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Effects of Anxiety on Athletic Performance

Authors:
  • University of the Punajb
  • MY University

Abstract and Figures

The study was initiated to know the effect of anxiety on sports performance of players of Gomal university Deraismail khan K.P.K Pakistan. The main objective of this particular study was to know about effect of anxiety on players regarding physiological, psychological and behavioral perspective. The population of this research study was comprised of all players participating in different sports activities at Gomal University. A complete list of all registered players was taken from directorate of sports Gomal University. For data collection the researcher developed closed form of questionnaire and personally get back response from his responses from 120 players which were selected randomly as a target population. After collection of data it was tabulated and analyzed by using percentage and mean average as statistical tool by the researcher. After analysis of data the researcher arrived at conclusion that anxiety negatively affects the overall sports performance of a player. The data also revealed that awareness about anxiety and its negative effects and also reduction processes and practices such as medication, meditation, Psychotherapy are most important to overcome and face anxiety in sports participation.
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Introduction
According to Kumar et al. [1] an individual feels mentally
disturbed, he is said to be an anxious mood. As for as anxiety in

          
    

 
      
          
research study, conducted by Kumar et al. [3] it is concluded that
        
       
           
          
bad. According to Robinson et al. [2] adequate level of anxiety can

     
moderate level of anxiety.

       
         
        
         
      
          

Statement of the problem
  


  
   
        
 
         
      
          
conclusions of the study.
Objectives of the study

  

        

 


          
  
Muhammad Khushdil Khan, Alamgir Khan*, Sami Ullah Khan, Salahuddin Khan
Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, Gomal University, Pakistan
*Corresponding author: Alamgir Khan, Department of Sports Science & Physical Education Gomal University, Pakistan,
Email:
Submission: September 21, 2017; Published: October 25, 2017
Effects of Anxiety on Athletic Performance
Short Communication
Res Inves Sports Med
Copyright © All rights are reserved by Alamgir Khan.
CRIMSONpublishers
http://www.crimsonpublishers.com
Abstract
The study was initiated to know the effect of anxiety on sports performance of players of Gomal university Deraismail khan K.P.K Pakistan. The
main objective of this particular study was to know about effect of anxiety on players regarding physiological, psychological and behavioral perspective.
The population of this research study was comprised of all players participating in different sports activities at Gomal University. A complete list of all
registered players was taken from directorate of sports Gomal University. For data collection the researcher developed closed form of questionnaire
and personally get back response from his responses from 120 players which were selected randomly as a target population. After collection of data
it was tabulated and analyzed by using percentage and mean average as statistical tool by the researcher. After analysis of data the researcher arrived
at conclusion that anxiety negatively affects the overall sports performance of a player. The data also revealed that awareness about anxiety and its
negative effects and also reduction processes and practices such as medication, meditation, Psychotherapy are most important to overcome and face
anxiety in sports participation.
Keywords: Anxiety; Sports; Players; Sports performance
How to cite this article: Muhammad K K, Alamgir K, Sami U K, Salahuddin K. Effects of Anxiety on Athletic Performance. Res Inves Sports Med. 1(1).
RISM.000508: 2017.
Research & Investigations in Sports Medicine
2/5
Res Inves Sports Med
        
of this study may be very helpful to assess the perception of
players regarding effects of anxiety in connection to their sports
participation. In this way they will be able to cope with such
circumstances which lead to the occurrence of anxiety. Similarly,
through this study the coach, managers and players will be able to
educate the inexperience players with special reference to anxiety
in sports. Moreover the recommendations of the study will be
helpful to achieve better results in sports.
Hypotheses of the study
The following Null Hypothesis were tested

performance as perceived by players.

performance as perceived by players.
  
perspective as perceived by players.
Methodology of the study
The following procedural steps were taken to reach at certain

Population of the study: The population of this study
comprised of all the players at different level of sports activities.
Sampling: A complete list of the players obtained from the
Directorate of Sports Gomal University DeraIs
mail Khan. The researcher collected representative numbers of
the sample from both (New Campus and City Campus) by applying
convenient sample technique.
Instrument and mode data collection: The researcher
prepared and used questionnaire consist of three options for the
purpose of data collection regarding effects of anxiety on sports.
The questionnaire was developed under the guidance of research
supervisor and literature review also. The researcher personally
distributed the developed questionnaire and collected back after

Data analysis: The collected data was analyzed through
appropriated statistical tools.
Anxiety and Sports
Anxiety is a natural human reaction that involves mind and body.
It is an alarm system that is activated whenever a person perceives
danger or threat. When the body and mind react to danger or threat,
a person feels physical sensations of anxiety. Anxiety, as a negative
emotional, affect perceptions in sport competitions, where a large
majority of athletes consider anxiety to be debilitative towards
performance, which may result in decreases in performance [4,5].
Many researches showed that winning in a competition depend on
how an athlete can control their anxiety level [6]. Anxiety consists
of two subcomponents: cognitive and somatic anxiety, which

which characterized by negative expectations about success or self-
evaluation, negative self-talk, worries about performance, images
of failure, inability to concentrate, and disrupted attention [6,7].
Contradictory, the somatic is the physiological element, which
related to autonomic arousals, negative symptoms such as feelings
of nervous, high blood pressure, dry throat, muscular tension, rapid

Anxiety is a construct that has consistently been studied in
          
     
performance [9]. There is a closer relationship of sports and anxiety
because we know that sports is competitive in nature while win and
loss is the part of sports. Any sporting game or contest can give rise
to anxiety when one’s perceived ability does not measure up to the
demands of the task. A great deal of research has been devoted
to the effect of anxiety on sports performance. Researchers have
found that competitive state anxiety is higher for amateur athletes
in individual sports compared with athletes in team sports [10].
Anxiety plays a paramount role in sport. It is the challenge
to sports participation which produces anxiety. How and athlete
handles the anxiety determines how successful he would be. The
degree of anxiety also varies with a number of different conditions.
Anxiety is likely to be greater in higher competitive sports than
in relatively non-competitive sports, because in the competitive
sports, participants are expected to win and great demands are
made upon them to succeed. The individual and team sports persons
may have to appearance of anxiety. Nobody is without anxiety in the
      
the performance of sports persons in their understandings and
challenges at sports. Hann [11] found “sports psychologist have
long believed that high levels of anxiety during competition are
harmful, worsening performance and even leading to dropout.
Anxiety may be reduced or it may be increased with circumstances.
Athletes can manage anxiety using techniques such as relaxation,
hypnotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy and positive thinking.
Eect of Anxiety on Sports Performance
Anxiety affects the overall performance through following
ways:
Psychological effects
Concentration towards any external threat takes place in
human body immediately and automatically. Ampofo-Boateng
[12] noted that anxiety disrupted the attention and worries about
the performance in competitive situation. The effect on a person’s
thinking can range from mild worry to extreme terror. In other
research study anxiety was considered one of the main important

Effect on central nervous system (CNS)
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous
system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous
system is so named because it integrates information it receives,
          
How to cite this article: Muhammad K K, Alamgir K, Sami U K, Salahuddin K. Effects of Anxiety on Athletic Performance. Res Inves Sports Med. 1(1).
RISM.000508: 2017. 
Res Inves Sports Med
Research & Investigations in Sports Medicine
Anxiety effect directly on sympathetic nervous system and the
link between body parts and CNS is affected and in this regard a
person became unable to perform the mental function effectively

Researchers showed that anxiety effect on the mental level of an
athlete and changes the performance in the shape of feelings of
nervous, high blood pressure etc. which are direct related to central
nerves system [7]. In other way Anxiety and stress stimulate the
production of Catecholamine commonly known as epinephrine,
nor epinephrine and dopamine. These chemicals have adverse
effect on memory, both long term memory and short term memory
of the person affected. Person becomes forgetful and irritable can
experience lack of concentration, feeling of fear and decreased
sleep or disturbed sleep pattern.
Following are some of the general mental effects of anxiety:
 
b. Trouble learning new information
c. Forgetfulness, disorganization, confusion
 
Physiological effects
Physiological effects refer to the changes which take place in the
movements of different organ of the body. Anxiety affects directly
or indirectly different functions of the body in various ways which
include muscles shake, fast heartbeat, sweating fast breathing [14].
Some of the physiological effects of anxiety are discussed below.
Gastrointestinal effects
When a person is feeling anxious or having an anxiety attack
they can experience some gastrointestinal upset which affects
on the performance of athlete. He can have frequent urination or
diarrhea, where needs to use the bathroom more than normal. If
someone has stomach upset, it may be accompanied by dizziness
[15].
Muscular effects
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) noted that anxiety can
also have an effect on individual’s muscles. For example, the anxious
player may have tremors, where he has a shaking movement that
he cannot control. These tremors or twitches can occur when the
individual is still, moving or holding an item. Another muscular
effect of anxiety is muscle tension, where the individual has tight
muscles that can sometimes feel painful [15].
Breathing effects and glandular effects
Rapid breathing is known as hyperventilating. Hyperventilation
can be a normal response when you are anxious. A common
symptom of anxiety, according to the NIH, is sweating; during a
bout of anxiety, the sweat glands produce more sweat than normal.
The player can also experience changes in breathing: she may
have shortness of breath or rapid breathing. When the patient has
shortness of breath, it can feel like she is choking and grasping for
air [16].
Other effects on the body
Anxiety can also affect other parts of the body. For example,
the heart can be affected, resulting in either a pounding heart or an
irregular heartbeat. The player can also have headaches, insomnia
and fatigue. Problems with the mouth and throat can happen, such

Effect on cardiovascular system
Anxiety can lead to increased heart rate, palpitations, increased
blood pressure. All these changes take place in the body by more
production of stress hormones like adrenalin, noradrenalin and
cortisol.
Effect of anxiety on skin and hair
Anxiety can affect the skin badly in terms of loss of glow,
development of acne etc. Certain skin diseases like psoriasis and
eczema are known to appear because of anxiety. Hair fall is also very
common in constantly anxious people. Prolonged anxiety could
trigger under-active thyroid or hypothyroid, which in turn, could
lead to many loss of hair, loss of glow on skin, and other symptoms.
Behavioral effects
Anxiety effects also on the behavior of an individual because
Anger, displeasure, problems in communication and unfriendliness
are the common effects of anxiety.
Personality changes
The term personality is used to describe the consistent
individual patterns of thoughts, emotion, and behavior that
characterize each person across time and situations. Each
         
inherited “genetic” component (usually called temperament) and
by their interactions with the environment. Some people experience
personality changes in response to stress hormones, which are part
of their internal environment. The following changes in personality
are not uncommon to observe in people who are anxious:
a. displeasure
b. unfriendliness
c. Frustration
d. Anger
e. Aggressive feelings and behavior
f. Decreased interest in appearance
g. Decreased concern with punctuality
h. Obsessive/compulsive behavior (trying to cope with
unwanted repeated thoughts or obsessions, by engaging in
compulsive behavior rituals such as counting, checking, washing,
etc.)
 
j. Lying or making excuses to cover up poor work
How to cite this article: Muhammad K K, Alamgir K, Sami U K, Salahuddin K. Effects of Anxiety on Athletic Performance. Res Inves Sports Med. 1(1).
RISM.000508: 2017.
Research & Investigations in Sports Medicine
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Res Inves Sports Med
k. Excessive defensiveness or suspiciousness
l. Problems in communication
m. Social withdrawal and isolation
n. Impulsivity (expressed as impulse buying, gambling,
sexual behavior, or similar)
Treatment of Anxiety
Anxiety disorders are real disorders that require treatment.
Recovery is not simply a matter of will and self-discipline.
Fortunately, much progress has been made in the last two decades
in the treatment of people with mental illnesses. Although the
exact treatment approach depends on the type of disorder, one or
a combination of the following therapies might be used for most
anxiety disorders:
Medication
Medicines used to reduce the symptoms of anxiety disorders
include antidepressants and anxiety-reducing medications.
Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy (a type of counseling) addresses the emotional
response to mental illness. It is a process in which trained mental
health professionals help people by talking through strategies for
understanding and dealing with their disorder.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy
People suffering from anxiety disorders often participate in this
type of therapy in which the person learns to recognize and change
thought patterns and behaviors that lead to troublesome feelings.
Presentation and Analysis of Data
H01
        
performance as perceived by players. Table 1 shows that there
       
as perceived by players because the mean of Agree is 29.25 and
undecided is 4.75 and mean of disagree is 06 (29.25>4.75 & 06)
         
anxiety upon physiological performance of the player so hypothesis
No.1 is rejected
H02
        
performance as perceived by players. Table 2 shows that there
       
          
          

of anxiety upon psychological performance as perceived by the
players. So hypothesis No.2 is hereby rejected
H03
        
          
      
by players because the mean of Agree is 29.16 and undecided is
5.16 and mean of disagree is 5.66 (29.16>5.16 & 5.66) while null

behavioral performance as perceived by the players. So hypothesis

H04


effect of anxiety upon sports performance as perceived by players
because the mean of Agree is 29.55 and undecided is 4.72 and
mean of disagree is 5.72 (29.55>4.72 & 5.72) while null hypothesis
          
performance as perceived by the players. So hypothesis No 4 is
hereby rejected
Findings
           
following
        
performance as perceived by the players because the mean of
Agree is 29.25 and undecided is 4.75 and mean of disagree is 06
(29.25>4.75 & 06) while null hypothesis stating that there is no
       
hypothesis No.1 is rejected (Table 1).
Table 1: Showing the effect of anxiety upon physiological
performance.
S. No Physiological Effects of
Anxiety Agree Undecided Disagree
1Anxiety increases the
circulation of blood in body  5 1
2
Chest pain and rapid
respiration is the result of
anxiety
  6
Due to anxiety an athlete
frequently feel urination
and sweating
 4 2
4Loss of appetite is the cause
of anxiety  7 15
Mean: 29.25 4.75 6
         
performance as perceived by the players because the mean of

    
       
hypothesis No.2 is rejected (Table 2).
How to cite this article: Muhammad K K, Alamgir K, Sami U K, Salahuddin K. Effects of Anxiety on Athletic Performance. Res Inves Sports Med. 1(1).
RISM.000508: 2017. 5/5
Res Inves Sports Med
Research & Investigations in Sports Medicine
Table 2: Mean showing the effect of anxiety upon psychological
performance.
S. No Psychological Effects of
Anxiety Agree Undecided Disagree
1
Anxiety directly effects on
the mental function of an
athlete
  4
2
Excessive, ongoing worry
and tension is the effect of
anxiety
  5
Mentally disturbed

in concentrating on the
desired targets
 7 5
4
Sympathetic nervous
system directly affected by
anxiety
 4
Mean:  4.25 5.5
        
performance as perceived by the players because the mean of
Agree is 29.16 and undecided is 5.16 and mean of disagree is
5.66 (29.16>5.16 & 5.66) while null hypothesis stating that their
        

Table 3: Mean showing the effect of anxiety upon behavioral
performance.
S. No Behavioral Effects of
Anxiety Agree Undecided Disagree
1Social isolation may cause
of anxiety 26 5 9
2
Anxiety hurt relationships
with friends, family and
colleagues
 5
Anxiety makes a person
Angry  2 2
4An anxious athlete performs
Aggressively 27 5
5
anxiety   9
6Lose of performance is the
result of anxiety 26 6
Mean: 29.16 5.16 5.66
Table 4: Mean showing the effect of anxiety upon sports
performance.
S. No Variables Agree Undecided Disagree
1Physiological effect of
anxiety 29.25 4.75 6
2Psychological effect of
anxiety  4.25 5.5
Behavioral effect of anxiety 29.16 5.16 5.66
Mean: 29.55 4.72 5.72
Conclusion
        
         
psychological and behavioral performance of a sportsman. It means
        
athlete.
Recommendation of the Study
        
recommended that
1. Different awareness program may be conducted about
anxiety and its effects on performance
2. Athlete may be kept aware about different psychological
factors effecting their performance
        
factors effecting their performance
4. Athlete may be kept aware about different behavioral factors
affecting their performance.
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... Since competition require highly demands of success, athletes expect that effective control of anxiety could help achieving a successful result [4]. Khan et al. [5] stated that the anxiety affects the overall performance through physiological and behavioral effects and personality changes. Anxiety has physiological effects either directly or indirectly on body functions such as muscles shaking, fast heartbeat, sweating and fast breathing [5]. ...
... Khan et al. [5] stated that the anxiety affects the overall performance through physiological and behavioral effects and personality changes. Anxiety has physiological effects either directly or indirectly on body functions such as muscles shaking, fast heartbeat, sweating and fast breathing [5]. Anxiety affects individual's feelings and perceptions that could induce behavioral changes such as anger, displeasure, problems in communication and unfriendliness. ...
... Regarding the competitive anxiety, our results showed that the individual athletes had slightly higher score than those in the team athletes. Similar results were also reported in collegiate players [5]. Since the anxiety level was not too high (20-22 scores), this may have slightly less effect on athlete's performance. ...
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The purposes of this study were to investigate differences in personality and competitive anxiety depending on types of sports and gender, and to determine the influence of personality on competitive anxiety. Participants included 237 athletes (134 men and 103 women) who participated in the Thailand University Games, 2020. They were classified as individual (n = 114) and team (n = 123) athletes. Personality characteristics and competitive anxiety were assessed by using NEO five-factor inventory and sport competitive anxiety test. Differences between individual and team athletes and between gender were tested by using independent t-test. Relationships between personality and competitive anxiety were analyzed by using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. Moreover, multiple regression analysis was used to measure the contributions of personality on competitive anxiety. The results showed that competitive anxiety was significant difference between individual and team athletes (p = 0.03, d = 0.28). However, there was no difference in personality between groups. When compared between gender, there were significant differences in competitive anxiety (p < 0.001, d = 0.52) and the agreeableness (p = 0.04, d = -0.26) component of personality between female and male athletes. From the correlation analyzes, four characteristics of personality showed significant associations with competitive anxiety including neuroticism (r = -0.472, ρ < 0.001), extraversion (r = 0.184, ρ = 0.005), agreeableness (r = 0.147, ρ = 0.024), and conscientiousness (r = 0.202, ρ = 0.002). Among five personality factors, the neuroticism had minimally negative effect on competitive anxiety (β = -0.52) with percentage of prediction of 22%. These can be concluded that types of sport and gender are the important factors affecting personality and competitive anxiety. The athletes with certain personality traits were more susceptible to competitive anxiety. Importantly, the neuroticism could serve as a prediction of the competitive anxiety in all collegiate athletes.
... Anxiety interferes with athletic performance [55], and its negative effects include physiological symptoms, such as muscle tension, rapid heartbeat, stomach tension and sweaty palms, which can affect performance and outcome during the competition [56]. However, anxiety can exert positive effects, and low levels of anxiety can lead to an increase in self-competency and a change in the status quo in an effort to catch up with a self-imposed goal [57]. ...
... In the learning of individual skills, imagery can generate basic cognitive processes for motor learning and performance enhancement [55]. Imagery training for athletes can stimulate brain areas involved in actual movements through the conscious use of imagery, resulting in neurological and behavioral similarities with actual experience [56] and helping athletes to improve their psychological quality and athletic performance [26]. ...
... According to the literature, imagery training can reduce athletes' error rate, improve athletic performance and physical stability 46,[55][56][57][58], reduce physical and psychological barriers [29,[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]60,61], increase stress resistance and willpower [46,48], and ultimately improve athletic performance [26,32,41,46,[55][56][57][58]. Therefore, the researchers hypothesized that imagery training should have the same effect on the imagery ability, physical anxiety, and athletic performance of fin swimmers. ...
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This study analyzed the effects of imagery training on athletes’ imagery ability, physical anxiety and athletic performance. This study employed a mixed research approach. Snowball sampling was used to select 55 fin swimmers with imagery training experience and formal competition participation. Basic statistics were obtained, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 26.0, and the results were compared with the opinions of three experts and were tested using multivariate validation methods. The results revealed that although imagery training can help athletes improve their performance and significantly reduce their anxiety during the competition, athletes can still make mistakes due to internal and environmental factors and even have negative thoughts that lead to their reduced likelihood of competition participation. By strengthening strategic and technical imagery training, we can help our fin swimmers perform at a higher level, achieve their goals, and improve overall satisfaction with their competition process and performance.
... Anticipatory anxiety is characterized as an unpleasant psychological state in response to feelings of uncertainty and stress concerning the performance of a task [10]. Previous research demonstrates a negative relationship between anticipatory anxiety and performance [10][11][12][13], where physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses to anxiety may negatively affect motor skills [10,12]. Physiological responses to anticipatory anxiety include increased heart rate and sweating. ...
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Accurate baseline data are essential for researchers to determine an intervention’s effects yet may be affected by anticipatory anxiety and assessment familiarity. Familiarization sessions help establish accurate baseline data. High-intensity functional training (HIFT) elicits performance outcomes based on constantly varied workouts. It is unclear how familiarization affects anticipatory anxiety and workout performance among HIFT novices. Familiarization was hypothesized to decrease anxiety and improve workout performance. Sixteen college-aged subjects (62.5% women, 20.2 ± 1.14 years) completed one introductory and four sessions of the same workout. All subjects were recreationally trained with no HIFT experience. State and trait anxiety were assessed at the first session. During the workout sessions, state anxiety (SQALS) was assessed upon arrival at the gym (SQALS 1), after learning the workout protocol (SQALS 2), and when the workout concluded (SQALS 3). A significant main effect of the number of previous sessions on workout performance was observed (p = 0.011). A repeated-measures ANOVA showed a main effect of time on SQALS 1 (p < 0.001), SQALS 2 (p < 0.001), and SQALS 3 (p < 0.001). Our results suggest implementing two familiarization sessions for our HIFT-based workout was sufficient to decrease anxiety and establish a baseline measurement. Future research should examine if this remains true for other types of HIFT-based workouts.
... The central nervous system is so named because it integrates information it receives, and coordinates and influences the activity of all parts of the body. Anxiety affects sympathetic nervous system activity and accordingly body functioning, diminishing a person's ability to function effectively and efficiently (Khan et al., 2017). ...
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Test anxiety remains a challenge for students and has considerable physiological and psychological impacts. The routine practice of slow, Device-Guided Breathing (DGB) is a major component of behavioral treatments for anxiety conditions. This paper addresses the effectiveness of using DGB as a self-treatment clinical tool for test anxiety reduction. This pilot study sample included 21 healthy men and women, all college students, between the ages of 20 and 30. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: DGB practice ( n = 10) and wait-list control ( n = 11). At the beginning and the end of 3-weeks DGB training, participants underwent a stress test, followed by measures of blood pressure and reported anxiety. Anxiety reduction in the DGB group as compared to controls was not statistically significant, but showed a large effect size. Accordingly, the clinical outcomes suggested that daily practice of DGB may lead to reduced anxiety. We assume that such reduction may lead to improved test performance. Our results suggest an alternative treatment for test anxiety that may also be relevant for general anxiety, which is likely to increase due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
... Athletes who express a lack of support have demonstrated heightened academic anxiety (Li et al., 2021) and degradation of athletic identity, or the "strength with which people identify with and embrace their role as an athlete" (Graupensperger et al., 2020). Additionally, research has found links between heightened feelings of anxiety and decreased athletic performance (Khan et al., 2017); so it is vital from both an ethical and a business standpoint that collegiate athletic organizations be able to fully understand the sentiments of their constituent athletes. ...
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Student-athletes at the Division I institutions face a slew of challenges and stressors that can have negative impacts in eliciting different emotional responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. We employed machine-learning-based natural language processing techniques to analyze the user-generated content posted on Twitter of Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) student-athletes to study changes in their sentiment as it relates to the COVID-19 crisis, major societal events, and policy decisions. Our analysis found that positive sentiment slightly outweighed negative sentiment overall, but that there was a noticeable uptick in negative sentiment in May and June 2020 in conjunction with the Black Lives Matter protests. The most commonly expressed emotions by these athletes were joy, trust, anticipation, and fear, suggesting that they used social media as an outlet to share primarily optimistic sentiments, while still publicly expressing strong negative sentiments like fear and trepidation about the pandemic and other important contemporary events. Athletic administrators, ACC coaches, support staff, and other professionals can use findings like these to guide sound, evidence-based decision-making and to better track and promote the emotional wellness of student-athletes.
... Various factors such as athletes' high expectation of success in competitions, failures, anxiety for injury or social pressure increase the level of anxiety. In this respect, the capacity of the athletes to control the anxiety that occurs before and during the competition and to cope with high anxiety is one of the determinants of the competition performance (Khan et al., 2017). ...
... Since performance anxiety is just a subcategory of general anxiety, it is logical to conclude that athletes would experience the same positive effects on performance anxiety from interaction with animals as described above. The effects on performance anxiety on performance tend to be negative and include a loss of attention and focus, forgetfulness, difficulty with making decisions, muscle tension, fast heart rate, fast breathing, poor communication, unfriendliness, and reduced productivity (Khan et al., 2017). All of these symptoms have the ability to negatively affect every aspect of performance from physiological ability, cognitive capacity, and ability to be a good teammate. ...
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To gain an edge in performance, athletes, coaches, trainers, and sport psychologists worldwide leverage findings from psychological research to develop training and performance strategies. The field of sport psychology draws upon research on stress, anxiety, mindfulness, and team building to develop these strategies. Here, we introduce human-animal interaction as a potential area of research that may apply to athletic performance. Structured interactions with animals—particularly therapy dogs—can provide physiological benefits associated with stress and the oxytocin system, psychological benefits for anxiety and motivation, and social benefits through social support. Yet these effects have not yet been systematically investigated in athletes. Integration of human-animal interactions into athletics can occur through animal visitation programmes and resident therapy animal programmes. Integrating human-animal interactions into athletics presents some unique challenges and limitations that must be considered before implementing these programmes, and these interactions are not a panacea that will work in every situation. But, given the amount of human-animal interaction research suggesting benefits in medicine, mental health, and education contexts, it is worthwhile exploring potential benefits not just for athletic performance, but also for injury prevention and recovery. Highlights • Human–animal interaction is a potential area of research that may apply to athletic performance. • Structured interactions with animals can provide physiological, psychological, and social benefits to athletes, through it is not a panacea that will work in every situation. • Integrating human–animal interactions into athletics presents some unique challenges and limitations that must be considered before implementing these programs.
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Sports psychology manages feelings and limiting impacts of damage and expands execution sports psychology additionally gives aptitudes like objective setting, unwinding, perception, self-talk, self-assurance, mindfulness and control and focus etc. Anxiety is a drawn out condition of dread. This study investigates competitive state anxiety among athletes of district Rohtak and differences among them according to gender and their respective area. For this, a sample of one hundred and twenty athletes (sixty female and sixty male) belonging to both urban and rural areas was taken by applying random sampling method. To collect the information, Anxiety Inventory given by Sud and Sud (1997) and Modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) given by Martens et al., (1990) were used. Further, for analyzing the collected data, along with basic tools-mean and standard deviation, t test has been used. The author finds-(i) no significant difference in competitive state anxiety among female and male athletes belonging to district Rohtak; and (ii) Rural athletes have less competitive state anxiety than urban athletes.
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Purpose This systematic review was designed to assess the existence of a potential bidirectional relationship between competitive anxiety and sport performance among professional athletes. Psychotherapists believe that the relationship between these 2 parameters can be directly proportional and, moreover, can go both ways, as they have systematically observed in the general population. Methods For this purpose, a number of 45 descriptive studies were selected from the cybernetic literature to estimate the level of anxiety in competitive athletes, the variables that may influence this parameter and the level of performance achieved as a result. Without therapeutic intervention, anxiety parameters and its covariates were assessed to detect the influence on sport performance and predict the outcome of a competition based on these concepts. Results The systematic review of these studies revealed that competitive anxiety has a major and statistically significant influence on the competitive situation a an athlete, having an important action on their career in the short and long term. Conclusions This analysis has succeeded in demonstrating that a certain degree of anxiety, within the limits imposed by the game experience and through fine psychological mechanisms, can become an asset in terms of achieving the chosen goal in the athlete’s career.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kecemasan yang dialami oleh atlet futsal putri sebelum kompetisi. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah survei kuantitatif deskriptif yang melibatkan 19 atlet futsal putri. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan kuesioner dengan kategori dikotomi. Data dianalisis menggunakan statistik deskriptif, disajikan dalam rata-rata dan standar deviasi. Hasil penelitian ini adalah 3 atlet memiliki tingkat kecemasan yang sangat rendah (15,8%), 4 atlet memiliki tingkat kecemasan yang rendah (21,1%), 3 atlet tingkat kecemasan sedang (15,8%), 6 atlet memiliki tingkat kecemasan tinggi (31,6%) dan 3 atlet memiliki tingkat kecemasan yang sangat tinggi (15,8%). Temuan dalam penelitian ini yaitu tingkat kecemasan masing-masing pemain berbeda, di samping itu pengalaman bertanding dapat menjadi salah satu faktor tekait kecemasan dalam melaksanakan pertandingan. Dengan terdeteksinya kecemasan pemain, maka pelatih dapat menurunkan komposisi pemain terbaiknya sehingga pemain dapat memberikan kemampuan yang maksimal.
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As interest grows in mindfulness training as a psychosocial intervention, it is increasingly important to quantify this construct to facilitate empirical investigation. The goal of the present studies was to develop a brief self-report measure of mindfulness with items that cover the breadth of the construct and that are written in everyday language. The resulting 12-item measure demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity with concurrent measures of mindfulness, distress, well-being, emotion-regulation, and problem-solving approaches in three samples of university students. To address potential construct contamination in two items, data are also presented on an alternate 10-item version of the measure.
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Entirely revised and updated, this new edition of a very well-received and successful book provides the essentials for all those involved in the fields of intellectual, developmental and learning disabilities and mental retardation, drawing both on clinical experience and the latest research findings. An international, multidisciplinary team of experts cover the available literature in full and bring together the most relevant and useful information on mental health and behavioural problems of people with intellectual, developmental and learning disabilities and mental retardation. In addition, this book highlights the principles behind clinical practice for assessment, management and services. It offers hands-on, practical advice for psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, therapists, social workers, managers and service providers.
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This paper examines the relationship between anxiety and performance from a cognitive-behavioral perspective. Previous research in the field has suggested that the majority of consultations conducted by sport psychologists are related to anxiety. Included is a discussion on the theoretical underpinnings of anxiety and how it relates to performance. Research conducted on the relationship between anxiety and performance is also discussed. A review of the cognitive-behavioral treatments that have been used for anxiety reduction and performance enhancement within the field of athletics is included. Suggestions for future research and practical considerations are listed in the conclusion.
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This paper explores the impact of high public debt on long-run economic growth. The analysis, based on a panel of advanced and emerging economies over almost four decades, takes into account a broad range of determinants of growth as well as various estimation issues including reverse causality and endogeneity. In addition, threshold effects, nonlinearities, and differences between advanced and emerging market economies are examined. The empirical results suggest an inverse relationship between initial debt and subsequent growth, controlling for other determinants of growth: on average, a 10 percentage point increase in the initial debt-to-GDP ratio is associated with a slowdown in annual real per capita GDP growth of around 0.2 percentage points per year, with the impact being somewhat smaller in advanced economies. There is some evidence of nonlinearity with higher levels of initial debt having a proportionately larger negative effect on subsequent growth. Analysis of the components of growth suggests that the adverse effect largely reflects a slowdown in labor productivity growth mainly due to reduced investment and slower growth of capital stock.
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