore, there is growing evidence identifying that the group of college students are not only the main mobile phones users among young people but also at high risk of mobile phone addiction (Long et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Background: With the increasing incidence of mobile phone addiction, the potential risk factors of mobile phone addiction have attracted more and more researchers’ attention. Although various personality trait factors have been proven to be significant predictors of mobile phone addiction, limited attention has been paid to preference for solitude. Considering the adverse impacts of preference for solitude in the context of collectivistic societies and its possible negative effect on mobile phone addiction, this study was designed to examine the relationship between preference for solitude and mobile phone addiction, and to test the mediating role of psychological distress and the moderating role of mindfulness in this relationship. Methods: Data were collected through convenience sampling from a comprehensive university in China. A total of 927 Chinese college students (371 males and 556 females), aged from 16 to 24 ( M age = 19.89 years, SD = 1.22), participated in this study. Their preference for solitude, psychological distress, mindfulness, and mobile phone addiction were measured using well-validated self-report questionnaires. Results: Correlational analyses, sobel test, SPSS macro PROCESS (Model 8) and simple slopes analyses were used for major data analysis. Results showed that preference for solitude was significantly and positively associated with mobile phone addiction, and this link could be mediated by psychological distress. Moreover, the indirect effect of psychological distress in this link was moderated by mindfulness, with this effect being stronger for college students with lower levels of mindfulness. However, mindfulness can not moderate the direct relation between preference for solitude and mobile phone addiction. Conclusion: The present study broadened our knowledge of how and when (or for whom) preference for solitude is related to mobile phone addiction. Education professionals and parents should pay special attention to the psychological distress and mobile phone addiction of college students with high levels of preference for solitude, particularly for those with lower levels of mindfulness.
... While providing new opportunities to connect, much of the technology we rely on today has also exacerbated our tendency to become polarized into groups of "us" vs. "them", creating information bubbles and feeding into our confirmation bias [164]. Smartphones trap our attention with attention-grabbing notifications, infinite scrolling and constant access to an endless source of novelty for a quick boost of dopamine at the tip of our fingers, inhibiting our ability to enjoy our co-present social interactions [42,92]. ...
Conference Paper
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Human connection is essential for our personal well-being and a building block for a well-functioning society. There is a prominent interest in the potential of technology for mediating social con- nection, with a wealth of systems designed to foster the feeling of connection between strangers, friends, and family. By surveying this design landscape we present a transitional definition of medi- ated genuine connection and nine design strategies embodied within 50 design artifacts: affective self-disclosure, reflection on unity, shared embodied experience, transcendent emotions, embodied metaphors, interpersonal distance, touch, provocations, and play. In addition to drawing on design practice-based knowledge we also identify un- derlying psychological theories that can inform these strategies. We discuss design considerations pertaining to sensory modalities, vulnerability–comfort trade-offs, consent, situatedness in context, supporting diverse relationships, reciprocity, attention directed- ness, pursuing generalized knowledge, and questions of ethics. We hope to inspire and enrich designers’ understanding of the possi- bilities of technology to better support a mediated genuine feeling of connection.
... Technology can shape social expectations by affecting what people learn from their social experiences. For instance, the mere presence of a smartphone can distract attention to reduce the frequency and enjoyment of face-to-face conversations [74,75], or make it difficult to ascertain signals of social interest, such as by reducing the likelihood of two people making eye contact or smiling at one another [76]. In one experiment on commuter trains, nearly all participants who did not follow instructions to talk with another passenger reported believing others did not want to talk because they were using their phones [64]. ...
Article
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A person’s well-being depends heavily on forming and maintaining positive relationships, but people can be reluctant to connect in ways that would create or strengthen relationships. Emerging research suggests that miscalibrated social cognition may create psychological barriers to connecting with others more often. Specifically, people may underestimate how positively others will respond to their own sociality across a variety of social actions, including engaging in conversation, expressing appreciation, and performing acts of kindness. We suggest that these miscalibrated expectations are created and maintained by at least three mechanisms: differential construal, uncertain responsiveness, and asymmetric learning. Underestimating the positive consequences of social engagement could make people less social than would be optimal for both their own and others’ well-being.
Chapter
This chapter will discuss the usage of more objective and unobtrusive ways technology can be used to assess leisure activities. It is well known that leisure activities are positively correlated with measures of quality of life and subjective well-being. How we spend our free time has a great deal of influence on how we subjectively assess the quality of our lives. One aspect of our leisure time, which is gaining more and more interest, is the use of smartphones and wearables. According to global statistics, almost half of the global population spends more than 5 h a day using their smartphones. The use of technology has a profound effect on the way we spend our lives, socialize and entertain. Because our use of technology leaves a massive amount of digital data, we are now able to search for patterns of digital behaviour and use them as proxies or predictors for real life behaviours, bypassing or complementing self-reports and subjective measures. Our discussion revolves around several aspects of technology and leisure time. First, how technology use relates to leisure activities and what alternative unobtrusive measures could be developed to measure or predict leisure activities. Second, we will discuss the positive and negative aspects of technology use.
Chapter
This chapter will detail how the advent of the internet and smartphones has fundamentally transformed the nature of social support and its effects on quality of life and health. Technological change has altered: (1) The ways in which we assess social support, (2) The perception and effects of social support. First, we will examine how recent technological innovations have allowed for more detailed, objective, and accurate assessments of social support. Digital technology has enabled us to go beyond simple self-report measures to assess social support and quality of life in unprecedented ways. By leveraging big data across several accessible technological platforms, researchers can begin to understand how social support processes unfold in real time and the myriad ways technology can be used to measure meaningful aspects of social support. In the second section, we will discuss how the concept of social support has changed in the age of digital communication. We will focus on how the presence and use of technological devices influences face-to-face interactions, online groups, and family dynamics. Taken together, this chapter will recognize the changes in social assessment afforded by technology and consider several important areas in which technological tools have transformed social support.
Article
El uso del teléfono celular puede desarrollar la conducta conocida como phubbing. Un fenómeno de la era digital que se define como el acto de ignorar a una persona por brindar atención al celular. El phubbing puede causar malestar en la relación de pareja que provoca conflictos y contribuye a la insatisfacción relacional. No obstante, es un tema escasamente estudiado en la cultura latinoamericana. Por lo que, el presente estudio tuvo el propósito de analizar la relación entre la conducta de phubbing, la comunicación tecnológica y la calidad de la relación en la cultura puertorriqueña. La muestra se compuso de 215 participantes en algún tipo de relación de pareja (noviazgo, matrimonio o en convivencia) con promedio de edad de 33 años. Se aplicaron tres escalas para medir las variables propuestas: comunicación tecnológica, phubbing y calidad diádica. Los datos fueron sometidos a diversos análisis estadísticos: análisis factorial confirmatorio, modelo estructural y análisis post-hoc. Los resultados obtenidos indican que el phubbing está presente en la pareja puertorriqueña. Los hallazgos muestran que el phubbing está relacionado positivamente con la comunicación tecnológica, mientras tiene un efecto negativo en la calidad de la relación de pareja. En contraste, la comunicación tecnológica no evidenció un efecto en la calidad de la relación. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de diferencias generacionales. Se concluye que la comunicación mediada por un celular cumple un rol significativo en el contexto de la pareja puertorriqueña que amerita continuar su estudio en futuras investigaciones.
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between the use of social networks and the students´ academic self-efficacy and perception of wellbeing is explorer in adolescents from the Mayan zone of the Yucatán, Mexico. Three instruments exploring these variables were administered to 1013 students form 7th and 9th grades. Access to social network in these adolescents seem to be like those in the cities, suggesting some equity in these two contexts. Results evidences no significant relationships between the variables, expect from the logical significant relationship between high self-efficacy and better school grades. Women scored higher in every dimension of wellbeing and reported higher expectations for college entrance than men. Nine graders scored lower both in self efficacy and perceptions of wellbeing, maybe because to developmental issues associated to adolescence. This higher perception of wellbeing in rural women deserves further considerations in view of commonly held beliefs that women in rural context are in vulnerability and disadvantage in comparison to men.
Preprint
Much disagreement exists surrounding the relationship between digital communication and adolescent well-being. Micro-level insight into the direct effect of online interaction on affective experiences in daily life is crucial to advancing this discussion. In this registered study, we used experience sampling in general-population adolescents (n = 1705) to examine different emotional and social experiences, at the moment they engage in online and face-to-face social interactions. Adolescents reported significantly less positive affect when alone compared to when interacting online (B(SE)=-.15(.04), p=.001), but significantly more positive affect (B(SE)=.12(.04), p<.001) and less negative affect (B(SE)=-.12(.03), p<.001) and loneliness (B(SE)=-.65(.05), p<.001) when interacting face-to-face compared to online. Exploratory moderator analyses do not support the hypothesis that those with more social support experience greater benefits from online interaction. This study uniquely highlights both the momentary affective benefits and potential disadvantages of online interaction, thereby bringing clarification and nuance to this highly contentious topic.
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We present a three-dimensional what, how long, and how often framework to discuss three main inferences about other people’s preferences for repeated social interactions over time: (1) what to do together, (2) how long to spend together on each occasion, and (3) how often to spend time together. For each dimension, we discuss when and how people make inferences about other people’s preferences, as well as the consequences of making incorrect inferences. The three dimensions are conceptually independent; however, decisions made on one dimension can sometimes affect dimensions made on others. More research is needed on the interplay between multiple dimensions, including on how inferences made about preferences and decisions on one dimension affect inferences about preferences and decisions on other dimensions.
Chapter
Child well-being is an indispensable and often a complex part of most parents’ daily concerns. In addition to the parenting styles and social interactions inside or outside one’s primary environment, urbanized living and contemporary lifestyle habits have brought into focus the attitudes and behaviors displayed by parents or caregivers with subtle to pronounced impact on children sharing the same household. As we transition through these changes, a shift in focus from mere survival to physical and psychological well-being is imperative. Driven by the complexities of the new-age social and economic trends, the chapter illustrates a socio-ecological approach to assay the transactional individual orientations, life choices, and community-based indicators of child health. Agents of consumerism showcase conspicuous consumer socialization and materialism, including dietary habits and brand imaging which impinges upon child health, identity, and self-esteem. Parents’ work–life choices and an apparent insufficiency of resources to cope with the work–life conflict, stress, and burnout, create an unhealthy environment for the children where they can be exposed to adult behaviors ranging from substance abuse to violence. Finally, lifestyle choices including sedentary living, poor sleep hygiene, and a surge in screen time and digital dependence are leaving an indelible mark on the child’s own life choices and future health. We purport to unravel the modern connotations of child empowerment and autonomy alongside their diverse child well-being outcomes in our pursuit of desirable nurturing.
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Purpose This paper aims to explore the impact of excessive smartphone use on students’ academic performance. In today’s digitalized world, smartphones have become a vital device in human lives and have taken control over every aspect of day-to-day activities. Design/methodology/approach After a thorough literature review, the factors associated with smartphone use that impact student performance were identified, and a conceptual framework was developed. Further, a survey was conducted by contacting 264 students pursuing higher education in India to test the model. Structural equation modeling was adopted to test the hypotheses. Findings Results indicate that there is no direct impact of excessive mobile phone use on student performance. However, it can be observed that excessive mobile phone use impacts student performance indirectly mediated by technoference. Research limitations/implications This study was conducted among students pursuing higher education in cosmopolitan cities with representation from India. Future studies can test the model among students in tier two cities and rural areas and primary and high school students for more insights. Practical implications This study has suggestions for college management to promote a hybrid learning model and prohibit using smartphones in classrooms and academic areas. Originality/value This study is among the earliest to explore the impact of technoference in an academic environment.
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The pervasiveness of smartphones and the popularity of short-form video applications (SVAs), such as TikTok, among middle-aged Chinese adults have raised concerns about problematic SVAs use. Although a plethora of research has examined problematic smartphone use among teenagers and young adults, scarce attention has been paid to the middle-aged group. This study integrates the psychopathological approach and the compensatory use approach to explicate problematic SVAs use among middle-aged Chinese adults. We aim to examine the relationship between stress and problematic SVAs use via the mediating roles of duration of use and flow experience. A total of 194 middle-aged adults from across the nation participated in an online survey. The results showed that stress was positively associated with problematic SVAs use. We also found that duration of use positively mediated the relationship between stress and problematic SVAs use. Furthermore, a serial mediation effect of duration of use and flow experience was found. The findings suggest that the aforementioned two approaches are complementary to each other in explicating problematic SVAs use, but the compensatory use approach explains more than the psychopathological approach does. Flow experience extends the original compensatory use approach and demonstrates the importance of incorporating techno-psychological predictors in understanding problematic SVAs use.
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The phubbe of behavior discussed in this research, which negatively affects the interaction between people, is considered as an important problem.This research, which aims to determine the relationship between the family role performances of married individuals and their sociothelist behavior tendencies, was designed in the relational screening model, one of the quantitative research methods.151 people participated in the research. According to the research findings; It was determined that general behavior of phubbee characteristics and family role performance differ according to gender and age p<0.05. As a result of the research, a highly significant negative relationship was found between the total of the family role performance scale and the total of the GHQ, the sub-dimensions of GHQ nomophobia, interpersonal conflict, self-isolation, problem awareness p<0.01. There was a high level of negative between the task performance sub-dimension of the family role performance scale and the GHQ total, nomophobia, interpersonal conflict, self-isolation, and problem awareness. A moderate negative significant relationship was determined p<0.01. When results are evaluated, it can be stated that as the general sociothelist characteristics increase, the family role performance may decrease. Social work practices aimed at preventing sociothelist behaviors among members of the family system can contribute to family welfare.
Article
Introduction Several studies have documented increases in adolescent loneliness and depression in the U.S., UK, and Canada after 2012, but it is unknown whether these trends appear worldwide or whether they are linked to factors such as economic conditions, technology use, or changes in family size. Methods The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) survey of 15- and 16-year-old students around the world included a 6-item measure of school loneliness in 2000, 2003, 2012, 2015, and 2018 (n = 1,049,784, 51% female) across 37 countries. Results School loneliness increased 2012–2018 in 36 out of 37 countries. Worldwide, nearly twice as many adolescents in 2018 (vs. 2012) had elevated levels of school loneliness. Increases in loneliness were larger among girls than among boys and in countries with full measurement invariance. In multi-level modeling analyses, school loneliness was high when smartphone access and internet use were high. In contrast, higher unemployment rates predicted lower school loneliness. Income inequality, GDP, and total fertility rate (family size) were not significantly related to school loneliness when matched by year. School loneliness was positively correlated with negative affect and negatively correlated with positive affect and life satisfaction, suggesting the measure has broad implications for adolescent well-being. Conclusions The psychological well-being of adolescents around the world began to decline after 2012, in conjunction with the rise of smartphone access and increased internet use, though causation cannot be proven and more years of data will provide a more complete picture.
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Much disagreement exists surrounding the relationship between digital communication and adolescent well-being. Micro-level insight into the direct effect of online interaction on affective experiences in daily life is crucial to advancing this discussion. In this registered study, we used experience sampling in 1705 general-population adolescents (n = 43.226 total observations) to examine different emotional and social experiences, at the moment they engage in online and face-to-face social interactions. Adolescents reported significantly less positive affect when alone compared to when interacting online (B(SE) = -0.15 (0.04), p = .001), but significantly more positive affect (B(SE) = 0.12 (0.04), p < .001) and less negative affect (B(SE) = -0.12 (0.03), p < .001) and loneliness (B(SE) = -0.65 (0.05), p < .001) when interacting face-to-face compared to online. Exploratory moderator analyses do not support the hypothesis that those with more social support experience greater benefits from online interaction. This study uniquely highlights both the momentary affective benefits and potential disadvantages of online interaction, thereby bringing clarification and nuance to this highly contentious topic.
Preprint
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Smartphone use has changed patterns of online and offline interaction. Phubbing (i.e., looking at one’s phone instead of paying attention to others) is an increasingly recognized phenomenon in offline interaction. We examined whether people who phub are more likely to have lower social intelligence, whether phubbing is considered more annoying than being ignored due to reading a magazine, and if people describe smartphones and magazines differently as sources of social distraction. We collected two survey samples (N = 112, N = 108) for a cartoon-based role-playing experiment (the Bystander Inaccessibility Experiment) in which a smartphone user and a person reading a magazine ignored the respondents’ conversational initiatives. Annoyance in each scenario was measured, and written accounts were collected on why the respondents rated the scenarios the way they did. Other measures used included the Generic Scale of Phubbing, Generic Scale of Being Phubbed, and Tromsø Social Intelligence Scale. The results showed that participants in both samples were more annoyed by phubbing than by being ignored due to reading a magazine. Linear regression analyses showed that phubbing was associated with lower social intelligence, even after adjusting for confounding factors. The annoyingness of phubbing was explained with negative attitudes toward smartphones, which were assumed to be used for useless endeavors, while magazines were more appreciated and seen as more cultivating. The role of bystanders’ epistemic access to the smartphone user’s activities is discussed.
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Partner phubbing (Pphubbing) means snubbing a romantic partner by using one's smartphone in his or her presence. Pphubbing behavior has been predicted by characteristics such as neuroticism or attachment insecurity and has been associated with lower relationship satisfaction. Little is known about the influence of Pphubbing in long-term couples. We used data of 163 German heterosexual couples with an average relationship duration of 22 years to investigate interrelations of perceived Pphubbing with relationship satisfaction, age, and attachment orientation. Pphubbing was associated with attachment orientation and with younger age in both sexes, and with lower relationship satisfaction in men, but not in women. Dyadic analyses showed an overall actor effect of attachment anxiety as well as a partner effect of attachment avoidance in women. We also identified interaction effects of attachment avoidance and sex. These findings are discussed in the light of long-standing attachment dynamics and gender roles in long-term couples, and regarding possible mechanisms by which attachment and perceived Pphubbing impacts relationship satisfaction.
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Given the serious effects of coronavirus disease 2019 on academic burnout, this study aims to examine the multiple mediating roles of negative emotions and phubbing in the relationship between parental marital conflict and academic burnout. A total of 1353 college students participated in this study. The results showed that parental marital conflict not only had a direct effect on academic burnout but also affected academic burnout through three indirect paths: parental marital conflict‐negative emotions‐academic burnout, parental marital conflict‐phubbing‐academic burnout, and parental marital conflict‐negative emotions‐phubbing‐academic burnout. The parental marital conflict increased the risk of negative emotions and phubbing in college students and had a subsequent impact on academic burnout. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. Parental marital conflict significantly predicted academic burnout in college students. Parental marital conflict affected academic burnout through the indirect effect of negative emotions and phubbing. Negative emotions and phubbing played chain‐mediating roles in the relations between parental marital conflict and academic burnout. Parental marital conflict significantly predicted academic burnout in college students. Parental marital conflict affected academic burnout through the indirect effect of negative emotions and phubbing. Negative emotions and phubbing played chain‐mediating roles in the relations between parental marital conflict and academic burnout.
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If there ever was a key to happiness, this key would open a door that leads straight to a rich social life. And in the era of smartphones, this key to social connection is in our pockets anytime and anywhere. Or is it? Using the experience sampling method (ESM), we explore the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in the context of face-to-face (FtF) social interactions, testing two competing hypotheses: (1) a complementarity hypothesis stating that more channels of communication should be associated with higher well-being and (2) an interference hypothesis stating that FtF interactions could be impoverished by adding computer-mediated channels of communication. We surveyed 174 millennials (Mage = 19.28; range: 17–22) 5 times a day over a period of a week (4,508 episodes). When participants reported a mix of CMC and FtF socializing in the same episode, they felt worse and less connected than when solely interacting FtF.
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We examined whether emerging adults would engage in mobile phone use (MPU) when given the opportunity to socialize face-to-face with a close friend in a laboratory setting. Sixty-three U.S. college student friendship dyads rated their friendship quality in an online survey before coming into the laboratory together. When they arrived for their appointment, they were asked to wait together in a room for 5 min. A hidden camera recorded each dyad. Friends then separately rated the quality of the interaction. We coded time spent using mobile phone in seconds. A hierarchical regression conducted at the level of the dyad controlling for friendship quality and gender showed that more MPU was associated with lower quality interactions. We discuss findings in terms of the potential for MPU to interfere with the development of friendship intimacy.
Conference Paper
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As smartphones increasingly pervade our daily lives, people are ever more interrupted by alerts and notifications. Using both correlational and experimental methods, we explored whether such interruptions might be causing inattention and hyperactivity—symptoms associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)—even in people not clinically diagnosed with ADHD. We recruited a sample of 221 participants from the general population. For one week, participants were assigned to maximize phone interruptions by keeping notification alerts on and their phones within their reach/sight. During another week, participants were assigned to minimize phone interruptions by keeping alerts off and their phones away. Participants reported higher levels of inattention and hyperactivity when alerts were on than when alerts were off. Higher levels of inattention in turn predicted lower productivity and psychological well- being. These findings highlight some of the costs of ubiquitous connectivity and suggest how people can reduce these costs simply by adjusting existing phone settings.
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Partner phubbing (Pphubbing) can be best understood as the extent to which an individual uses or is distracted by his/her cell phone while in the company of his/her relationship partner. The present study is the first to investigate the oft-occurring behavior of Pphubbing and its impact on relationship satisfaction and personal well-being. In Study 1, a nine-item scale was developed to measure Pphubbing. The scale was found to be highly reliable and valid. Study 2 assessed the study's proposed relationships among a sample of 145 adults. Results suggest that Pphubbing's impact on relationship satisfaction is mediated by conflict over cell phone use. One's attachment style was found to moderate the Pphubbing - cell phone conflict relationship. Those with anxious attachment styles reported higher levels of cell phone conflict than those with less anxious attachment styles. Importantly, Pphubbing was found to indirectly impact depression through relationship satisfaction and ultimately life satisfaction. Given the ever-increasing use of cell phones to communicate between romantic partners, the present research offers insight into the process by which such use may impact relationship satisfaction and personal well-being. Directions for future research are discussed.
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This study examined the relationship between the presence of mobile devices and the quality of real-life in-person social interactions. In a naturalistic field experiment, 100 dyads were randomly assigned to discuss either a casual or meaningful topic together. A trained research assistant observed the participants unobtrusively from a distance during the course of a 10-min conversation noting whether either participant placed a mobile device on the table or held it in his or her hand. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling, it was found that conversations in the absence of mobile communication technologies were rated as significantly superior compared with those in the presence of a mobile device, above and beyond the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, and mood. People who had conversations in the absence of mobile devices reported higher levels of empathetic concern. Participants conversing in the presence of a mobile device who also had a close relationship with each other reported lower levels of empathy compared with dyads who were less friendly with each other. Implications for the nature of social life in ubiquitous computing environments are discussed.
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Technology use has proliferated in family life; everyday intrusions and interruptions due to technology devices, which we term “technoference,” will likely occur. We examine the frequency of technoference in romantic relationships and whether these everyday interruptions relate to women’s personal and relational well-being. Participants were 143 married/cohabiting women who completed an online questionnaire. The majority perceived that technology devices (such as computers, cell or smartphones, or TV) frequently interrupted their interactions, such as couple leisure time, conversations, and mealtimes, with their partners. Overall, participants who rated more technoference in their relationships also reported more conflict over technology use, lower relationship satisfaction, more depressive symptoms, and lower life satisfaction. We tested a structural equation model of technoference predicting conflict over technology use, which then predicted relationship satisfaction, which finally predicted depression and life satisfaction. By allowing technology to interfere with or interrupt conversations, activities, and time with romantic partners—even when unintentional or for brief moments—individuals may be sending implicit messages about what they value most, leading to conflict and negative outcomes in personal life and relationships.
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Connecting with others increases happiness, but strangers in close proximity routinely ignore each other. Why? Two reasons seem likely: Either solitude is a more positive experience than interacting with strangers, or people misunderstand the consequences of distant social connections. To examine the experience of connecting to strangers, we instructed commuters on trains and buses to connect with a stranger near them, to remain disconnected, or to commute as normal (Experiments 1a and 2a). In both contexts, participants reported a more positive (and no less productive) experience when they connected than when they did not. Separate participants in each context, however, expected precisely the opposite outcome, predicting a more positive experience in solitude (Experiments 1b and 2b). This mistaken preference for solitude stems partly from underestimating others' interest in connecting (Experiments 3a and 3b), which in turn keeps people from learning the actual consequences of social interaction (Experiments 4a and 4b). The pleasure of connection seems contagious: In a laboratory waiting room, participants who were talked to had equally positive experiences as those instructed to talk (Experiment 5). Human beings are social animals. Those who misunderstand the consequences of social interactions may not, in at least some contexts, be social enough for their own well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Although we interact with a wide network of people on a daily basis, the social psychology literature has primarily focused on interactions with close friends and family. The present research tested whether subjective well-being is related not only to interactions with these strong ties but also to interactions with weak social ties (i.e., acquaintances). In Study 1, students experienced greater happiness and greater feelings of belonging on days when they interacted with more classmates than usual. Broadening the scope in Studies 2A and 2B to include all daily interactions (with both strong and weak ties), we again found that weak ties are related to social and emotional well-being. The current results highlight the power of weak ties, suggesting that even social interactions with the more peripheral members of our social networks contribute to our well-being.
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Although one's intuition may be that social exclusion causes emotional distress, evidence both supports and refutes this perception. Some research has shown that exclusion results in decreased mood, self-esteem, and other needs, whereas other work has shown that exclusion results not in distress but rather in a relatively flat affective state. We assert that the paradigm used to induce social exclusion may moderate its effect on emotional distress. We found in two studies that Cyberball exclusion resulted in decreased basic needs satisfaction and mood relative to Cyberball inclusion, whereas no differences emerged on these same measures between Future-Life exclusion and inclusion conditions. Implications of these results for understanding the broader effects of exclusion paradigm are discussed.
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The study explored college instructors’ and students’ attitudes towards the usage of mobile devices (laptops and cell phones) for non-academic purposes during lectures. Students report excessive multitasking: usages of mobile devices for communicating with friends, gaming, etc. Instructors seem to have pretty good perceptions about the distribution of such usages. Most students accurately perceive the usage of mobile devices as disturbing instructors and peers, but they still believe such usage is legitimate! Instructors, on the contrary, feel it is not. Older students, as well, tend to think the usage of mobile devices during lectures is illegitimate. Results are discussed from the perspective of McLuhan’s laws of media and from perspectives related to millennial students’ unique characteristics.
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The effect of the self-perception of inattention on feeling bored was investigated. Ss in a listening situation were simultaneously distracted (a) not at all, (b) moderately, or (c) loudly. As hypothesized, Ss who were distracted by extraneous noise at levels too low to be recognized as a distraction reported that they felt more bored and that the task was less pleasant. That is, they attributed their inattention to the material as opposed to the distraction. Extraverts required louder distractions than introverts to produce boredom. These findings extend self-perception theory in an important direction. This is the first demonstration of a self-perception being based on a cognitive, rather than a physical, action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although previous research has uncovered various ways people can savor or dampen their positive emotional experiences, the unique impact of each of these strategies on well-being remains unknown. The present study examines the relative impact of the main positive emotion regulation strategies on two components of well-being: positive affect (PA) and life satisfaction (LS). A total of 282 participants completed measures of PA, LS, overall happiness, and the savoring and dampening strategies they typically used. Results show that when experiencing positive events, focusing attention on the present moment and engaging in positive rumination promoted PA, whereas telling others promoted LS. In contrast, being distracted diminished PA, while focusing on negative details and engaging in negative rumination reduced LS. As the strategies targeted different components of well-being, our results further show that regulatory diversity (i.e., typically using various strategies rather than a few specific ones), was beneficial to overall happiness. Our findings suggest that there are several independent ways to make the best (or the worst) out of our positive emotions, and that the cultivation of multiple savoring strategies might be required to achieve lasting happiness.
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Our central goal is to provide a definition of boredom in terms of the underlying mental processes that occur during an instance of boredom. Through the synthesis of psychodynamic, existential, arousal, and cognitive theories of boredom, we argue that boredom is universally conceptualized as "the aversive experience of wanting, but being unable, to engage in satisfying activity." We propose to map this conceptualization onto underlying mental processes. Specifically, we propose that boredom be defined in terms of attention. That is, boredom is the aversive state that occurs when we (a) are not able to successfully engage attention with internal (e.g., thoughts or feelings) or external (e.g., environmental stimuli) information required for participating in satisfying activity, (b) are focused on the fact that we are not able to engage attention and participate in satisfying activity, and (c) attribute the cause of our aversive state to the environment. We believe that our definition of boredom fully accounts for the phenomenal experience of boredom, brings existing theories of boredom into dialogue with one another, and suggests specific directions for future research on boredom and attention. © The Author(s) 2012.
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As interest grows in mindfulness training as a psychosocial intervention, it is increasingly important to quantify this construct to facilitate empirical investigation. The goal of the present studies was to develop a brief self-report measure of mindfulness with items that cover the breadth of the construct and that are written in everyday language. The resulting 12-item measure demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity with concurrent measures of mindfulness, distress, well-being, emotion-regulation, and problem-solving approaches in three samples of university students. To address potential construct contamination in two items, data are also presented on an alternate 10-item version of the measure.
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We performed an empirical study to investigate whether the context of interruptions makes a difference. We found that context does not make a difference but surprisingly, people completed interrupted tasks in less time with no difference in quality. Our data suggests that people compensate for interruptions by working faster, but this comes at a price: experiencing more stress, higher frustration, time pressure and effort. Individual differences exist in the management of interruptions: personality measures of openness to experience and need for personal structure predict disruption costs of interruptions. We discuss implications for how system design can support interrupted work. Author Keywords Multi-tasking, interruptions, experiment, context
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This article examines how consumer decision making is influenced by automatically evoked task-induced affect and by cognitions that are generated in a more controlled manner on exposure to alternatives in a choice task. Across two experiments respondents chose between two alternatives: one (chocolate cake) associated with more intense positive affect but less favorable cognitions, compared to a second (fruit salad) associated with less favorable affect but more favorable cognitions. Findings from the two experiments suggest that if processing resources are limited, spontaneously evoked affective reactions rather than cognitions tend to have a greater impact on choice. As a result, the consumer is more likely to choose the alternative that is superior on the affective dimension but inferior on the cognitive dimension (e.g., chocolate cake). In contrast, when the availability of processing resources is high, cognitions related to the consequences of choosing the alternatives tend to have a bigger impact on choice compared to when the availability of these resources is low. As a result, the consumer is more likely to choose the alternative that is inferior on the affective dimension but superior on the cognitive dimension (e.g., fruit salad). The moderating roles of the mode of presentation of the alternatives and of a personality variable related to impulsivity are also reported. Copyright 1999 by the University of Chicago.
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A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.
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The authors examined the effects of divided attention (DA) at encoding and retrieval in free recall, cued recall, and recognition memory in 4 experiments. Lists of words or word pairs were presented auditorily and recalled orally; the secondary task was a visual continuous reaction-time (RT) task with manual responses. At encoding, DA was associated with large reductions in memory performance, but small increases in RT; trade-offs between memory and RT were under conscious control. In contrast, DA at retrieval resulted in small or no reductions in memory, but in comparatively larger increases in RT, especially in free recall. Memory performance was sensitive to changes in task emphasis at encoding but not at retrieval. The results are discussed in terms of controlled and automatic processes and speculatively linked to underlying neuropsychological mechanisms.
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The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM) assesses how people spend their time and how they experience the various activities and settings of their lives, combining features of time-budget measurement and experience sampling. Participants systematically reconstruct their activities and experiences of the preceding day with procedures designed to reduce recall biases. The DRM's utility is shown by documenting close correspondences between the DRM reports of 909 employed women and established results from experience sampling. An analysis of the hedonic treadmill shows the DRM's potential for well-being research. Download link at: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/norbert.schwarz/day_reconstruction_method__time_use____well-being
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The objective of this research was to determine the relative impairment associated with conversing on a cellular telephone while driving. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the relative risk of being in a traffic accident while using a cell phone is similar to the hazard associated with driving with a blood alcohol level at the legal limit. The purpose of this research was to provide a direct comparison of the driving performance of a cell phone driver and a drunk driver in a controlled laboratory setting. We used a high-fidelity driving simulator to compare the performance of cell phone drivers with drivers who were intoxicated from ethanol (i.e., blood alcohol concentration at 0.08% weight/volume). When drivers were conversing on either a handheld or hands-free cell phone, their braking reactions were delayed and they were involved in more traffic accidents than when they were not conversing on a cell phone. By contrast, when drivers were intoxicated from ethanol they exhibited a more aggressive driving style, following closer to the vehicle immediately in front of them and applying more force while braking. When driving conditions and time on task were controlled for, the impairments associated with using a cell phone while driving can be as profound as those associated with driving while drunk. This research may help to provide guidance for regulation addressing driver distraction caused by cell phone conversations.
Conference Paper
A couple of widely-cited studies have found that presence of cell phones interferes with social interactions and cognitive performance, even when not actively in use. These studies have important implications but have not been replicated, and also suffer from methodological shortcomings and lack of established theoretical frameworks to explain the findings. We improved the methodology used in a previous study of phone presence and task performance [8], while testing an 'opportunity cost' model of effort and attention [2]. We were unable to replicate Thornton et al.'s finding [8] that presence of cell phones reduces performance in a simple cognitive task (additive digit cancellation). Moreover, contrary to our expectations, we found that participants who were more attached to their phones found the tasks more fun/exciting and effortless, if they completed them with their phone present.
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Prior research has supported the mere presence hypothesis, which suggests that cell phones act as an environmental nuisance that negatively impact the quality of face-to-face interactions. This study conducted an experiment to determine whether cell-phone presence negatively influences conversation satisfaction. Specifically, network member dyads (N = 46) engaged in unstructured conversations where one partner’s cell phone was either absent or present. The results revealed that, whereas the mere presence of a cell phone did not influence conversation satisfaction, individuals’ recollection of whether or not a cell phone was present did significantly negatively impact their pre- to posttest reports of conversation satisfaction. Implications of these findings for research on the mere presence hypothesis as well as directions for future research are discussed.
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This paper presents two experimental studies investigating the impact of mobile messaging during an offline conversation on relational outcomes. A first study examined the impact on impression formation. A 3 × 1 experiment revealed that phone users were perceived as significantly less polite and attentive, and that self-initiated messaging behavior led to more negative impression formation than messaging behavior in response to a notification. A second study examined the impact on perceived conversation quality and social attraction. A 2 × 2 experiment revealed that perceived conversation quality was negatively affected by co-present mobile messaging behavior, while social attraction was not. Whether persons were acquainted or not with the phone user did not moderate this relationship.
Chapter
Bacterial cell wall and membrane are associated with a variety of glycoconjugates and polysaccharides which aids in structural formation as well as performing various functions in the bacterial cell. In gram-negative bacteria, peptidoglycan is majorly present in the periplasmic space and it provides mechanical strength as well as shape to the cell. In some cases, the periplasm contains membrane-derived oligosaccharides (MDOs), which are involved in osmoregulation. The outer membrane mainly contains lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that bind to divalent cations or chelators for structure stabilization and to increase outer membrane permeability. This LPS contains lipid A, also known as endotoxin, which has shown a powerful biological effect in mammals such as fever, septic shock, multiple organ failure, and mortality. The mucoid (slime-producing) strains contain capsular polysaccharide which aids as virulence factor. The gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane and have a much thicker peptidoglycan layer along with a specialized polysaccharide known as teichoic acid. It provides cell wall integrity through complex formation with cations and also assists in cell growth regulation. The present report attempts to provide an overview of bacterial polysaccharide structure, occurrence, and their important functions, along with the biosynthesis and major inhibitors to block biosynthetic pathways.
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Objective This study aims to determine whether communicating via short message service text message during surgery procedures leads to decreased intake of fentanyl for patients receiving regional anesthesia below the waist compared with a distraction condition and no intervention.Methods Ninety-eight patients receiving regional anesthesia for minor surgeries were recruited from a hospital in Montreal, QC, between January and March 2012. Patients were randomly assigned to text message with a companion, text message with a stranger, play a distracting mobile phone game, or receive standard perioperative management. Participants who were asked to text message or play a game did so before receiving the anesthetic and continued until the end of the procedure.ResultsThe odds of receiving supplemental analgesia during surgery for patients receiving standard perioperative management were 6.77 (P = 0.009; N = 13/25) times the odds for patients in the text a stranger condition (N = 22/25 of patients), 4.39 times the odds for those in the text a companion condition (P = 0.03; N = 19/23), and 1.96 times the odds for those in the distraction condition (P = 0.25; N = 17/25).Conclusion Text messaging during surgery provides analgesic-sparing benefits that surpass distraction techniques, suggesting that mobile phones provide new opportunities for social support to improve patient comfort and reduce analgesic requirements during minor surgeries and in other clinical settings.
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