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Abstract

Cameroon has an abundant reserve of energy resources, such as crude oil, natural gas, hydropower, biomass, solar, wind and geothermal energies. However, these resources are still weakly valorised. The country relies mainly on hydropower energy for electricity generation (73%) with persistent power outages throughout the country especially in the dry seasons when water levels are low. Electricity access is about 65–88% in urban areas and around 14% for rural populations. Cameroon has experienced a strong economic growth (growth rate of 5.9% in 2015), accompanied by a rapid increase in electricity demand (1455 MW in 2014). Electricity needs are expected to continue rising over the next decade to reach 5000 MW by 2020 and 6000 MW by 2030. This paper seeks to address energy issues (reliability, accessibility and security) in Cameroon and brings to light the potential and meaningful contributions of renewables in solving energy concern. In order to achieve this objective, an overview, of the energy sector (energy source, access, demand, supply and distribution) is given followed by a review of renewable energy potential, policy, benefits and barriers. In addition, this paper introduces the energy roadmap to achieve a universal access to electricity, which will pave the way for the country emergence by 2035. It is found that energy sector of Cameroon holds promising possibilities of development and diversification given the country's energy potential. With adequate policy, standards, regulations, awareness, capacity building and off-grid renewable energy investments measures, it is possible for Cameroon to meet the future energy targets and ensure meaningful development throughout the country.

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... Large-scale production of biogas in Cameroon is carried out by the Hygiene and Sanitation Company of Cameroon (HYSACAM), responsible for the overall solid waste management in the major cities of the country. The first of such plant by this company was constructed at it landfill site in Nkolfoulou-Yaoundé in 2011 and the second at PK10 in Douala in 2014 [31]. Biogas from both plants is flared instead of being used domestically due to the presence of harmful impurities. ...
... However, there are plans by the company to convert the biogas to electricity in the future. Since the construction of these plants, they have contributed immensely to the reduction of greenhouse gas Outlet emissions (methane and carbon dioxide) from landfills in the country [3,31]. ...
... Agriculture plays a crucial role in the societies and economies of all sub-Saharan African countries [35]. More than 60% of Cameroon active population is actively involved in agriculture, which accounts for 42% of the country's Growth Domestic Product (GDP) [31]. Some of the country's export commodities are: cocoa, cotton, coffee, and palm oil; whereas imports include: poultry, millet, maize, sugar, beef meat, sorghum, and pig meat [35]. ...
... Cameroon owns the second hydroelectric potential in Africa (technically estimated at 19.7 GW producing 115 TWh (Terawatt hour) per year) today estimated less than 5% (less than 1,000 MW (Megawatt) of power installed in 2008) (Muh et al., 2017). However, electricity is still highly produced by hydroelectricity power station, that is close to 76% of the overall production in 2006 (Nkué and Njomo, 2009). ...
... In 2009, the oil products and electricity consumptions were respectively estimated 1.018 ktoe (kilo tonne of oil equivalent) and 401 ktoe (kilo tonne of oil equivalent) (Muh et al., 2017). ...
... The total electricity consumption is highly dominated by an energy supplied in high voltage to four firms (Alucam, Socatral, Cimencam and Cicam), which are huge energy consumers also referred to as AES-Sonel special customers. In 2006, they accounted for 124 ktoe [1.439 GWh (Gigawatt hour)], that is 42% of the final consumption of electricity (Muh et al., 2017). ...
Article
In this work, the concept of energy and exergy used applied to Cameroon is analysed. The analysis of the exergetic flux is applied to various sectors (residential, industrial, transport, agricultural and others) in order to bring the various points of exergetic losses and to propose some means to remedy these losses. It is observed that other sectors (hotels and restaurants, administrative buildings, hospitals...) are less efficient. An analysis of the situation in the whole Cameroon for the year 2010 gives 37.9% and 10.81% for the energetic and exergetic efficiency respectively. The results are compared with those of other countries.
... This growth in demand for electricity is expected to continue rising over the next decade as seen in the 2012-2025 demand forecast (see Fig. 9). [3]. ...
... : Some major wind/solar renewable energy projects involving grid connection [3], [40]. ...
... When a particular technology of energy storage is selected, the forms of the functions as Eq. [2][3][4][5] are written according to the nature of the central store and the power transformation system and the desired number of duties the storage device is intended to perform. Also, the full mathematical model can only be used when a particular type of energy storage is involved and optimisation of its parameters or optimal control is needed. ...
Thesis
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This thesis addresses the global question of grid-connected utility-scale energy storage for the integration of energy generated from variable sources, in the context energy transition. Specifically it focus on the case of Cameroon with the objective to formulate an objective point of view about the idea of promoting the pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) alternative for sustainable power generation in Cameroon. To reach this objective, some key aspects supporting the need for bulk energy storage in the power system of Cameroon were analysed, based on a critical analysis of the country’s power sector. Afterwards, the technical feasibility of inland small-scale PHES operable with limited environmental impact was analysed, using a spatial analysis model implemented in a geographical information systems (GIS). Finally, the compliance of the local PHES opportunities with sustainability requirements was checked, using a multi-criteria decision-making model for PHES siting. As results from this study, massive grid-connected storage was presented as the missing link in the country’s energy commitment. The feasibility of PHES in Cameroon was established as 21 suitable sites were identified totalling an energy storage potential of about 34 GWh, and finally a ranking of these opportunities from a sustainable development perspective was proposed. It was therefore suggested that the Government of Cameroon works with other stakeholders in the power sector to produce a comprehensive energy storage roadmap to valorise the country’s graceful energy assets.
... His findings are in line with those obtained by previous authors with abundant solar, bioenergy potential and hydropower potential. Several authors also confirm the abundance of hydropower resources in Cameroon [43,47,48]. Some authors argue that the geothermal resource in Cameroon needs to be effectively assessed [43,48,49]. ...
... One key finding worth noting from their research is that weakness of institutions is a critical obstacle to RE development within the region. Muh et al. [47] also reviewed the energy policies in Cameroon and concluded that a blend of adequate policies, regulations and off-grid RE investments are needed to improve the country's access to RE. In addition, Kenfack et al. [51] reviewed the potential for hydropower development in Cameroon under the vision of the Central Africa Power Pool (CAPP). ...
... Fossong et al. [53] also stressed that RE will be a major driver of economic growth in both the short and long term in Cameroon. Several institutional actors are therefore expected to drive the implementation of strategies for such a RE future [47], [54], [55]. The narrative drawn from the literature points to abundant renewable resources, especially for solar energy and the need for efficient policies to drive a sustainable energy strategy in Cameroon. ...
Article
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Sustainable energy systems form an indispensable component of sustainable development especially in developing economies. Understanding the system wide techno-economics of sustainable energy systems therefore becomes critical in shaping the energy system mix within a region or country. This paper explores progressive and optimal pathways towards a fully sustainable energy system for Cameroon by 2050 in power, heat, and transport sectors as a representative case study for the Central Africa region. Six key scenarios are modelled with the LUT Energy System Transition Model to capture key policy and sustainability constraints. Results from the study show that, the optimal least cost technology combination for a fully sustainable energy system for Cameroon with net-zero greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 is dominated by solar PV (86%), complemented by hydropower (8%) and bioenergy (5%). These results show that a fully sustainable energy system for Cameroon is feasible from both the technical and economic perspectives, if policy commitment is oriented towards these low-cost energy solutions. The results of this research provide a reliable reference for planning transitions towards a 100% renewable energy-based energy system in countries within the Central Africa region.
... These needs in combination with concerns such as sustainability, environmental protection, and energy independence have been the focus of many government policies. A convenient approach to overcome the aforementioned concerns is the identification and harnessing of diverse clean and renewable forms of energy [1]. Most progress in the area of renewable and clean energy is centred on developing modern power systems. ...
... As far as Cameroon is concerned, over the last four decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the demand for electricity due to a steadily growing human population as well as industrialization [1]. Cameroon is abundantly endowed with diverse sources of energy including hydropower, fossil fuels, wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal, which are mostly unexploited. ...
... Cameroon is abundantly endowed with diverse sources of energy including hydropower, fossil fuels, wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal, which are mostly unexploited. It possesses the second-largest hydropower potential of Africa and depends mainly on hydropower for its electricity needs [1,3,4], with petroleum and coal being the minor contributors to its electrical energy supply [1]. However, most parts of Cameroon experience frequent power outages and energy shortages. ...
Article
Full-text available
Careful analysis of long-term wind data in a broad area is essential to estimate the wind energy potential of a region. For this purpose, knowledge of wind speed distribution is an essential task. This paper proposes a comprehensive statistical evaluation of monthly, annual, and interannual variabilities of mean wind speeds and wind power densities of 2745 different sites over an area covering the whole of Cameroon. We used wind speed data obtained from ERA-5 for the period 2000–2017. In addition to the popular Weibull probability density function (WPDF), other continuous distributions such as the Normal PDF (NPDF) and the Lognormal PDF (LPDF) were used to investigate their suitability for the description of the wind regimes. We also established the analytical expression of the Normal power density. Three statistical analysis tools were used to determine the goodness of fit of the curves and the parameters of the PDFs were determined by the maximum likelihood method. We found that the theoretical power (TP) and power densities based on WPDF and NPDF are closely related. We observed the highest wind speeds and power densities in a few areas in the Lake Chad Basin and the Gulf of Guinea (GoG) which did not exceed class 2. It is seen that most of the areas studied show relatively low wind speeds and power densities that belong mostly to class 1 during all seasons. These results are useful for sizing wind turbines specific for different locations in Cameroon and making good decisions in terms of budgetary optimization of investments in the energy sector.
... In Cameroon, electrification is mainly performed through grid extensions supported by small hydro schemes and isolated diesel plants in rural settings. Electricity generation is dominated by hydropower (55.1% in 2016 [13], as compared to 73.2% in 2014 [14]), with a total production of 8367 GWh [13], followed by thermal sources (oil and gas), biofuels with very negligible contribution and other renewable sources like solar and wind. Currently, Cameroon has an installed generation capacity of 1475 MW [15], mainly from hydro and the rest from thermal plants. ...
... Cameroon is blessed with an abundant reserve of natural and energy resources such as timber, uranium, iron, cobalt, nickel, platinum, oil, biomass, natural gas, solar, coal, hydropower, wind, and geothermal energy. However, these resources are poorly exploited and the country's economy is powered mainly by hydropower and fossil resources [14]. Petroleum, Coal, and hydropower are the major commercial energy sources in the country with an estimate of about 90% of rural populations relying on various forms of traditional biomass for their basic energy needs (lighting, cooking and heating). ...
... Cameroon's oil reserves (2015) is estimated at 200 million barrels. The natural gas potential is of over 550 billion m 3 with estimated proven reserves of 157 billion m 3 [14]. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), in 2016, the energy balance indicators of Cameroon (population of 23.34 million, GDP of 32 (billion 2010 USD)) [21] were as follows: the country's energy production was 11,953 ktoe, total primary energy supply (TPES) of 9272 ktoe, electricity production 8.37 TWh and an overall Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions 6.01 Mt. ...
... Cameroon owns the second hydroelectric potential in Africa (technically estimated at 19.7 GW producing 115 TWh (Terawatt hour) per year) today estimated less than 5% (less than 1,000 MW (Megawatt) of power installed in 2008) (Muh et al., 2017). However, electricity is still highly produced by hydroelectricity power station, that is close to 76% of the overall production in 2006 (Nkué and Njomo, 2009). ...
... In 2009, the oil products and electricity consumptions were respectively estimated 1.018 ktoe (kilo tonne of oil equivalent) and 401 ktoe (kilo tonne of oil equivalent) (Muh et al., 2017). ...
... The total electricity consumption is highly dominated by an energy supplied in high voltage to four firms (Alucam, Socatral, Cimencam and Cicam), which are huge energy consumers also referred to as AES-Sonel special customers. In 2006, they accounted for 124 ktoe [1.439 GWh (Gigawatt hour)], that is 42% of the final consumption of electricity (Muh et al., 2017). ...
... Cameroon has a surface area of about 475,650 km 2 with a population of about 25 million (2019, 54.4 % urban and 45.6 % rural) [53]. This represents in CAPP zone, 7.2 % and 13 % in area and population respectively. ...
... That means that Cameroon has the second largest hydropower potential in central Africa after the Democratic Republic of Congo [61]. These estimates of conventional hydropower have been mentioned in many peer-reviewed papers on renewable energy [35,40,62] and sustainable energy policies in Cameroon [53,60] and Central Africa [63] without a detailed analysis and a thorough understanding of the subject. Small-scale hydropower potential in Cameroon has been the subject of relatively little research, although the first project in this sense in Cameroon dates back to 1944 with the Dschang power plant, which is currently abandoned [64]. ...
Article
Poor access to electricity remains a major hindrance to the economic development in Central Africa sub-region. To address this issue the Central African Power Pool (CAPP) has been established with the vision to create and manage a regional cross-borders exchange of electricity based on the development of the sub-region's enormous hydropower potential. However, the implementation of this vision is struggling with poor visibility on information related to the potential and the state-of-the-art of the development of hydropower in the member states. The objective of this work is to review the literature and data pertaining to the potential of hydropower and state of development in Cameroon, in the perspective of full access to energy in Central Africa as targeted by CAPP. The reviewed documents include both research articles and reports of investigative works carried out in the field of hydropower by various technical commissions since 1970s. This encompasses conventional hydropower at large and small schemes, storage dams and, pumped-storage for which a comprehensive synthesis of the available data and information appears crucial. A better understanding of the current state of hydropower in the country is provided as well some policy recommendations for a hydro-based development of the power sector in the whole sub-region. It is hoped that this paper contributes to synthesising the various assessments of Cameroon's hydropower potential, so as to address the issue of lack of visibility on data and information in the sector, as this has hitherto been a handicap to the fulfilment of the pool's vision.
... More than the half residences remain in darkness. Such a situation is also observed in rural areas where the major part of residences does not have access to electric networks [5] [6]. ...
... Those timeworn and saturated infrastructures cause the loss of more than 30% of the total production [5]. The main part production of electricity is then lost whereas the population needs in energy are increasing [7]. ...
Conference Paper
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Ce travail modélise et prévoit la demande en électricité dans le secteur du résidentiel au Cameroun, en utilisant six paramètres macroéconomiques couvrant la période 1994-2014. Les tests de stationnarité révèlent que toutes les séries ne sont pas I(1). Le modèle VAR est ainsi retenu pour modéliser et prévoir la demande en électricité du résidentiel jusqu’en 2020. Le cusum test et le cusum square test prouvent la stabilité du modèle avec une marge d’erreur de 0,02%. Les prévisions sont donc assez fiables et montrent que la demande électrique du résidentiel passera d’environ 1721 GWh en 2014 à plus de 2481 GWh en 2020 suivant un taux de croissance annuel moyen de 5,36%. Le Cameroun pour atteindre son émergence devrait donc accélérer ses multiples travaux de production d’électricité hydroélectrique et thermique, afin de répondre aux besoins en énergie électrique à court et à long terme.
... Hydropower is as well considered as one of the most reliable and readily available sources of energy in Cameroon [7,8]. The country is endowed with an economically exploitable hydro potential of around 103 TWh per year, the third largest potential in Africa, after the Democratic Republic of Congo (419 TWh per year) and Ethiopia (260 TWh per year) [8][9][10]. However, the actual level of hydroelectric output in the country corresponds to approximately 5.34 TWh per year, representing only 5.2 per cent of the economically exploitable hydro potential of Cameroon. ...
... Hydro potential is unevenly distributed across the three networks. The SIN supplies power to a grid system with trunk lines under 225 kV that connects the major hydropower stations, Song Loulou (384 MW), Edea (263 MW) and Memve'ele (200 MW) plants to main towns (Yaoundé and Douala) and the aluminum industry, main consumption areas [10]. The NIN has a grid system under 110 kV and 90 kV structure, dispatching the power generated by Lagdo hydropower station (72 MW). ...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, households in the East Region of Cameroon (ERoC) depend solely on fossil-fueled plants to meet their energy needs. Fossil fuel-based sources are a major drain on public finance in addition to being a key contributor to the increase in carbon footprints. Alternatively, the ERoC is blessed with a hydropower potential estimated at around 620.37 MW, with a production potential of 5.36 TWh per year. However, despite its favorable candidates' sites, hydropower resources are yet to be harnessed in the ERoC. Hence, the need for a thorough assessment of hydropower potential is necessary in order to increase stakeholders' awareness and interest in attractive hydropower resources. This paper evaluates and highlights the hydropower potential of seven selected locations in the ERoC and contributes to constituting a database for the stakeholders of the hydropower resources for electricity generation. Specifically, hydrological data, mean flow rates and mean volume contributions on each site's river basin are explored. Furthermore, the present work highlights optimal regulation ratios, nominal flow rates, producible energy, investment costs as well as other useful parameters for projected hydropower plants for the seven selected locations in the ERoC. The results display a cumulative projected capacity of 582 MW, of which 19 MW from Zoukoumanbale, 18 MW from Colomines, 53 MW from Zoulabot, 297 MW from Nki falls, 129 MW from Yenga, 35 MW from Bangue and 124 MW from Ngoila. Moreover, 3 929 GWh are projected cumulative producible energy for the selected locations. Investment costs estimates of hydroelectric plants range between 2 964 e per kW (for Colomines) and 3 002 e per kW (for Bangue).
... In 2016 it was only 266 kWh, which was very low as compared to the 4000 kWh in South Africa or the 13,000 kWh in the USA [10]. Furthermore, there are still 9 million people without access to electricity, which leads to a national electricity access rate of 62%, unequally distributed between rural areas (23% access rate) and urban areas (92% access rate) [11,12]. The power outages are frequent, causing visible damages to households and industries. ...
... The only selection criterion was the availability of data from the NASA database. The selected locations are listed as follows: Banyo (1), Garoua (2), Maroua (3), Meiganga (4), Mokolo (5), Mora (6), Ngaoundéré (7), Poli (8), Tcholoré (9), Tibati (10), Tignère (11), and Yagoua (12). ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to environmental and economic drawbacks of fossil fuels, global renewable energy (RE) capacity has increased significantly over the last decade. Solar photovoltaic (PV) is one of the fastest-growing RE technologies. Selecting an appropriate site is one of the most critical steps in utility-scale solar PV planning. This paper aims at proposing a rational multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach based on the Brown–Gibson model for optimal site selection for utility-scale solar PV projects. The proposed model considers the project’s net present value (NPV) along with seven suitability factors and six critical (constraint) factors. The RETScreen software was applied in calculating the NPV, the simple payback period and the carbon emission savings of the project at each alternative site. The weights of the suitability factors were determined using the analytical hierarchy process. Applied to the case study of finding the best location for a 5 MW solar PV project in northern Cameroon, the optimization results showed that Mokolo was the optimal location. The sensitivity analysis results revealed that the rankings of alternative sites based on the project’s NPV and the proposed model are not consistent. Compared to the traditional MCDM approaches, the proposed model provides decision-makers with a more practical thinking method in the optimal location process of utility-scale solar projects.
... This growth in demand for electricity is expected to continue to increase over the next decades [3]. The electrical operator ENEO, in charge of the management of the electrical system as a whole (production, transmission and distribution of electricity) is having difficulty meeting this demand and is not always in a position to meet all needs, particularly during peak hours, both in terms of the quantities of electricity delivered and in terms of the quality of the electric current supplied [4]. ...
... Erasmus et al. [4] indicates a forecast of electricity consumption estimated at 7040 GWh in 2025. This is much lower than the results obtained by the hybrid model VECM-HES, moreover this figure indicates a forecast of annual demand below 5000GWh in 2019 this which is very inferior to reality because according to data from the World Bank and that of the Electric Energy Regulatory Agency in Cameroon, the annual consumption in 2019 is estimated at around 6998.38GWh. ...
Article
Electricity consumption is on the rise in developing countries. Most energy demand forecasting research studies aim to provide sufficient electricity forecast for accurate planning of investments in electricity generation and distribution. The main objective of this study is to develop efficient and realistic solutions for forecasting electricity consumption in Cameroon. This article proposes a hybrid model based on vector error correction models (VECM) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothening (HES), combines from an improved algorithm of the gradient descend in order to minimize the forecast error. The prediction results of this hybrid approach are compared to similar studies in the literature, to artificial intelligence models as well as to predictions from official published scientific work. Also, it is applied to forecast the future net electricity consumption of Cameroon until 2024. The results of the study indicate that the proposed model can generate more realistic and reliable forecasts. It can also be argued that it responds better to some unexpected reactions from the time series.
... More than the half residences remain in darkness. Such a situation is also observed in rural areas where the major part of residences does not have access to electric networks [5] [6]. ...
... Those timeworn and saturated infrastructures cause the loss of more than 30% of the total production [5]. The main part production of electricity is then lost whereas the population needs in energy are increasing [7]. ...
... In order to improve its power generation capacity, the State has adopted several reforms over the past ten years, including the Emergency Thermal Plan (ETP) adopted in 2012, which resulted in an increase in the number of thermal power stations (Mbalmayo in the centre region (10 MW), Bamenda in the North-West region (20 MW), Ebolowa in the centre region (10 MW), and Ahala in the centre region (60 MW)), and growth in the country's generating capacity by 100 MW [13]. The institutional framework of the country's electricity sector has also been overhauled, with the creation of the Soci et e Nationale de Transport de l'Electricit e (SONATREL) in 2015. ...
... The Grey GM(1,1) mathematical model, the VAR(p) econometric model, and the GM(1,1)-VAR(p) hybrid model. Their respective accuracies are assessed in the context of forecasting the demand for electricity in the Cameroonian residential sector by 2025, about ten years before the country's emergence point scheduled to be reached in 2035 [13]. The remaining part of the paper is subdivided into four sections. ...
Article
Cameroon is highly growing in energy as a whole, and in electricity in particular. This growth is expected to increase within the next years, thanks to the current emergence as well as the country's major projects. Therefore, mastering electricity demand in the residential sector is one of State's priorities. In fact, this falls under the development plan of the electricity sector by 2025. Therefore, this paper highlights the forecast of the electricity consumption regarding the residential sector in Cameroon. The new GM(1,1)-VAR(1) hybrid model which is based on the VAR and Grey models, is used for this purpose. Results from the new model show that the previsional GM(1,1)-VAR(1) model is strong and reliable, just like some recent and modern hybrid models. Electricity needs of the residential sector by 2025 are estimated at 2641.632 GWh, with a 1.628% MAPE, and a 15.42 RMSE. Consequently, the new hybrid model should be a reliable previsional tool that makes it possible to monitor the evolution of electricity demand of the residential sector in cameroon.
... Due to its geographic location, Cameroon has moderate to high levels of Global Horizontal Irradiation [15]. Figure 5 maps the photovoltaic power potential in the country. ...
Article
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Globally, the continuous increase of energy consumption coupled with the depletion of the limited fossil fuel sources and their negative impacts on the environment, has shifted focus towards renewables for a sustainable development. For the last fifteen years, the world has enjoyed renewables generation capacity increases in a double-digit Terawatt-hours range. Although renewables consumption is fast developing in Asia Pacific, Europe and North America, significant coordination efforts are required among stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africans countries such as Cameroon. In 2018, the total final energy consumption in Cameroon was 7.41 Mtoe, 74.22% of which was from biomass, 18.48% from fossil fuels and 7.30% from electricity. Furthermore, 6977 GWh of electricity was produced, 78.29% of which from the major electricity operator (ENEO S.A. Cameroon) and 21.71% from independent producers (GLOBELEQ, ALTAAQA Sinohydro China and AGGREKO). More than three quarter of electricity produced were consumed by industry (57.04%) and residential (20.74%) sectors. The country's installed electricity generation capacity rose to 1402 MW, 56.15% of which was from hydropower, 43.84% from fossil fuels (17.55% from natural gas and 26.29% from oil) and 0.01% from solar photovoltaic. The promotion of renewable energy is an important part of Cameroon's plan to increase energy security and provide job opportunities to the country. Yet, the lack of proactive and long-term renewable energy policy and laws, in addition to less attention paid to renewable energy training and research, financing mechanisms, and unaffordable costs of renewable energy technologies to the poor population are amongst present issues hindering the development of renewable energy in the country. Hence, this paper aims to highlight the present status of renewable energy exploitation and development in Cameroon.
... Energy policies in Cameroon: a holistic overview [94]. ...
Article
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The world has not been able to achieve minimum greenhouse gas emissions in buildings’ energy consumptions because the energy and emissions optimization techniques have not been fully utilized. Thermal comfort is one of the most important issues for both residential and commercial buildings. Out of the 40% of global energy consumed by buildings, a large fraction is used to maintain their thermal comfort. In this study, a comprehensive review of the recent advancements in building energy conservation and efficiency application is presented based on existing high-quality research papers. Additionally, the retrofit of the heating/cooling and hot water system for an entire community in Cyprus is presented. This study aims to analyze the technical and environmental benefits of replacing existing electric heaters for hot water with heat pump water heating systems and the use of heat pump air conditioners for thermal comfort in place of the existing ordinary air conditioners for space heating and cooling. One administrative building, 86 apartments (including residential and commercial) buildings, and a restaurant building is retrofitted, and the feasibility of the project is determined based on three economic indicators, namely; simple payback period (SPP), internal rate of return (IRR), and net present value (NPV). The electrical energy required by the hot water systems and the heating/cooling system is reduced by 263,564 kWh/yr and 144,825 kWh/yr, respectively. Additionally, the retrofit project will reduce Cyprus’ CO2 emission by 121,592.8 kg yearly. The SPP, IRR, and NPV for the project show that the retrofit is economically feasible.
... This study will inform policy makers (GoC), planners (INBAR) and development partners on the number of hectares of bamboo existing already in Cameroon, their distributions and the dominant species. This could orientate bamboo development policies, strategies (under elaboration) and bamboo plan (MINFOF, 2018;Muh et al., 2018), in the respective ecological zones with respect to more adapted bamboo species. For example, the present known bamboo stocks could be expanded by planting bamboo in marginal and degraded lands of the Guinea savannah and Sudano-Sahelian zones (AEZ 1 and 2) to mitigating the effects of climate change (FAO and INBAR, 2018;INBAR, 2019a); mangroves of the Coastal or Littorals (AEZ 4) of Cameroon, especially aquatic biodiversity conservation (Wetlands International, 2008), bioenergy feedstocks: biofuel, fodder for cattle in AEZs 1, 2 and 3 (Nellie et al., 2012;UNEP, 2019); agricultural production (bamboo agroforestry) (MINADER 2015), industrial transformation of bamboo into best utilities: paper pulp, furniture, construction etc. (AEZ 3, 4 and 5) (INBAR, 2019b). ...
Article
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Bamboo resource assessment has witnessed great interest in the world with very little attention in the Congo Basin forests. This study was initiated to assess bamboo species distribution in Cameroon with respect to Agroecological Zones (AEZ), using remote sensing. Forty-eight sheets of Landsat 8/Operational Land Imager (OLI) and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) instruments' images were mosaiced with the Envi 5.3 software. The bamboo index (BI) was calculated and used to identify wild bamboo-growing regions in Cameroon. Maps of bamboo growing regions helped in ground truthing. GPS coordinates were used to validate the bamboo presence with an accuracy of 78%. The result showed that bamboo spatial area statistics was 794.60, 451 308.36, 241 295.87, 302 989.41 and 219 094.67 ha in Sudano-Sahel, Guinea Savannah, Western Highlands, Monomodal rainfall forests and Bimodal rainfall forest, respectively with a total of 1 215 482.91 ha. Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C.Wendl.; Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich.) Munro; Phyllostachys sp.; Yushania alpina K. Schum; Ochlandra travancorica (Bedd.) Gamble; Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees; Phylostachys atrovaginata C. S. Chao & H.Y.Chou; Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, were found in Cameroon. O. abyssinica was dominant in Agroecological zones 1 and 2; P. aurea in Agroecological zones 3; and B. vulgaris in respectively Agroecological zones 4 and 5. These results can orientate policies and planning towards a sustainable bamboo sector development and mitigating the effects of climate change in Cameroon.
... In [13], the authors indicated that in developing countries, overall 56% of total energy use comes from traditional biomass, mainly firewood, and due to overharvesting, people spend more and more time to find wood residues close to their living area. In [14], the authors indicated that the annual deforestation rate is 200,000 ha/year, while the regeneration rate only represents 3000 ha/year. They also mentioned the potential of Cameroonian biomass for energy production through steam production eventually through cogeneration (biomass and gas). ...
Article
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Pyrolysis and combustion processes of twelve Cameroonian woody biomass were performed in a thermobalance to determine their thermal degradation profiles and the associated kinetic parameters. Classical characterizations were first performed on the twelve woody samples. For the thermogravimetric analyses, the samples were heated from ambient temperature to 900 °C at four low temperature rates (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C/min) and under nonoxidative (pure nitrogen) or oxidative (synthetic air) atmospheres. The optimal values of the kinetic parameters of the twelve samples were determined considering the temperature rate of 5 °C/min and using the extended independent parallel reaction (EIPR) model with three constituents, plus the char under an oxidative atmosphere. The first-order reaction function was considered in the pyrolysis case for the three constituents and for the degradation under air of the hemicellulose and lignin constituents, whatever the sample. The second-order or fourth-order Avrami–Erofeev reaction functions were introduced for the degradation under air of the cellulose constituent or of the char. The optimal values of the kinetic parameters determined in these conditions were compared and led to quite good simulations of the mass and mass rate curves. ANOVA computations performed on the characterizations and on the optimal values of the kinetic parameters for pyrolysis or combustion of the twelve samples indicated that the mean values of these parameters did not present differences with a significance threshold equal to 0.05.
... Access to energy is still very limited to millions of local dwellers in Sub-Saharan Africa who still depend on traditional wood fuel for cooking [1]. The main sources of commercial energy in Cameroon, for example, are hydropower and fossil fuels [2]; the former is vulnerable to variations in rainfall [3] while the latter is subject to price volatility due to dependence on imported energy carriers [1,4] and its use is associated with anthropogenic climate changes. ...
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Wood processing produces large volumes of residues which, when not properly managed, pose an environmental problem in the vicinity and beyond. These residues mainly constituted of sawdust and wood shavings, possess important energy potentials that are largely underexploited in Cameroon. In this work, we investigate the possibility that sawdust generated by wood transformation units (WTU) in Cameroon can be used sustainably to render them self-sufficient in terms of electricity demands through the production of syngas in a gasification process. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in the research. Initially, a questionnaire was employed to quantify the sawdust produced in the town of Yaounde, Cameroon. A major WTU “LFM_Sciérie” was selected to evaluate the feasibility of electricity generation from syngas produced by gasification of its wood waste. Proximate analysis of sawdust sampled from the LFM sawmill included moisture content 17.74 ± 0.27%, ash content 3.91 ± 1.54%, volatile matter 74.62 ± 1.47%, and fixed carbon 3.73%. The gross calorific value of the sawdust sample was estimated to be 20.08 MJ/kg. The total quantity of sawdust produced in the Yaounde municipalities is 290 tons/week which translates to an energy potential of 713 GJ/week. Theoretical calculations and modelling using a thermodynamics software, Cycle-Tempo, indicate that the amount of sawdust generated at the LFM sawmill of about 7 tons/week, can conveniently satisfy its electricity demands of approximately 3.3 MW/week. Small-scale WTUs in Yaounde can be rendered energy-autonomous by the generation of electricity from syngas produced via a gasification process of its waste.
... In 2012, combustible fuel stood at 7.531 million metric tonnes rising to 14.480 million of tonnes in 2018. These emissions according to MINEP (2005) are attributed to the rate of energy utilisation; industrial development and land use (Fondja, 2013;Nkengfack et al., 2014;Muh et al., 2017). Therefore, poor planning of urban centres coupled with the use of traditional energy in Cameroon has led to several challenges such as poor waste management, poor drainage, pollution of drinking water which leads to water borne diseases, air pollution which is responsible for the many respiratory diseases. ...
... For instance, Nigeria aims to increase the capacity of PV street lighting from 100 MW to 1000 MW by 2015 and to 10000 MW by 2030 [5]. In Cameroon, 3000 off-grid PV lighting systems were already installed on major streets and public sites [6]. In Malawi, which has one of the lowest grid access in South Africa (9%), 250 off-grid PV street lights were planned to be installed by a Chinese funded project. ...
Article
Street lighting is one of the sectors where off-grid energy systems are used, and in the past decade interest in these systems has increased due to recent developments occurred both in LED and PV technology. This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of off-grid PV LED road lighting systems for northern, central and southern regions of Turkey. Road lighting calculations are conducted using DIALux software for M4 and M5 road lighting classes to obtain optimal LED luminaires, pole sizes, and spacings. Among the obtained LED powers, load profiles are created using real lighting hours of operation of the selected regions. And then, the required PV-battery systems are optimized using HOMER software. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed for future projections considering possible increases in electricity prices and decreases in component cost of the PV systems. The results showed that the levelized COE of the off-grid PV LED road lighting systems vary between 0.229 and 0.362 $/kWh for M4, and 0.254–0.359 $/kWh for M5 road lighting class, depending on the solar potential of the region. And, the total NPC of the entire lighting installation per km vary between 24296 and 29123 $ for M5, and 33225–44318 $ for M4 road lighting class. According to the results, the systems are infeasible under current conditions in Turkey. Nonetheless, they have the added benefits of contributing to the reduction of CO 2 emissions. Moreover, future projections show that the systems can be feasible if the declining trend in PV system costs continues and electricity prices increase.
... The biogas production technology is not yet well developed in Cameroon. However, there is domestic and artisanal production of biogas in some parts of the country, like the North where in 2011 the Cameroonian Society of Hygiene and Sanitation (HYSACAM) inaugurated its first biogas production plan, and it was based on household waste (Erasmus et al. 2018). ...
Article
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The use of fossil fuels in modern economies has been a success because of the low cost of fossil resources. However, the depletion of fossil reserves, the increase in waste production and global warming concerns have led to increased research on the production of biofuels from renewable resources. Waste production is steadily increasing in quantity and constantly changing in quality, creating enormous risks for the environment and, consequently, for the health of the population. This situation is much more worrying in developing countries, in particular because of the considerable delay in the field of the conversion and recovery of biomaterials, due to their difficulty in approaching the problem in a way that fits their context. The composition of such wastes and residues, rich in organic matter, allows their conversion via biochemical mechanisms, thus constituting an effective solution to address the environmental problems of their disposal. Anaerobic digestion remains a valuable and effective technology for transforming these biomaterials into biogas. The present review focuses on technologies, challenges and areas of application of biogas, especially in China and some African countries, in order to promote the large-scale use of biogas for electricity generation and biofuels. Results point out that China is more used to this technology, while African countries still rely on traditional and less advanced technologies, thus hampering the potential derived from the large availability of biomaterials. Both realities, however, share similar backgrounds about the dimension of the biogas plants and their non-commercial purposes, even if China is recently shifting toward the adoption of a different model. These considerations are used in the article to open an interesting new scenario of political alternatives which may provide a way out from poverty and economic dependence, within the framework of a wider circularity.
... [43] . [53] ، ‫قزاقستان‬ [54] ‫کامرون‬ ، [55] ، ‫عمان‬ [56] ‫مالز‬ ، ‫ی‬ [57] ، ‫تا‬ ‫ی‬ ‫لند‬ [58] ، ‫پاکستان‬ [59] ، ‫کلمب‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ا‬ [60] ، ‫ی‬ ‫من‬ [61] ، ‫هند‬ [44] ‫نپال‬ ‫و‬ [62] ...
Thesis
With the rapid industrialization of societies, the need for energy will never decline. Solar energy is one of the most promising clean energy sources for meeting countries energy demand with respect to energy security and environmental impact. Iran, as one of the biggest conventional energy centers in the world, also benefits from a tremendous solar utilization potential. However, energy generation from a solar source, compared to its potential, is trivial. With the recent year’s feed-in tariff in place and the possibility of using small-scale power plants, one of the most attractive markets for investing in renewable energy is the solar sector. On the contrary to all said above, economic incentives in Iran, still have not provoked investors to install solar panels on rooftops or in utility-scale as it should and investors are facing different challenges and barriers. In this paper, we tried to identify the barriers influencing solar power plants construction and understand how important each of these factors is and how these factors are interconnected. The literature review is used for identifying all possible initial barriers then, experts in a Delphi process were asked to modify, add, or remove these factors and on next rounds give each factor an importance score. As the outcome of the Delphi process, 13 barriers were known to be the most important. These factors were analyzed by interpretive structural modeling, which resulted in a 6 level hierarchy of barriers and MICMAC analysis. At last with respect to the structure, barrier scores and interviews with experts and review on global and national policy some corrective actions were proposed.
... The demand for electricity to meet the need of the society is increasing at an alarming rate in most countries of the world, especially in Cameroon. To meet these needs, Cameroon and some neighboring countries such as Nigeria (with high usage of generators) are now seeking alternative sources of energy besides the rapidly depleting and polluting fossil fuels that the current infrastructure has become dependent upon [4] [5] [6]. The use of solar energy Photovoltaic (PV) technology presents one of the most promising renewable alternative energy sources for developing economies especially now that this technology for energy production to meet residential needs has been promoted for years now by some renewable energy companies and environmental organizations [7]. ...
... The article by Muh et al. [41] presented that hydropower accounted for a large part of Cameroon's electricity needs. An "energy monopoly" situation has its drawbacks, as it reduces the country's energy security. ...
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The topic of the article considers the functioning of the renewable energy (RE) sector in Poland. This is really important in the context of the energy transition of the national economy because it influences the creation of modern technologies and increases the competitiveness and innovation of the country. Poland is in a process of energy transition where the RE sector has been developing for two decades. The authors aimed to research the RE sector improvement possibilities in Poland, including the influence of this sector on chosen social and economic aspects. Because of this research's aim a critical situation assessment of RE in Poland was conducted and a survey of a group of experts in this field was also involved. Legal, physical and mental determinants and their influence on RE sector were looked into. In the legal determinant context a necessity to simplify relevant legislation acts in Poland was found. Undoubtedly there is a need to improve several legal acts, including the Distance Act. In physical determinants it was found that solar, wind and bio-mass energy have the biggest chances for development. In the case of mental determinants the authors paid attention to the need of educating the public about using and obtaining energy. It is also important to make people aware how the RE sector influences the low emission economy positively. This will improve the creation of new jobs and reduce the emissions of harmful substances to the environment.
... In Ghana, biomass residues are diversified with a potential of 1718.7 MJ year −1 ; this biomass can be used to produce biogas and first-generation liquid biofuels [30][31][32]. Especially in Cameroon, there is significant renewable energy source potential even though the energy demand is important [3,33]. Inna Samnoussa et al. stated that the energy potential of waste derived from some food products in the Northern part of Cameroon is 11.5 TJ year −1 [34]. ...
Article
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Biomass briquettes made from agricultural residues should be strongly recommended for household cooking in countries with high agricultural potential like Cameroon. This paper aims to evaluate the energy recoverable from crop residues by briquette manufacturing and to analyze the benefits and barriers of briquetting conversion of these residues in the country. Agricultural residues considered in this investigation are generated by rice, banana/plantain, maize, groundnut, cotton, coconut, sugarcane, palm oil, coffee, and cocoa. The residues generated by these crops are husks, shells, bagasse, leaves, peels, stalks, straw, and stems. The estimation was done using the Residues-to-Product Ratio method, and the results show that the annual crop residues production is 46,236,156 tons. The briquetting conversion of these residues could produce 7,706,260 tons of biomass briquettes with an annual energy potential of around 106 PJ year⁻¹. It is concluded that the availability of agricultural residues in that country provides an important potential for briquette production.
... α: Temperature (expansion) coefficient of resistance. This coefficient is taken equal to 0.0039 C −1 at 20 • C. In our case we have taken the average temperature T1 as 39 • C because we are going to model the eastern grid of North Cameroon (Muh et al., 2018). ...
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This document proposes a method for determining the optimal point of integration of PV Generated into the electricity grid. The Slime mould optimization algorithm ( SMOA) is applied to determine the best node in the case of one and two injection points. The problem has been modelled as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize joule losses and the main constraint is to regulate the voltage at each point. The proposed method was implemented in MATLAB and applied in the nodes of the IEEE networks 33 and 69 and the north interconnected grid (NIG) of north Cameroon. The results allowed us to determine the optimal points of the NIG allowing us to inject with less losses. Comparison of the results obtained with other algorithms showed that the SMOA has the best reduction in power losses and a good improvement in the voltage profile.
... Most researchers agreed that the RE projects had enhanced environmental impacts. For example, carbon dioxide gas elimination and climate change understanding within the world population and contribute toward achieving the related SDGs effectively (Buonocore et al., 2019;Muh et al., 2018). However, RE utilization with environmental impact has limited negative effects, especially in marine renewable sources (Shields et al., 2011;Miao, 2014). ...
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Many countries around the world are planning to reach 100% renewable energy use by 2050. In this context and due to the recent sharp increase in RE utilization in the global energy mix along with its progressive impact on the world energy sector, the evaluation and investigation of its effect on achieving sustainable development goals are not covered sufficiently. Moreover, an assessment of the emerging role of artificial intelligence for renewable energy utilization toward achieving SDGs is conducted. A total of 17 SDGs were divided into three groups, namely, environment, society, and economy, as per the three key pillars of sustainable development. Renewable energy has a positive impact toward achieving 75 targets across all sustainable development goals by using an expert elicitation method-based consensus. However, it may negatively affect the accomplishment of the 27 targets. In addition, artificial intelligence can help renewable energy enable the attainment of 42 out of 169 targets. However, with the current exponential growth of renewable energy share and artificial intelligence development and addressing certain present limitations, this impact may cover additional targets in the future. Nevertheless, recent research foci overlook essential aspects. The exponential growth of renewable energy share and rapid evolution of artificial intelligence need to be accompanied through the requisite regulatory insight and technology regulation to cover additional targets in the future.
... α: Temperature (expansion) coefficient of resistance. This coefficient is taken equal to 0.0039 C −1 at 20 • C. In our case we have taken the average temperature T1 as 39 • C because we are going to model the eastern grid of North Cameroon (Muh et al., 2018). ...
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Full-text available
This document proposes a method for determining the optimal point of integration of PV Generated into the electricity grid. The Slime mould optimization algorithm ( SMOA) is applied to determine the best node in the case of one and two injection points. The problem has been modelled as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize joule losses and the main constraint is to regulate the voltage at each point. The proposed method was implemented in MATLAB and applied in the nodes of the IEEE networks 33 and 69 and the north interconnected grid (NIG) of north Cameroon. The results allowed us to determine the optimal points of the NIG allowing us to inject with less losses. Comparison of the results obtained with other algorithms showed that the SMOA has the best reduction in power losses and a good improvement in the voltage profile.
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In this paper we aim to analyze the status of investment and financing of photovoltaic power generation in Cameroon, find out the challenges it faces, and put forward solutions. Through in-depth analyses of the investment and financing data of photovoltaic power generation from Cameroon, reference countries and the world during 2008-2019 and by drawing lessons from international experiences, we find that Cameroon's investment and financing is far from meeting the needs of its photovoltaic power generation development. The causal analyses show that the root causes leading to insufficient investment and financing of photovoltaic power generation in Cameroon are the government behavior defects. On this basis, using the appropriate problem-oriented analysis method, we put forward policy recommendations to improve the investment and financing situation of photovoltaic power generation in Cameroon. The basic conclusion of this paper is that the low investment scale, single financing structure, violent investment fluctuation and financing gap are the surface causes of slowing photovoltaic power generation in Cameroon, while the lack of consciousness about attracting international investment, the ambiguity of the application process for photovoltaic power generation projects, the lack of specific measures to stimulate photovoltaic power generation, and the backward national planning of photovoltaic power generation are the internal reasons delaying Cameroon’s photovoltaic power generation. This study not only benefits Cameroon by being a guide for optimizing and promoting the development of photovoltaic power generation, but also has universal reference value for other similar research.
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Apart from the techno-economic design of hybrid PV energy systems, their simulation and performance prediction help to validate the configurations in terms of reliability before implementation. However, they are not usually based on radiation data collected in short time interval due to their unavailability. In this work, after a techno-economic design of Photovoltaic/Diesel/Batteries, we propose to evaluate the energy performance through the simulation of energy flow by using hourly solar radiation data converted from monthly average values with the Duffie and Beckman algorithm. As a case study, the monthly average daily solar radiation data of Maroua were converted into one year hourly values. The hourly radiation data converted were used to simulate the energy flow of optimal configurations obtained by three different methods for three types of household electricity demands. From the hourly simulation, the technical performance was evaluated by observing the patterns of the battery state of charge, the excess and deficit energy, and by determining the loss of power supply probability and the renewable fraction. The results showed that the optimal configurations in terms of cost, reliability and sustainability consisting of PV of 200 W and batteries of 200 Ah were 2PV/2 batteries (0.8390 $/kWh), 4PV/2 batteries (0.6333 $/kWh) and 8PV/2 batteries (0.3665 $/kWh) respectively for the low, medium and high household energy consumers. It was also observed that, the proposed configurations will be profitable compared to grid cost if the distance from the grid line to the household is greater than: 650 m for the low and high consumers and 700 m for the medium consumer. The methodology proposed may be used to evaluate the performance and validate a hybrid system configuration especially for sites where the hourly radiation data are unavailable.
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The demand for petroleum products has risen rapidly over the last two decades, owing mostly to the residential, transports and industrial sectors. Precise mid and long-term petroleum products consumption prediction is therefore of crucial importance for energy planning and management of strategic reserves. Thus, a new structural auto-adaptive intelligent grey model (SAIGM) is proposed as a solution to this problem. Initially, a novel time response function for predictions is theoretically determined, which addresses the standard grey model's main weaknesses. Subsequently, SAIGM is employed to determine the optimum parameter values to improve the adaptability and flexibility to confront diverse forecasting issues. Altogether, the proposed model offers a triple contribution. Firstly, SAIGM improves the predictive capabilities of intelligent grey models by making it capable of fully extracting the laws of evolution of a system, regardless of time series characteristics. Secondly, structural inflexibility and parametrization issues are addressed, so that SAIGM does not only apply to pure exponential series. Thirdly, the proposed model does not need to preprocess data nor determine the characteristics of input data. Consequently, SAIGM decreases the reliance on modeling knowledge from the standpoint of expert systems. A case study is used to check the feasibility and superiority of SAIGM. Simulation results are compared with recent intelligent grey-based models. The new model appears to benefit from its structural flexibility, since it can generate forecasts with MAPE as low as 1.54% and RMSE of 3.10. Hence, SAIGM outperforms the majority of grey models and intelligent systems known so far.
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Purpose: This paper aims to compile consideration factors for the success of Renewable Energy projects. The chances of completing a renewable energy (RE) project are still an issue. Over the past decade, researchers have sought to identify the barriers to the project and the key success factors for successful projects. But a comprehensive set of success factors is lacking. Method: A systematic review was conducted using 92 research articles and 45 secondary reports. Literature identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion steps were followed based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Flow Diagram. Findings: As a result, 61 success factors were compiled and classified into nine different categories: Project Strategy, Policies & Politics, Project Attributes, Stakeholder Interactions, Project Parameters, Culture & Leadership Resources, Managing Risks and Project Governance. Originality: A unique scientific tool has been proposed to calculate project success probability. Each success factor score is based on a Likert scale of 1-5 to calculate weighted average value of each category leading to the success probability. This tool will be beneficial for project management practitioners, project sponsors, government agencies, policy makers and researchers. Limitation/Implications: The comprehensive set of project success factors is considered for RE projects only. However, a similar approach can be applied to other projects to ensure higher success. It has been recommended that the project team assess each factor score frequently and make every effort to raise each category score to 5 as much as is realistically possible.
Conference Paper
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The presence of an active volcanic line in Cameroon, coupled with thermal springs and frequent eruptions of Mount Cameroon are in favour of the development of a geothermal industry that can provide clean and renewable energy. However, no feasibility studies have been carried out to identify the full potential of geothermal in Cameroon since the reconnaissance work of Le Maréchal (1976) who recorded 130 thermal springs concentrated in the corridor of the Cameroon Volcanic Line. This study primary aims at reviewing the issue of geothermal exploration in Cameroon with an emphasis on the existing barriers for its development and the level of awareness of academics about geothermal energy as a barrier to the development of geothermal energy. A review of the literature regarding the energy sector in Cameroon was firstly conducted. Furthermore, a survey on 175 Postgraduate students in Geology of the University of Yaounde I was carried out in June 2018 using a self-developed questionnaire. The literature was analysed using thematic analysis and the questionnaire was analysed using the STATA software. The literature revealed that poor policies, insufficient financial resources, untrained personnel, constrained environments, and unawareness of stakeholders, investors and academics are the main obstacles for geothermal exploration in Cameron. The insufficient and inadequate knowledge of academics about geothermal energy has been highlighted by the results of the survey. Geothermal energy is still underexplored and underexploited in Cameroon. It is therefore recommended that an initial exploration in Cameroon has to be done through a surface exploration by combining geological, geochemical and geophysical methods. Through these, Keutchafo et al. it is expected that information on the location, area, extent, volume, geometry, boundary conditions of resource, permeability, density, heat capacity and conductivity of the potential geothermal resources should be obtained. Finally, awareness on geothermal exploration should be increased.
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Originally established to address agricultural needs by applying research and education in location U.S. communities, the Cooperative Extension System (CES) has become increasingly involved in food safety through the supply chain. CES plays an integral role in food safety through consumer education, food employee training, regulatory guidance, and agricultural education for youth and students. CES food safety efforts have evolved to respond to current events and evolving public needs; subsequently, CES personnel communicated a myriad of challenges, including overextension within their roles, dwindling financial support, and pedagogical shifts. As a result, CES personnel have opted for creative, innovative, and timely solutions that can be harnessed by others with ties to CES. This article, based on a roundtable with Extension experts on “Revitalizing the Future of Food Safety Extension” held at the 2019 International Association for Food Protection Annual Meeting detailing this imperative. This article serves as 1) a consolidated framework resource for educational purposes; 2) an invitation to collaborate with food safety CES personnel; and 3) a call for support and advocacy for CES and those within it. This summary highlights the value and impact CES has, and will continue to have, in making food safer and more equitable.
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Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES) appears to be a very good solution to solve the problem energy deficit encountered in developing countries like Cameroon. This paper presents an optimal design and selection made on four grid connected hybrid renewable energy systems or configurations with criteria Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP), Cost of Electricity (COE), Net Present Cost (NPC), Total Emission (TE) and the Grid Contribution Factor (GCF) using Sine-Cosine Algorithm (SCA) and a proposed hybrid Sine-Cosine Algorithm-Particle Swarm Optimization (SCAPSO); for three residential building types in four climatic zones of Cameroon. The five cities that are chosen from the four climatic zones of the country include: Maroua, Garoua, Bamenda, Kribi and Abong-Mbang. The selection of the energy configurations is done using Hybrid Multi-Criteria Decision-Making known as Analytic Hierarchy Process-Evaluation Based on Distance from Average Solution methods (AHP-EDAS). Configuration 1 (Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery/Diesel generator/Grid) appears to be the best configuration in the cities of Maroua, Garoua, Bamenda and Kribi. Configuration 4 (Photovoltaic/Battery/Grid) is the best for the city of Abong-Mbang. All the best configurations appear to have lesser values of COE compared what is usually paid to the main grid; the GCF values are also very low. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare efficiently of 10 (ten) numerical methods namely, the empirical method of Justus (EMJ), the empirical method of Lysen (EML), the method of moments (MoM), the graphical method (GM), the Mabchour's method (MMab), the energy pattern factor method (EPFM), the maximum likelihood method (MLM), the modified maximum likelihood method (MMLM), the equivalent energy method (EEM), and the alternative maximum likelihood method (AMLM) in order to estimate Weibull parameters for wind energy potential. They were performed by using wind speed data collected in the meteorological station of Bafoussam city, in the west region of Cameroon, in the period from 2007 to 2013. The results of this study obtained from statistical analysis show that the MLM presents relatively more excellent ability throughout the simulation tests, followed by EEM, EPFM and EMJ respectively. They also demonstrated that EEM presented minimum error in estimating the monthly wind power density and that the wind potential of Bafoussam city can be interesting for some applications such as rural electrification and water pumping in agriculture.
Chapter
Energy scarcity, waterborne diseases, and drinking water shortages are the three significant and fundamentally interlinked factors that are strongly influencing the social and economic growth of developing countries. The deficiency of safe drinking water contributes to many waterborne diseases, causing the demise of several people annually and hampering the growth of society. Desalination processes are often energy-intensive and expensive. Several developing countries facing energy deficiency are forced to build desalination plants to fulfill the demand for potable water. The energy required for desalination is fulfilled by importing oil, which is an additional economic burden on countries that are already paying high oil import bills. Burning a massive quantity of oil is the foremost cause of environmental degradation. The objective of this chapter is to explore the nexus among the energy, drinking water and the people's health in developing countries by using the assessment of several worldwide published reports and papers. This study identifies that community facing energy crises usually be deficient in safe drinking water services; consequently, they suffer from infirmity, which increases economic burden through the loss of work productivity. With a deficient cash reserve, the community is incapable of fulfilling the demand for energy and safe drinking water. The chapter concludes that energy, drinking water, and health nexus administration is essential for economic growth, sustainable development and energy security of developing countries.
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Les progrès scientifiques et technologiques enregistrés au cours des dernières décennies ont significativement amélioré les conditions de vie de l’humanité, mais ont en même temps entrainé de nombreuses externalités environnementales et sociales négatives. Au regard de la montée actuelle des préoccupations environnementales, l’écologisation de l’Enseignement et de la Formation Technique et Professionnelle (EFTP) se retrouve au cœur du débat sur ses potentialités à répondre aux besoins en compétences « vertes » nécessaires pour la compétitivité et la durabilité des industries. Cette étude fait un diagnostic de l’éducation à l’environnement et au développement durable (EEDD) dans l’EFTP au Cameroun, sous le prisme des principes clés du processus d’écologisation définis par l’UNESCO. L’analyse est basée sur deux des cinq piliers de ce concept à savoir, l’écologisation des curricula et l’écologisation de la recherche. L’analyse souligne le rôle clé de l’approche transdisciplinaire d’écologisation des savoirs pour atteindre l’objectif de la transformation de la société par l’EEDD. Au-delà des enjeux curriculaires, la transdisciplinarité dans la recherche souligne la nécessité de l'inclusion de différentes catégories d’acteurs (entreprises, administration, ONG, utilisateurs finaux ou citoyens), comme gage pour l’efficacité de la recherche et la transition vers des sociétés plus durables. La prise en compte des contraintes liées aux compétences des enseignants d’une part et d’autre part des enjeux didactiques liés à l’utilisation pédagogique des TICs devenues indispensables à l’ère du numérique éducatif sont les ingrédients du succès d’une telle approche. Mots clés : écologisation, enseignement et formation technique et professionnelle, curricula, recherche.
Preprint
This article explores an application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process for the selection of renewable energy technologies in the context of sustainable energy planning for Cameroon.
Chapter
The impact of climate change and global warming is high on agriculture, food security, quality of life, human health, economic growth, and development in sub-Saharan African countries. Thus, there are ongoing global discussions on climate change adaptation and mitigation including the Kyoto Protocol; an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by global warming, the 2012 Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, United Nations Development Programme climate change portfolio, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization climate change awareness program, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and other bodies efforts to reduce climate pollutants globally, Africa in particular. However, despite these interventions, there is little scholarly information discussing the extent to which the region’s vulnerability to climate change on its economies and growing populations is addressed. Thus, this review paper examines the impacts of climate change and global warming in sub-Saharan African countries and strategies adopted to mitigate the effects on its environments and economy.
Chapter
The chapter discusses the present day energy situation in Cameroon. It focuses the current energy practices, potentials and official government policies. It also dwells at large on the other potentials that are yet to be exploited. About 95% of conventional energy supply in Cameroon is from hydro sources while about 2.7% is obtained from the burning of fossil fuels. The hydro potential (estimated 20 GW) and 115 Terawatt-hours per year is the second largest in sub-Saharan Africa after the Democratic Republic of Congo. Of this potential, only 3% is currently being exploited. Cameroon forest area occupies about 25 million Ha covering almost 50% of the country. The electricity potential from biomass has been estimated at about 1 GWh. The majority of Cameroonians use biomass for cooking and the estimate for national access to clean cooking solutions is at 23%. Biomass constitutes 66.7% of national energy consumption. Wind energy has not been commercially exploited in Cameroon. A few isolated studies of wind potential have been studied and published. Trends indicate favorable wind speeds for commercial exploitation in the northern and coastal areas with an average wind speed of 5–7 m/s at some sites. In most regions, however, the average wind speed is only about 2–4 m/s at a height of 100 m. The solar radiation in the southern part of the country is about 4.5 kWh/day/m² while the northern region has values around (5.8 kWh/day/m²). Only about 50 decentralized PV systems with backup battery banks have been installed in Cameroon. One of the most untapped potential is that of vegetable oils either as SVO or biodiesel. The country if blessed with so many oleaginous grains that can act as substrates in an elaborate biodiesel production program.
Chapter
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The Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law is a landmark reference work, providing definitive and comprehensive coverage of this dynamic field. The Encyclopedia is organised into 12 volumes around top-level subjects – such as water, energy and climate change – that reflect some of the most pressing issues facing us today. Each volume probes the key elements of law, the essential concepts, and the latest research through concise, structured entries written by international experts. Each entry includes an extensive bibliography as a starting point for further reading. The mix of authoritative commentary and insightful discussion will make this an essential tool for research and teaching, as well as a valuable resource for professionals and policymakers.
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The sustainable production and use of small-scale biogas energy are required to ensure clean household energy access in developing countries, including the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region. This is influenced by market risks, which can be identified as political, economic, social, technical, legal, and environmental (PESTLE). This study examines peer-reviewed and grey literature for the period from 2000 to 2020 to identify the PESTLE constraints and assess their impact on the sustainable development of the technology in the SSA region. The production of biogas with small-scale plants is commonly done by rural and peri-urban households. Results show that economic constraints are the most dominant and reducing at a slow pace. This is followed by political constraints, which have received much attention in the last two decades. Despite the policy improvements, broader national bioenergy policies and interventions are still to make significant gains, especially in the Central African region. In order of significance, the Southern, East, and West Africa regions have made greater progress in reducing the constraints. To achieve the sustainable development of the technology, there is a need to further address the PESTLE constraints at national and regional levels. This study partly deduces that the unsustainable production, use, and inadequate regulation of the small-scale biogas sector are delaying its transition in the SSA region.
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For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon’s coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe) are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983–2013) and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi’s most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs
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This paper explores mountain ridges around Kousseri and Maroua in the far north region of Cameroon for assessing the potential for wind energy development and electricity generation. A 28-year (1985-2013) wind speed data measured at 10 m above ground level (AGL) is statistically analysed using Weibull Distribution, a widely accepted model to probabilistically describe wind speeds variations. Weibull scale and shape parameters are determined using an iterative method, namely, the moment method. The power law relationship is considered to extrapolate Weibull parameters and wind profiles at exposed ridge-tops in the range of 100-300 m AGL. The results show that the selected ridge-tops fall under Class 3 or greater of the international system of wind classification and are deemed suitable for most wind turbine (WT) applications. A performance assessment of five commercial WT (50 to 2000 kW) for electricity generation is then realized through the computation of their respective capacity factors, power and energy outputs. Amongst explored WT, YDF-1500-87 (1500 kW) emerges as the most attractive option for installation, with the highest capacity factor and the lowest cost of energy.
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Based on the wind data recorded over a six year period (2007 to 2012) as observed in the main meteorological station of the Garoua International airport, an assessment of the wind potential has been performed by means of the Weibull Probability Density Function (PDF) with two parameters. The maximum likelihood estimation method (MLE) was used to estimate the dimensionless Weibull shape parameter k, and the Weibull scale parameter C. The maximum wind power density extracted by the blades as well as the useful average hydraulic power output and the daily water production of the hypothetic windmill were determined in order to forecast applications in the north region of Cameroon such as providing domestic water, watering farm animals and small scale irrigation.
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Industrial production in developing countries (DC) is frequently perturbed by electric energy supply difficulties. To overcome this problem, generators are used in self-generation of energy, but this leads to an increase of electricity-related expenses. This article assesses the impact of electricity self-generation on Cameroonian industrial companies. The model described in this article is based on data collected through a survey of a representative sample of industrial companies and from numerous previous thematic and statistical studies. The results of our analyses show that expenses related to electricity in industrial companies in Cameroon have increased five times due to electricity rationing and untimely power cuts. The article also suggests some solutions to improve the electricity self-generation capacity of industrial companies.
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This paper presents a feasibility study of stand-alone solar photovoltaic (PV) systems for the electrification of three residential case study buildings (T4, T5 and T6) in the capital city of Yaoundé, Cameroon. The system was sized taking into account the load of the buildings and the available energy from the sun. The power, area of PV modules and daily energy generated by the PV for T4, T5 and T6 were respectively determined as: 2103 W, 14 m² and 9.8 kW h/day; 3779 W, 25.2 m² and 17.6 kW h/day; and 2766 W, 18.4 m² and 12.9 kW h/day. The battery bank capacity, size of inverter and controller were respectively obtained as: 40,323 W h, 635 W and 93 A for T4; 72,433 W h, 795 W and 156 A for T5; and 53,017 W h, 826 W and 114 A for T6. The life cycle cost and annualized life cycle cost (ALCC) of the systems were respectively found to be: €15,714 and €1039 for T4; €27,227and €1800 for T5; and €20,006 and €1322 for T6. The average unit electricity cost for T4, T5 and T6 was respectively determined to be €0.52 kW h⁻¹, €0.50 kW h⁻¹ and €0.51 kW h⁻¹, higher than the unit cost of residential grid electricity in Cameroon.
Thesis
Cameroon has vast renewable energy resource potentials, with a hydropower potential of about 55,200MW, second only to the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa. So far, its energy needs are met by 4.8% hydropower (which accounts for less than 5% of its total hydropower potential), 0% wind and 0% solar. Cameroons’ energy sector still goes through insufficient electrical energy production, especially during the heart of the dry season, which runs from December through March. Coincidentally, the wind and solar power potentials for Cameroon are at their peak during these months and could conveniently supplement for the shortfalls in generation during these periods. In this research, technical analysis were carried out to determine the wind and solar energy resource potentials for Cameroon using the RETScreen software tool provided by CANMET Canada. These analysis revealed that the northern regions of Cameroon had higher wind and solar resource potentials than any other location in Cameroon. A 2MW installed wind energy capacity would be capable of generating well over 1.5GWh electrical energy per year, while a 2KW installed solar energy capacity will be capable of generating well over 3MWh electrical energy per year. In the final sections, financial analysis were carried out to determine the economic viability of such projects and the possibility for self-financing. Emission analyses were also done based on the ability for such projects to offset greenhouse gas emissions and ensure sustainability in the energy sector. The analysis for Maroua revealed that 78.6tCO2/yr for wind and 0.1tCO2/yr for solar could be reduced by those installations. Finally, the legislations and legal frameworks governing the energy sector in Cameroon were dissected to determine possible weaknesses and constraints limiting the use, promotion and development of the full potential of Cameroon’s renewable energy resources.
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The price of hydroelectricity in Cameroon has recently sky-rocketed. At the same time, firewood in remote areas is being depleted without being replenished. This has led to a number of challenges; energy is no longer affordable and environmental impacts from the wanton exploitation of firewood are widespread. Therefore, there is a need to explore other renewable energy sources which have enormous environmental and energy potentials. However, there is limited scholarly work on the potential of other renewable energy sources in Cameroon. Literature on the potential of renewable energy in Cameroon is still very limited and scattered. The exact sizes of the different renewable energy sources, their benefits and the market potential that can stimulate their uptake are not well-known. Therefore, stakeholders including policy makers, researchers and investors lack guidelines on how and at what level to invest, intervene, and design policies that can lead to the practical exploitation of renewable energy sources. This article investigates the extent to which renewable energy can contribute to the energy sector in Cameroon. The article lays the groundwork that can inform various stakeholders to engage into different activities which can foster the understanding of renewable energy sources and their potentials and limitations. Some key findings are that: while solar and biomass energy are abundant almost everywhere in Cameroon, wind energy is feasible in some selected regions. Furthermore, while the few literature sources about geothermal sources are contradictory or at best non-conclusive about their potential, tidal energy is yet to receive considerable attention, with its first feasibility studies having been just recently begun. These findings point to the fact that if renewable energy is to be part of the Cameroon’s energy programme, there is need to scale-up research in the development of renewable energy in order to better inform energy policies.
Article
From the wind speed data recorded over 9 (1990–1998) and 10 (1990–1999) years, as observed in the main meteorological stations, called synoptical stations, of the observation network of the National Meteorology Department, located in the Adamaoua and Northern Cameroon provinces, an estimation of the wind energy available has been made for each station. For this use, the wind speed frequencies in the period are considered. Daily, monthly and annual mean wind speeds and wind energy available were determined. The possible applications of this energy for each station are discussed.
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From wind speed data recorded over 5 years (1991–1995), as observed in the main meteorological station, a synoptical station of the observation network of the National Meteorology Service located in the far north of Cameroon, an estimation of the wind energy available has been prepared. For this use, the wind speed frequencies during the period are considered. Possible applications of this energy for this station are discussed.
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Wind/Diesel/battery hybrid power systems have been modelled for electrification of typical rural households and schools in remote areas of the Far North Province of Cameroon. The wind resource of Maroua Salak for the period 1991–1995 was used in this modelling. The diurnal and monthly patterns of wind speeds at Maroua show that wind speeds in the range 3–6 m/s occur from 9:00 to 15:00 for eight months. The time duration of wind speeds in this interval was found to be 36.1%. The annual capacity factors computed for low start up wind turbines from China were found to be in the range 20–40%. Two wind turbines with rated powers 180 W and 290 W attained acceptable capacity factors of 38 and 40% and were used in sizing wind hybrid systems for typical rural households energy needs in the range 70–300 kWh per year. It was also found that a wind/Diesel hybrid power system based on a combination of two wind turbines rated 290 W and a 5 kW single phase generator operating at a load fraction of 70% required only 106 generator hours/yr to supply 2585 kWh/yr or 7 kWh/day to a typical secondary school. The renewable energy fractions attained in feasible systems were in the range 70–100%. These results show that there is a possibility to increase the access rate to electricity in the Far North without recourse to grid extension or more thermal plants in the northern grid or more independent Diesel plants supplying power to remote areas of the province.
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