Article

Assessing fishing effects inside and outside an MPA: The impact of the Galapagos Marine Reserve on the Industrial pelagic tuna fisheries during the first decade of operation

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Abstract

The conservation benefits of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR), created in March 1998, have been consistently proved for endemic species and populations with limited movements. Yet, to date, no study has explored its effects on highly-migratory pelagic species, such as tuna. To this end, the impact of the GMR on the behavior and productivity of tuna fisheries in this region is analyzed. After considering other potential factors, which occurred approximately over the same period (i.e. increase of fleet size, changes in fishing technology, and climatic events, among others), it was found that the creation of the GMR increased fishing productivity in both the Galapagos Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding the GMR, as well as inside the marine reserve. However, the effect was heterogenous among tuna species-the GMR had a positive impact on the fishing productivity of yellowfin tuna (YFT) and skipjack tuna (SKJ) fisheries, but did not have any significant effect on that of bigeye tuna (BET). Then, it is proposed that the GMR effect might be dissipated by the overuse of Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs), especially in the case of BET.

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... During the last decade, T. albacares, K. pelamis and A. solandri have become resources of commercial importance for the artisanal fishing fleet that operates within the Galapagos Marine Reserve and its surroundings (Castrejon and Charles 2013;Bucaram et al. 2018). However, despite the ecological importance of these species within the trophic dynamics of the region, little is known about their foraging and spatial ecology. ...
... The Galapagos Islands (Fig. 1) are located within an upwelling system due to the confluence of ocean currents and have historically been important for the industrial purse seine tuna fishery, targeting both T. albacares and K. pelamis (Bucaram et al. 2018). The Galapagos Marine Reserve, created in 1998, excluded industrial fishing from an area of approximately 138,000 km 2 around the island group, but a small-scale fishery of 400 local fiberglass vessels based on the inhabited islands targets these species for local consumption and export (Hearn 2008;Bucaram et al. 2018). ...
... The Galapagos Islands (Fig. 1) are located within an upwelling system due to the confluence of ocean currents and have historically been important for the industrial purse seine tuna fishery, targeting both T. albacares and K. pelamis (Bucaram et al. 2018). The Galapagos Marine Reserve, created in 1998, excluded industrial fishing from an area of approximately 138,000 km 2 around the island group, but a small-scale fishery of 400 local fiberglass vessels based on the inhabited islands targets these species for local consumption and export (Hearn 2008;Bucaram et al. 2018). ...
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There is a great need to understand how resource interactions alter the functioning of ecosystems, where the selective elimination of pelagic fishes can lead to changes in food web structure. This work analyzes the trophic niches of three species of commercial importance in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (TA), skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis (KP), and wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri (AS), via multiple analyses. According to the prey-specific index of relative importance, the most important prey for TA was Dosidicus gigas, while for AS it was unidentified pelagic fish. Interspecific differences were found between the isotopic signatures of AS and those of TA and KP. The isotope mixing model provides evidence for some predominance of D. gigas in the diets of TA and KP, while the fishes Selar crumenophthalmus and Paranthias colonus contribute to the diet of AS. The stable isotope Bayesian ellipses show a high overlap between TA and KP, suggesting a similar use of resources and feeding areas, while the ellipse of AS does not overlap with that of the other species. Both AS and TA were present around the islands more commonly during the day, with a peak in detections in the morning for AS and a greater presence of TA throughout the afternoon; there were only a few detections of KP in the days immediately after tagging. In summary, the results of this study suggest a pelagic foraging strategy with differential consumption of prey between AS and the other species.
... Where MPAs have been documented to result in spillover of fished species that increase in local abundance as a result of site-based protection from fishing mortality, the spillover effect was detectable over very small distances (100s of meters) from the MPA boundary ). However, it is possible that the spatial extent of a spillover effect could extend over tens to hundreds of km (e.g., see Boerder et al. 2017, Bucaram et al. 2018. ...
... Similar to Boerder et al. (2017), Bucaram et al. (2018) assessed the effects of the Galapagos Marine Reserve on Ecuadorian tuna purse seine catch rates, relative local abundance of tuna species, and the spatial distribution of fishing effort. Following enforcement of the reserve, fishing-theline was observed southwest of the reserve. ...
... These studies did not assess absolute abundance responses to the MPA. Thus, the findings of Boerder et al. (2017) and Bucaram et al (2018) support possible tuna local abundance responses to the Galapagos Marine Reserve, where a counterfactual assessment approach would provide a more certain understanding (section Counterfactual Reasoning). ...
Article
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There has been a recent proliferation of large-scale marine protected areas (MPAs) containing pelagic habitats. These contribute substantially towards meeting the area-based goal of Aichi Biodiversity Target 11 and to managing pelagic ecosystem pressures, including fishing. We assessed theoretical and empirical evidence for the achievement of ecological objectives by static and dynamic spatial management of pelagic fisheries. Exceptionally few studies have assessed ecological responses to MPAs that constrain pelagic fisheries, leaving substantial uncertainty over their efficacy. Assessments have provided a limited basis for causal inferences, and have not evaluated whether other management tools would be more effective. Pelagic MPAs have relatively high promise to mitigate fisheries bycatch of species of conservation concern with ‘slow’ life history traits and that form temporally and spatially predictable hotspots, and for some species, to protect habitats important for critical life history stages. It would be challenging to design MPAs to maintain absolute biomass levels of target stocks near targets and above limits: MPAs would need to be extensive to account for broad and variable distributions, and account for catch risk outside of the MPA, including from displaced fishing effort and fishing-the-line. For non-overexploited stocks, which is the status of most target pelagic species and their prey, there would likely be little response in absolute stock biomass to an MPA. While pelagic MPAs have a higher promise of increasing target stocks’ local abundance, evidence with a robust basis for inferring causality is needed. Reducing fishing mortality of prey species might not affect the biomass of their pelagic predators because prey species experience light fishing pressure and because there may be a weak correlation between the absolute abundance of forage fish and their predators. There is an especially limited basis for predicting the effects of MPAs on fisheries-induced evolution (FIE) in pelagic species. We describe how pelagic MPAs could be designed to achieve five ecological objectives without causing cross-taxa conflicts and exacerbating FIE. To fill substantial gaps in knowledge, we prescribe counterfactual-based modeling of time series data of standardized catch records to infer causation in assessments of ecological responses to pelagic MPAs.
... The geography of fishing displacement by LSMPAs and spatial ecology of tuna will shape the consequences of the policy interactions for tuna conservation. Tuna are highly mobile and capable of long-distance travel (Bucaram et al., 2018). The interactions may be synergistic if the LSMPAs are protecting sites that are ecologically important for tuna. ...
... Kiribati's claim that PIPA provides some protection for spawning has been confirmed (Hernández et al., 2019). However, tuna are known to spawn across their ranges and more research is needed to understand the importance of spatially fixed LSMPAs for tuna (Bucaram et al., 2018;Koido & Suzuki, 1989). ...
Article
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Large‐scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs) have proliferated in recent years, now accounting for most of the world's MPA coverage. However, little is known about LSMPA outcomes and the factors that affect them. Here we argue that policy interactions—the cumulative effect of co‐existing policies for an issue and/or geographical area—can play a critical, but under‐recognized, role in influencing LSMPA design and outcomes. We analyze interactions between national LSMPAs within Palau and Kiribati, and regional fisheries management established by the Nauru Agreement to show how policy actors can account for policy interactions in LSMPA design, and to demonstrate the profound influence that policy interactions can have on the economic and conservation outcomes of LSMPAS. We draw on our analysis to distill lessons for our case studies and LSMPAs globally. We emphasize that policy interactions are dynamic and malleable: they should be proactively managed to stimulate synergy and address conflict. Understanding and managing policy interactions is complex and context‐specific, requiring dedicated resources, cross‐sectoral coordination, and sophisticated scientific and practical policy expertise. To avoid undesirable consequences and capitalize on opportunities to secure multiple benefits, we recommend that policy actors systematically evaluate, monitor, and adapt to policy interactions throughout LSMPA design and implementation.
... Cabe destacar que el Código Integral Penal del Ecuador prohíbe expresamente este delito en áreas de reserva, y esa fue la razón para su aprehensión. Más tarde se demostró que este buque era parte de un convoy de pesca de altamar y que opera en aguas alrededor de las islas Galápagos (Cutlip, 2017) (Alava & Paladines, 2017). Además, que está embarcación ingresó al mar territorial y aguas interiores de la región insular sin autorización de las autoridades competentes, lo que motivo su inspección y posterior aprehensión por parte de la Armada delk Ecuador. ...
... En 1998 el Ecuador realizó un enorme esfuerzo al establecer la Reserva Marina de Galápagos, RMG, los estudios demuestran que los beneficios de esta acción han producido un incremento en la captura de atún por la flota ecuatoriana especialmente en el área de la Zona Económica Exclusiva, más allá de la RMG, con una alta concentración de lances al suroeste de las islas (Bucaram et al., 2018). La pesca del atún es importante para la industria pesquera ecuatoriana, por lo tanto el aseguramiento de la sostenibilidad de los recursos y de su capacidad de recuperación no es solamente un asunto de soberanía alimentaria, sino indirectamente un tema que atenta a la estabilidad socioeconómico del país, por la proporción de la población vinculada con esta actividad. ...
Article
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Recibido 15 de diciembre 2018, aceptado después de revisión al 09 de enero 2019 RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar y analizar los datos del esfuerzo pesquero tomados de la base de datos de la organización Global Fishing Watch, con el fin de identificar y zonificar en el territorio marítimo ecuatoriano, las áreas de mayor probabilidad de actividad de pesca ilegal, no declarada y no reglamentada, INDNR. Se utiliza el método kernel para la estimación no paramétrica de funciones de densidad, con el objetivo de obtener las áreas más densas de esfuerzo pesquero, es decir, áreas en el mar donde existe cierta preferencia para realizar esta actividad por parte de los pescadores. Se complementa el análisis espacial, con el análisis temporal de ese esfuerzo de pesca, asimismo se identifica las banderas de los barcos que realizan faenas de pesca al interior de la zona económica exclusiva, tanto de la región insular como de la costa continental. Palabras Clave: Global Fishing Watch, territorio marítimo ecuatoriano, pesca ilegal, análisis espacial, análisis temporal ABSTRACT The main aim of this study has been to evaluate and analyze the fishing effort data obtained from the database of the organization Global Fishing Watch, with the purpose of identifying and zoning in the Ecuadorian maritime territory. These are the areas with the highest probability of illegal fishing activity , which not declared and not regulated, IUU. The kernel method has been applied for the non-parametric estimation of density functions, with the purpose of obtaining the densest areas of fishing effort, that is, areas in the sea where there is a certain preference to carry out this activity on the part of the fishermen. The spatial analysis is complemented with the temporal analysis of this fishing effort, as well as the flags of the boats that conduct fishing operations within the exclusive economic zone, both in the insular region and on the continental coast.
... On-board observer and Automatic Identification System (AIS) vessel tracking data indicated that four times more purse seine sets for tuna were deployed within 20 km from the reserve boundaries compared to the rest of the study area (400 km) between 2011 and 2015 [94]. In addition, since 1990 catch, effort and catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) distributions in the wider area have shifted closer to the reserve boundaries where overall declining catch trends of the three major tuna species appeared to be buffered by spillover of adult fish from the reserve [94,95]. Impacts of the reserve were most pronounced for yellowfin and skipjack tuna, which showed increased productivity both inside and around the GMR [95]. ...
... In addition, since 1990 catch, effort and catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) distributions in the wider area have shifted closer to the reserve boundaries where overall declining catch trends of the three major tuna species appeared to be buffered by spillover of adult fish from the reserve [94,95]. Impacts of the reserve were most pronounced for yellowfin and skipjack tuna, which showed increased productivity both inside and around the GMR [95]. ...
Article
Spatial protection measures have become ubiquitous in fisheries management and marine conservation. Implemented for diverse objectives from stock rebuilding to biodiversity protection and ecosystem management, spatial measures range from temporary fisheries closures to marine protected areas with varying levels of protection. Ecological and economic benefits from spatial protection have been demonstrated for many reef and demersal species, but remain debated and un-derstudied for highly migratory fishes, such as tunas, billfishes, and pelagic sharks. Here we summarize the spatial extent of fisheries closures implemented by the tuna RFMOs as well as marine protected areas worldwide, which together cover ∼15% of global ocean area. We furthermore synthesize results from modeling and tagging studies as well as fisheries-dependent research to provide an overview of the efficacy and benefits of present spatial protection measures for large pelagic fishes and their associated fisheries. We conclude that (1) many species with known migration routes, aggregating behavior, and philopatry can benefit from spatial protection; but (2) spatial protection alone is insufficient and should be integrated with effective fisheries management to protect and rebuild stocks of highly migratory species. We suggest tailoring spatial protection to the biology of large pelagic fishes, including improved protection for aggregation sites and migration corridors. These features currently appear to be an important-yet overlooked-opportunity to safeguard depleted and recovering stocks and protect pelagic biodiversity. New remote-sensing tools that track pelagic fishes and fishing vessels may provide timely support for improved spatial management in waters that were previously difficult to observe.
... Artificial reefs are important elements in the coastal management plans of several countries (Guan et al. 2016, Bucaram et al. 2018. Most research on artificial reefs, to date, has focused on marine environments in subtropical regions (Firth et al. 2016, Bull and Love 2019, Cresson et al. 2019. ...
... Studies that map the occurrence and suppression of species, monitor fishing resources, and analyze the efficiency of reef complexes with and without protection should be encouraged (Seaman Jr. 2000, Andriesse 2018. A conservation program in these areas is just one of the initiatives that provides an option for increasing fishing resources (Bucaram et al. 2018). Conservation programs combined with largescale monitoring and a reduction in fishing fleets also have the potential to halt the current decline of fisheries and provide a sustainable increase in fishing production . ...
... Artificial reefs are important elements in the coastal management plans of several countries (Guan et al. 2016, Bucaram et al. 2018. Most research on artificial reefs, to date, has focused on marine environments in subtropical regions (Firth et al. 2016, Bull and Love 2019, Cresson et al. 2019. ...
... Studies that map the occurrence and suppression of species, monitor fishing resources, and analyze the efficiency of reef complexes with and without protection should be encouraged (Seaman Jr. 2000, Andriesse 2018. A conservation program in these areas is just one of the initiatives that provides an option for increasing fishing resources (Bucaram et al. 2018). Conservation programs combined with largescale monitoring and a reduction in fishing fleets also have the potential to halt the current decline of fisheries and provide a sustainable increase in fishing production . ...
Chapter
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This study provides a review of the main published studies on artificial reefs to evaluate scientific trends, impacts and challenges for the development of artificial reef research. The review includes more than 620 studies published worldwide from 1962 to 2018. In general, publications on artificial reefs have focused on investigating the ability for artificial reefs to attract fishing resources and on constructing artificial reef structures with new materials. Artificial reef science has made significant advances in recent decades with the increased use of more elaborate construction methods and data analyses. Nevertheless, the field has encountered difficulties in minimizing the negative effects of some materials, filling gaps in socio-economic data, developing integrated management assessments and overcoming regional inequalities. There are promising opportunities to overcome these obstacles that depend on the development of inert materials, an increase in the number of long-term and large-scale studies, the regulation of an evaluation protocol, the development of conservation policies and investments in scientific dissemination. We hope that this systematic review can not only advance artificial reef science but also provide important information for overcoming obstacles to the future development of this topic.
... It is important to note that despite the protection granted by the Galapagos Marine Reserve, this endemic species is not free from regional-scale perturbations of highly productive waters. The direct threat of competition and pollution generated by the eastern Pacific industrial tuna fleet, which concentrates its fishing activity in this region (Bucaram et al., 2018;Ventura et al., 2019), and the projected severe climate extremes menacing the stability of this system (Wang et al., 2017;Cai et al., 2018;Forryan et al., 2021) are stark threats to the long-term persistence of this endangered species, given its high reliance on local upwelling. Here, we propose that the elevated marine productivity in the west of the archipelago represents areas of high-quality habitat selected by individuals across several generations, reinforcing the observed patterns of genetic differentiation in GFS. ...
Article
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Pinnipeds found across islands provide an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary process of population subdivision affected by several mechanisms. Here, we report the genetic consequences of the geographic distribution of rookeries in Galapagos fur seals (GFS: Arctocephalus galapagoensis) in creating population structure. We show that rookeries across four islands (nine rookeries) are genetically structured into the following major groups: 1) a western cluster of individuals from Fernandina; 2) a central group from north and east Isabela, Santiago, and Pinta; and possibly, 3) a third cluster in the northeast from Pinta. Furthermore, asymmetric levels of gene flow obtained from eight microsatellites found migration from west Isabela to Fernandina islands (number of migrants Nm = 1), with imperceptible Nm in any other direction. Our findings suggest that the marked structuring of populations recovered in GFS is likely related to an interplay between long-term site fidelity and long-distance migration in both male and female individuals, probably influenced by varying degrees of marine productivity.
... Seasonal, interannual and decadal climate variations are important factors influencing the distribution and abundance of pelagic fishes (Bertrand et al., 2004;Bucaram et al., 2018;Yu et al., 2018). In our work, where communities were comprised mostly of demersal reef fish, abundance and richness at the community level appear to be attributes that remain stable over time, even though fluctuations do occur in some species. ...
Article
The main effects of El Niño and La Niña on fish are increases in mortality rates, abundance and recruitment variation, and expansion/restriction in the range of distribution and spawning areas. Potentially, the interactions with seasonal effects can further exacerbate or dampen fluctuations in these parameters. The objective of this work, therefore, was to characterize the possible differences in the reef fish community structure in two seasons of the year (warm/cold) and between years (2010/2012) following El Niño-La Niña events. There were no significant differences in mean species richness between years. Furthermore, although more than twice the number of individuals was observed in the year after La Niña (2012) compared to the year following El Niño (2010), there were no significant differences with respect to mean abundance per transect. The total number of species recorded was slightly higher in the cold season, with 68 species across both years. In contrast, the total abundance was higher in the warm season. However, differences between seasons were neither significant for mean species richness nor for mean abundance. Neither season nor year exhibited a significant effect on community composition. The cold season in the Gulf of California is characterized by intense winds which generate a greater mixed layer; this, in turn, increases productivity, with cascading effects on higher trophic levels. In contrast, the presence of nitrogenfixing picocyanobacteria which increase the levels of primary production may be a factor leading to maintaining a similar fish abundance in the warm season. Fluctuations between seasons and years of study were observed for some individual species, which may be related to oceanic productivity and reproductive periods. The results obtained in this work indicate that seasonality and climatic phenomena such El Niño and La Niña do not have a marked effect on community attributes of rocky reef fish in the southern Gulf of California, which apparently form a seasonally stable community, despite some fluctuations in individual species.
... • MPAs provide protection for marine life that in turn improves regional fisheries in a variety of contexts [51]. • Some MPAs also cause disenchantment with neighboring fishing communities due to conflicts over access rights [31]. ...
Article
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The world’s oceans face unprecedented anthropogenic threats in the globalized era that originate from all over the world, including climate change, global trade and transportation, and pollution. Marine protected areas (MPAs) serve important roles in conservation of marine biodiversity and ecosystem resilience, but their success is increasingly challenged in the face of such large-scale threats. Here, we illustrate the utility of adopting the interdisciplinary telecoupling framework to better understand effects that originate from distant places and cross MPA boundaries (e.g., polluted water circulation, anthropogenic noise transport, human and animal migration). We review evidence of distal processes affecting MPAs and the cutting-edge approaches currently used to investigate these processes. We then introduce the umbrella framework of telecoupling and explain how it can help address knowledge gaps that exist due to limitations of past approaches that are centered within individual disciplines. We then synthesize five examples from the recent telecoupling literature to explore how the telecoupling framework can be used for MPA research. These examples include the spatial subsidies approach, adapted social network analysis, telecoupled qualitative analysis, telecoupled supply chain analysis, and decision support tools for telecoupling. Our work highlights the potential for the telecoupling framework to better understand and address the mounting and interconnected socioeconomic and environmental sustainability challenges faced by the growing number of MPAs around the world.
... We therefore suggest that yellowfin tuna and swordfish could still be harvested at the identified hotspots but using fishing methods that can reduce the risk of bycatch of protected species. Importantly, the Galapagos platform is a nursery habitat for yellowfin tuna (Bucaram et al., 2018), thus the extraction of this species should be strictly managed through the use of regulated and monitored fishing alternatives such as pole-fishing and fish aggregation devices (Moina et al., 2018). These fishing alternatives in such hotspots could cover the harvesting of pelagic fish in the GMR while avoiding longlining. ...
Article
Marine megafauna (elasmobranchs, marine mammals, turtles, and seabirds) are important ecologically and economically because many species often occupy upper trophic levels as adults and are essential for marine-based tourism in many areas of the world. This group of species is also heavily impacted by fishing because most have late sexual maturity, longevity, and low reproductive output, which affects their ability to recover from depletion. In Galapagos, marine megafauna species are protected from fishing throughout the marine reserve and are the main attraction for marine-based tourism, helping generate millions of dollars in revenue annually. Despite their importance in the archipelago, these species are being caught as bycatch in the multiple artisanal longlining projects that have been carried out since the implementation of the reserve in 1998. Longlining was originally proposed as a way of redirecting fishing effort from the severely depleted coastal-demersal species to pelagic fish such as yellowfin tuna and swordfish. Although all these projects have resulted in high bycatch of megafauna, longline fishing projects have continued without independent scientific studies to evaluate their impact, largely due to poor objective definition, data collection, and enforcement. To fill in this knowledge gap, we analyzed data of the fifth experimental longline fishing project undertaken in 2012–2013 to describe the fishery, identify variables affecting the composition and quantity of bycatch, and suggest mitigation strategies. This experimental project had twelve vessels, which deployed 42,007 hooks catching 4893 individuals of 33 species, mostly yellowfin tuna and swordfish. Of those, 16 species were protected megafauna, particularly blacktip sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus) and oceanic manta (Mobula birostris). These species were regularly captured during the two seasons and in the three bioregions that occur in the archipelago, suggesting little potential to mitigate their catch. As an alternative, we identified 14 hotspots where yellowfin tuna and swordfish could be harvested in large numbers sustainably through more selective fishing techniques such as pole fishing, a method that is also more economical for artisanal fishers. In an archipelago where the main economic activity is marine wildlife tourism, the implementation of an extractive and unselective activity such as pelagic longing fishing should be avoided to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos marine ecosystem and its booming tourism industry.
... This is what Ferraro et al. (2018) refer to as no interference. However, Bucaram et al. (2018) attempt to experimentally assess the impact of a marine protected area (MPA), with the analysis of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). The authors conduct an evaluation of three types of pelagic tuna species and the influence of the MPA in terms of productivity for the industrial tuna fleet in the GMR, the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and a control area. ...
Technical Report
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Coastal zones are among the most economically productive areas of the world. However, they are also among the most vulnerable regions to disasters triggered by natural hazards. Recent recognition of the role of healthy coastal and marine ecosystems for reducing vulnerability in coastal communities has led to the design of coastal management strategies that incorporate direct investments in these ecosystems. However, there is a lack of knowledge and understanding of the economic benefits of coastal and marine ecosystems for society, which has led to the degradation of these ecosystems and hindered the prospects of sustainable investments in coastal resilience projects, including green infrastructure. In this paper, we analyze the economic importance and ongoing threats of the main marine and coastal ecosystems of the Wider Caribbean region, and identify the underlying economic causes of their deterioration. The need to improve coastal resilience in the Wider Caribbean has led to innovative approaches for the protection of coastal zones and their population from erosion and flood risk, prioritizing the role of marine and coastal ecosystems for coastal protection and vulnerability reduction in coastal communities. Based on this review, we develop an analytical framework for economic analyses and impact evaluations of coastal restoration and protection programs, with the objective of allowing practitioners to properly identify the cost-effectiveness of nature-based solutions for coastal resilience.
... Esto es lo que Ferraro et al. (2018) refieren como "sin interferencia". Sin embargo, Bucaram et al. (2018) intentan evaluar experimentalmente el impacto de un AMP, con el análisis de la Reserva Marina de Galápagos (RMG). Los autores realizan una evaluación de tres tipos de especies de atún pelágico y la influencia del AMP en términos de productividad para la flota atunera industrial en la RMG, la zona económica exclusiva (ZEE) y un área de control. ...
Technical Report
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Coastal population is among the most vulnerable to disasters triggered by natural hazards. Recent recognition of the role of coastal and marine ecosystems for reducing vulnerability in coastal communities has led to incorporate direct investments in these ecosystems. However, there is a lack of knowledge and understanding of their economic benefits, and that has hindered the investments on these ecosystems, including natural infrastructure. In this paper, we analyze the main economic analysis tools for assessing protection and restauration coastal projects, and identify the innovations and challenges associated. Based on this review, we develop an analytical framework for ex ante and ex post economic analyses of these investments, what will allow the identification of benefits of nature-based solutions for coastal resilience. This document is a version in Spanish of the IDB publication: Maldonado, J.H., Moreno-Sánchez, R., Vargas-Morales, M., Henao, J.P., González, Y., Guerrero, R., Schling, M. (2020). Innovation in economic analysis and evaluation approaches for coastal protection and restoration investments in the Caribbean. Technical Note No. IDB-TN-01861, Inter-American Development Bank. 83p. available at: https://publications.iadb.org/en/innovation-economic-analysis-and-evaluation-approaches-coastalprotection-and-restoration.
... Esto es lo que Ferraro et al. (2018) refieren como "sin interferencia". Sin embargo, Bucaram et al. (2018) intentan evaluar experimentalmente el impacto de un AMP, con el análisis de la Reserva Marina de Galápagos (RMG). Los autores realizan una evaluación de tres tipos de especies de atún pelágico y la influencia del AMP en términos de productividad para la flota atunera industrial en la RMG, la zona económica exclusiva (ZEE) y un área de control. ...
... Where MPAs have been documented to result in spillover of fished species that increase in local abundance as a result of site-based protection from fishing mortality, the spillover effect was detectable over very small distances (100s of meters) from the MPA boundary [91]. However, it is possible that the spatial extent of a spillover effect could extend over tens to hundreds of km (e.g., see [92][93]). ...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs) can contribute to protecting biodiversity and managing ocean activities, including fishing. There is, however, limited evidence of ecological responses to blue water MPAs. We conducted the first comprehensive evaluation of impacts on fisheries production and ecological responses to pelagic MPAs of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument. A Bayesian time series-based counterfactual modelling approach using fishery-dependent data was used to compare the temporal response in the MPAs to three reference regions for standardized catch rates, lengths, tro-phic level of the catch and species diversity. Catch rates of bigeye tuna, the main target species (Kingman/Palmyra MPA, causal effect probability >99% of an 84% reduction; 95% credible interval:-143%,-25%), and blue shark (Johnston MPAs, causal effect probability >95%) were significantly lower and longnose lancetfish significantly higher (Johnston MPAs, causal effect probability >95%) than predicted had the MPAs not been established, possibly from closing areas near shallow features, which aggregate pelagic predators, and from 'fishing-the-line'. There were no apparent causal impacts of the MPAs on species diversity, lengths and trophic level of the catch, perhaps because the MPAs were young, were too small, did not contain critical habitat for specific life-history stages, had been lightly exploited or experienced fishing-the-line. We also assessed model-standardized catch rates for species of conservation concern and mean trophic level of the catch within and outside of MPAs. Displaced effort produced multi-species conflicts: MPAs protect bycatch hot-spots and hotspots of bycatch-to-target catch ratios for some at-risk species, but coldspots for others. Mean trophic level of the catch was significantly higher around MPAs, likely due to the aggregating effect of the shallow features and there having been light fishing pressure within MPAs. These findings demonstrate how exploring a wide range of ecological responses supports evidence-based evaluations of blue water MPAs.
... Where MPAs have been documented to result in spillover of fished species that increase in local abundance as a result of site-based protection from fishing mortality, the spillover effect was detectable over very small distances (100s of meters) from the MPA boundary [91]. However, it is possible that the spatial extent of a spillover effect could extend over tens to hundreds of km (e.g., see [92][93]). ...
Article
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) can contribute to protecting biodiversity and managing ocean activities, including fishing. There is, however, limited evidence of ecological responses to blue water MPAs. We conducted the first comprehensive evaluation of impacts on fisheries production and ecological responses to pelagic MPAs of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument. A Bayesian time series-based counterfactual modelling approach using fishery-dependent data was used to compare the temporal response in the MPAs to three reference regions for standardized catch rates, lengths, tro-phic level of the catch and species diversity. Catch rates of bigeye tuna, the main target species (Kingman/Palmyra MPA, causal effect probability >99% of an 84% reduction; 95% credible interval:-143%,-25%), and blue shark (Johnston MPAs, causal effect probability >95%) were significantly lower and longnose lancetfish significantly higher (Johnston MPAs, causal effect probability >95%) than predicted had the MPAs not been established, possibly from closing areas near shallow features, which aggregate pelagic predators, and from 'fishing-the-line'. There were no apparent causal impacts of the MPAs on species diversity, lengths and trophic level of the catch, perhaps because the MPAs were young, were too small, did not contain critical habitat for specific life-history stages, had been lightly exploited or experienced fishing-the-line. We also assessed model-standardized catch rates for species of conservation concern and mean trophic level of the catch within and outside of MPAs. Displaced effort produced multi-species conflicts: MPAs protect bycatch hot-spots and hotspots of bycatch-to-target catch ratios for some at-risk species, but coldspots for others. Mean trophic level of the catch was significantly higher around MPAs, likely due to the aggregating effect of the shallow features and there having been light fishing pressure within MPAs. These findings demonstrate how exploring a wide range of ecological responses supports evidence-based evaluations of blue water MPAs. PLOS ONE PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.
... For example, in the territorial waters around French Islands in the Southern Ocean, radar detecting tags carried by albatrosses are being used to detect large ships operating illegally (Weimerskirch et al. 2019). Further, interactions between large static MPAs and mobile fishing gears, such as fish aggregation devices (FADS) (Bucaram et al. 2018) and industrial fishing fleets around their perimeters (Kroodsma et al. 2018;Curnick et al. 2020) need to be better understood. Given the huge fishing pressures in unregulated high seas fisheries outside protected areas, the importance of large MPAs for pelagic species protection has been stressed (Queiroz et al. 2019). ...
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Given the recent trend towards establishing very large marine protected areas (MPAs) and the high potential of these to contribute to global conservation targets, we review outcomes of the last decade of marine conservation research in the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT), one of the largest MPAs in the world. The BIOT MPA consists of the atolls of the Chagos Archipelago, interspersed with and surrounded by deep oceanic waters. Islands around the atoll rims serve as nesting grounds for sea birds. Extensive and diverse shallow and mesophotic reef habitats provide essential habitat and feeding grounds for all marine life, and the absence of local human impacts may improve recovery after coral bleaching events. Census data have shown recent increases in the abundance of sea turtles, high numbers of nesting seabirds and high fish abundance, at least some of which is linked to the lack of recent harvesting. For example, across the archipelago the annual number of green turtle clutches (Chelonia mydas) is ~ 20,500 and increasing and the number of seabirds is ~ 1 million. Animal tracking studies have shown that some taxa breed and/or forage consistently within the MPA (e.g. some reef fishes, elasmobranchs and seabirds), suggesting the MPA has the potential to provide long-term protection. In contrast, post-nesting green turtles travel up to 4000 km to distant foraging sites, so the protected beaches in the Chagos Archipelago provide a nesting sanctuary for individuals that forage across an ocean basin and several geopolitical borders. Surveys using divers and underwater video systems show high habitat diversity and abundant marine life on all trophic levels. For example, coral cover can be as high as 40-50%. Ecological studies are shedding light on how remote ecosystems function, connect to each other and respond to climate-driven stressors compared to other locations that are more locally impacted. However, important threats to this MPA have been identified, particularly global heating events, and Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing activity, which considerably impact both reef and pelagic fishes.
... As part of wider fisheries governance initiatives, conservation has been deployed as an important management strategy in the rebuilding of depleted marine fish stock [4], and this includes the management of fisheries allowing fish to reproduce during the spawning season before they are harvested [5,6]. A major challenge with marine conservation initiatives concerns the lack of participation and broader consultation of relevant local resource users, as well as restricted access to vital community resources [6,7]. ...
Article
As part of fisheries governance initiatives, conservation has been deployed as an important management strategy in the rebuilding of depleted marine fish stock. However, a major challenge associated with conservation initiatives concerns the lack of participation and broader consultation of relevant local resource users, as well as restricted access to vital community resources. This study investigates the perception of the impacts of a newly introduced seasonal closure on the livelihoods and assets of small-scale coastal fisherfolk in Ghana, as well as the broader issue of local perception of conservation. Based on the conceptual integration of the sustainable livelihoods approach and political ecology insights, a mixed-methods approach was employed consisting of 400 fisherfolk households survey and 42 interviews with key stakeholders. The results reveal that the seasonal closure has led to four main challenges: restricted access to coastal waters, decreased financial capital, decreased fish trading activities and declining small-scale fisheries opportunities. The opinions on the closed season were mostly negative. This can be attributed to the fisherfolk's level of participation and perceived lack of influence in decision-making, the absence of alternative livelihoods and the questionable ecological effectiveness of the closed season. The implications of the findings relate to improving coastal governance and as well as the need to reduce illegal fishing practises. If fisherfolk in sub-Saharan Africa are not sufficiently heard and empowered, drastic measures such as closed seasons are not likely to be effective. The poverty–environment nexus and associated vicious circles cannot be effectively addressed without active local involvement.
... The more recent expansion of large Marine National Monuments in the Pacific Ocean has resulted in only minor species-specific catch changes (Gilman et al., 2020) and no changes to U.S. commercial longline fisheries catch rates (Lynham et al., 2020), although effects may be better detected when more time has elapsed since MPA implementation. The creation of large-scale oceanic MPAs by other nations has resulted in increases (Boerder et al., 2017;Bucaram et al., 2018) or no changes (Curnick et al., 2020) to commercial catches and fisheries profits for highly mobile pelagic species. Not all U.S. MPAs yield clear fisheries benefits and instead can have negative impacts or no appreciable impact (Guenther et al., 2015; but see Lenihan et al., 2021). ...
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a key tool for achieving goals for biodiversity conservation and human well-being, including improving climate resilience and equitable access to nature. At a national level, they are central components in the U.S. commitment to conserve at least 30% of U.S. waters by 2030. By definition, the primary goal of an MPA is the long-term conservation of nature; however, not all MPAs provide the same ecological and social benefits. A U.S. system of MPAs that is equitable, well-managed, representative and connected, and includes areas at a level of protection that can deliver desired outcomes is best positioned to support national goals. We used a new MPA framework, The MPA Guide, to assess the level of protection and stage of establishment of the 50 largest U.S. MPAs, which make up 99.7% of the total U.S. MPA area (3.19 million km2). Over 96% of this area, including 99% of that which is fully or highly protected against extractive or destructive human activities, is in the central Pacific ocean. Total MPA area in other regions is sparse – only 1.9% of the U.S. ocean excluding the central Pacific is protected in any kind of MPA (120,976 km2). Over three quarters of the non-central Pacific MPA area is lightly or minimally protected against extractive or destructive human activities. These results highlight an urgent need to improve the quality, quantity, and representativeness of MPA protection in U.S. waters to bring benefits to human and marine communities. We identify and review the state of the science, including focal areas for achieving desired MPA outcomes and lessons learned from places where sound ecological and social design principles come together in MPAs that are set up to achieve national goals for equity, climate resilience, and biodiversity conservation. We recommend key opportunities for action specific to the U.S. context, including increasing funding, research, equity, and protection level for new and existing U.S. MPAs.
... However, even though MPA designations may displace fishing effort, as Stevenson et al. (2013) observed following the implementation of a MPA network in Hawaii, fishers socioeconomic well-being may not be compromised due to fisher adaptation or market changes. Numerous studies have addressed fishing effort impacts from MPA implementation with mixed findings (e.g., Bucaram et al., 2018;Guenther et al., 2015;Stevenson et al., 2013). Factors affecting support or opposition may vary based on the location, extent, and level of protections for a given MPA. ...
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Over the past several decades marine conservation policy has supported the implementation of protected areas in ocean and coastal environments to restrict some elements of human use for ecological benefits. The appropriate extent of protection and the allowable uses are often the subject of public debate about marine protected area policy. Local community dynamics around marine protected area designation and management have been the subject of much ocean and coastal management social science research. However, broader public opinions and attitudes about marine protected areas are not well understood and are critical for managers seeking to maintain their public trust obligations in environmental management. This paper provides a model for understanding the attitudes and beliefs that foster public support for or opposition to marine protections. We explored the relationships between awareness, attitudes and beliefs towards coastal and marine resource issues and uses, and demographics among a sample of Oregon, USA residents (n = 459), and tested their influence on support for expanding Oregon's recently established marine reserves. We found that Oregonians have relatively low familiarity with Oregon's marine reserve system, but that familiarity did not influence public support for Oregon's marine reserves. Instead public support was lower among coastal residents and those with positive attitudes towards commercial fisheries, and higher for those concerned with the ecological integrity of Oregon's ocean and supportive of some limits to human uses of the ocean. Our findings highlight the need for managers to engage both coastal communities and the general public to make a case for the value of marine protected areas in safeguarding the public trust.
... The wind forcing of the fronts, which are generated by the islands' blocking of the SEC, results in the development of submesoscale instabilities that promote upwelling via entrainment of interior waters into, and deepening of, the mixed layer (Fig. 6). It is this upwelling that forms the basis of the highly productive region along the western border of the Galápagos Marine Reserve, where the eastern Pacific industrial tuna fleet concentrates its fishing activity 23,24 . Further, the reproductive success of many of the endemic species inhabiting the islands, such as the Galápagos fur seal, Galápagos penguin and flightless cormorant, is highly dependent upon this upwelling 7,25 . ...
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The Galápagos archipelago, rising from the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean some 900 km off the South American mainland, hosts an iconic and globally significant biological hotspot. The islands are renowned for their unique wealth of endemic species, which inspired Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and today underpins one of the largest UNESCO World Heritage Sites and Marine Reserves on Earth. The regional ecosystem is sustained by strongly seasonal oceanic upwelling events—upward surges of cool, nutrient-rich deep waters that fuel the growth of the phytoplankton upon which the entire ecosystem thrives. Yet despite its critical life-supporting role, the upwelling’s controlling factors remain undetermined. Here, we use a realistic model of the regional ocean circulation to show that the intensity of upwelling is governed by local northward winds, which generate vigorous submesoscale circulations at upper-ocean fronts to the west of the islands. These submesoscale flows drive upwelling of interior waters into the surface mixed layer. Our findings thus demonstrate that Galápagos upwelling is controlled by highly localized atmosphere–ocean interactions, and call for a focus on these processes in assessing and mitigating the regional ecosystem’s vulnerability to 21st-century climate change.
... The Galapagos Marine Reserve is a sanctuary for heavily exploited fish like tuna and sharks, which migrate consistently to and from the reserve (Hearn et al. 2016;Acuña-Marrero et al. 2017;Boerder et al. 2017). The maintenance of the GMR is beneficial for both industrial and artisanal fisheries, as it increases fish productivity both outside and inside the reserve (Boerder et al. 2017;Bucaram et al. 2018). However, the overexploitation, incidental catch, and illegal fishing, produced by Ecuadorian and foreign industrial and artisanal fisheries established along GMR's boundaries (Boerder et al. 2017), reduce the effectiveness of the GMR to ensure the recovery of these commercial and protected species Castrejón 2020b). ...
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The unique marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the Galapagos Islands are highly vulnerable to human-based drivers of change, including the introduction of invasive species, unsustainable tourism, illegal fishing, overexploitation of ecosystem services, and climate change. These drivers can interact with climate-based drivers such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) at multiple temporal and spatial scales, exacerbating their negative impacts on already fragile ecosystems and the socioeconomic system of the Archipelago. In this review, we performed a literature review based on published literature from 1945 to 2020 and local and global climate databases to analyze drivers of change in the Galapagos. We developed and applied a spatial impact assessment model to identify high-ecological value areas with high sensitivity and exposure scores to environmental change drivers. We identified 13 priority HEVA that encompass ca. 23% (14,715 km 2) of the Galapagos Archipelago, distributed in nearly 3% of the Galapagos Marine Reserve and 20% Galapagos National Park. Current and future impacts are likely to concentrate on the inhabited islands' highlands, whereas marine impacts concentrate along most of the Galapagos Islands' shorelines. These results are important for guiding the design and implementation of adaptation measures aimed at increasing ecosystem resilience and human adaptive capacity in the face of global environmental change. Overall, these results will be valuable in their application for preserving Galapagos biota, securing the provision of vital ecosystem services for resident human populations, and sustaining the nature-based tourism industry.
... Ecuador is among the top 25 nations in marine capture production [8]. The industrial fishing fleet includes approximately 700 vessels using purse seine nets and longlines [9,10]. This fleet currently targets tropical tunas (e.g., Katsuwonus pelamis, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus obesus), common dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus), and Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphiyi). ...
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The decline in wild-caught fisheries paired with increasing global seafood demand is pushing the need for seafood sustainability to the forefront of national and regional priorities. Validation of species identity is a crucial early step, yet conventional monitoring and surveillance tools are limited in their effectiveness because they are extremely time-consuming and require expertise in fish identification. DNA barcoding methods are a versatile tool for the genetic monitoring of wildlife products; however, they are also limited by requiring individual tissue samples from target specimens which may not always be possible given the speed and scale of seafood operations. To circumvent the need to individually sample organisms, we pilot an approach that uses forensic environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding to profile fish species composition from the meltwater in fish holds on industrial and artisanal fishing vessels in Ecuador. Fish identified genetically as present were compared to target species reported by each vessel’s crew. Additionally, we contrasted the geographic range of identified species against the satellite-based fishing route data of industrial vessels to determine if identified species could be reasonably expected in the catch.
... The Ecuadorian fishery (3) in the EEZ of Galapagos is described in [42,74,[81][82][83][84]. The major species targeted are tunas (Thunnus albacares, T. obesus and Katsuwonus pelamis), groupers (Mycteroperca olfax, Paralabrax albomaculatus and Epinephelus labriformis), other bony fishes (Caulolatilus princeps and Pontinus clemensi) and invertebrates such as sea cucumber (Isostichopus fuscus) and lobsters (Panulirus penicillatus and P. gracilis). ...
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In the last decades, several targets for marine conservation were set to counter the effects of increasing fishing pressure, e.g., protecting 10% of the sea by 2020, and establishing large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs). Using the ‘reconstructed’ catch data for 1950 to 2018 made available by the Sea Around Us initiative, we show that the declaration of an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in 1983 by the U.S.A. and its protection by the U.S. Coast Guard had a much bigger impact on catches around the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands than the subsequent creation of a LSMPA. This is similar to Pitcairn Islands, a UK territory. Trends differed sharply in the Galapagos and New Caledonia, where neither their EEZ declaration nor the LSMPA (by Ecuador in 1988 and by France in 2014) stopped local fisheries from continuous expansion. Our results also demonstrate that in the studied multizone LSMPAs continued local fishing induces a ‘fishing down’ effect wherein the mean trophic level (TL) declined, especially in the Galapagos, by 0.1 TL per decade. Stakeholders’ responses to a short questionnaire and satellite imagery lent support to these results in that they documented substantial fishing operations and ‘fishing the line’ within and around multizone LSMPAs. In the case of EEZs around less populated or unpopulated islands, banning foreign fishing may reduce catch much more than a subsequent LSMPA declaration. This confirms that EEZs are a tool for coastal countries to protect their marine biodiversity and that allowing fishing in an MPA, while politically convenient, may result in ‘paper parks’ within which fishing can cause the same deleterious effects as in wholly unprotected areas.
... Consistent with these predictions, the impacts of MPAs on biodiversity were detected mostly over small distances from MPA boundaries, i.e., 10 km. However, it has been documented that the spatial extent of a spillover effect could extend beyond tens to hundreds of km, particularly for large, highly migratory pelagic predators of high trophic levels (Boerder et al., 2017;Bucaram et al., 2018). ...
Article
With the rapid global increase in the number and extent of marine protected areas (MPAs), there is a need for methods that enable an assessment of their actual contribution to biodiversity conservation. In Brazil, where MPAs have been designated to replenish biodiversity, there is a lack of regional-scale analysis of MPA impacts and the factors related to positive ecological change. This study aims to quantify the magnitude of the ecological effects of Brazilian MPAs and test whether some study and MPA characteristics (e.g., taxonomic group studied, exploitation level of species, MPA area, protection time, management effectiveness, level of connectedness, etc.) were underlying factors associated with their performance. We conducted a structured search in a database of scientific articles, selecting comparative studies of direct biodiversity metrics inside and outside MPAs offering different protection levels (i.e., fully-or partially-protected MPAs) or within MPAs with distinct zones. We then carried out a meta-analysis based on 424 observations found in 18 articles. Averaged across all studies, we found that MPAs had a 17% increase in the abundance of species, length of individuals, and community diversity. When compared to open-access areas, fully-protected MPAs increased biodiversity by 45%. However, MPAs offering partial protection had variable effects, ranging from significant positive to significant negative effects. MPA effects depended on the taxonomic group and exploitation level of species, with the strongest positive effects seen on exploited fish species and benthic invertebrates. Partially-protected MPAs that reported strong positive effects required long time of protection (>15years) and high level of connectivity. Conversely, fully-protected MPAs (i. e., no-take ones) could be effective even when small, under intense fishing pressure in their surroundings, and regardless of their level of connectivity. We used the Brazilian MPAs as a case study, but these results can contribute to a more comprehensive assessment of the association between ecological impacts of MPAs and drivers of conservation success, and offer key information to consolidate MPA networks that sustain biodiversity.
... Other authors have studied its forests and their diversity [154], freshwater ecosystems [155], as well as the discovery of new species [156][157][158][159][160][161][162][163]. Due to the importance of the Galapagos Islands, water security and water quality have been studied [164][165][166], the impact on fishery resources [167,168], damage caused by plastic waste [169], the effects on the soils of complex agrosystems [170] and air quality [171]. ...
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Ecuador has shown a growth in its scientific production since 2011, representing 85% of the total historical production. These investigations are reflected in scientific publications, which address world interest topics and serve as a link for the university, business, and society. This work aims to analyze the scientific production generated by Ecuador in the period of 1920-2020 using bibliometric methods to evaluate its intellectual structure and performance. The methodology applied in this study includes: i) terms definition and search criteria; ii) database selection, initial search, and document compilation; iii) data extraction and software selection; and finally, iv) analysis of results. The results show that scientific production has been consolidated in 30,205 documents , developed in 27 subject areas, in 13 languages under the contribution of 84 countries. This intellectual structure is in harmony with the global context when presenting research topics related to "Biology and regional climate change", "Higher education and its various approaches", "Tech-nology and Computer Science", "Medicine", "Energy, food and water", and "Development and applications on the Web". Topics framed in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), sustainability , climate change, and others. This study contributes to the academic community, considering current research issues and global concerns, the collaboration between universities and countries that allow establishing future collaboration links.
... To evaluate current LSMPAs and inform current and future marine spatial planning, we might consider how to better protect the many highly-mobile species that may spend part or most of their lives outside MPAs, yet are an important part of MPA-aided biodiversity conservation (Grüss et al., 2011). MPAs designed to protect reef species can partly protect pelagic species that use both nearshore and pelagic habitats differently for foraging, breeding, nurseries, commuting, and resting (Bucaram et al., 2018;Hays et al., 2020a). Some far-ranging species use nearshore or onshore habitats for breeding or juvenile life stages but then use pelagic habitats for feeding or adult life history stages (McCauley et al., 2012b;Tobeña et al., 2014). ...
Article
Marine protected area (MPA) designs, including large-scale MPAs (LSMPAs; >150,000 km2), mobile MPAs (fluid spatiotemporal boundaries), and MPA networks, may offer different benefits to species and could enhance protection by encompassing spatiotemporal scales of animal movement. We sought to understand how well LSMPAs could benefit nine highly-mobile marine species in the tropics now and into the future by: 1) evaluating current range overlap within a LSMPA; 2) evaluating range overlap under climate change projections; and 3) evaluating how well theoretical MPA designs benefit these nine species. We focused on Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef, a 2000 km2 area within the 1.2 million km2 U.S. Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRIMNM) that contains marine megafauna (reef and pelagic fishes; sea turtles; seabirds; cetaceans) reflecting different behaviors and habitat use. Our approach is useful for evaluating the effectiveness of the Palmyra-Kingman MPA and PRIMNM in protecting these species, and tropical LSMPAs in general, and for informing future MPA design. Stationary MPAs provided protection at varying scales. Reef manta rays (Mobula alfredi), grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) had overall small ranges (
... The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is important as a policy instrument for both promoting the sustainable use of marine resources, the conservation of marine species and ecosystem, and mitigating human impacts (Al-Abdulrazzak & Trombulak, 2012;Roberts et al., 2018;Zupan et al., 2018), both managed by the government, customary and local communities, or the private sector (Estradivari et al., 2022). MPAs aimed to preserve and improve the productivity of the fishery sector, thus providing prosperity for local communities inhabiting the areas (Ban & Frid, 2018;Bucaram et al., 2018). Currently, tourism development is also growing in the MPA and small islands. ...
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Tourism is one of the most important issues facing marine protected areas (MPAs) and small islands worldwide. Tourism development is considered a contribution to pollution levels in the environment. This paper aims to evaluate the hypothetical effects of tourism development on water quality spatially and temporally using the coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographic Information System (GIS) in search of improved management for marine conservation areas. This study showed significant tourism influences on the CWQI in the Marine Tourism Park of the Gili Matra Islands, Lombok, Indonesia. Water quality variability indicates a significant spatiotemporal difference (p < 0.05) in the two tourism seasons. During the peak season of tourism, the CWQI decreased to poor conditions, i.e., ranging from 9.95 to 21.49 for marine biota and from 7.98 to 30.42 for marine tourism activities in 2013, and ranging from 39.52 to 44.42 for marine biota and from 44.13 to 47.28 for marine tourism activities, which were below the standard for both marine biota and marine tourism activities. On the contrary, it showed a better level (from poor to moderate) during the low season of tourism (ranging from 41.92 to 61.84 for marine biota and from 48.06 to 65.27 for marine tourism activities in 2014), providing a more acceptable condition for both aspects. The study proved that massive tourism development in the MPA and small islands could reduce water quality and increase vulnerability. Accordingly, integrated tourism management and the environment, waters, and land will be needed to develop sustainable tourism. The CWQI and GIS were applicable to assess water quality, both spatially and temporally, and become a quick reference in monitoring and initial evaluation of impact management.
... In 2001, the GMR was included as a Natural World Heritage Site due to its outstanding universal value. Located at the confluence of three major ocean currents, mixing warm and cold and nutrient rich waters, the GMR has an exceptional marine biodiversity, high level of endemicity, while having a primary production that supports a very high biomass of pelagic species (Wellington et al., 1984;Danulat and Edgar, 2002;Edgar et al., 2004a;Bustamante et al., 2008;Salinas de León et al., 2016;Boerder et al., 2017;Bucaram et al., 2018). ...
Article
Marine fisheries are an essential component of global food security, but many are close to their limits and some are overfished. The models that guide the management of these fisheries almost always assume reproduction is proportional to mass (isometry), when fecundity generally increases disproportionately to mass (hyperallometry). Judged against several management reference points, we show that assuming isometry overestimates the replenishment potential of exploited fish stocks by 22% (range: 2% to 78%) for 32 of the world’s largest fisheries, risking systematic overharvesting. We calculate that target catches based on assumptions of isometry are more than double those based on assumptions of hyperallometry for most species, such that common reference points are set twice as high as they should be to maintain the target level of replenishment. We also show that hyperallometric reproduction provides opportunities for increasing the efficacy of tools that are underused in standard fisheries management, such as protected areas or harvest slot limits. Adopting management strategies that conserve large, hyperfecund fish may, in some instances, result in higher yields relative to traditional approaches. We recommend that future assessment of reference points and quotas include reproductive hyperallometry unless there is clear evidence that it does not occur in that species.
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The aim of this chapter is to report the perception of artisanal fishers regarding long-term implementation impacts of artificial reefs in the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data was collected through 60 interviews with local and regional artisanal fishers. The fishers stated an increase in fish abundance and species richness around the reef complex and consider it very important for local fisheries due to its ability to attract commercial species. These findings were clearly supported by their positive perception regarding the installation of reef balls and how these structures have benefited the local and regional fishing community over time (>25 years). In addition, the data confirms that the presence of different species in the reef complex is due to an increase of consolidated and stable substrate, which provides several types of prey and habitat for recruitment and shelter.
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The study and implementation of no-take marine reserves have increased rapidly over the past decade, providing ample data on the biological effects of reserve protection for a wide range of geographic locations and organisms. The plethora of new studies affords the opportunity to re- evaluate previous findings and address formerly unanswered questions with extensive data synthe- ses. Our results show, on average, positive effects of reserve protection on the biomass, numerical density, species richness, and size of organisms within their boundaries which are remarkably simi- lar to those of past syntheses despite a near doubling of data. New analyses indicate that (1) these results do not appear to be an artifact of reserves being sited in better locations; (2) results do not appear to be driven by displaced fishing effort outside of reserves; (3) contrary to often-made asser- tions, reserves have similar if not greater positive effects in temperate settings, at least for reef ecosystems; (4) even small reserves can produce significant biological responses irrespective of lati- tude, although more data are needed to test whether reserve effects scale with reserve size; and (5) effects of reserves vary for different taxonomic groups and for taxa with various characteristics, and not all species increase in response to reserve protection. There is considerable variation in the responses documented across all the reserves in our data set — variability which cannot be entirely explained by which species were studied. We suggest that reserve characteristics and context, par- ticularly the intensity of fishing outside the reserve and inside the reserve before implementation, play key roles in determining the direction and magnitude of the reserve response. However, despite considerable variability, positive responses are far more common than no differences or negative responses, validating the potential for well designed and enforced reserves to serve as globally important conservation and management tools.
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Sixty-eight yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, (60-135cm fork length) were caught and released with implanted archival tags offshore off Baja California, Mexico, during October 2002 and October 2003. Thirty-six fish (53%) were recaptured and the data were downloaded from all 36 recovered tags. Time at liberty ranged from 9 to 1,161 days, and the data were analyzed for the 20 fish that were at liberty for 154 or more days. The accuracy in the position estimates, derived from light-level longitude data and sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) based latitude, is about 0.41° in longitude and 0.82° in latitude, in this region. The movement paths, derived from position estimates, for the 20 yellowfin indicated that 19 (95%) remained within 1,445km of their release locations. The estimated mean velocity along movement paths was 77km/day. The southern and northern seasonal movement paths observed for yellowfin off Baja California are influenced by the seasonal movements of the 18°C SST isotherm. Cyclical movements to and from suitable spawning habitat (≥24°C SST) was observed only for mature fish. For the 12 fish that demonstrated site fidelity, the mean 95 and 50% utilization distributions were 258,730km2 and 41,260 km2, respectively. Evaluations of the timed depth records resulted in discrimination of four distinct behaviors. When exhibiting type-1 diving behavior (78.1% of all days at liberty) the fish remained at depths less than 50m at night and did not dive to depths greater than about 100m during the day. Type-2 diving behavior (21.2% of all days at liberty) was characterized by ten or more dives in excess of 150 m during the day. Type-2 diving behavior is apparently a foraging strategy for fish targeting prey organisms of the deep-scattering layer during the day, following nighttime foraging within the mixed layer on the same prey. Yellowfin tuna exhibited occasional deep-diving behavior, and some dives exceeded 1,000m, where ambient temperatures were less than 5°C. Surface-oriented behavior, defined as the time fish remained at depths less than 10m for more than 10min, were evaluated. The mean number and duration of surface-oriented events per day for all fish was 14.3 and 28.5min, respectively. Habitat utilization of yellowfin, presented as monthly composite horizontal and vertical distributions, indicates confined geographical distributions, apparently resulting from an affinity to an area of high prey availability. The vertical distributions indicate greater daytime depths in relation to a seasonally deeper mixed layer and a greater proportion of daytime at shallower depths in relation to a seasonally shallower mixed layer.
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 The horizontal and vertical movements of large bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus Lowe, 1839; 25 to 50 kg) captured in the south Pacific Ocean (French Polynesia) were determined using pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transmitters. Bigeye tuna swam within the first 100 m below the surface during the night-time and at depths between 400 and 500 m during the daytime. The fish exhibited clear relationships with the sound scattering layer (SSL). They followed its vertical movements at dawn and dusk, and were probably foraging on the organisms of the SSL. Bigeye tuna did, however, make regular rapid upward vertical excursions into the warm surface layer, most probably in order to regulate body temperature and, perhaps, to compensate for an accumulated oxygen debt (i.e. to metabolize lactate). The characteristics of these dives differ from those reported from previous studies on smaller bigeye tuna (∼12 kg) near the main Hawaiian Islands. During the daytime, the large fish in French Polynesia made upward excursions approximately only every 2.5 h, whereas smaller fish in Hawaiian waters made upward excursions approximately every hour. Our data are the first observations on the role of body size in the vertical behavior of bigeye tuna.
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1. SUMMARY This report presents the current stock assessment of bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) in the eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). As in the last assessment, this assessment was conducted using Stock Synthesis II (SS2; Methot 2005). The assessment reported here is based on the assumption that there is a single stock of bigeye in the EPO, and that there is no exchange of fish between the EPO and the western and central Pacific Ocean. The stock assessment requires a substantial amount of information. Data on retained catch, discards, catch per unit of effort (CPUE), used as indices of abundance, and size compositions of the catches from several different fisheries have been analyzed. Several assumptions regarding processes such as growth, recruitment, movement, natural mortality, and fishing mortality, have also been made. Catch, CPUE, and length-frequency data for the surface fisheries have been updated to include new data for 2007 and revised data for 2003-2006. Analyses were carried out to assess the sensitivity of results to: 1) a stock-recruitment relationship; 2) use of the southern longline CPUE data only; 3) using two time blocks for the size selectivities of the floating-object fisheries, separated by the implementation in 2001 of IATTC Resolution C-00-08, which prohibited discards of tunas in the EPO. There have been important changes in the amount of fishing mortality caused by the fisheries that catch bigeye tuna in the EPO. On average, since 1993 the fishing mortality of bigeye less than about 15 quarters old has increased substantially, and that of fish more than about 15 quarters old has increased slightly. The increase in the fishing mortality of the younger fish was caused by the expansion of the fisheries that catch tuna in association with floating objects. Over the range of spawning biomasses estimated by the base case assessment, the abundance of bigeye recruits appears to be unrelated to the spawning potential of adult females at the time of hatching. There are several important features in the estimated time series of bigeye recruitment. First, estimates of recruitment before 1993 are very uncertain, as the floating-object fisheries were not catching significant amounts of small bigeye. There was a period of above-average recruitment in 1995-1998, followed by a period of below-average recruitment in 1999-2000. The recruitments have been above average since 2000, and were particularly large in 2005. The most recent recruitment is very uncertain, due to the fact that recently-recruited bigeye are represented in only a few length-frequency samples. The extended
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Long-term density data for the sea cucumber, Isostichopus fuscus, from Canal Bolivar (separating western Isabela and eastern Fernandina Islands), Galápagos, were compared with catch statistics and used in a stock depletion model to determine the extent of the effects of the fishery on the existing population and the potential for the population to recover after each fishing season. Recruitment indices were found to be low from 1994 until mid-1999, when a mass recruitment event was registered and numbers of small individuals increased dramatically. The increase in density of juveniles peaked in 2001 and has declined since. Recruitment in this species of sea cucumber appears to be highly sporadic and may depend on intense climatic events such as the warm El Niño. Current levels of fishing activity are unsustainable. The management implications of pulse recruitment in this fishery are discussed.
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Fewer protected areas exist in the pelagic ocean than any other ecosystem on Earth. Although there is increasing support for marine protected areas (MPAs) as a tool for pelagic conservation, there have also been numerous criticisms of the ecological, logistical and economic feasibility of place-based management in the dynamic pelagic environment. Here we argue that recent advances across conservation, oceanography and fisheries science provide the evidence, tools and information to address these criticisms and confirm MPAs as defensible and feasible instruments for pelagic conservation. Debate over the efficacy of protected areas relative to other conservation measures cannot be resolved without further implementation of MPAs in the pelagic ocean.
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During the 1997-98 El Nino, the equatorial Pacific Ocean retained 0. 7 x 10(15) grams of carbon that normally would have been lost to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. The surface ocean became impoverished in plant nutrients, and chlorophyll concentrations were the lowest on record. A dramatic recovery occurred in mid-1998, the system became highly productive, analogous to coastal environments, and carbon dioxide flux out of the ocean was again high. The spatial extent of the phytoplankton bloom that followed recovery from El Nino was the largest ever observed for the equatorial Pacific. These chemical and ecological perturbations were linked to changes in the upwelling of nutrient-enriched waters. The description and explanation of these dynamic changes would not have been possible without an observing system that combines biological, chemical, and physical sensors on moorings with remote sensing of chlorophyll.
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