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The antimicrobial activities of olive leaf extract against some pathogenic bacteria


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This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of olive leaf extract against five pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereu ,Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 , Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633). The olive leaf extract , at a concentration of 300 ppm, produced the highest inhibitory potential on Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 , Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633 and Bacillus cereus with a zone of inhibition of 18.0 mm , 15.0 mm and 15.0 mm respectively, while increasing concentration extracts at 600ppm had the greatest activities in Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 , Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633 and Bacillus cereus with a zone of inhibition of 20.0 mm . These results therefore inferred the antibacterial efficacy of the olive leaf extracts.
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Minia J. of Agric. Res. & Develop.
Vol. (34), No. 1, pp. 149-154, 2014
Hassan, M.SH., M.M.Elsayed , A. M. Zaki , F.S.Hatour and Hanaa S. S. Gazwi
Agric. Bioch. Dept. Faculty of Agriculture , Minia University , Elminia Egypt Received: 7 Julay (2014) Accepted: 14 October (2014)
This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of
olive leaf extract against five pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereu ,Salmonella
typhimurium ATCC 14028 ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 , Staphylococcus
aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633).The olive leaf extract , at a
concentration of 300 ppm, produced the highest inhibitory potential on Salmonella
typhimurium ATCC 14028 , Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633 and Bacillus cereus with a
zone of inhibition of 18.0 mm , 15.0 mm and 15.0 mm respectively, while increasing
concentration extracts at 600ppm had the greatest activities in Salmonella
typhimurium ATCC 14028 , Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633 and Bacillus cereus with a
zone of inhibition of 20.0 mm . These results therefore inferred the antibacterial
efficacy of the olive leaf extracts.
Key words: Olive leaf extracts , antibacterial , pathogenic bacteria.
Olive (Olea europaea) leaf has been
widely used in folk medicine for several
thousand of years within European
Mediterranean islands and countries (Gucci
et al., 1997). Historically, olive leaf was
used for the treatment of malaria and
associated fever (Benavente-Garcia et al.,
2000). Olive leaves extracts ( OLE ) are
rich in phenolic components (De Nino et
al., 1997), oleuropein being the most
prominent phenolic compound that may
reach concentrations of 6090 mg g_1 of
dry matter (Ryan, et al., 2002).The major
physiological substances of olive leaf are
hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-
coumaric acid, vanillic acid, vanillin,
oleuropein, luteolin, diosmetin,
rutin,verbascoside, luteolin-7-glucoside,
apigenin-7-glucoside, and diosmetin-7-
glucoside (Bianco and Uccella, 2000;
Tasioula-Margari and Ologeri, 2001).
Several reports have been published on
olive leaf and presented the following: olive
leaf offered a capacity to lower blood
pressure and increase blood flow in the
coronary arteries (Khayyal et al.,2002). The
phenolic compounds extracted from olive
leaf possessed antimicrobial activity against
Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter jejuni,
Hassan, et al.,2014
aureus (Sudjana et al., 2009). Pereira et al
.,(2007) reported that the antimicrobial
properties of phenolic compounds in olive
products refer to compounds obtained from
olive fruit,particularly hydroxytyrosol and
Despite the many reports on olive leaf
and its phenolic compounds, the combined
effects of olive leaf phenolics in terms of
antimicrobial activities have not been
studied (Lee, and Lee 2010).
Pathogenic bacteria constitute a
major cause of morbidity and mortality in
humans. Sharma et al.,(2005) reported that
the emergence and spread of bacterial
resistance made the treatment of infectious
diseases more problematic. The
antimicrobial activity of a plant is highly
related to secondary substances that are
synthesized and produced by these plants
(Cowan 1999).
Secondary metabolites are substances of
low molecular weight, which were not the
products of the primary metabolic pathway
of the producing organism and at first
thought to be with no advantage to the
plant. Nowadays it is believed that they
have vital functions (Kant et al.,2010).The
utilization of plant extracts and
phytochemicals, with known antibacterial
characteristic, may be of immense
significance in therapeutic
treatments.Several studies have been
conducted in different countries to
substantiate such efficiency (Almagboul et
al.(1985) and Rakholiya and Chanda,
 This study has been aimed to
determine the antimicrobial activity of olive
leaf extracts against five pathogenic
bacteria (Bacillus cereu ,Salmonella
typhimurium ATCC 14028 ,Pseudomonas
aeruginosa ATCC 9027 , Staphylococcus
aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus
subtillus ATCC 6633).
Olive Leaf Extract ( OLE ) Preparation Olive leaves were collected and put
in plastic bags. The plant material was then
dried at room temperature and powdered (20
mesh).Ground powdered leaves were
extracted as reported by Hassan et al. ( 2013 )
using ethanol (70% v/v) at 20% (w/v)
concentration. The mixture was mixed on
rotary shaker for three hours and filtered
through whatman no.4 , and then membrane
filter (0.45 um). To obtaine the solid residues
of the olive leaf extract , the extracts were
dried in rotary evaporator under lower
Pathogenic indicators
The used bacterial indicators were,
Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633 , Staphylococcus
aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Salmonella
typhimurium ATCC 14028, Bacillus cereus.
These pathogens were kindly provided by the
staff members of The National Institute of
Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF),
Alexandria branch.
Preparation of pathogenic bacterial
The pathogenic bacteria
indicators were grown in nutrient broth and
incubated at 38 °C for 24 h. The cells were
centrifuged at 7000 rpm , and standardized to
OD 600 nm 0.1 and stored at 4 °C until ready
for use (Cwala et al., 2011).
Screening for antimicrobial activity:
The well-cut diffusion technique was
used to test the ability of the different
concentration from the crude extract to inhibit
the growth of indicator bacteria. Fifty
millimeters of nutrient agar medium
inoculated with indicator microorganism were
pored into plates. After solidifies, wells were
punched out using 0.5 cm cork
Hassan, et al.,2014
borer, and each of their bottoms was then
sealed with two drops of crude extract. One
hundred micro-liters of tested compounds
were transferred into each well. All plates
were incubated at 38 °C for 24 h, the
detection of clear inhibition zone around the
wells is an indication of antimicrobial
activities of the different isolates. (El-Masry et
al., 2002).
Table ( 1 ) and Figures showed the
antibacterial activity of olive leaf extracts (at
300 and 600 ppm ) measured by inhibition
zone (mm) of the isolates against some
references of bacterial pathogens. In general
results indicated that olive leaf extracts
showed good inhibitory effects on pathogenic
Olive leaf extract (300ppm) showed good
antimicrobial abilities and the highest
inhibition of 15 mm against Bacillus subtillus
ATCC 6633 and against 12 mm
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 12 mm
against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027,
18 mm against Salmonella typhimurium ATCC
14028, 15 mm against Bacillus cereus.
However , increasing of concentration olive
leaf extract (600 ppm ) showed a marked
increase in nhibition zone presented figures
Many studies confirm the positive role of
olive leaf extracts in inhibitory pathogenic
bacteria. Markin et al,(2003)
reported that water extract of olive leaf
with a concentration of 0.6% (w/v) killed
Staphylococcus. aureus in 3h exposure
and Bacillus. subtilis . On the other hand it
was inhibited only when the concentration was
increased to 20% (w/v) possibly due to spore
forming ability of this species . Pereira et al
.,(2007) revealed that the growth rates of S.
aureus was decreased while OLE
concentration increased .Sudjana et al, (2009)
studied the antibacterial activity of OLE with
a large variety of bacteria. In another study,
Korukluoglu et al.,(2010) investigated the
effect of the extraction solvent on the
antimicrobial efficiency of S. aureus.S.
thypimurium and they reported that solvent
type affected the phenolic distribution and
concentration in extracts, and antimicrobial
activity against tested bacteria.
Owen et al, (2003) added that phenolic
compounds within the OLE have shown
antimicrobial activities against several
microorganisms including
Staphylococcus.aureus, Bacillus. Cereus and
Salmonella. typhimurium .
In our study, the ethanolic olive
leaf extract of two concentrations showed
good antimicrobial abilities and highest
inhibition against pathogenic bacteria (
Bacillus cereu ,Salmonella typhimurium
ATCC 14028 Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ATCC 9027 and Staphylococcus aureus
ATCC 25923)
TABLE( 1 ) : Antibacterial efficiency of OLE at different concentrations (Inhibition zones in
millimeter) against some references bacterial pathogens:
Concentration (ppm)
Bacterial Pathogens
Bacillus cereu
Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028
Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027
Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923
Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633
Hassan, et al.,2014
Figure 1):Antibacterial activity of OLE at different concentrations against various
bacterial pathogens.
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Hassan, et al.,2014
(Bacillus cereu ,Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ATCC 9027 , Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633
300 Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 , Bacillus subtillus ATCC 6633 and Bacillus cereu
181515 600
20 
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In situ and in vitro experiments were carried out to determine the effect of various composts (leafy fruit compost (LFC), garden compost (GC), and crops compost (CC)) and their water extract on Pythium debaryanum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Sclerotium bataticola. Compost water extract (CWE) of LFC, GC, and CC were found to contain Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Corynebacterium spp., and the fungi Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., and Drechslera spp., and various Actinomycetes. In situ results indicated considerable decrease in fungal growth around the unautoclaved compost especially in the case of S. bataticola and F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, compared to the autoclaved compost. In vitro tests showed that concentration of CWE at 5, 10 and 15% (v/v) suppressed the hyphal growth of S. bataticola by 83% using 5% CC and by 94.4% using 5% LFC or 10% GC, and F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici by 94.4% using either composts. CWE of GC decreased fungal dry weight of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici by 97.7%, P. debaryanum by 92.8%, and S. bataticola by 84.4%; CC decreased F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici by 94%, P. debaryanum by 86.2%, and S. bataticola by 63.3%, while CWE of LFC was the least effective against the tested fungi. CWE produced clear inhibition zones against all the tested fungi. Microflora found in CWE have an important role in suppressing the growth of tested fungi. CWE contained neither antibiotics nor siderophores. The presence of protease, chitinase, lipase and -1,3 glucanase (lysogenic enzymes) in CWE indicates a possible role in fungal degradation.
Objective To evaluate the in vitro interaction between methanolic extracts of Terminalia catappa (Combretaceae) (T. catappa) and Carica papaya (caricaceae) (C. papaya) leaves and certain known antimicrobial drugs like penicillin G (P), ampicillin (AMP), amoxyclav (AMC), cephalothin (CEP), polymyxin B (PB), rifampicin (RIF), amikacin (AK), nilidixic acid (NA), gentamicin (GEN), chloramphenicol (C), ofloxacin (OF) against five Gram positive and five Gram negative bacteria.Methods Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using disc diffusion method.ResultsThe results of this study showed that there is an increased activity in case of combination of methanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents. The more potent result was that the synergism between methanolic extract of C. papaya and antibiotics showed highest and strong synergistic effect against tested bacterial strains; though methanolic extract of C. papaya alone was not showing any antibacterial activity.Conclusions These results indicate that combination between plant extract and the antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistance microorganisms.
Pneumatically assisted electrospray (or ionspray) coupled with liquid chromatography was applied to the identification of the phenolic glucoside content of olive leaf directly from the crude extracts. The mass spectra of the positive ions provide insights into the composition of the phenolic constituents. Oleuropein, ligstroside and a disaccharide containing the hydroxytyrosol moiety were found in olive leaf of Olea europea L. cv. Cassanese and their structures were thoroughly determined by tandem mass spectrometry. © 1977 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ABSTRACT This research examined the phenolic fraction of extra virgin olive oil samples from Lianolia variety olives grown in the region of Preveza, Greece. Phenolic compounds were extracted from oil samples, separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both simple and complex phenols were detected with the latter being the most abundant. 3–4-Dihydroxyphenyl ethanol (hydroxytyrosol) and p-hydroxyphenylethanol (tyrosol) predominated among the simple phenols. Complex phenolic compounds were further separated by preparative HPLC and analyzed by GC-MS before and after hydrolysis. The presence of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol derivatives was confirmed. Both derivatives were always present in greater quantities and made up an average exceeding 70% in all samples analyzed.
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The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and "leads" which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations.
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