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Investigating the Intersection of Poverty and Race in Gifted Education Journals: A 15-Year Analysis


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Using a two-phase content analysis approach, this study examined how education scholars have discussed the intersection of giftedness, race, and poverty in gifted academic journals from 2000 to 2015. Specifically, the authors explored the following questions: (a) What are the characteristics of studies published that explore the intersection of giftedness, poverty, and students of color? (b) How do scholars discuss and theorize about how to recruit and retain gifted students of color who come from families living in poverty? (c) In what ways do scholars discuss the intersection of race and poverty for gifted students of color? Findings indicated that while studies were focused on students of color, there was limited discussion about the impact of race and poverty on the recruitment and retention of gifted students of color who come from families living in poverty. Implications and future research are discussed.
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Gifted Child Quarterly
2018, Vol. 62(1) 25 –36
© 2017 National Association for
Gifted Children
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DOI: 10.1177/0016986217737618
Despite the United States’ image of being the land of oppor-
tunity, for many children living in poverty, access to gifted
education opportunities is often limited. For instance, Kena
et al. (2016) found that approximately 20% of school-aged
children come from families living in poverty, a 5% increase
from 2000. Moreover, 14 states and the District of Columbia
had poverty rates higher than the U.S. average. While the
national picture provides one side of poverty trends, when
looking at the data by race/ethnicity, it becomes more appar-
ent which groups of students are disproportionately living in
poverty. In 2014, Black (38%), American Indian/Alaska
Native (35%), Hispanic (32%), and Pacific Islander (27%)
students came from families living in poverty compared with
12% of White and Asian students (Kena et al., 2016).
Although living in poverty does not define a child’s ability to
succeed in school, it can certainly have a significant impact
on school performance and outcomes (Ford, Grantham, &
Frazier-Trotman, 2007).
While Black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska
Native serve as the majority of students attending schools
who come from families living in poverty, they are vastly
underrepresented in gifted and talented programs (Ford,
2013). Most recent data from the Office of Civil Rights
Data Collection (2015) for the 2011-2012 school year show
that Black, Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native
students comprise 8.9%, 16.8%, and 1% of students in
gifted and talented programs, respectively, compared with
59.9% of White students who, conversely, are overrepre-
sented in gifted education programs. For nearly 80 years,
scholars have discussed in great detail the underrepresenta-
tion of Black and Hispanic students in gifted education
regardless of their income level (see Baldwin, 1987; Ford,
2013; Ford, Whiting, Goings, & Alexander, 2017; Frasier,
1989; Jenkins, 1939).
More recently, scholars have begun to discuss educational
access and outcomes for students who come from families
living in poverty; seldom is this focus on students who are
gifted. As a result, little is known about gifted students who
live in poverty and even less is known about gifted students
of color who come from low-income families (Ford,
Grantham, & Whiting, 2008; Stambaugh & Wood, 2015;
VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2007). Without this infor-
mation, educators and families are challenged to identify and
support this specific student population. Moreover, while
scholars have advocated for the representation of gifted stu-
dents living in poverty (Grantham, 2003; VanTassel-Baska,
Johnson, & Avery, 2002; VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh,
2007), it is important to take a macro view of the field of
gifted education to analyze the ways in which scholars dis-
cuss the experiences of gifted students of color who live in
737618GCQXXX10.1177/0016986217737618Gifted Child QuarterlyGoings and Ford
1Loyola University Maryland, Timonium, MD, USA
2Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA
Corresponding Author:
Ramon B. Goings, Department of Education Specialties, School of
Education, Loyola University Maryland, Timonium Graduate Center, 26B,
2034 Greenspring Drive, Timonium, MD 21093, USA.
Investigating the Intersection of Poverty
and Race in Gifted Education Journals:
A 15-Year Analysis
Ramon B. Goings1 and Donna Y. Ford2
Using a two-phase content analysis approach, this study examined how education scholars have discussed the intersection of
giftedness, race, and poverty in gifted academic journals from 2000 to 2015. Specifically, the authors explored the following
questions: (a) What are the characteristics of studies published that explore the intersection of giftedness, poverty, and
students of color? (b) How do scholars discuss and theorize about how to recruit and retain gifted students of color who
come from families living in poverty? (c) In what ways do scholars discuss the intersection of race and poverty for gifted
students of color? Findings indicated that while studies were focused on students of color, there was limited discussion about
the impact of race and poverty on the recruitment and retention of gifted students of color who come from families living in
poverty. Implications and future research are discussed.
poverty, giftedness, race, students of color, gifted education, content analysis
26 Gifted Child Quarterly 62(1)
poverty because this research informs gifted education prac-
titioners about best practices for supporting and advocating
for them. Importantly, while these students share needs asso-
ciated with living in poverty, there are possibly different
needs based on race and culture; thus exploring the body of
research in this area will provide insight into these nuances.
The purpose of this article is to explore how education
scholars have discussed the intersection of giftedness, race,
and poverty in gifted academic journals from 2000 to 2015.
Specifically, we focus on the following journals as they are
solely devoted to gifted education: Gifted Child Quarterly,
Roeper Review, Journal for the Education of the Gifted,
Journal of Advanced Academics (titled Journal of Secondary
Gifted Education prior to 2006), and Gifted Child Today.
Our aim is to address the following research questions:
1. What are the characteristics of studies published that
explore the intersection of giftedness, poverty, and
students of color?
2. How do scholars discuss and theorize about recruit-
ment and retention of gifted students of color who
come from families living in poverty?
3. In what ways do scholars discuss the intersection of
race and poverty for gifted students of color?
Significance to the Special Issue
This special issue calls for articles that examine the intersection
of high academic potential and the impact poverty can have on
students bringing their potential to fruition. Exploring how
scholars have discussed the intersection of giftedness, race, and
poverty will provide insight into the field’s understanding of
how students with the highest academic potential succeed
while coping with and/or overcoming the impact of poverty.
More important, we seek to push the conversation in the field
to ensure that educators discuss gifted students living in pov-
erty, especially students of color, from an asset-based perspec-
tive. Given that our research informs pedagogical practices of
gifted education professionals, it is important to examine how
we discuss poverty, how we write about coming from poverty,
and how this influences current trends in the recruitment and
retention of gifted students of color who live in poverty.
This study is centered on the content analysis of articles in
five gifted education journals (Gifted Child Quarterly,
Roeper Review, Journal for the Education of the Gifted,
Journal of Advanced Academics [titled Journal of Secondary
Gifted Education prior to 2006], and Gifted Child Today).
While this journal list is not comprehensive of all the outlets
that publish articles on topics and students in gifted educa-
tion, these particular journals were selected given that their
specific aims and scope are exclusively focused on gifted
education. Moreover, these journals have been used in
previous syntheses of the field; thus, we deemed them appro-
priate for selection in this study.
Article Selection Process
To secure potential articles, we went to the physical or online
version of each of the selected journals, searching each vol-
ume published from 2000 to 2015. The following article
selection criteria were used:
1. The article must be empirical/data based (e.g., quan-
titative, qualitative, or mixed-methods research
2. The article must discuss students of color who are
gifted and live in poverty.
During the initial search, we copied the titles and abstracts
of potential articles that fit our search criteria (N = 44).
Through our initial analysis, we noticed that poverty was not
always used in the title of the article or abstract; thus, we
modified our search to include other keywords such as “low-
socioeconomic status,” “economically disadvantaged,” and
“rural.” In addition, it is worth noting that the race of partici-
pants was not always stated in the title and/or abstract. As a
result, we included keywords such as “culturally and linguis-
tically diverse.” We then reviewed each abstract to determine
if the study met our search criteria. Articles that did not fulfill
both search criteria were eliminated from our analysis which
led to 22 articles being included in this study. Eleven articles
were published in Gifted Child Quarterly, six articles in
Journal of the Education of the Gifted, three articles in
Roeper Review, and one article in both Journal of Advanced
Academics (titled Journal of Secondary Gifted Education
prior to 2006) and Gifted Child Today.
Data Analysis
The content of the articles was analyzed via a two-phase
approach. Phase 1 consisted of quantitatively exploring the
characteristics of the articles that met search criteria. Thus, to
address the first question about the characteristics of articles
published in gifted education journals on the intersection of
poverty and race, we developed a survey via SurveyMonkey,
which allowed us to create survey questions for each aspect
of the article being examined. We then searched each journal
article to determine the theoretical/conceptual framework,
methodology, race of participants, grade level(s), and setting
where the study took place (urban, suburban, rural) and
recorded it in our survey. Table 1 presents a more detailed
account of the information mentioned above, along with
each article’s purpose as derived from the abstract.
Phase 2 used a qualitative approach to explore how schol-
ars theorized about students of color who were gifted and
living in poverty. More specifically, we used Harper’s (2012)
content analysis approach through conducting a qualitative
Table 1. Comprehensive Table of Studies Analyzed.
Author(s) and year
of publication Purpose
Methodology and theoretical/
conceptual framework (TCF) Race of participants included in study
Grade level and setting
of article
Bland, Coxon,
Changler, and
This study investigates how Project Clarion engages
urban gifted students in science.
Quantitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary school,
urban setting
•   Hispanic
•   Asian/Pacific Islander
•   Multiracial
•   Native American
•   White
•   Other (race unknown to authors)
Borland, Schnur, and
Wright (2000)
This study explores the experiences of five
economically disadvantaged gifted minority students
who were placed in a school for gifted students.
Mixed-methods, Ogbu’s
cultural ecological theory
•   African American Elementary school,
urban setting
•   Hispanic
•   Multiracial
Carman and Taylor
This study explored the relationship between
ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and Naglieri
Noverbal Ability Test (NNAT) for identifying gifted
Quantitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary school,
•   Hispanic
•   Native American
•   Asian
Cotabish and
Robinson (2012)
This study explored the impact of peer coaching
on gifted administrators knowledge and ability to
increase access to programs for culturally diverse
and low-income gifted learners.
Quantitative, peer coaching •   African Ameircan Elementary, middle, and
high school, urban and
rural settings
•   White
T. L. Cross and
Burney (2005)
This study explores the experiences of school
counselors who are being trained to work with
high-ability rural students.
Qualitative, Ruby Payne
theory of poverty
•   Race of participants unknown Middle school, rural
Daugherty and
White (2008)
The purpose of this study was to explore Vygotsky’s
notion of private speech as a cognitive self-
regulatory process and how it related to creativity
measures among at-risk children.
Quantitative, Vygotsky’s
notion of private speech
•   African American Preschool, urban setting
•   White
Grantham (2003) This study shares findings from an advocacy event
in Pulaski County, Arkansas which was aimed to
desegregate their gifted programs and include more
Black students specifically.
Qualitative, Gifted Program
Advocacy Model
•   African American Elementary, middle, and
high school, urban
Hallett and Venegas
Explores the connection between increased access
and academic quality of AP (Advanced Placement)
courses in low-income schools and how this
influenced students’ performance on AP exams and
their experiences.
Mixed-methods, funds of
knowledge framework
•   African American Postsecondary, urban
•   Hispanic
Author(s) and year
of publication Purpose
Methodology and theoretical/
conceptual framework (TCF) Race of participants included in study
Grade level and setting
of article
Harmon (2002) This study explores the experiences of gifted African
American inner-city students.
Qualitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary school,
urban setting
Hébert and Beardsley
This study explores the experiences of a gifted Black
child living in rural poverty.
Qualitative, critical theory •   African American Elementary school, rural
Howley, Pendarvis,
and Gholson (2005)
Examined the mathematics experiences of talented
children in an impoverished rural school district.
Qualitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary and middle
school, rural setting
•   White
•   Other (race unknown to authors)
Kitano and Lewis
Examined the relationship of tutoring in specific
reading comprehension strategies to gains in
reading achievement for children enrolled in self-
contained classrooms for gifted students from
low-income, culturally and linguistically diverse
Quantitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary school,
urban setting
•   Latino
•   Asian/Pacific Islander
•   Multiracial
•   White
Moon and Callahan
An investigation of the efficacy of mentoring, parental
involvement, and multicultural curricula on the
academic achievement of primary grade students
from low-socioeconomic environments.
Quantitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary school,
urban setting
•   Latino
•   Asian/Pacific Islander
•   Multiracial
•   White
Morales (2010) This study explores the protective factors that foster
resilience in urban gifted students.
Qualitative, resilience theory •   African American Postsecondary, urban,
suburban, and rural
•   Hispanic
Peters and Gentry
This study explores the use of the HOPE scale in
identifying gifted elementary students.
Quantitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary school,
urban, suburban, and
rural settings
•   Latino
•   Asian/Pacific Islander
•   Multiracial
•   White
Reis, Colbert, and
Hébert (2005)
This study compares the protective factors that
foster resilience between gifted students who
achieved academically and those who were
Qualitative, resilience theory •   Race of participants unknown, but
labeled as ethnically diverse
High school, urban
Table 1. (continued)
Author(s) and year
of publication Purpose
Methodology and theoretical/
conceptual framework (TCF) Race of participants included in study
Grade level and setting
of article
Robinson, Lanzi,
Weinberg, Ramey,
and Ramey (2002)
Explored family factors associated with the academic
success of gifted head start students.
Quantitative, TCF not
•   African American Preschool, urban setting
•   Latino
•   Asian/Pacific Islander
•   Native American/Alaskan Native
•   White
•   Other (race not specified)
Swanson (2006) This study explores Project Breakthrough program
with teachers in South Carolina to train them
to identify and support high-ability low-income
minority students.
Mixed-methods, TCF not
•   African American Elementary school,
urban and rural
•   White
Tomlinson and Jarvis
Investigating how teachers and schools contributed
to the academic success of minority students of
high potential from economically disadvantaged
Qualitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary, middle, and
high school, urban
•   Hispanic
Feng, and de Brux,
Comparison of trends for performance task-
identified gifted students, traditionally identified
gifted students, and nonidentified gifted students.
Quantitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary school,
urban and rural
•   Hispanic
•   Native American
•   Asian Pacific/Islander
•   Multiracial
•   White
Feng, and Evans,
This study tracks the profile data of identification
for gifted students in South Carolina, where a new
performance-based dimension of identification has
been employed, during a 3-year period and targeted
to identify low-income and minority students.
Quantitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary and middle
school, urban and
rural settings
•   Hispanic
•   Native American
•   Asian Pacific/Islander
•   Multiracial
•   White
•   Other (race unknown to authors)
Johnson, and Avery,
This study explores the impact of a performance-
based assessment on the identification of
economically disadvantaged and minority students
into gifted programs.
Quantitative, TCF not
•   African American Elementary and middle
school, urban and
rural settings
•   Other (non-African American
students labeled low-income
were acknowledged, but their
race was not disclosed)
Table 1. (continued)
30 Gifted Child Quarterly 62(1)
analysis of the discussion and implications section from each
article. The first step in this process consisted of copying
both the discussion and implication sections from the articles
and pasting this into individual Word documents. This pro-
cess yielded 82 singled-spaced pages of text. We then
uploaded each document into NVivo (a qualitative data man-
agement software), which allowed us to analyze the texts and
develop themes. Initially, we conducted several line-by-line
readings of each text to develop an overall understanding of
the text. Given the research questions, our initial qualitative
coding process consisted of reading through each individual
text and highlighting sentences and phrases that were related
to the following three categories: (a) explanations of recruit-
ment and retention strategies for gifted students of color; (b)
discussions of poverty; and (c) discussions of race. After the
first author engaged in the initial coding, it was discovered
that the words race/racism were only mentioned and theo-
rized in two articles; thus, we decided to group the discussion
of poverty and race into one categorical code. Finally, we
utilized an inductive constant comparative approach to ana-
lyze the data, which generated four subcodes related to the
recruitment and retention strategies for gifted students of
color and five subcodes related to the discussion of poverty
and race. Table 2 provides a list of the generated codes, our
definitions of the codes, and their respective theme.
Characteristics of Articles Published on
Giftedness, Race, and Poverty
When examining the methodology breakdown of the 22
studies, 50% (n = 11) were quantitative, 36.36% (n = 8) were
qualitative, and 13.63% (n = 3) used a mixed-methods
design. Only 40.90% of articles presented a theoretical
framework as guiding the study. Moreover, only one article
(T. L. Cross & Burney, 2005) used a theoretical or concep-
tual perspective that was centered on poverty (i.e., Ruby
Payne) and four articles (Borland et al., 2000; Hébert &
Beardsley, 2001; Morales, 2010; Reis et al., 2005) used a
framework that centered on the experiences of students of
color and/or challenged dominant ideology about race, gift-
edness, and poverty, such as critical race theory and cultural
ecology theory (see Table 2 for detail on the theoretical
frameworks used).
When analyzing the race of participants in the studies,
90.90% of articles (n = 20) had African American students as
a part of the dataset. Hispanic students were part of the sam-
ple in 54.45% of studies (n = 12), while Asian/Pacific
Islander, multiracial, and Native American participants were
represented in 36.36% (n = 8), 31.81% (n = 7), and 22.72%
(n = 5) of studies, respectively. Despite articles having a
focus on the needs of students of color, in 50% of the studies
(n = 11), White students were also included as a part of the
participant sample. The inclusion of White students occurred
in quantitative studies where all racial groups were com-
pared. However, in qualitative studies, researchers explored
an analysis of non-White racial groups independently.
In the articles we focused on, interesting trends emerged
in the analysis of the grade level of students. We found that
elementary school students (Grades K-5; n = 16) were the
most used sample population followed by middle school
grades (6-8; n = 7), high school grades (9-12; n = 4), pre-
school (n = 2), and postsecondary institutions (n = 2).
Last, we analyzed the articles to determine the setting
where the studies occurred. Eleven studies (50%) had a focus
Table 2. List of Codes, Code Definitions, and Respective Qualitative Theme.
Codes Code definitions Qualitative theme
•   Ways to diversify gifted programs Recommendations/suggestions on how to diversify
gifted and talented programs
Success factors and identification
strategies for gifted students of color
living in poverty
•   Success factors/barriers Discussion of the success factors and barriers for
student success in gifted and talented programs
•   Importance of culture How culture influences recruitment and retention
•   Suggestions to circumvent impact
of poverty
Discussion of how students of color living in
poverty can overcome living in poverty
•   Poverty impact Discussion of how poverty affects the identification
of gifted students of color
•   Deficit thinking Discussion about students that is framed from a
deficit perspective
Limited discussion of race and poverty
and challenging deficit thinking
•   Challenging deficit thinking Discussion that challenges deficit perspectives
about gifted students of color
•   Impact of racism Discussion about the impact of racism on the
student experience
•   Focus on individuals and not the
Discussions based on critiquing the individual (e.g.,
students lacking resilience) rather than the system
(e.g., how schools create environments that are
not conducive to the needs of students of color)
Goings and Ford 31
exclusively in urban settings, three focused on rural areas
exclusively (13.63%), and one focused on a suburban set-
ting. Seven studies (31.81%) compared students in some
combination of urban, rural, and suburban setting settings
(see Table 1 for greater detail).
Success Factors and Identification Strategies for
Gifted Students of Color Living in Poverty
Many articles (14 of the 22 studies) discussed the factors of
success for students of color in gifted education who live in
poverty in their discussion and implication sections. One
particular success factor frequently discussed (n = 10) was
that students of color had access to caring and supportive
family members and other adults who pushed the children to
strive for excellence. For instance, two studies provided the
following insights:
The findings in this [study] highlight the importance of strong
emotional support and understanding from adults who
understand and value creativity in young children. (Hébert &
Beardsley, 2001, p. 97)
[Parents’] child-rearing practices, their support of children’s
school achievement, and their management of their own family
resources appear in large part to relate to the children’s high
achievement. (Robinson et al., 2002, p. 288)
Along with caring families, several studies found that for
gifted students to be successful, teachers had a strong influ-
ence (Harmon, 2002; Robinson et al., 2002; Swanson, 2006).
In particular, findings indicated that teachers recognized and
found ways to integrate students’ home culture into school
(Borland et al., 2000; Tomlinson & Jarvis, 2014). As a result,
there was also some discussion regarding the need for teach-
ers to become more culturally competent. For example,
Harmon (2002) posited, “When dealing with African
American students, teachers must participate in the process
of becoming culturally competent, a process including sig-
nificant contact with diverse groups of students and that can
best occur in teacher education programs” (p. 75).
Along with the discussion of success factors, researchers
advocated for various identification strategies for gifted stu-
dents of color who live in poverty (n = 11). Many of the stud-
ies acknowledged that current identification procedures are
not adequate in identifying gifted students of color who come
from low-socioeconomic households (Grantham, 2003). For
instance, Borland et al. (2000) stated, “we need to adopt non-
traditional, rigorously validated identification methods that
are more sensitive to expressions of potential giftedness in
environments outside the mainstream, in which this field has
usually operated” (p. 30). Among the studies reviewed, sev-
eral different nontraditional strategies were discussed,
including the use of nonverbal assessments (Carman &
Taylor, 2010; VanTassel-Baska, Feng, & de Brux, 2007;
VanTassel-Baska, Feng, & Evans, 2007), lowering of stan-
dardized test score thresholds (VanTassel-Baska et al., 2002)
and use of assessments that incorporate more of students of
color lived realities (Howley et al., 2005).
Limited Discussion of Race and Poverty and
Challenging Deficit Thinking
In the discussion and implication sections of articles
reviewed, authors often focused on giftedness and ways to
better identify gifted students, but did not necessarily pro-
vide an in-depth discussion about the ways poverty and race
affected the recruitment, retention, and experiences of gifted
students of color. Often words such as “alternative” or “non-
traditional” were used to describe potential methods to
ensure students of color who live in poverty are identified
and served as gifted. In a few cases (n = 4), scholars argued
about the importance of focusing on both access and reten-
tion of students. Hallett and Venegas (2011), for example,
explained that “Increasing access alone will not resolve the
inequities experienced by students in many urban educa-
tional environments” (p. 485). While text from the studies
stated that inequities existed, such as the aforementioned
example, there tended to be minimal discussion and descrip-
tion of specific inequities. As a result, few studies provided
discussion about the intersection of race and poverty. Borland
et al. (2000) asserted,
Poverty and racism, although they diminish us all as a society,
do singular damage to the most vulnerable, especially children,
who are their direct victims. To believe otherwise is to ignore the
evidence of our most appalling failure. (p. 28)
In addition to the limited discussion about poverty, race, and
giftedness, we found several studies (n = 9) used a deficit
thinking approach to describe gifted students of color living
in poverty. This is defined as thinking that “holds that poor
schooling performance is rooted in students’ alleged cogni-
tive and motivational deficits, while institutional structures
and inequitable schooling arrangements that exclude stu-
dents from learning are held exculpatory” (Valencia, 1997,
p. 9). For example, some studies presented conclusions
which indicated that students should learn to better adapt to
the schooling environment rather than suggesting how the
schooling environment could be more responsive to the cul-
tural needs of the students. Reis et al. (2005) stated the fol-
lowing about the factors that affect the development of
resilience for underachieving gifted students:
A careful analysis of the data suggests that the risk factors that
may have thwarted the development of resilience were the
absence of positive peer support (peers who achieved in school);
siblings who dropped out of school or were involved in substance
abuse; absence of positive parental role models or at least one
supportive adult; and lack of involvement in an elementary or
middle school gifted program. (p. 117)
32 Gifted Child Quarterly 62(1)
While the aforementioned study provided suggestions about
potential risk factors, these recommendations point more to
factors related to students’ home lives, which perpetuates a
deficit narrative about the families and communities students
of color who live in poverty come from rather than acknowl-
edging that schools are often spaces where students of color
are subjected to racism and racial microaggressions (Ford,
Trotman Scott, Moore, & Amos, 2013; Stambaugh & Ford,
2015) that could affect the ways in which they developed
resilience and succeeded in school.
Along with not acknowledging the school’s role in foster-
ing gifted students of color who come from economically
disadvantaged communities, some researchers used deficit-
oriented language in their recommendations for teachers and
school counselors on how to support such students. For
instance, T. L. Cross and Burney (2005) provided the follow-
ing recommendation for school counselors to work with
rural gifted students of color: “Be especially encouraging to
high-ability girls. Encourage them to think outside the box.
At a minimum, help them consider advanced education in
fields that are compatible with family responsibilities. Enlist
the support of the mother” (p. 155). These types of comments
are troubling as the authors imposed deficit-oriented assump-
tions about gifted students of color. For instance, while
mothers do have a strong role in their child’s education, only
stating that the support of the mother should be enlisted
could suggest that students of color who live in poverty come
from mother-led homes, which is not always the case, or that
fathers are not involved in their children’s lives. To contextu-
alize this example, the authors also did not provide any sug-
gestions for supporting high ability boys in their
recommendations and advice for how school counselors can
work with fathers. Moreover, the authors did not account for
the complexity and richness of the lives of students who live
in poverty. This is critical as Howell (2013) argued that
because many people truly know so little about rural students
they report to stereotypical depictions of rural students that
equates them with “poverty, ignorance, shrinking industry,
and religious fundamentalism” (p. 5).
Although some of the discourse was centered on deficit
language, other scholars took the opportunity to theorize
about the importance of challenging deficit thinking
(Morales, 2010; Tomlinson & Jarvis, 2014). These authors
articulated the need for teachers, school counselors, school
administrators, and other school personnel to foster environ-
ments of success. For instance, Tomlinson and Jarvis (2014)
reported the importance of having
teachers and schools who operate from a strengths perspective
rather than a deficit view of cultural difference and poverty, who
help students navigate the world of academic achievement
without sacrificing their cultural identities, who provide both the
support and challenge required for students to succeed at high
levels, and who are flexible in response to individuals and
groups of students rather than expecting students to fit rigid
programs or profiles. (p. 216)
These authors provided recommendations that acknowledge
that schools should be spaces where students of color have the
opportunity to flourish without giving up any part of their
identity, and it is the role of the school to provide the resources
for gifted students of color to achieve academically.
Limitations of the Study
There are two limitations that must be acknowledged. First,
this article only explored empirical studies. We did not
include relevant books, literature reviews, theoretical papers,
and reports on this topic (e.g., J. R. Cross & Dockery, 2014;
Ford, 2003, 2013; Kitano & Lewis, 2005; Robinson, 2003;
Stambaugh & Wood, 2015; VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh,
2007). Second, because our analysis focused on journals
with an exclusive focus on gifted education, other relevant
studies published in general education, special education,
and more interdisciplinary outlets were not included.
Discussion and Implications
The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics
of gifted journal articles that explored the intersection of race
and poverty. Moreover, this study explored scholars’ com-
mentary on strategies to recruit and retain gifted students of
color and investigated how scholars theorize about gifted
students of color in their empirical work. We found that
while a majority of studies focused on P-12 settings, there
was a paucity of studies focused on postsecondary settings
for gifted students of color who come from low-income com-
munities. Thus, although we have some understanding of
how these students navigate their P-12 schooling experi-
ences, we know little about what happens to these students
when they attend college (Rinn & Plucker, 2004). This is a
critical void given that finances often serve as a barrier to
college completion for low-income students (Engle & Tinto,
2008), particularly when they are Black (The Journal of
Blacks in Higher Education, 2017). More research is needed
to gain knowledge on how gifted students of color from low-
income families secure funding for college.
Our findings confirm research that explains the paucity of
knowledge about Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American,
and multiracial gifted students, as most of the studies focus
on Black and Hispanic students (Davis & Moore, 2016;
Ford, Whiting, & Goings, 2016). Furthermore, approxi-
mately half of studies (all quantitative) in this review used
White students who are low-income as a comparison group
in their analyses. Some studies also used the entire sample of
students from poverty that included students of color, to
compare with groups of gifted students not living in poverty.
Thus, poverty was the variable of greatest interest in some of
these studies, not students of color. Given that these studies
focused on some aspect of the recruitment and identification
process for gifted students, we understand the need to com-
pare all students in schools. However, based on the findings
Goings and Ford 33
in these studies and other research, students of color are still
vastly underidentified as gifted (Ford, 2012, 2013). Hence, it
is important for researchers to develop studies that delve
deeper into the experiences of gifted students of color who
come from low-income families. From these nuanced inves-
tigations, we can begin to better understand how these stu-
dents navigate gifted programs and how schools can develop
systemic, systematic, and targeted initiatives to recruit and
retain these students.
In Rank, Yoon, and Hirschl’s (2003) critique of research
on poverty, they argued that scholars place more emphasis on
“who loses out at the economic game, rather than addressing
the fact that the game produces losers in the first place” (p. 3).
In other words, scholars have focused on how individuals are
affected by poverty rather than focusing on the structures
(e.g., education system, government) that have created these
inequities in the first place. Similar, to Rank et al.’s (2003)
argument, through our analysis, we found that while all of the
studies selected had a focus on gifted students of color who
live in poverty, there was a lack of discourse in the findings or
implication sections about the impact that poverty and race
had on students of color’s identification and their experiences
in gifted programs. In essence, we found that poverty and race
were treated as a variable to control for in studies rather than
discussed as central issues that affect which students are iden-
tified and placed in gifted and talented programs. Moreover,
in many ways, the studies analyzed followed the advice of
Robinson (2003) who recommended that to disrupt inequities
in gifted education, schools should consider increasing their
socioeconomic diversity as the primary goal, and race/ethnic-
ity as their secondary goal. Despite the influence socioeco-
nomic status has on the trajectory of students of color, without
acknowledging “racism as real” (Harper, 2012, p. 25) in
gifted program recruitment and identification—and develop-
ing ways to address this issue—we will continue to see the
same inequities and underrepresentation of gifted students of
color. Thus, from our perspective, gifted education stakehold-
ers (e.g., teachers, counselors, administrators, researchers)
must be willing to critically examine how racism affects
gifted education and then work to dismantle such injustices in
the field through developing culturally responsive curricula
while also training and supporting gifted education teachers
to develop a sociopolitical consciousness, which is often a
missing but vital component of culturally responsive peda-
gogy (Royal & Gibson, 2017). This will require not only
practitioners in the field to change but also the professors who
prepare future practitioners (Fasching-Varner & Dodo-Seriki,
2012). Without truly engaging in this revolution, students of
color and low-income students will continue to suffer the
Findings from this study provided some evidence that
deficit thinking and pathologizing were prevalent in the
descriptions of gifted students of color (e.g., T. L. Cross &
Burney, 2005). While deficit thinking was utilized in several
studies, scholars also took the opportunity to directly
challenge these narratives (e.g., Morales, 2010; Tomlinson &
Jarvis, 2014). Given that research influences practice, there
must be a concerted effort to debunk deficit perspectives
because they can influence educators’ perceptions of stu-
dents of color. For example, Grissom and Redding (2016)
found that even when Black students performed like White
students, teachers underreferred them for gifted programs.
Although numerous scholars have written extensively about
the underrepresentation of students of color in gifted pro-
grams (e.g., Baldwin, 1987; Ford et al., 2008; Frasier, 1989;
Henfield, Woo, & Bang, 2017), there is a need for more stud-
ies that use a critical lens to examine teacher and school lead-
ers’ beliefs and attitudes about students of color who live in
poverty (Ford, 2003, 2013). Given the power teachers have
in recommending who gets placed in gifted programs (e.g.,
Grissom & Redding, 2016), as researchers we must not only
continue to write about these issues, but work with teachers
and school personnel to train them on how to identify gifted-
ness among (a) students who live in poverty, (b) students of
color, and (c) students of color who live in poverty.
In 2007, the National Leadership Conference on Low-
Income Promising learners provided the space for an impor-
tant conversation about how to ensure our students who
come from economically disadvantaged communities are
still recognized for their ability to succeed academically.
Moreover, in the edited conference proceedings volume
titled Overlooked Gems: A National Perspective on Low-
Income Promising Learners (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh,
2007), scholars from around the country provided a holistic
perspective on why we continue to see inequities of repre-
sentation in gifted programs for students from low-income
families. In the conference proceedings, Kitano (2007)
explained that children living in poverty are
A highly diverse group with respect to the severity, timing, and
duration of poverty; race, ethnicity, and primary language;
country of origin; geographic region, mobility; family structure
(e.g., single or teen parent, foster care); parental employment
status; and level of education. (p. 31)
Given the heterogeneity of students living in poverty, we con-
tend that research must also examine the intersection of gifted-
ness, poverty, and race in diverse settings. In particular, while
our analysis found that a majority of studies focused on stu-
dents in urban and rural settings, we know very little about the
experiences of students in suburban settings who live in pov-
erty. While students of color are more populated in urban set-
tings, there are many in suburban settings and as a result, it will
be paramount that educators in all settings have the tools and
dispositions to identify and work with gifted students of color.
Conclusions and Final Thoughts
In many ways, our experiences reflect the students’ reali-
ties in the studies analyzed for this piece. The first author,
34 Gifted Child Quarterly 62(1)
an African American male, grew up in a low-income home.
Although identified as gifted in elementary school, due to
a lack of knowledge about the opportunities afforded in
gifted programs, he never formally participated in his
school district’s gifted and talented program. Despite neg-
ative perceptions about his academic ability from teachers,
his family always pushed him to succeed academically.
The second author, an African American female, has
devoted more than 20 years to writing about gifted educa-
tion inequities relative to race and income. She was for-
mally identified as gifted in elementary school and
experienced many challenges in the late 1970s that many
gifted Black students experience today. She has been
unapologetic about challenging the field of gifted educa-
tion to be equity minded.
We present our experiences here to underscore our rela-
tionship to this topic and how it potentially influenced our
content analysis and interpretation of findings. We sought to
explore the discourse about the intersection of poverty, race,
and giftedness; therefore, we wanted our analysis to focus on
what has been written versus who wrote it. Given that some
of this work includes that of colleagues, we seek to open up
an honest conversation about how students at the intersection
of poverty, race, and giftedness have been discussed to
ensure that these assets are incorporated into research and
Using the game of baseball as an analogy for life, T. L.
Cross (2013) explained that for students living in poverty,
their path around the bases to home plate is filled with bar-
riers, including the lack of many resources (e.g., bat) that
other students who come from more affluent households
have. T. L. Cross further explains that “Where we have
failed is actually moving past our allegiance to financial
blindness that guarantees their staying in their place—in
the dugout with no bat” (pp. 264-265). While the studies
reviewed provide a foundational understanding of the inter-
section of poverty, race, and giftedness, we urge scholars to
address, critique, and provide viable solutions for the sys-
temic inequities that affect the recruitment and retention of
gifted students of color who live in poverty. In essence, we
want to see students of color who live in poverty equipped
with resources (e.g., sociopolitically conscious teachers,
culturally responsive curriculum, less biased testing instru-
ments) so that their gifts can be recognized and cultivated.
As knowledge generators and professionals, it is our duty to
continue to lead this charge.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect
to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, author-
ship, and/or publication of this article.
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Author Biographies
Ramon B. Goings, EdD, is an assistant professor of educational
leadership at Loyola University Maryland. His research inter-
ests are centered on exploring the academic and social experi-
ences of gifted/high-achieving Black males PK-PhD, nontradi-
tional student success, diversifying the teacher and school
leader workforce, equity and access to gifted programs for stu-
dents of color, and investigating the contributions of histori-
cally Black colleges and universities. He is Research Lead for
the Center for Innovation in Urban Education at Loyola
University Maryland.
Donna Y. Ford, PhD, is Cornelius Vanderbilt Endowed Chair and
Professor of Education with joint appointments in the Department of
Special Education and in the Department of Teaching and Learning
at Vanderbilt University. She conducts research primarily in gifted
education and multicultural/urban education. Specifically, her work
focuses on (a) recruiting and retaining culturally different students in
gifted education, (b) multicultural and urban education, (c) achieve-
ment gaps, (d) minority student achievement and underachievement,
and (e) family involvement. She consults with school districts, edu-
cational, and legal organizations in the areas of gifted education,
Advanced Placement, and multicultural/urban education.
... Conceptually, the term "giftedness" has also been defined through different perspectives starting from Galton's (1892) early "genetic inheritance" theory; such theories have often focused on affluent White males and their "innate" ability (Terman, 1925). Since then, more contemporary theories have emerged, such as multiple intelligences, mindset, grit or simply environmental factors as influencing aptitude (Duckworth, 2016;Dweck, 2008;Gardner, 2002;McCollin, 2011). In contrast to earlier theories, Matthews and Foster (2005) offer a "mystery vs. mastery" view that reveals the hard work behind what many perceive as natural ability. ...
... Their findings suggest unequal workloads may reflect gendered and racialized expectations in historically White male spaces (Misra et al., 2021). In general, low-income status does not predict a student's ability to achieve school success; yet it can interfere with college preparedness (Goings and Ford, 2018). Additionally, Black, Latino and some Asian and Pacific Islander students are overrepresented in lowincome public schools, seldom identified for their giftedness or exposed to challenging curriculum (Burney and Beilke, 2008;Goings and Ford, 2018). ...
... In general, low-income status does not predict a student's ability to achieve school success; yet it can interfere with college preparedness (Goings and Ford, 2018). Additionally, Black, Latino and some Asian and Pacific Islander students are overrepresented in lowincome public schools, seldom identified for their giftedness or exposed to challenging curriculum (Burney and Beilke, 2008;Goings and Ford, 2018). However, research suggests that consistent support from skilled teachers may help students maintain their confidence and achievement (Burney and Beilke, 2008). ...
Purpose The purpose of this study is to discuss the significance of “contextual factors” on the talent development of underserved populations. Understanding the “context” and background of an individual provides greater insight into their life experiences (Paik, 2013). Race, class and gender, in particular, play a role in one’s life, providing both barriers and opportunities. Design/methodology/approach To examine contextual and other factors, in-depth biographical case studies were systematically studied across 10 diverse notable artists and scientists. Over 85 autobiographies, biographies and other sources were carefully content-analyzed for commonalities and differences in artists’ and scientists’ lives. Findings Because of their ascribed statuses (e.g. race, class, gender), these individuals had to navigate their unique school and life circumstances. Within their sociocultural contexts, however, key relationships (e.g. parents, teachers, mentors and peers) helped mitigate the challenges. All artists and scientists had a “village” – key stakeholders who invested in them at every stage of their talent development. Practical implications Parents, teachers, mentors and peers are not only critical, but they are lifelines for talent development. Key implications discuss the role of contextual factors and support networks for aspiring diverse artists and scientists. Originality/value The theoretical framework for this study is based on the productive giftedness model (PGM) (Paik, 2013, 2015). PGM includes 10 key psychosocial and environmental factors and how they influence “productive giftedness” (e.g. achievements, accomplishments, leadership). Within the model, both “alterable” and “contextual factors” provide access to different opportunities, support and resources. The model is considered generalizable and applicable for diverse populations.
... However, at present, it appears that gifted identification procedures may be perpetuating societal inequities rather than helping eliminate them" (Hamilton et al., 2017, p. 61). Goings and Ford (2017) also research the intersection between gifted education and students of color living in poverty. They show that systemic inequities perpetuate the lack of representation in both recruitment and retention of low-income gifted students of color. ...
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In this article, I provide a critical reading of the now-removed statue of Sir John A. Macdonald in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. I bring together my own experience visiting the statue with understandings from Indigenous scholarship and public pedagogy theorizing to think about commemorations as public pedagogies that are foremost relational. I consider how the Macdonald statue works narratively, discursively, and as a site of embodied encounter to create a harmful relationality. Thinking relationally, and pedagogically, about colonial statues suggests possibilities not only for understanding how these commemorative practices produce bad relations but also for envisioning and enacting good relations.
... Black youth are less likely to attend a high-quality early childhood education program (Ewen & Herzfeldt-Kamprath, 2016;Nores & Barnett, 2014), negatively affecting their ability to enter kindergarten with the skills and knowledge to reflect success as defined by these educational spaces. This is increasingly problematic considering Black youth represent the highest percentage (31%) of children under 18 living in poverty (García, 2020;Hussar et al., 2020), and children living in poverty are less likely to have access to a highquality early childhood or advanced education programs (Bassok & Galdo, 2015;Goings & Ford, 2018). For example, children in poverty are less likely to have access to gifted education programs and advanced placement courses (Ford et al., 2019;Hussar et al., 2020). ...
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This qualitative study centers on the career narratives of seven Black youth enrolled at an urban public school in the Midwest. We used critical race theory to analyze participants' responses to a narrative career counseling intervention, My Career Story (Savickas & Hartung, 2012). The four interconnected themes found were (a) persistence against all odds, (b) unconditional acceptance and connections, (c) self-advocacy, and (d) tranquility. We discuss direct implications for school/career counselors and school counselor educators.
... The Challenge to Dominant Ideology: CRT challenges the educational system, calling out the deficit thinking ideology exhibited by researchers, teachers, and administrators. Goings and Ford (2018) found that almost half of the scholarly articles in a content analysis of gifted education articles exhibited a deficit thinking ideology. ...
Debates over identification procedures for gifted and talented students dominate the field and serve as the topic of many of its internal and external debates. We believe this is due to a lack of commonly accepted criteria for how to evaluate identification procedures. In this article, we present the Cost, Alignment, Sensitivity, and Access (CASA) criteria, a framework to evaluate identification systems according to their cost, alignment to services, sensitivity, and access. We believe these criteria would facilitate more productive conversations over identification and continued growth and improvement for the field as a whole.
This methodological brief introduces researchers to QuantCrit, a set of tenets complementary to critical race theory, to specifically reexamine how race and racism are analyzed through quantitative methodologies. We outline the tenets of QuantCrit, review recent quantitative research in gifted education for examples aligned with QuantCrit tenets, and provide recommendations for researchers.
This chapter provides a systematic, synthesizing, and critical review of the literature related to assessments of creativity in education from historical, theoretical, empirical, and practical standpoints. We examined the assessments used in the articles focusing on education that are published from January 2010 to May 2021 in eight creativity, psychological, and educational journals. We found that the assessments of creativity in education are split between psychological and education research and have increased international participation. Additionally, these assessments are more general than specific and focus more on cognitive than noncognitive aspects. Like previous reviews of assessments of creativity in general, this review showed that creativity in education is still mainly assessed by divergent thinking or creativity tests, self-report questionnaires, and product-based subjective techniques. We analyzed the benefits and drawbacks of each approach and highlighted many innovations in the assessment. We further discussed how the major assessment approaches address race, ethnicity, class, and gender issues in education. We concluded the review with recommendations for how to better assess creativity in education and how assessments of creativity in education contribute to our understanding of the creative educational experience and democratizing education.
The narrow manner in which giftedness is often regarded perpetuates the underrepresentation of students of Color in gifted education programs, particularly for Black students. This case study highlights the story of a gifted Black high school student attending a predominantly White high school in the South. Bianca’s story illuminates her struggle with myriad racialized challenges within and outside of school and, more importantly, demonstrates her sophisticated and critically conscious appraisal of structural inequities. Interpreted through the lens of critical consciousness, Bianca’s story of giftedness illuminates her complex understandings of societal and institutional workings. Given the complexity and effort required to participate in critical ways of knowing, especially concerning the ways in which race and racism function, this study highlights that critically conscious students like Bianca are, in fact, doubly gifted and can offer insights to expand commonly held notions of giftedness and greater inclusivity in gifted education. Implications for educators and policy makers are discussed.
Embedded in “common sense” and state-mandated reforms to close “the achievement gap,” the urban school, especially those sites with a no-excuses orientation to learning, can produce and reproduce the carceral state in students’ lives. The seemingly innocuous policies and processes limit access to educational opportunities and create disproportionate out-of-class time, which can emerge as the connective tissue for criminalization and the school-to-prison nexus that disproportionately affects Black males in the United States. The objective of the study was to illuminate the more unspoken mechanisms of disproportionality in school while concurrently raising awareness of how everyday practices, like school-imposed mis/labeling, contribute to the symbolic violence and dehumanization of Black and Latinx boys in school.
The four zone professional learning model is a practical, comprehensive approach to striving toward equity through professional learning within gifted education programs. Grounded in equity literacy and funds of knowledge frameworks and based in best practices in culturally responsive gifted professional learning, the zones address the knowledge and skills necessary for proficient teachers of the gifted through the process of systemic change. The model was designed and developed over several years utilizing the plan-study-do-act action research model. This article discusses the methodological evolution of the model, the research and theoretical frameworks in which it is grounded, and future implications.
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Background/Context Culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) represents educators who work toward academic excellence, cultural competence, and sociopolitical awareness. Although some profess to embrace CRP, many educators neglect sociopolitical consciousness. Socio-politically unconscious and/or racially dysconscious educators cannot engage their students in sociopolitical consciousness. For a multitude of reasons, including neoliberal school reform, educators may reduce CRP to cultural celebration, trivialization, essentializing, substituting cultural for political analysis, or other compromised pedagogies. Purpose In this article, we argue that neoliberal school reform models employing hyperaccountability and hyperstandardization, replete with their demands on educators of conformity and silence, obfuscate teachers as thinkers, disempowering the efforts of culturally relevant educators and making high test scores the sole focus of schooling. We also argue that CRP is even more needed now, especially its focuses on cultural competence and sociopolitical consciousness, given the recent highly publicized murders of Black youth (e.g., Freddie Gray, Jordan Davis, Trayvon Martin, and Renisha McBride). Setting and Population This article explores CRP in Philadelphia's public schools before and after the state takeover in 2001 and the proliferation of hyperstandardization, hyperaccountability, and neoliberal school reform. Research Design: This article is conceptual. It uses the historical narratives of Black educators to support the conceptual argument. Conclusion Though it is a professional gamble, it is possible to be a culturally relevant educator within the hyperstandardized, hyperaccountable neoliberal school environment. Such educators must be highly skilled masters of their craft, strategic, and subversive, adhering to all tenets of CRP and mandated curricula. This tension could affect educators’ professional standing, income, and job security. However, neglecting emancipatory pedagogies under the joint siege of hyperaccountability, hyperstandardization, and neoliberal school reform reifies the American racial, cultural, and socioeconomic caste system, and it does so through our schools. Unless educators risk subversively employing CRP, students from historically marginalized communities will continue to appear as standardized failures.
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As the United States continues to see an increase in biracial and multiracial citizens, there has been limited scholarship on gifted students who identify as biracial and/or multiracial. Thus, this chapter seeks to fill this void in the literature. We discuss demographics for self-identified biracial/multiracial persons, share two biracial or multiracial identity development models, and describe the characteristics of gifted biracial/multiracial students. We conclude this chapter with recommendations for education professionals and families to support this unique group of students.
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Students of color are underrepresented in gifted programs relative to White students, but the reasons for this underrepresentation are poorly understood. We investigate the predictors of gifted assignment using nationally representative, longitudinal data on elementary students. We document that even among students with high standardized test scores, Black students are less likely to be assigned to gifted services in both math and reading, a pattern that persists when controlling for other background factors, such as health and socioeconomic status, and characteristics of classrooms and schools. We then investigate the role of teacher discretion, leveraging research from political science suggesting that clients of government services from traditionally underrepresented groups benefit from diversity in the providers of those services, including teachers. Even after conditioning on test scores and other factors, Black students indeed are referred to gifted programs, particularly in reading, at significantly lower rates when taught by non-Black teachers, a concerning result given the relatively low incidence of assignment to own-race teachers among Black students.
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This article examines the underrepresentation of African American and Hispanic students in gifted education, proposing that social inequality, deficit thinking, and microaggressions contribute to the inequitable segregated programs. Underrepresentation trends are presented, along with methods for calculating underrepresentation and inequity. Underrepresentation is placed under the larger umbrella of achievement gaps and inequities in school settings with attention to de jure segregation. I argue that underrepresentation is beyond statistical chance and is a function of attitudes and beliefs grounded in deficit paradigms among those with power or social capital. Denying access to gifted education based on race is counterproductive and illegal and is discussed with Brown v. Board of Education as the legal background and a recent court case in gifted education (McFadden v. Board of Education for Illinois School District U-46). Recommendations for desegregating gifted education are provided.
We conducted a meta-analysis exploring ethnic minority students enrolled in gifted/advanced programs with an emphasis on their academic achievement outcomes. A comprehensive search based on the Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis checklist, was performed to retrieve articles within a 30-year time period (1983-2014), which resulted in 13 articles that were included in this meta-analysis. We analyzed the data using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis and presented the findings with descriptive information about gifted programs and statistical information, including effect size of each gifted program and overall effect size. Statistically significant positive overall intervention effect sizes were found; however, descriptive data revealed issues with the current state of research on gifted ethnic minority students.
Raised Up Down Yonder attempts to shift focus away from why black youth are “problematic” to explore what their daily lives actually entail. Howell travels to the small community of Hamilton, Alabama, to investigate what it is like for a young black person to grow up in the contemporary rural South. What she finds is that the young people of Hamilton are neither idly passing their time in a stereotypically languid setting, nor are they being corrupted by hip hop culture and the perils of the urban North, as many pundits suggest. Rather, they are dynamic and diverse young people making their way through the structures that define the twenty-first-century South. Told through the poignant stories of several high school students, Raised Up Down Yonder reveals a group that is often rendered invisible in society. Blended families, football sagas, crunk music, expanding social networks, and a nearby segregated prom are just a few of the fascinating juxtapositions. Howell uses personal biography, historical accounts, sociolinguistic analysis, and community narratives to illustrate persistent racism, class divisions, and resistance in a new context. She addresses contemporary issues, such as moral panics regarding the future of youth in America and educational policies that may be well meaning but are ultimately misguided. © 2013 by University Press of Mississippi. All rights reserved.
Gifted students exist in the culture of rural poverty; however, these children often are not identified, and schools fail to provide appropriate educational programs, preventing young people from realizing their potential. In this account of a gifted Black child living in an impoverished rural environment, a university researcher and a classroom eacher collaborated in order to describe a young man's creativity, his resilience, his struggle to find a place for himself in his community, and the significant factors that influenced the early formation of a strong self-identity. The findings of the study offer educators helpful suggestions for identifying and addressing the educational needs of gifted Black children living in rural poverty.
This article describes a study designed to examine the relationship of tutoring in specific reading comprehension strategies to gains in reading achievement for children enrolled in self-contained classrooms for gifted students from low-income, culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds and heterogeneous with respect to reading achievement. Participants were 58 students in grades 3-5, including 12 English learners. Eleven adult tutors received training in decoding and 3 basic and 3 higher level reading comprehension strategies consistent with the district's reading program and adapted to include increasing levels of challenge and support for English learners. Scores on a. standardized reading achievement test and an assessment of reading fluency served as outcome measures. Findings suggest that tutoring in decoding and higher level reading comprehension strategies supported gains in reading achievement. Gifted students who are English learners appear to benefit from tutoring in decoding and the full range of lower and higher level reading comprehension strategies.