Article

Endoscopic or surgical step-up approach for infected necrotising pancreatitis: A multicentre randomised trial

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Abstract

Background: Infected necrotising pancreatitis is a potentially lethal disease and an indication for invasive intervention. The surgical step-up approach is the standard treatment. A promising alternative is the endoscopic step-up approach. We compared both approaches to see whether the endoscopic step-up approach was superior to the surgical step-up approach in terms of clinical and economic outcomes. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, superiority trial, we recruited adult patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis and an indication for invasive intervention from 19 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were randomly assigned to either the endoscopic or the surgical step-up approach. The endoscopic approach consisted of endoscopic ultrasound-guided transluminal drainage followed, if necessary, by endoscopic necrosectomy. The surgical approach consisted of percutaneous catheter drainage followed, if necessary, by video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement. The primary endpoint was a composite of major complications or death during 6-month follow-up. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN09186711. Findings: Between Sept 20, 2011, and Jan 29, 2015, we screened 418 patients with pancreatic or extrapancreatic necrosis, of which 98 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the endoscopic step-up approach (n=51) or the surgical step-up approach (n=47). The primary endpoint occurred in 22 (43%) of 51 patients in the endoscopy group and in 21 (45%) of 47 patients in the surgery group (risk ratio [RR] 0·97, 95% CI 0·62-1·51; p=0·88). Mortality did not differ between groups (nine [18%] patients in the endoscopy group vs six [13%] patients in the surgery group; RR 1·38, 95% CI 0·53-3·59, p=0·50), nor did any of the major complications included in the primary endpoint. Interpretation: In patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis, the endoscopic step-up approach was not superior to the surgical step-up approach in reducing major complications or death. The rate of pancreatic fistulas and length of hospital stay were lower in the endoscopy group. The outcome of this trial will probably result in a shift to the endoscopic step-up approach as treatment preference. Funding: The Dutch Digestive Disease Foundation, Fonds NutsOhra, and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development.

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... The step-up approach using minimally invasive techniques has been shown to improve the results of treatment and reduce complications compared to the traditional, open necrosectomy-based management in patients with pancreatic necrosis [3]. Recent randomized clinical trials comparing both minimally invasive approaches (the endoscopic step-up approach and the surgical step-up approach) have demonstrated that the endoscopic approach is associated with a lower incidence of pancreatic fistulas and a shorter duration of hospital stay, making endoscopic drainage the procedure of choice in the minimally invasive management of pancreatic necrosis [4,5]. ...
... If the distance is longer than 40 mm, it is technically impossible to access the necrotic collection through the transmural route [6][7][8][9][10]. In these cases, the surgical step-up approach involving percutaneous drainage from the retroperitoneal access remains the treatment of choice [3][4][5]11]. ...
... In the aforementioned techniques, retroperitoneal access to the necrotic collection was achieved by means of a percutaneous drainage tube, which was placed under radiological imaging guidance [25]. Thus, the first step in all the aforementioned techniques is percutaneous drainage, with subsequent retroperitoneal necrosectomy only in cases where the drainage is ineffective [3][4][5]26]. ...
Article
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In this article, an attempt was made to clarify the role of percutaneous endoscopic necrosectomy (PEN) in the interventional treatment of pancreatic necrosis. A comprehensive review of the current literature was performed to identify publications on the role of PEN in patients with consequences of acute necrotizng pancreatitis. The aim of the study was to review the literature on minimal invasive necrosectomy, with emphasis on PEN using esophageal self-expanding metal stents (SEMS). The described results come from 15 studies after a review of the current literature. The study group comprised 52 patients (36 men and 16 women; mean age, 50.87 (13–75) years) with walled-off pancreatic necrosis, in whom PEN using a self-expandable esophageal stent had been performed. PEN was successfully completed in all 52 patients (100%). PEN complications were observed in 18/52 (34.62%) patients. Clinical success was achieved in 42/52 (80.77%) patients, with follow-up continuing for an average of 136 (14–557) days. In conclusion, the PEN technique is potentially effective, with an acceptable rate of complications and may be implemented with good clinical results in patients with pancreatic necrosis.
... The presence of infection, as may be evident from the presence of gas on CECT, and critical illness are relative indications to expedite drainage and/or necrosectomy, but randomised trial evidence favours delayed intervention [207]. While endoscopic necrosectomy often requires several repeated procedures, it has the advantage of internal drainage without external irrigation, allowing patients to be discharged at an earlier date for repeat outpatient procedures, reducing health service usage and costs [208][209][210]. In contrast, minimally invasive or open necrosectomy requires continued external irrigation to flush away build-up of septic material, prolonging hospital stays, and imposing additional burdens on patients and hospital staff. ...
... Many randomised trials of treatments have been undertaken to improve outcomes from acute pancreatitis, a number of which have been discussed above as individual trials [159,172,178,185,205,208,209,217,221,247,248] or metaanalyses [6, 54, 156, 173-175, 177, 183, 187, 214, 218, 249, 250]. These have helped shape intravenous fluid administration, analgesia, nutrition and critical care for acute pancreatitis, and treatment of infection, necrosis, pancreatic endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. ...
... with a minimal access step-up approach [204], or better still, an endoscopic approach that is easier for patients and more cost-effective [208][209][210], as well as the benefits of delaying intervention to reduce the need for the same [207]. A Cochrane review of pharmacological interventions for acute pancreatitis found no effect on short-term mortality or consistent benefits from any treatment [6], borne out by the absence of any internationally licensed medication. ...
Article
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Acute pancreatitis is a common indication for hospital admission, increasing in incidence, including in children, pregnancy and the elderly. Moderately severe acute pancreatitis with fluid and/or necrotic collections causes substantial morbidity, and severe disease with persistent organ failure causes significant mortality. The diagnosis requires two of upper abdominal pain, amylase/lipase ≥ 3 ×upper limit of normal, and/or cross-sectional imaging findings. Gallstones and ethanol predominate while hypertriglyceridaemia and drugs are notable among many causes. Serum triglycerides, full blood count, renal and liver function tests, glucose, calcium, transabdominal ultrasound, and chest imaging are indicated, with abdominal cross-sectional imaging if there is diagnostic uncertainty. Subsequent imaging is undertaken to detect complications, for example, if C-reactive protein exceeds 150 mg/L, or rarer aetiologies. Pancreatic intracellular calcium overload, mitochondrial impairment, and inflammatory responses are critical in pathogenesis, targeted in current treatment trials, which are crucially important as there is no internationally licenced drug to treat acute pancreatitis and prevent complications. Initial priorities are intravenous fluid resuscitation, analgesia, and enteral nutrition, and when necessary, critical care and organ support, parenteral nutrition, antibiotics, pancreatic exocrine and endocrine replacement therapy; all may have adverse effects. Patients with local complications should be referred to specialist tertiary centres to guide further management, which may include drainage and/or necrosectomy. The impact of acute pancreatitis can be devastating, so prevention or reduction of the risk of recurrence and progression to chronic pancreatitis with an increased risk of pancreas cancer requires proactive management that should be long term for some patients.
... or endoscopic necrosectomy. Compared to open necrosectomy, this approach has been shown to effectively remove necrotic foci and to improve patient outcomes [1][2][3]. However, mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis remains high, at 16-30% [1,3,4]. ...
... Compared to open necrosectomy, this approach has been shown to effectively remove necrotic foci and to improve patient outcomes [1][2][3]. However, mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis remains high, at 16-30% [1,3,4]. Ineffective drainage is a leading cause of poor outcomes, despite the introduction of percutaneous and endoscopic techniques [5,6]. ...
... Ineffective drainage is a leading cause of poor outcomes, despite the introduction of percutaneous and endoscopic techniques [5,6]. However, the first drainage intervention fails to ensure adequate necrotic-tissue removal in nearly half the patients, who must then undergo necrosectomy [1,3,[7][8][9]. Identifying patients who will need necrosectomy after initial drainage is challenging, as reliable predictors and clear recommendations are lacking [10][11][12]. During the course of AP, prolonged antimicrobial therapy is associated with an increased risk of antibiotic-resistant bacteria selection [13,14] and fungal infection [15]. ...
Article
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Background: Recent guidelines advocate a step-up approach for managing suspected infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) during acute pancreatitis. Nearly half the patients require secondary necrosectomy after catheter drainage. Our primary objective was to assess the external validity of a previously reported nomogram for catheter drainage, based on four predictors of failure. Our secondary objectives were to identify other potential predictors of catheter-drainage failure. We retrospectively studied consecutive patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of three university hospitals in France between 2012 and 2016, for severe acute pancreatitis with suspected IPN requiring catheter drainage. We assessed drainage success and failure rates in 72 patients, with success defined as survival without subsequent necrosectomy and failure as death and/or subsequent necrosectomy required by inadequate improvement. We plotted the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for the nomogram and computed the area under the curve (AUROC). Results: Catheter drainage alone was successful in 32 (44.4%) patients. The nomogram predicted catheter-drainage failure with an AUROC of 0.71. By multivariate analysis, catheter-drainage failure was independently associated with a higher body mass index [odds ratio (OR), 1.12; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.00-1.24; P = 0.048], heterogeneous collection (OR, 16.7; 95% CI, 1.83-152.46; P = 0.01), and respiratory failure onset within 24 h before catheter drainage (OR, 18.34; 95% CI, 2.18-154.3; P = 0.007). Conclusion: Over half the patients required necrosectomy after failed catheter drainage. Newly identified predictors of catheter-drainage failure were heterogeneous collection and respiratory failure. Adding these predictors to the nomogram might help to identify patients at high risk of catheter-drainage failure. Clinicaltrials: gov number: NCT03234166.
... The approach consisted of an endoscopic transluminal or image-guided percutaneous drainage procedure as first step, followed by minimally invasive necrosectomy in absence of clinical improvement. 7 At 6 months follow-up, no differences in death or major complications were found between both approaches. The endoscopic approach was, however, associated with fewer pancreaticocutaneous fistulas and a shorter hospital stay. ...
... The endoscopic approach was, however, associated with fewer pancreaticocutaneous fistulas and a shorter hospital stay. 7 These favorable short-term outcomes were confirmed by a second randomized trial that compared the endoscopic step-up approach with minimally invasive surgery. 8 Based on these results, the endoscopic approach is now widely regarded as the preferred treatment for patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis. ...
... Between September 2011 and January 2015, 98 consecutive patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis were included in the TENSION trial and randomized to the endoscopic step-up approach (n=51) or surgical step-up approach (n=47) (details on treatment are summarized in Supplementary Appendix). 7 The present investigator-initiated study is the long-term follow-up study of these patients (ExTENSION study). The current study was supported by the Dr. C.J. Vaillant fund; the funder had no role in the study design, conduct, and analysis. ...
Article
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Background & aims Previous randomized trials, including the TENSION trial, demonstrated that the endoscopic step-up approach might be preferred over the surgical step-up approach in patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis based on favorable short-term outcomes. We compared long-term clinical outcomes of both step-up approaches after a period of at least 5 years. Methods In this long-term follow-up study, we re-evaluated all clinical data on 83 patients (of the originally 98 included patients) from the TENSION trial who were still alive after the initial 6-months follow-up. The primary endpoint, similar to the TENSION trial, was a composite of death and major complications. Secondary endpoints included individual major complications, pancreaticocutaneous fistula, re-interventions, pancreatic insufficiency, and quality of life. Results After a mean follow-up period of 7 years, the primary endpoint occurred in 27 patients (53%) in the endoscopy and in 27 patients (57%) in the surgery group (risk ratio [RR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65 to 1.32, P=0.688). Fewer pancreaticocutaneous fistulas were identified in the endoscopy group (8% vs. 34%; RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.83). After the initial 6-months follow-up, the endoscopy group needed fewer re-interventions than the surgery group (7% vs. 24%; RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.99). Pancreatic insufficiency and quality of life did not differ between groups. Conclusions At long-term follow-up, the endoscopic step-up approach was not superior to the surgical step-up approach in reducing death or major complications in patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis. However, patients assigned to the endoscopic approach developed overall fewer pancreaticocutaneous fistulas and needed fewer re-interventions after the initial 6-months follow-up. Netherlands Trial Register no: NL8571.
... The step-up approach, consisting of percutaneous catheter drainage, followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive necrosectomy, has replaced open surgery as the standard of care [40,46]. More recently, an endoscopic approach has been demonstrated to be a less invasive technique [47,48] which can also be performed in a step-up fashion, starting with endoscopic transluminal drainage, and followed by endoscopic necrosectomy if the drainage does not result in clinical improvement [49]. In our study, only 33.7% of patients with infected pancreatic necrosis underwent a step-up approach as their first treatment, rather than upfront surgery, and only 37.2% of them underwent treatment after four weeks of symptom onset, as recommended by guidelines. ...
Article
Background/objectives Reports about the implementation of recommendations from acute pancreatitis guidelines are scant. This study aimed to evaluate, on a patient-data basis, the contemporary practice patterns of management of biliary acute pancreatitis and to compare these practices with the recommendations by the most updated guidelines. Methods All consecutive patients admitted to any of the 150 participating general surgery (GS), hepatopancreatobiliary surgery (HPB), internal medicine (IM) and gastroenterology (GA) departments with a diagnosis of biliary acute pancreatitis between 01/01/2019 and 31/12/2020 were included in the study. Categorical data were reported as percentages representing the proportion of all study patients or different and well-defined cohorts for each variable. Continuous data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. Differences between the compliance obtained in the four different subgroups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U, Student's t, ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous data, and the Chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test for categorical data. Results Complete data were available for 5275 patients. The most commonly discordant gaps between daily clinical practice and recommendations included the optimal timing for the index CT scan (6.1%, χ² 6.71, P = 0.081), use of prophylactic antibiotics (44.2%, χ² 221.05, P < 0.00001), early enteral feeding (33.2%, χ² 11.51, P = 0.009), and the implementation of early cholecystectomy strategies (29%, χ² 354.64, P < 0.00001), with wide variability based on the admitting speciality. Conclusions The results of this study showed an overall poor compliance with evidence-based guidelines in the management of ABP, with wide variability based on the admitting speciality. Study protocol registered in ClinicalTrials.Gov (ID Number NCT04747990).
... The step-up approach, consisting of percutaneous catheter drainage, followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive necrosectomy, has replaced open surgery as the standard of care [40,46]. More recently, an endoscopic approach has been demonstrated to be a less invasive technique [47,48] which can also be performed in a step-up fashion, starting with endoscopic transluminal drainage, and followed by endoscopic necrosectomy if the drainage does not result in clinical improvement [49]. In our study, only 33.7% of patients with infected pancreatic necrosis underwent a step-up approach as their first treatment, rather than upfront surgery, and only 37.2% of them underwent treatment after four weeks of symptom onset, as recommended by guidelines. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: Reports about the implementation of recommendations from acute pancreatitis guidelines are scant. This study aimed to evaluate, on a patient-data basis, the contemporary practice patterns of management of biliary acute pancreatitis and to compare these practices with the recommendations by the most updated guidelines.
... Possible limitations of this option range from external fistula and bleeding to incomplete drainage and retained solid infected necrotic tissue, which require rescue surgery. The END approach is an appealing low-invasive alternative, with a reported lower rate of pancreatic fistula and shorter hospitalization in comparison with PD, as reported in a recent randomized trial [18]. However, although we acknowledge that the absence of an external drainage should be considered an advantage in comparison to PD, and the grade of local invasiveness is actually similar, the END approach, since it needs general anesthesia, requires better clinical conditions to be safely performed. ...
Article
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Purpose Several interventional procedures are available to treat moderate-to-critical acute pancreatitis (AP) in its late phase. The ongoing debate on these options, together with the scarcity of reported quality of life (QoL) information in the Literature, prompted us to conduct a review of our experience. Methods All the patients treated at our referral Center for moderate-to-critical AP according to Determinant-Based Classification (DBC) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients treated conservatively or operated within 4 weeks were excluded. The included patients were managed following a “tailored” interventional-surgical approach, which did not exclude the possibility to skip one or more steps of the classic “step-up” approach, based on the patient’s clinical course, and divided into four groups, according to the first procedure performed: percutaneous drainage (PD), endoscopic approach (END), internal derivation (INT), and necrosectomy (NE). In-hospital and mid-term follow-up variables were analyzed. Results The study sample consisted in 47 patients: 11 patients were treated by PD, 11 by END, 13 by INT, and 12 by NE. A significant distribution of the DBC severity (p = 0.029) was registered among the four groups. Moreover, the NE group had statistically significant reduced SF-36 scores in the domain of social functioning at 3 months (p = 0.011), at 1 year (p = 0.002), and at 2 years (p = 0.001); role limitations due to physical health at 6 months (p = 0.027); and role limitations due to emotional problems at 1 year (p = 0.020). Conclusions In the “late phase” of moderate to critical AP requiring an invasive management, PD, END, INT, and NE are all effective options, depending on patents’ status and necrosis location. A “tailored” interventional-surgical management could be pursued, but up-front more invasive approaches are at higher risk of worse QoL. Trial registration. The manuscript was registered at clinicaltrials.gov in 04/2021 and identified with NCT04870268.
... Moreover, a recent randomised therapeutic trial showed that as regards major complications and mortality, an endoscopic approach was comparable to the ''step-up'' approach of radiology-guided percutaneous drainage followed, if necessary, by laparoscopic retroperitoneal necrosectomy. That said, the rate of pancreatic fistulas (5% versus 32%) and hospital stay duration were lower in the ''endoscopy'' group [144]. ...
Article
Objective To provide guidelines for the management of the intensive care patient with severe acute pancreatitis. Design A consensus committee of 22 experts was convened. A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the beginning of the process and enforced throughout. The entire guideline construction process was conducted independently of any industrial funding (i.e. pharmaceutical, medical devices). The authors were required to follow the rules of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE®) system to guide assessment of quality of evidence. The potential drawbacks of making strong recommendations in the presence of low-quality evidence were emphasised. Methods The most recent SFAR and SNFGE guidelines on the management of the patient with severe pancreatitis were published in 2001. The literature now is sufficient for an update. The committee studied 14 questions within 3 fields. Each question was formulated in a PICO (Patients Intervention Comparison Outcome) format and the relevant evidence profiles were produced. The literature review and recommendations were made according to the GRADE® methodology. Results The experts' synthesis work and their application of the GRADE® method resulted in 24 recommendations. Among the formalised recommendations, 8 have high levels of evidence (GRADE 1+/−) and 12 have moderate levels of evidence (GRADE 2+/−). For 4 recommendations, the GRADE method could not be applied, resulting in expert opinions. Four questions did not find any response in the literature. After one round of scoring, strong agreement was reached for all the recommendations. Conclusions There was strong agreement among experts for 24 recommendations to improve practices for the management of intensive care patients with severe acute pancreatitis.
... The step-up approach, consisting of percutaneous catheter drainage, followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive necrosectomy, has replaced open surgery as the standard of care [40,46]. More recently, an endoscopic approach has been demonstrated to be a less invasive technique [47,48] which can also be performed in a step-up fashion, starting with endoscopic transluminal drainage, and followed by endoscopic necrosectomy if the drainage does not result in clinical improvement [49]. In our study, only 33.7% of patients with infected pancreatic necrosis underwent a step-up approach as their first treatment, rather than upfront surgery, and only 37.2% of them underwent treatment after four weeks of symptom onset, as recommended by guidelines. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: Reports about the implementation of recommendations from acute pancreatitis guidelines are scant. This study aimed to evaluate, on a patient-data basis, the contemporary practice patterns of management of biliary acute pancreatitis and to compare these practices with the recommendations by the most updated guidelines.
... A recent multicentric randomized controlled trial compared endoscopic approach to surgical step-up approach and found the former no superior to the latter in terms of mortality and major complications. However, the total hospital stay and rate of pancreatic fistula were lower with endoscopic approach [21]. ...
Article
Introduction Open necrosectomy in acute infected necrotizing pancreatitis is associated with very high mortality and morbidity. Moreover, if it is performed before four weeks, the benefits are limited. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in patients with acute infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Methods It was a single-center, observational study, where all consecutive patients with proven or probable infected acute necrotizing pancreatitis in whom PCD was performed were studied. The patients who failed to respond to PCD underwent open necrosectomy. Baseline characteristics and the outcome of all included patients, including complications of PCD, were studied. Results A total of 46 patients (males=36, females=10) underwent PCD over a period of 18 months. Fifteen (32.60%) patients succumbed to their illness. PCD benefitted a total of 31 (67.39%) patients; in 17 (36.95%) patients, it worked as a standalone therapy, while in 14 (30.43%) patients, additional surgery was required where it helped to delay the surgery. Median days at which PCD and surgery were performed were 17.5 days (range: 2-28 days) and 33 days (range: 7-70 days), respectively. Lower mean arterial pressure at presentation, presence of multiorgan failure, more than 50% necrosis, higher baseline creatinine and bilirubin levels, and an early surgery were markers of increased mortality. Three (6.5%) patients had PCD-related complications, out of which only one required active intervention. Conclusion PCD in infected acute pancreatic necrosis is safe and effective. In one-third of the patients, it worked as standalone therapy, and in the rest it delayed the surgery beyond four weeks, thereby preventing the complications associated with early aggressive debridement.
... The step-up approach, consisting of percutaneous catheter drainage, followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive necrosectomy, has replaced open surgery as the standard of care [40,46]. More recently, an endoscopic approach has been demonstrated to be a less invasive technique [47,48] which can also be performed in a step-up fashion, starting with endoscopic transluminal drainage, and followed by endoscopic necrosectomy if the drainage does not result in clinical improvement [49]. In our study, only 33.7% of patients with infected pancreatic necrosis underwent a step-up approach as their first treatment, rather than upfront surgery, and only 37.2% of them underwent treatment after four weeks of symptom onset, as recommended by guidelines. ...
Article
Background/objectives: Reports about the implementation of recommendations from acute pancreatitis guidelines are scant. This study aimed to evaluate, on a patient-data basis, the contemporary practice patterns of management of biliary acute pancreatitis and to compare these practices with the recommendations by the most updated guidelines.
... In particular, the endoscopic step-up approach causes fewer complications such as fistulas compared to the surgical step-up approach. 129,130 ...
Article
Acute pancreatitis can range from a mild, self-limiting disease requiring no more than supportive care, to severe disease with life-threatening complications. With the goal of providing a recommendation framework for clinicians to manage acute pancreatitis, and to contribute to improvements in national health care, the Korean Pancreatobiliary Association (KPBA) established the Korean guidelines for acute pancreatitis management in 2013. However, many challenging issues exist which often lead to differences in clinical practices. In addition, with newly obtained evidence regarding acute pancreatitis, there have been great changes in recent knowledge and information regarding this disorder. Therefore, the KPBA committee underwent an extensive revision of the guidelines. The revised guidelines were developed using the Delphi method, and the main topics of the guidelines include the following: diagnosis, severity assessment, initial treatment, nutritional support, convalescent treatment, and the treatment of local complications and necrotizing pancreatitis. Specific recommendations are presented, along with the evidence levels and recommendation grades.
... VARD requires a 5-cm flank incision for insertion of rigid laparoscopic instruments with an increased risk of percutaneous fistula. 4 Endoscopic necrosectomy uses flexible endoscopes that can access deep within the retroperitoneum through a skin incision smaller than 2 cm, limiting hemorrhagic adverse events, without requiring anesthesia and only using moderate sedation. 5 Furthermore, the use of EndoRotor, which is specifically designed to perform this procedure, has reduced the number and the duration of necrosectomy sessions to achieve adequate clearance of necrotic content. ...
... Necroses may cause further local complications such as compression of adjacent organs, increase of intraabdominal pressure or gastric outlet obstruction. Secondary infection of the necrotic tissue is a severe condition with increased morbidity and mortality [5] requiring antibiotic treatment or even invasive interventions [6,7]. ...
Article
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Background In acute pancreatitis, secondary infection of pancreatic necrosis is a complication that mostly necessitates interventional therapy. A reliable prediction of infected necrotizing pancreatitis would enable an early identification of patients at risk, which however, is not possible yet. Methods This study aims to identify parameters that are useful for the prediction of infected necrosis and to develop a prediction model for early detection. We conducted a retrospective analysis from the hospital information and reimbursement data system and screened 705 patients hospitalized with diagnosis of acute pancreatitis who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography and additional diagnostic puncture or drainage of necrotic collections. Both clinical and laboratory parameters were analyzed for an association with a microbiologically confirmed infected pancreatic necrosis. A prediction model was developed using a logistic regression analysis with stepwise inclusion of significant variables. The model quality was tested by receiver operating characteristics analysis and compared to single parameters and APACHE II score. Results We identified a total of 89 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, diagnosed by computed tomography, who additionally received biopsy or drainage. Out of these, 59 individuals had an infected necrosis. Eleven parameters showed a significant association with an infection including C-reactive protein, albumin, creatinine, and alcoholic etiology, which were independent variables in a predictive model. This model showed an area under the curve of 0.819, a sensitivity of 0.692 (95%-CI [0.547–0.809]), and a specificity of 0.840 (95%-CI [0.631–0.947]), outperforming single laboratory markers and APACHE II score. Even in cases of missing values predictability was reliable. Conclusion A model consisting of a few single blood parameters and etiology of pancreatitis might help for differentiation between infected and non-infected pancreatic necrosis and assist medical therapy in acute necrotizing pancreatitis.
... Percutaneous drainage with an esophageal fully covered self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) insertion may obviate the need for these multiple procedures [8]. Exclusive percutaneous drainage is effective in 35%-51% of symptomatic WOPN patients[2, 9,10]. As a result, in the remaining subset of patients, debridement of infected necrotic debris is necessary. ...
... Recently endoscopic drainage has evolved from use of surgical to percutaneous drainage, which has equal efficacy with fewer complications and shorter hospital length of stay [8,9]. The classical approach exploits endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance to identify the collection to drain. ...
Article
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Background and study aims Fusion imaging consists of overlaying preoperative imaging over live fluoroscopy, providing an augmented live guidance. Since 2017, we have been using a new hybrid operating room (Discovery IGS 740 OR, GE Healthcare) for biliopancreatic endoscopy, combining fusion imaging with traditional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). This study aimed to assess the advantages that fusion imaging could bring to EUS-guided drainage of post-pancreatitis fluid collections. Patients and methods Thirty-five drainage procedures performed between 2012 and 2019 with traditional guidance and fusion imaging were retrospectively compared, assessing the overall treatment success rate – i. e. symptom improvement with complete PFC emptying – as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included technical success rate, time to resolution, hospital stay length, adverse events, recurrence rate, and procedure time. Results Patients treated with standard EUS (n = 17) and with fusion imaging (n = 18) were homogeneous in age, gender, pancreatitis etiology, and indication for drainage; the second group had larger PFCs, more frequently walled-off necrosis than pseudocysts, and were treated more emergently, indicating higher case complexity in this group. During the period when fusion imaging was adopted, procedures had a higher overall treatment success rate than during the period when standard EUS was adopted (83.3 % vs. 52.9 %, P = 0.075), and complete emptying was reached in less time (61.1 % vs. 23.6 % complete emptying within 90 days, P = 0.154), differences compatible with random fluctuations. Conclusions This study suggests that fusion imaging in combination with EUS might improve clinical and procedural outcomes of PFC drainage.
... At the same time, the number of endoscopic interventions is reduced [57]. Unlike access through surgery after percutaneous CT drainage followed by video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD), the EUSguided drainage of infected pancreatic necrosis described above, followed by endoscopic necrosectomy if necessary, also leads to far fewer pancreatic fistulas and shorter hospitalization [58,59]. Compared to open invasive surgical necrosectomy, ultrasound-guided endoscopic necrosectomy is more successful because it is suitable to reduce mortality in cases of necrotizing pancreatitis (presumably on account of the low invasiveness of the procedure) [58,60]. ...
Article
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There is growing evidence supporting the substantial, essential and indispensable role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) as a key diagnostic armamentarium for upper GI oncologic surgery. Well described in countless publications, EUS holds that position in gastroenterological expert centers all over Europe. Despite its undisputable contributions to oncologic upper GI surgery, the availability of this technique at the expert level shows up in an irregular spread pattern. Endoscopic ultrasound’s primary use during the first few years after its creation was the detection of pancreatic cancer. From then on, EUS developed in different directions, becoming a diagnostic tool that increasingly better defines its status as a method of minimally invasive therapeutic applications and a useful addition to surgical options. As a result, several surgical interventions could even be replaced by ultrasound-targeted interventions. This process took place in just a few years and was made possible by technical development that sensibly combined high-resolution ultrasound with therapeutic endoscopy. The present article will serve to cover the most prevalent uses with supporting data considering the growing list of suggested indications for EUS while also examining cutting-edge initiatives that might soon become the standard of clinical practice. Endoscopic centers with high expertise are needed to train future experts in the growing field of EUS interventions.
Article
Objectives: Cases of acute pancreatitis (AP) are increasing worldwide, and mortality remains high in severe cases. In 2015, the Japanese guidelines for the management of AP were revised. We aimed to clarify the clinical practice of AP in Japan and its trend during the revision of the guidelines using a Japanese nationwide administrative database. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102,119 patients with AP who were hospitalized between April 2014 and March 2018. The study period was divided into the first period (the time before the revision: fiscal years 2014 and 2015) and second period (after the revision: 2016 and 2017). Results: Severe cases of AP accounted for 27.7% of total cases. The in-hospital mortality in severe cases was 5.7%. The mortality within 14 days of admission improved from 3.2% in the first period to 2.6% in the second period (P = 0.022). Referred patients had more severe diseases and a higher mortality. The mortality in patients who underwent endoscopic ultrasound-guided fistuloplasty for local complications (11.6%) was lower than that in patients who underwent percutaneous drainage (23.4%) or AP surgery (22.6%) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We clarified the clinical practice of AP including the improved mortality after the revision of the guidelines.
Article
Objectives: To generate a prognostic model based on a nomogram for adverse events (AEs) prediction after lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) placement in patients with pancreatic fluid collections (PFC). Methods: Data from a large multicenter series of PFCs treated with LAMS placement were retrieved. AE (overall and excluding mild events) prediction was calculated through a logistic regression model and a nomogram was created and internally validated after bootstrapping. Results were expressed in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. Discrimination was assessed by c-statistics and calibrated by comparing deciles of predicted and observed ORs. Results: Overall, 516 patients were included (males 68%, mean age 61.6±15.2 years). PFCs were predominantly walled-off necrosis (52.1%). Independent predictors of AE occurrence were injury of main pancreatic duct (OR in the case of leak 2.51, 95% CI 1.06-5.97, p=0.03; OR in the case of complete disruption 2.61, 1.53-4.45, p=0.01), abnormal vessels (OR in the case of perigastric varices 2.90, 1.31-6.42, p=0.008; OR in the case of pseudoaneurysm 2.99, 1.75-11.93, p=0.002), using a multigate technique (OR 3.00, 1.28-5.24; p=0.05), and need of percutaneous drainage (OR 2.81, 1.03-7.65, p=0.04). By nomogram, a score beyond 200 points corresponded to a 50% probability of AE occurrence. The model was confirmed even when excluding mild AEs and it showed optimal discrimination (c-index 76.8%, 95% CI 74-79), confirmed after internal validation. Conclusion: Patients with pre-procedural evidence of PD leak/disruption, vessel alteration, requiring percutaneous drainage or a multigate technique are at higher risk for AE.
Article
EUS-guided drainage for gallbladder, bile duct, pancreatic duct, and peripancreatic fluid collection has been performed more frequently in the last decade. The development of dedicated stents and delivery systems for EUS-guided interventions have improved the efficacy and safety of these procedures. Furthermore, the introduction of lumen-apposing metal stents has reduced the complication significantly of endoscopic transmural drainage of pancreatic collections and gallbladder. Recent studies show that EUS-guided drainage of pancreaticobiliary ducts and peripancreatic fluid collection produces good results and low complication rates. This review describes the current position and role of interventional EUS for pancreatobiliary disease in clinical practice.
Article
Background: Necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) may result de novo or following procedures such as ERCP or partial pancreatectomy (post-procedural), and may require surgical debridement. Video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD) is a standard approach for NP that employs a 5 cm incision with varying degrees of blind and open debridement. We describe our technique and outcomes of a modified VARD called laparoscopic-assisted pancreatic necrosectomy (LAPN) performed through a single 12 mm incision that uses direct laparoscopic visualization during debridement. Methods: At one medical center, all LAPN patients (2012-2020) were assessed for demographics, disease factors, and outcomes. Bivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with recovery after LAPN for patients with de novo vs post-procedural necrosum. Results: Over 9 years, 60 patients underwent LAPN for NP. Median age was 57 years (IQR: 47-66) and 43 (69%) were men. Pancreas necrosum was de novo in 39 (63%) patients and post-procedural in 23 (37%). NP resolved with a median of 1 LAPN procedure and median hospitalization was 33 days. The LAPN major morbidity rate and in-hospital mortality rate were 47% and 5%. No significant differences were seen between NP etiology cohorts, although post-procedure NP patients trended towards a faster clinical recovery to baseline compared to de novo patients (193 vs 394 days; p-value = .07). Conclusions: LAPN offers a smaller incision with excellent visualization and non-inferior outcomes, regardless of etiology, with likely faster recovery for patients with post-procedural vs de novo necrotizing pancreatitis.
Article
Acute pancreatitis is nowadays one of the most common diseases among gastroenterology disorders, being gallstones and alcohol the main etiologies. Diagnostic criteria and indications of different imaging techniques are well defined, so that abdominal ultrasound is useful for etiological diagnosis whereas computarized tomography is better for risk stratification and local complications assessment. Goal directed fludtherapy, early starting of oral feeding and pain management are the mainstay of early treatment in acute pancreatitis. Antibiotics are useful when infected necrosis or extra pancreatic infections are documented or suspected but no as prophylaxis in sterile necrotizing pancreatitis. Minimally invasive approaches have emerged in the last decade for walled off necrosis management, improving complication rates, quality of life and length of hospital stay when compared with open surgery.
Article
Objectives: Walled-off necrosis (WON) is a serious complication to necrotizing acute pancreatitis with a high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term changes in pancreatic function, metabolic function and body composition in patients with WON. Material and methods: Observational study including patients with WON who underwent endoscopic transmural drainage and necrosectomy. Patients were prospectively evaluated at baseline, 3-6 months after discharge, and 12 months after discharge. Patients were characterized with fecal elastase, blood samples, computer tomography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and Lundh's test. Results: The study includes 17 patients (11 men) with WON. The etiologies were gallstones (53%) alcohol intake (35%) and 12% had an unknown etiology. The body mass index (BMI) dropped during baseline and 3 months after discharge (p = .03) and increased 12 months after discharge (p = .002). Twelve months after discharge, 29% had mild exocrine insufficiency, 7% moderate insufficiency and 50% severe insufficiency based on the Lundh's test. Fecal elastase was <100 μg/g in 35% and <200 μg/g in 59% 12 months after discharge. Only, 24% required pancreatic enzyme substitution. Endocrine insufficiency developed in 24%. These patients also had exocrine insufficiency. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of patients with WON experience both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency suggesting that long-term follow-up is needed in order to ensure adequate treatment.
Article
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute necroinflammatory condition of the pancreas and one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions requiring hospitalization. Over the past decade, treatment of such AP-related complications has been majorly focused on incorporating a multidisciplinary approach involving distinct endoscopic, radiologic, and surgical interventions. Our review focuses on the role of endoscopic interventions in the management of local complications associated with AP, such as pancreatic fluid collections, walled-off necrosis, and pancreatic duct disruption.
Article
Objective: Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) are believed to clinically improve endoscopic transluminal drainage of infected necrosis when compared with double-pigtail plastic stents. However, comparative data from prospective studies are very limited. Design: Patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis, who underwent an endoscopic step-up approach with LAMS within a multicentre prospective cohort study were compared with the data of 51 patients in the randomised TENSION trial who had been assigned to the endoscopic step-up approach with double-pigtail plastic stents. The clinical study protocol was otherwise identical for both groups. Primary end point was the need for endoscopic transluminal necrosectomy. Secondary end points included mortality, major complications, hospital stay and healthcare costs. Results: A total of 53 patients were treated with LAMS in 16 hospitals during 27 months. The need for endoscopic transluminal necrosectomy was 64% (n=34) and was not different from the previous trial using plastic stents (53%, n=27)), also after correction for baseline characteristics (OR 1.21 (95% CI 0.45 to 3.23)). Secondary end points did not differ between groups either, which also included bleeding requiring intervention-5 patients (9%) after LAMS placement vs 11 patients (22%) after placement of plastic stents (relative risk 0.44; 95% CI 0.16 to 1.17). Total healthcare costs were also comparable (mean difference -€6348, bias-corrected and accelerated 95% CI -€26 386 to €10 121). Conclusion: Our comparison of two patient groups from two multicentre prospective studies with a similar design suggests that LAMS do not reduce the need for endoscopic transluminal necrosectomy when compared with double-pigtail plastic stents in patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis. Also, the rate of bleeding complications was comparable.
Article
Acute pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders requiring hospitalization. This article describes current concepts in the diagnosis and management of severe acute and necrotizing pancreatitis. Management of this disease requires IV fluids, pain control, and advanced medical and interventional care. Early identification and intervention may help to prevent patient morbidity and mortality.
Article
Objective Development of an effective therapeutic algorithm for interventional (minimally invasive) approach to infected walled-off necrosis (WON) in patients with necrotising pancreatitis reflecting real-word data. Material/methods All consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic necrosectomy for necrotising pancreatitis through a defined study period were enclosed in this retrospective observational case study. The therapeutic approach was analysed for clinical success rate, complication spectrum and rate as well as mortality and compared with data from the literature. Finally, a therapeutic algorithm was derived. Results From 2004 to 2019, 126 patients with necrotising pancreatitis (median of APACHE II score, 10.5 points) were treated. In 92.9 % of cases (n=117), an infected WON with microbial pathogen detection was found. After a median of 18 days from symptom onset, first intervention was performed (53.2 % as percutaneous drainage with programmed rinsing, 29.4 % as EUS-guided internal drainage). From 2004 to 2010, double pigtail stents were used. Later, lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) such as AXIOSTM stent (Boston Scientific, Ratingen, Germany) was preferred. The combined percutaneous and internal drainage was performed in approximately 50 % of subjects. Endoscopic transluminal necrosectomy was performed in 123 patients (97.6 %) at a median of 33 days from symptom onset. Endoscopic percutaneous necrosectomy was conducted in 11.1 % of the individuals. A median number of two endoscopic necrosectomy sessions per patient was necessary for the therapy. The clinical success rate (discharge without surgical intervention) was 82.5 %. The complication rate (bleeding and perforation) and the need for surgery were both 9.5 %. The overall mortality was 8.7 %. Conclusion Therapy of necrotising pancreatitis with infected WON consists of early calculated antibiotic therapy with adequate drainage. Combined external and internal drainages with programmed rinsing seem to improve prognosis, as well as minimise i) the need for forced necrosectomies (mainly via a transluminal access site) and ii) complication rate as well as, thus, improve outcome.
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Background Timely and accurate microbial diagnosis is important in managing patients with infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN). Aims To evaluate the diagnostic performance of Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in patients with suspected IPN. Methods The clinical data of 40 patients with suspected IPN who underwent CT-guided pancreatic fluid aspiration were retrospectively analyzed. Microbial culture and mNGS were simultaneously applied to identify the potential pathogens. The diagnostic performance of the mNGS was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results The mNGS report can be obtained significantly earlier than culture methods (42 (36–62 h) vs. 60 (42–124 h), P = 0.032). Across all the study samples, seven species of bacteria and two species of fungi were reported accordingly to the culture results, while 22 species of bacteria and two species of fungi were detected by mNGS. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of mNGS were 88.0%, 100%, 83.33%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions The diagnostic accuracy of mNGS in patients with suspected IPN is satisfactory. Moreover, mNGS may broaden the range of identifiable infectious pathogens and provide a more timely diagnosis.
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Background The effectiveness of pancreatic duct (PD) stenting in the early stages of acute pancreatitis (AP) remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of PD stenting in the early stages of AP. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. The clinical data of 131 patients with AP from 2018 to 2019 were analysed and divided into two groups: the study group (n = 46, PD stenting) and the control group (n = 85, standard treatment). Results There was a statistically significant reduction in pain relief, oral refeeding, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) stay in the study group compared with that of the control group ( P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the incidence of complications between the two groups. Further multivariate analysis of risk factors for new-onset organ failure showed that the control group (odds ratio [OR] (95% confidence interval [CI]): 6.533 (1.104–70.181)) and a higher level of haematocrit (HCT) at admission (HCT > 46.1%, OR (95%CI): 8.728 (1.264–116.767)) were independent risk factors. Conclusions In the early phase of AP, PD stenting has the potential to reduce pain relief time, oral refeeding time, ICU stay time, and overall hospital stay time. This finding highlights a new route for the treatment of AP.
Article
Therapeutic EUS has witnessed exponential growth in the last decade, but it has been considered investigational until recently. An increasing body of good-quality evidence is now demonstrating clear advantages over established alternatives, adding therapeutic EUS to management algorithms of complex hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) and gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. In this review, the available evidence and clinical role of therapeutic EUS in established and evolving applications will be discussed. A Graphical Summary for each scenario will provide (1) technical steps, (2) anatomical sketch, (3) best-supporting evidence, and (4) role in changing current and future GI practice. Therapeutic EUS has accepted well-established applications such as drainage of symptomatic peripancreatic fluid collections, biliary drainage in failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and treatment of acute cholecystitis in unfit-for-surgery patients. In addition, good-quality evidence on several emerging indications (e.g., treatment of gastric outlet obstruction, local ablation of pancreatic solid lesions, etc.) is promising. Specific emphasis will be given to how these technical innovations have changed management paradigms and algorithms and expanded the possibilities of gastroenterologists to provide therapeutic solutions to old and emerging clinical needs. Therapeutic EUS is cementing its role in everyday practice, radically changing the treatment of different HPB diseases and other conditions (e.g., GI obstruction). The development of dedicated accessories and increased training opportunities will expand the ability of gastroenterologists to deliver highly effective yet minimally invasive therapies, potentially translating into a better quality of life, especially for oncological and fragile patients.
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Managing pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) remains a challenge for many clinicians. Recently, significant progress has been made in the therapy of PFCs, including improvements in technology and devices, as well as in the development of minimally invasive endoscopic techniques, many of which are proven less traumatic when compared with surgical options and more efficacious when compared with percutaneous techniques. This review will explore latest developments in the management of PFCs and how they incorporate into the current treatment algorithm.
Article
Objectives: A minimally invasive step-up (MIS) approach for management of necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) has been associated with reduced morbidity and mortality compared with open surgical techniques. We sought to evaluate bleeding complications in NP patients treated with a MIS approach and to describe the management and outcomes of these events. Methods: An observational, cohort study was performed using a prospectively maintained NP database at a tertiary referral center from 2013 to 2019. Results: Of 119 NP patients, 13% suffering bleeding events, and 18% underwent an intervention. There was a 6-fold higher mortality rate in patients with bleeding events (n = 3; 18.8%) compared with those without (n = 3; 2.9%) (P = 0.031). The most common intervention for hemorrhage control was endovascular coil embolization (75%), which was successful 88% of the time. Seven patients underwent prophylactic vascular intervention, which was 100% successful in preventing bleeding events from the embolized vessel. Conclusions: Bleeding events in NP patients treated with a MIS approach are associated with a 6-fold increase in mortality. Endovascular intervention is an effective strategy for the management of bleeding events. Prophylactic embolization may be an effective technique for reducing bleeding complications.
Article
Objectives: To investigate national mortality trends over a 12-year period for patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) admitted to Dutch ICUs. Additionally, an assessment of outcome in SAP was undertaken to differentiate between early (< 14 d of ICU admission) and late (> 14 d of ICU admission) mortality. Design: Data from the Dutch National Intensive Care Evaluation and health insurance companies' databases were extracted. Outcomes included 14-day, ICU, hospital, and 1-year mortality. Mortality before and after 2010 was compared using mixed logistic regression and mixed Cox proportional-hazards models. Sensitivity analyses, excluding early mortality, were performed to assess trends in late mortality. Setting: Not applicable. Patients: Consecutive adult patients with SAP admitted to all 81 Dutch ICUs between 2007 and 2018. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and main results: Among 4,160 patients treated in 81 ICUs, 14-day mortality was 17%, ICU mortality 17%, hospital mortality 23%, and 1-year mortality 33%. After 2010 in-hospital mortality adjusted for age, sex, modified Marshall, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scores were lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61-0.94) than before 2010. There was no change in ICU and 1-year mortality. Sensitivity analyses excluding patients with early mortality demonstrated a decreased ICU mortality (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.32-0.64), decreased in-hospital (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.36-0.63), and decreased 1-year mortality (hazard ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96) after 2010 compared with 2007-2010. Conclusions: Over the 12-year period examined, mortality in patients with SAP admitted to Dutch ICUs did not change, although after 2010 late mortality decreased. Novel therapies should focus on preventing early mortality in SAP.
Article
Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is among the commonest non-malignant admission diagnoses in gastroenterology. Its incidence in Germany lies between 13 and 43 per 100 000 inhabitants and is increasing. In 2017, 24 per 100 000 inhabitants were hospitalized for chronic pancreatitis. Methods: From October 2018 to January 2019, we systematically searched the literature for original articles, meta-analyses, and evidence-based guidelines that were published in German or English between 1960 and 2018. Results: 30-50% of cases of acute pancreatitis are due to gallstone disease, and another 30- 50% are due to alcohol abuse. The diagnosis is made when at least two of the following three criteria are met: typical abdominal pain, elevation of serum lipase, and characteristic imaging findings. If those criteria are ambiguous, transabdominal sonography is indicated. The early initiation of food intake lowers the rate of infected pancreatic necrosis, organ failure, or death (odds ratio 0.44; 95% confidence interval [0.2; 0.96]). In AP, Ringer's lactate solution should be preferred for fluid resuscitation, at 200-250 mL/hr for 24 hours. Severe pain should be treated with opiates. Conclusion: The current German clinical practice guideline reflects the developments in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatitis that have taken place over the past few years. The longterm care and monitoring of patients with complication-free pancreatitis is the responsibility of primary care physicians and gastroenterologists.
Article
the MANCTRA-1 Collaborative Group (see Appendix 1), coMpliAnce with evideNce-based cliniCal guidelines in the managemenT of acute biliaRy pancreAtitis): The MANCTRA-1 international audit
Article
The management of (peri)-pancreatic collections has undergone a paradigm shift from open surgical drainage to minimally invasive endoscopic, percutaneous or surgical interventions. Minimally invasive interventions are associated with less morbidity and mortality compared to open necrosectomy. The (peri)-pancreatic collections are currently treated with a “step up approach” of an initial drainage procedure and if necessary, followed by a more invasive debridement. The step up approach for management of (peri)-pancreatic collections is mainly of two types, namely surgical and endoscopic. Surgical step up that includes initial image guided percutaneous catheter drainage followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive video assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD). Endoscopic step-up approach includes endoscopic transluminal drainage followed, if necessary by, direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN). Development of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and lumen apposing metal stents (LAMS) have revolutionized the endoscopic management of (peri)-pancreatic collections. Compared to surgical step up approach, endoscopic step up treatment approach has been reported to be associated with less new onset organ failure, pancreatic fistula, entero-cutaneous fistula or perforation of visceral organ and shorter hospital/ICU stay. This review will mainly focus on indications, techniques, timing, and recent advances related to endoscopic step-up approach in management of symptomatic(peri)-pancreatic collections.
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BACKGROUND Treatment for severe acute severe pancreatitis (SAP) can significantly affect Health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). The effects of different treatment strategies such as endoscopic and surgical necrosectomy on HR-QoL in patients with SAP remain poorly investigated. AIM To critically appraise the available evidence on HR-QoL following surgical or endoscopic necrosectomy in patient with SAP. METHODS A literature search was performed on PubMed, Google™ Scholar, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Reference Citation Analysis databases for studies that investigated HR-QoL following surgical or endoscopic necrosectomy in patients with SAP. Data collected included patient characteristics, outcomes of interventions and HR-QoL-related details. RESULTS Eleven studies were found to have evaluated HR-QoL following treatment for severe acute pancreatitis including 756 patients. Three studies were randomized trials, four were prospective cohort studies and four were retrospective cohort studies with prospective follow-up. Four studies compared HR-QoL following surgical and endoscopic necrosectomy. Several metrics of HR-QoL were used including Short Form (SF)-36 and EuroQol. One randomized trial and one cohort study demonstrated significantly improved physical scores at three months in patients who underwent endoscopic necrosectomy compared to surgical necrosectomy. One prospective study that examined HR-QoL following surgical necrosectomy reported some deterioration in the functional status of the patients. On the other hand, a cohort study that assessed the long-term HR-QoL following sequential surgical necrosectomy stated that all patients had SF-36 > 60%. In the only study that examined patients following endoscopic necrosectomy, the HR-QoL was also very good. Three studies investigated the quality adjusted life years suggesting that endoscopic and surgical approaches to management of pancreatic necrosis were comparable in cost effectiveness. Finally, regarding HR-QoL between open necrosectomy and minimally invasive approaches, patients who underwent the later had a significantly better overall quality of life, vitality and mental health. CONCLUSION This review would suggest that the endoscopic approach might offer better HR-QoL compared to surgical necrosectomy. However, the available comparative literature was very limited. More randomized trials powered to detect differences in HR-QoL are required. Psaltis E, Varghese C, Pandanaboyana S, Nayar M. Quality of life after surgical and endoscopic management of severe acute pancreatitis: A systematic review. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2022; 14(7): 443-454 [DOI: 10.4253/wjge.v14.i7.443]
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Moderately severe and severe acute pancreatitis is characterized by local and systemic complications. Systemic complications predominate the early phase of acute pancreatitis while local complications are important in the late phase of the disease. Necrotic fluid collections represent the most important local complication. Drainage of these collections is indicated in the setting of infection, persistent or new onset organ failure, compressive or pressure symptoms, and intraabdominal hypertension. Percutaneous, endoscopic, and minimally invasive surgical drainage represents the various methods of drainage with each having its own advantages and disadvantages. These methods are often complementary. In this minireview, we discuss the indications, timing, and techniques of drainage of pancreatic fluid collections with focus on percutaneous catheter drainage. We also discuss the novel methods and techniques to improve the outcomes of percutaneous catheter drainage.
Article
Background Peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) are complications resulting from acute or chronic pancreatitis and require treatment in certain clinical conditions. The present study aimed to identify the factors influencing the duration of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts (PPCs), walled-off necrosis (WON), and acute necrotic collections (ANCs). Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of 68 patients with PFCs who underwent EUS-guided drainage. The timing and duration of EUS-guided drainage of various PFCs (ANC, WON, and PPCs) were compared, and the factors influencing the duration of endoscopic treatment were identified. Results The mean time to first EUS-guided PFC drainage since the acute pancreatitis episode was 372.0, 505.0, and 18.7 days for WON, PPC, and ANC, respectively, and the mean duration of treatment was 90, 60, and 63 days, respectively. A disconnected pancreatic duct, a history of percutaneous drainage, and an infected PFC were identified as factors influencing the treatment duration. A positive correlation was observed between the treatment duration and patients’ age. Patients with a disconnected pancreatic duct had to undergo more procedures. In patients with PPC, clinically successful drainage was more frequently achieved after a single procedure without the need for repeated procedures than in those with WON (90% vs. 59%, P = 0.01). Conclusions Patients with a history of percutaneous drainage, disconnected pancreatic duct, or PFC infection may require longer endoscopic treatment.
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Background: The optimal diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis is subject to debate. We performed a survey on these topics amongst a group of international expert pancreatologists. Methods: An online survey including case vignettes was sent to 118 international pancreatologists. We evaluated the use and timing of fine needle aspiration (FNA), antibiotics, catheter drainage and (minimally invasive) necrosectomy. Results: The response rate was 74% (N = 87). None of the respondents use FNA routinely, 85% selectively and 15% never. Most respondents (87%) use a step-up approach in patients with infected necrosis. Walled-off necrosis (WON) is considered a prerequisite for endoscopic drainage and percutaneous drainage by 66% and 12%, respectively. After diagnosing infected necrosis, 55% routinely postpone invasive interventions, whereas 45% proceed immediately to intervention. Lack of consensus about timing of intervention was apparent on day 14 with proven infected necrosis (58% intervention vs. 42% non-invasive) as well as on day 20 with only clinically suspected infected necrosis (59% intervention vs. 41% non-invasive). Discussion: The step-up approach is the preferred treatment strategy in infected necrotizing pancreatitis amongst expert pancreatologists. There is no uniformity regarding the use of FNA and timing of intervention in the first 2-3 weeks of infected necrotizing pancreatitis.
Article
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Interventions for necrotizing pancreatitis have undergone a paradigm shift away from open surgical necrosectomy and toward minimally invasive techniques, with endoscopic transmural drainage (ETD) and necrosectomy emerging as principle forms of treatment. Recent multicenter studies, randomized trials, evidence-based guidelines, and consensus statements have endorsed the safety and efficacy of endoscopic and other minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of walled-off necrosis. A comprehensive review of indications, standard and novel approaches, outcomes, complications, and controversies regarding ETD and necrosectomy is presented. Given the inherent challenges and associated risks, endoscopic techniques for the management of necrotizing pancreatitis should be performed at specialized multidisciplinary centers by expert endoscopists well versed in the management of necrotizing pancreatitis.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 24 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.130.
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Infected necrotising pancreatitis is a potentially lethal disease that nearly always requires intervention. Traditionally, primary open necrosectomy has been the treatment of choice. In recent years, the surgical step-up approach, consisting of percutaneous catheter drainage followed, if necessary, by (minimally invasive) surgical necrosectomy has become the standard of care. A promising minimally invasive alternative is the endoscopic transluminal step-up approach. This approach consists of endoscopic transluminal drainage followed, if necessary, by endoscopic transluminal necrosectomy. We hypothesise that the less invasive endoscopic step-up approach is superior to the surgical step-up approach in terms of clinical and economic outcomes.Methods/design: The TENSION trial is a randomised controlled, parallel-group superiority multicenter trial. Patients with (suspected) infected necrotising pancreatitis with an indication for intervention and in whom both treatment modalities are deemed possible, will be randomised to either an endoscopic transluminal or a surgical step-up approach. During a 4 year study period, 98 patients will be enrolled from 24 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. The primary endpoint is a composite of death and major complications within 6 months following randomisation. Secondary endpoints include complications such as pancreaticocutaneous fistula, exocrine or endocrine pancreatic insufficiency, need for additional radiological, endoscopic or surgical intervention, the need for necrosectomy after drainage, the number of (re-)interventions, quality of life, and total direct and indirect costs. The TENSION trial will answer the question whether an endoscopic step-up approach reduces the combined primary endpoint of death and major complications, as well as hospital stay and related costs compared with a surgical step-up approach in patients with infected necrotising pancreatitis.
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Background: Necrotizing pancreatitis with infected necrotic tissue is associated with a high rate of complications and death. Standard treatment is open necrosectomy. The outcome may be improved by a minimally invasive step-up approach. Methods: In this multicenter study, we randomly assigned 88 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and suspected or confirmed infected necrotic tissue to undergo primary open necrosectomy or a step-up approach to treatment. The step-up approach consisted of percutaneous drainage followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive retroperitoneal necrosectomy. The primary end point was a composite of major complications (new-onset multiple-organ failure or multiple systemic complications, perforation of a visceral organ or enterocutaneous fistula, or bleeding) or death. Results: The primary end point occurred in 31 of 45 patients (69%) assigned to open necrosectomy and in 17 of 43 patients (40%) assigned to the step-up approach (risk ratio with the step-up approach, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.87; P = 0.006). Of the patients assigned to the step-up approach, 35% were treated with percutaneous drainage only. New-onset multiple-organ failure occurred less often in patients assigned to the step-up approach than in those assigned to open necrosectomy (12% vs. 40%, P = 0.002). The rate of death did not differ significantly between groups (19% vs. 16%, P = 0.70). Patients assigned to the step-up approach had a lower rate of incisional hernias (7% vs. 24%, P = 0.03) and new-onset diabetes (16% vs. 38%, P = 0.02). Conclusions: A minimally invasive step-up approach, as compared with open necrosectomy, reduced the rate of the composite end point of major complications or death among patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and infected necrotic tissue. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN13975868.). Copyright
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As with endoscopic transmural drainage of peripancreatic fluid collections, the same transluminal access can be expanded to introduce an endoscope through the gastrointestinal wall into the retroperitoneum and remove infected pancreatic necroses under direct visual control. This study reports the first large series with long-term follow-up. Data for all patients undergoing transluminal endoscopic removal of (peri)pancreatic necroses between 1999 and 2005 in six different centres were collected retrospectively, and the patients were followed up prospectively until 2008. The initial patient and treatment outcome data were recorded, as were long-term results. Ninety-three patients (63 men, 30 women; mean age 57 years) underwent a mean of six interventions starting at a mean of 43 days after an attack of severe acute pancreatitis. After establishment of transluminal access to the necrotic cavity and subsequent endoscopic necrosectomy, initial clinical success was obtained in 80% of the patients, with a 26% complication and a 7.5% mortality rate at 30 days. After a mean follow-up period of 43 months, 84% of the initially successfully treated patients had sustained clinical improvement, with 10% receiving further endoscopic and 4% receiving surgical treatment for recurrent cavities; 16% suffered recurrent pancreatitis. Direct transluminal endoscopic removal of pancreatic necroses is associated with good long-term maintenance of the high initial efficacy; complications can occur, with an associated mortality of around 7.5%. Further studies are necessary in order to optimise endotherapy and define its role in relation to surgery in the clinical management of such patients.
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Necrosectomy is the gold standard treatment for infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN). A percutaneous and endoscopic approach has been accepted in selected cases. Endoscopic drainage (ED) of IPN can be performed by using transpapillary or transmural procedures, or a combination of both with or without endoscopic ultrasound. The aim of this study was to determine the indications, complications, success rate, and the importance of assessment of main pancreatic duct integrity by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) in patients with IPN. Records of all patients who underwent endoscopic necrosectomy from January 2002 to December 2007 at Rio de Janeiro Federal University Hospital were reviewed. A total of 56 patients were included. ED was performed using daily transmural and transpapillary drainage. A diagnostic pancreatogram (ERP) to search for communications between the pancreatic duct and the collection were performed in all cases and in cases where communication existed. A pre-cut needle knife was used to puncture the cyst wall, aspirate the content and then enter at the cyst cavity (contrast was injected to ensure opacification of the cyst and subsequent drainage). Sphincterotomy catheter or balloons were used to enlarge and ensure a wide cystoenterostomy. All patients were followed with computerized tomography scans or ultrasound to ensure clinical resolution. Mean follow-up was 21 months. 49/56 patients could be successfully treated. ED was successful in 49 patients (87%) and in 3 (13%) it failed. Mean follow-up was 21 months. During this period, there were 2 (10.5%) pseudocyst recurrences and only 1 (5.2%) recurrence of new episodes of pancreatic necrosis, and all were managed clinically and/or endoscopically. No mortality was related to the procedure. ED with daily necrosectomy is a useful method to remove infected and sterile pancreatic necrosis.
Article
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The American Journal of Gastroenterology is published by Nature Publishing Group (NPG) on behalf of the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG). Ranked the #1 clinical journal covering gastroenterology and hepatology*, The American Journal of Gastroenterology (AJG) provides practical and professional support for clinicians dealing with the gastroenterological disorders seen most often in patients. Published with practicing clinicians in mind, the journal aims to be easily accessible, organizing its content by topic, both online and in print. www.amjgastro.com, *2007 Journal Citation Report (Thomson Reuters, 2008)
Article
Background and objective The Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis enabled standardised reporting of research and aided communication between clinicians. Deficiencies identified and improved understanding of the disease make a revision necessary. Methods A web-based consultation was undertaken in 2007 to ensure wide participation of pancreatologists. After an initial meeting, the Working Group sent a draft document to 11 national and international pancreatic associations. This working draft was forwarded to all members. Revisions were made in response to comments, and the web-based consultation was repeated three times. The final consensus was reviewed, and only statements based on published evidence were retained. Results The revised classification of acute pancreatitis identified two phases of the disease: early and late. Severity is classified as mild, moderate or severe. Mild acute pancreatitis, the most common form, has no organ failure, local or systemic complications and usually resolves in the first week. Moderately severe acute pancreatitis is defined by the presence of transient organ failure, local complications or exacerbation of co-morbid disease. Severe acute pancreatitis is defined by persistent organ failure, that is, organ failure >48?h. Local complications are peripancreatic fluid collections, pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis (sterile or infected), pseudocyst and walled-off necrosis (sterile or infected). We present a standardised template for reporting CT images. Conclusions This international, web-based consensus provides clear definitions to classify acute pancreatitis using easily identified clinical and radiologic criteria. The wide consultation among pancreatologists to reach this consensus should encourage widespread adoption.
Article
Background and aims: Endoscopic transmural drainage/debridement of pancreatic walled-off necrosis (WON) has been performed using double-pigtail plastic (DP), fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs), or the novel lumen-apposing fully covered self-expanding metal stent (LAMS). Our aim was to perform a retrospective cohort study to compare the clinical outcomes and adverse events of EUS-guided drainage/debridement of WON with DP stents, FCSEMSs, and LAMSs. Methods: Consecutive patients in 2 centers with WON managed by EUS-guided debridement were divided into 3 groups: (1) those who underwent debridement using DP stents, (2) debridement using FCSEMSs, (3) debridement using LAMSs. Technical success (ability to access and drain a WON by placement of transmural stents), early adverse events, number of procedures performed per patient to achieve WON resolution, and long-term success (complete resolution of the WON without need for further reintervention at 6 months after treatment) were evaluated. Results: From 2010 to 2015, 313 patients (23.3% female; mean age, 53 years) underwent WON debridement, including 106 who were drained using DP stents, 121 using FCSEMSs, and 86 using LAMSs. The 3 groups were matched for age, cause of the pancreatitis, WON size, and location. The cause of the patients' pancreatitis was gallstones (40.6%), alcohol (30.7%), idiopathic (13.1%), and other causes (15.6%). The mean cyst size was 102 mm (range, 20-510 mm). The mean number of endoscopy sessions was 2.5 (range, 1-13). The technical success rate of stent placement was 99%. Early adverse events were noted in 27 of 313 (8.6%) patients (perforation in 6, bleeding in 8, suprainfection in 9, other in 7). Successful endoscopic therapy was noted in 277 of 313 (89.6%) patients. When comparing the 3 groups, there was no difference in the technical success (P = .37). Early adverse events were significantly lower in the FCSEMS group compared with the DP and LAMS groups (1.6%, 7.5%, and 9.3%; P < .01). At 6-month follow-up, the rate of complete resolution of WON was lower with DP stents compared with FCSEMSs and LAMSs (81% vs 95% vs 90%; P = .001). The mean number of procedures required for WON resolution was significantly lower in the LAMS group compared with the FCSEMS and DP groups (2.2 vs 3 vs 3.6, respectively; P = .04). On multivariable analysis, DP stents remain the sole negative predictor for successful resolution of WON (odds ratio [OR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.53; P = .002) after adjusting for age, sex, and WON size. Although there was no significant difference between FCSEMSs and LAMSs for WON resolution, the LAMS was more likely to have early adverse events (OR, 6.6; P = .02). Conclusions: EUS-guided drainage/debridement of WON using FCSEMSs and LAMSs is superior to DP stents in terms of overall treatment efficacy. The number of procedures required for WON resolution was significantly lower with LAMSs compared with FCSEMSs and DP stents.
Article
During 2002 the International Association of Pancreatology developed evidenced-based guidelines on the surgical management of acute pancreatitis. There were 11 guidelines, 10 of which were recommendations grade B and one (the second) grade A. (1) Mild acute pancreatitis is not an indication for pancreatic surgery. (2) The use of prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics reduces infection rates in computed tomography-proven necrotizing pancreatitis but may not improve survival. (3) Fine-needle aspiration for bacteriology should be performed to differentiate between sterile and infected pancreatic necrosis in patients with sepsis syndrome. (4) Infected pancreatic necrosis in patients with clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis is an indication for intervention including surgery and radiological drainage. (5) Patients with sterile pancreatic necrosis (with negative fine-needle aspiration for bacteriology) should be managed conservatively and only undergo intervention in selected cases. (6) Early surgery within 14 days after onset of the disease is not recommended in patients with necrotizing pancreatitis unless there are specific indications. (7) Surgical and other forms of interventional management should favor an organ-preserving approach, which involves debridement or necrosectomy combined with a postoperative management concept that maximizes postoperative evacuation of retroperitoneal debris and exudate. (8) Cholecystectomy should be performed to avoid recurrence of gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis. (9) In mild gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis, cholecystectomy should be performed as soon as the patient has recovered and ideally during the same hospital admission. (10) In severe gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis, cholecystectomy should be delayed until there is sufficient resolution of the inflammatory response and clinical recovery. (11) Endoscopic sphincterotomy is an alternative to cholecystectomy in those who are not fit to undergo surgery in order to lower the risk of recurrence of gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis. There is however a theoretical risk of introducing infection into sterile pancreatic necrosis. These guidelines should now form the basis for audit studies in order to determine the quality of patient care delivery. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP.
Article
Objectives: Infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is a complication of acute pancreatitis requiring intervention. Surgery is associated with considerable morbidity. Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD), initial therapy in the step-up approach, minimizes complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) has demonstrated safety and efficacy. We compared outcome and health care utilization of DENversus step-up approach. Methods: This was a matched cohort study using a prospective registry. Twelve consecutive DEN patients were matched with 12 step-up approach patients. Outcomes were clinical resolution after primary therapeutic modality, new organ failure, mortality, endocrine or exocrine insufficiency, length of stay, and health care utilization. Results: Clinical resolution in 11 of 12 patients after DEN versus 3 of 12 step-up approach patients after PCD (P < 0.01). Nine step-up approach patients required surgery; 7 of these experienced complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy resulted in less new antibiotic use, pulmonary failure, endocrine insufficiency, and shorter length of stay (P < 0.05). Health care utilization was lower after DEN by 5.2:1 (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Direct endoscopic necrosectomy may be superior to step-up approach for WOPN with suspected or established infection. Primary PCD generally delayed definitive therapy. Given the higher efficacy, shorter length of stay, and lower health care utilization, DEN could be the first-line therapy for WOPN, with primary PCD for inaccessible or immature collections.
Article
Objectives Metal stents are being used more frequently for transmural endoscopic drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) despite lack of data. A systematic review was conducted to compare the rates of treatment success, adverse events and recurrence between patients undergoing metal versus plastic stent placement for endoscopic transmural drainage of PFCs.MethodsMEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify all published manuscripts that evaluated metal stents for endoscopic transmural drainage of PFCs. All published studies from the same period involving plastic stent placement for PFC drainage that included >50 patients were also identified. The main outcome measures were to compare the rates of treatment success, adverse events and recurrence between the metal and plastic stent cohorts.Results17 studies (881 patients) met inclusion criteria. There was no difference in overall treatment success between patients treated with plastic and metal stents (81% [95% confidence interval (CI), 77-84%] vs. 82% [95% CI, 74-88%]) for both pseudocysts (85% [95% CI, 81-89%] vs. 83% [95% CI, 74-89%]) and walled-off necrosis (WON) (70% [95% CI, 62-76%] vs. 78% [95% CI, 50-93%]). Also, there was no difference in the rates of adverse events (16% [95% CI, 14-39%] vs. 23% [95% CI, 16-33%]) or recurrence (10% [95% CI, 8-13%] vs. 9% [95% CI, 4-19%]) between plastic and metal stents.Conclusions Current evidence does not support routine placement of metal stents for transmural drainage of PFCs. Randomized trials are needed to justify the use of metal stents for PFC drainage.
Article
At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. This was a post hoc analysis of 130 prospectively included patients undergoing catheter drainage for (suspected) infected necrotizing pancreatitis. Using logistic regression, we evaluated the association between success of catheter drainage (ie, survival without necrosectomy) and 22 factors regarding demographics, disease severity (eg, Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II score, organ failure), and morphologic characteristics on computed tomography (eg, percentage of necrosis). Catheter drainage was performed percutaneously in 113 patients and endoscopically in 17 patients. Infected necrosis was confirmed in 116 patients (89%). Catheter drainage was successful in 45 patients (35%). In multivariable regression, the following factors were associated with a reduced chance of success: male sex [odds ratio (OR) = 0.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09-0.55; P < 0.01], multiple organ failure (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04-0.62; P < 0.01), percentage of pancreatic necrosis (<30%/30%-50%/>50%: OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.96; P = 0.03), and heterogeneous collection (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.67; P < 0.01). A prediction model incorporating these factors demonstrated an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76. A prognostic nomogram yielded success probability of catheter drainage from 2% to 91%. Male sex, multiple organ failure, increasing percentage of pancreatic necrosis and heterogeneity of the collection are negative predictors for success of catheter drainage in infected necrotizing pancreatitis. The constructed nomogram can guide prognostication in clinical practice and risk stratification in clinical studies.
Article
Treatment of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis has become more conservative and less invasive, but there are few data from prospective studies to support the efficacy of this change. We performed a prospective multicenter study of treatment outcomes among patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. We collected data from 639 consecutive patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, from 2004 to 2008, treated at 21 Dutch hospitals. Data were analyzed for disease severity, interventions (radiologic, endoscopic, surgical), and outcome. Overall mortality was 15% (n=93). Organ failure occurred in 240 patients (38%), with 35% mortality. Treatment was conservative in 397 patients (62%), with 7% mortality. An intervention was performed in 242 patients (38%), with 27% mortality; this included early emergency laparotomy in 32 patients (5%), with 78% mortality. Patients with longer times between admission and intervention had lower mortality: 0 to 14 days, 56%; 14 to 29 days, 26%; and >29 days, 15% (P<.001). A total of 208 patients (33%) received interventions for infected necrosis, with 19% mortality. Catheter drainage was most often performed as the first intervention (63% of cases), without additional necrosectomy in 35% of patients. Primary catheter drainage had fewer complications than primary necrosectomy (42% vs 64%, P=.003). Patients with pancreatic parenchymal necrosis (n=324), compared with patients with only peripancreatic necrosis (n=315), had a higher risk of organ failure (50% vs 24%, P<.001) and mortality (20% vs 9%, P<.001). Approximately 62% of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis can be treated without an intervention and with low mortality. In patients with infected necrosis, delayed intervention and catheter drainage as first treatment improves outcome.
Article
Interventions for necrotizing pancreatitis have undergone a recent paradigm shift toward minimally invasive techniques, including endoscopic transluminal necrosectomy (ETN). The optimal stent for endoscopic transmural drainage remains unsettled. To evaluate a novel large-bore, fully covered metal through-the-scope (TTS) esophageal stent for cystenterostomy in large walled-off necrosis (WON). Retrospective case series. Single tertiary care academic center. Ten patients with large (>10 cm) WON collections who underwent endoscopic transmural drainage and ETN. Initial cystenterostomy was performed by using EUS, and in the same session, a TTS (18 × 60 mm), fully covered esophageal stent was placed to create a wide-bore fistula into the cavity. In 1 or more later sessions, the stent was removed, and ETN was performed as needed. Technical and clinical success rates and adverse events. The TTS stent was successfully deployed at the initial cystogastrostomy in all 10 patients. All patients had large WON (median size 17 cm, range 11-30 cm) and underwent intervention at a median of 30 days (range 12-117 days) after onset of acute pancreatitis. Resolution of WON was achieved in 9 of the 10 patients (90%) after a median of 3 endoscopic sessions. There were no early adverse events. Late adverse events occurred in 3 patients (30%); worsening of infection from stent migration and occlusion of cystogastrostomy (2 patients), and fatal pseudoaneurysmal bleeding from erosion of infected necrosis into a major artery distant from the stent (1 patient). The stent was easily removed in all the cases after resolution or improvement of the necrotic cavity. Retrospective, single-center evaluation of a small number of cases. No comparative arm to determine the relative efficacy or cost-effectiveness of these stents compared with conventional plastic stents. Endoscopic therapy using a large-bore TTS, fully covered esophageal stent is feasible for use in the treatment of large WON. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.
Article
Objective: Transmural endoscopic drainage and necrosectomy have become favored treatment modes for infected pancreatic pseudocysts and necroses. In this analysis, we summarize the outcome of 40 patients with complicated course of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic treatment. Material and methods: From January 2006 through May 2011, 40 patients of our department with complicated pancreatitis were included in this retrospective analysis. All patients underwent endosonographic transgastric puncture followed by wire-guided insertion of one or more double pigtail stents. Patients with extensive necroses were treated repeatedly with transgastric necrosectomy. Treatment success was determined by clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters. Results: Nine patients had interstitial pancreatitis (IP) with pancreatic pseudocysts. Thirty-one patients had necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) with acute pancreatic necroses (n = 4) or walled-off pancreatic necrosis (n = 27). All patients with IP and nine patients with NP had pseudocysts without solid material and underwent transgastric drainage only. In this group major complications occurred in 11.1% and no mortality was observed. Twenty-two NP patients were treated with additional repeated necrosectomy. In patients with localized peripancreatic necroses (n = 10) no need of surgery or mortality was observed, major complications occurred in 10%. In patients with extensive necroses reaching the lower abdomen (n = 12), three needed subsequent surgery and three died. Conclusions: Transgastric endoscopy is an effective minimally invasive procedure even in patients with advanced pancreatic necroses. Complication rate is low particularly in patients with sole pseudocysts or localized necroses. The extent of the fluid collections and necroses is a new predictive parameter for the outcome of the patients.
Article
A "step-up" approach is currently the treatment of choice for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of minimally invasive retroperitoneal necrosectomy (MINE) and endoscopic transgastric necrosectomy (ETG) and to compare it to open necrosectomy (ONE). Patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to our institution from 1998 to 2010 (n = 334) were identified. From these, patients who underwent either ONE, MINE, or ETG were selected for further analysis. Statistical analysis employed 2-sided Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U-test. From 2002 to 2010, 32 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis were treated by minimally invasive procedures including MINE (n = 14) and ETG (n = 18) or with the classic technique of ONE (n = 30). Time from onset of symptoms to intervention was less for ONE than for MINE or ETG (median, 11 vs 39 vs 54 days; P < .05). The rate of critically ill patients with sepsis or septic shock was greatest in ONE (93%) and MINE (71%) compared with ETG (17%; P < .05). Problems after ONE and MINE were ongoing sepsis (ONE 73% vs MINE 29% vs ETG 11%) and bleeding requiring intervention (ONE 26% vs MINE 21% vs ETG 17%). A specific complication of ETG was gastric perforation into the peritoneal cavity during the procedure (28%), requiring immediate open pseudocystogastrostomy. Laparotomy was necessary in 21% after MINE and 28% after ETG owing to specific complications or persistent infected necrosis. Overall mortality was greatest after ONE (ONE 63% vs MINE 21% vs ETG 6%; P < .05). Morbidity and mortality remains high in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Operative procedures should be delayed as long as possible to decrease morbidity and mortality. Minimally invasive procedures can avoid laparotomy, but also introduce specific complications requiring immediate or secondary open operative treatment. Minimally invasive procedures require unique expertise and therefore should only be performed at specialized centers.
Article
Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) for treatment of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) has been performed as an alternative to operative or percutaneous therapy. To report the largest combined experience of DEN performed for WOPN. Retrospective chart review. Six U.S. tertiary medical centers. A total of 104 patients with a history of acute pancreatitis and symptomatic WOPN since 2003. DEN for WOPN. Resolution or near-resolution of WOPN without the need for surgical or percutaneous intervention and procedural complications. Successful resolution was achieved in 95 of 104 patients (91%). Of the patients in whom it failed, 5 died during follow-up before resolution, 2 underwent operative drainage for persistent WOPN, 1 required surgery for massive bleeding on fistula tract dilation, and 1 died periprocedurally. The mean time to resolution from the initial DEN was 4.1 months. The first débridement was performed a mean of 63 days after the initial onset of acute pancreatitis. In 73%, the entry was transgastric with median tract dilation diameter of 18 mm. The median number of procedures was 3 with 2 débridements. Complications occurred in approximately 14% and included 5 retrogastric perforations/pneumoperitoneum, which were managed nonoperatively. Univariate analysis identified a body mass index >32 as a risk factor for failed DEN. Retrospective, highly specialized centers. This large, multicenter series demonstrates that transmural, minimally invasive endoscopic débridement of WOPN performed in the United States is an efficacious and reproducible technique with an acceptable safety profile.
Article
The role of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in patients with (infected) necrotizing pancreatitis was evaluated. A systematic literature search was performed. Inclusion criteria were: consecutive cohort of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis undergoing PCD as primary treatment for peripancreatic collections; indication for PCD either (suspected) infected necrosis or symptomatic sterile pancreatic necrosis; and outcomes reported to include percentage of infected peripancreatic collections, need for additional surgical necrosectomy, complications and deaths. Exclusion criteria were: cohort of fewer than five patients; cohort included patients with chronic pancreatitis; selected subgroup of patients with acute pancreatitis studied, such as those with pseudocysts, pancreatic abscesses and/or exclusively sterile pancreatic necrosis; and cohort in which PCD was combined with another minimally invasive strategy and results for PCD alone not reported separately. Eleven studies, including 384 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only one study was a randomized controlled trial; most others were retrospective case series. Four studies reported on the presence of organ failure before PCD; this occurred in 67·2 per cent of 116 patients. Infected necrosis was proven in 271 (70·6 per cent) of 384 patients. No additional surgical necrosectomy was required after PCD in 214 (55·7 per cent) of 384 patients. Complications consisted mostly of internal and external pancreatic fistulas. The overall mortality rate was 17·4 per cent (67 of 384 patients). Nine of 11 studies reported mortality separately for patients with infected necrosis undergoing PCD; the mortality rate in this group was 15·4 per cent (27 of 175). A considerable number of patients can be treated with PCD without the need for surgical necrosectomy.
Article
Endoscopic therapy of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) via direct intracavitary debridement is described. To compare direct endoscopic necrosectomy with conventional transmural endoscopic drainage for the treatment of WOPN. Retrospective, comparative study. Academic tertiary-care center. Patients referred to Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, since April 1998 for endoscopic drainage of WOPN. Each patient underwent standard endoscopic drainage that consisted of transmural cavity puncture, dilation of the fistula tract, and placement of a large-bore stent(s). Patients were classified into the direct endoscopic necrosectomy group if, during any of their procedures, adjunctive direct endoscopic necrosectomy was performed; all others were in the standard drainage group. Success was defined as resolution of the necrotic cavity without the need for operative or percutaneous intervention. Forty-five patients were identified who met study criteria: 25 underwent direct endoscopic necrosectomy, and 20 underwent standard endoscopic drainage. There were no differences in baseline patient or cavity characteristics. Successful resolution was accomplished in 88% who underwent direct endoscopic necrosectomy versus 45% who received standard drainage (P < .01), without a change in the total number of procedures. The maximum size of tract dilation was larger in the direct endoscopic necrosectomy group (17 mm vs 14 mm, P < .02). Complications were limited to mild periprocedural bleeding with equivalent rates between groups. Retrospective, referral bias, single center. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy achieves higher rates of resolution, without a concomitant change in the number of endoscopic procedures, complication rate, or time to resolution compared with standard endoscopic drainage for WOPN. The need for fewer postprocedural inpatient hospital days and a decrease in the rate of cavity recurrence are also likely benefits of this technique.
Article
Pancreatic necrosis and pancreatic abscess are severe complications of acute pancreatitis. Surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in these critically ill patients. Endoscopic therapy has the potential to offer a safer and more effective alternative treatment modality. However, its role needs to be further investigated. This is a retrospective study of the outcome of consecutive patients with pancreatic necrosis and pancreatic abscess, all unfit to undergo surgery, who underwent a new aggressive endoscopic approach. The treatment includes (1) synchronous EUS-guided multiple transmural and/or transpapillary drainage procedures followed by balloon dilation of the cystogastrostoma or cystoduodenostoma, (2) daily endoscopic necrosectomy and saline solution lavage, and (3) sealing of pancreatic fistula by N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Pancreatic necrosis and pancreatic abscesses were successfully drained in 13 patients, thus avoiding emergency surgery as an initial treatment. Surgery was completely avoided in 9 patients over a median follow-up of 8.3 months (range 3-81 months). Surgery was combined with endoscopic therapy in one patient because of abscess extension into the right paracolic gutter, which was not manageable by endoscopic drainage. Because of the "disconnected-duct syndrome," two patients later developed recurrent pseudocysts and underwent elective surgery. Complications included minor bleeding after balloon dilation and necrosectomy in 4 cases, which were self limiting or controlled endoscopically. This aggressive endoscopic approach shows promising results. It expands the potential for endoscopic treatment in patients with pancreatic necrosis and/or pancreatic abscess.
Article
Open pancreatic necrosectomy is the standard treatment for infected pancreatic necrosis but is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospital stay. Percutaneous or endoscopic necrosectomy are alternative techniques. We evaluated the use of endoscopic necrosectomy for treatment of patients with necrosis that could be accessed through the posterior wall of the stomach. We retrospectively analyzed the indication, patient status according to acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) 2 severity score, and success of endoscopic necrosectomy as primary treatment, in selected patients with localized infected pancreatic necrosis, who presented between May 2002 and October 2004. After the necrosis cavity had been accessed, with the assistance of endoscopic ultrasound, a large orifice was created and necrotic debris was removed using endoscopic accessories under radiological control. Follow-up was clinical and radiological. 13 patients (nine men, four women, mean age 53 years), 11 with positive bacteriology, underwent attempted endoscopic necrosectomy. Median APACHE 2 score on presentation was 8 (range 1-18). Four patients needed intensive therapy unit care and one other patient required (nonventilatory) high-dependency unit care only. Necrosis was successfully treated endoscopically in 12 patients, requiring a mean of 4 endoscopic interventions (range 1-10); one patient required open surgery; two underwent additional percutaneous necrosectomy and one required laparoscopic drainage. Two patients died of complications unrelated to the procedure. The 11 survivors have a median (range) follow-up of 16 (6-38) months. Endoscopic necrosectomy is a safe method for treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis. Multiple procedures are usually needed. It may be combined with other methods of surgical intervention. Larger prospective studies will more precisely define its role.
Article
Experience with minimal access, transoral/transmural endoscopic drainage/debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) after necrotizing pancreatitis is limited. We sought to determine outcome using this technique. Retrospective analysis. From 1998 to 2006, 53 patients underwent transoral/transmural endoscopic drainage/debridement of sterile (27, 51%) and infected (26, 49%) WOPN. Intervention was performed a median of 49 days (range, 20-300 days) after onset of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. A median of 3 endoscopic procedures/patient (range, 1-12) were performed. Twenty-one patients (40%) required concurrent radiologic-guided catheter drainage of associated or subsequent areas of peripancreatic fluid and/or WOPN. Twelve patients (23%) required open operative intervention a median of 47 days (range, 5-540) after initial endoscopic drainage/debridement, due to persistence of WOPN (n = 3), recurrence of a fluid collection (n = 2), cutaneous fistula formation (n = 2), or technical failure, persistence of pancreatic pain, colonic obstruction, perforation, and flank abscess (n = 1 each). Final outcome after initial endoscopic intervention (median, 178 days) revealed successful endoscopic therapy in 43 (81%) and persistence of WOPN in 10 (19%). Preexistent diabetes mellitus, size of WOPN, and extension of WOPN into paracolic gutter were significant predictive factors for need of subsequent open operative therapy. Successful resolution of symptomatic, sterile, and infected WOPN can be achieved using a minimal access endoscopic approach. Adjuvant percutaneous drainage is necessary in up to 40% of patients, especially when WOPN extends to paracolic gutters or pelvis. Operative intervention for failed endoscopic treatment is required in about 20% of patients.
Article
Surgical management of pancreatic necrosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several weeks after an episode of a necrotizing pancreatitis, necrosis can become organized. By the time necrosis becomes organized, endoscopic therapy has the potential to offer an alternative treatment to surgery. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic debridement of organized pancreatic necrosis and to identify procedural aspects that may improve outcome. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary referral center. All consecutive patients who underwent this novel endoscopic approach were included. Treatment started with a cystoenterostomy or a cystogastrostomy. The next steps consisted of balloon dilation, up to 18 mm; advancement of an endoscope into the retroperitoneal cavity; and endoscopic debridement of the collection under direct endoscopic vision. Debridement was repeated every 2 days until most necrotic material was evacuated. In addition, nasocystic catheter irrigation was performed manually with saline solution 6 to 8 times a day. Clinical success, number of endoscopic procedures, and complications. Twenty-five patients were identified, who had undergone debridement of 27 collections. In 11, 13, 2, and 1 collections, 1, 2, 3, and 4 endoscopic debridement procedures, respectively, were performed. There was no mortality. Severe complications that required surgery occurred in 2 patients: hemorrhage in 1 case and perforation of cyst wall in the other. During a median follow-up of 16 months (range 3-38 months), the overall clinical success rate with resolution of the collection and related symptoms was 93%. Retrospective study. In this study, we showed that endoscopic debridement is an effective and relatively safe minimally invasive therapy in patients with symptomatic organized pancreatic necrosis. Further comparative studies are warranted to define its definitive role in the management of these patients.
Article
Surgical intervention in patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis generally consists of laparotomy and necrosectomy. This is an invasive procedure that is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this report, we present an alternative minimally invasive technique: videoscopic assisted retroperitoneal debridement (VARD). This technique can be considered a hybrid between endoscopic and open retroperitoneal necrosectomy. A detailed technical description is provided and the advantages over various other minimally invasive retroperitoneal techniques are discussed.
Article
Infected pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis in acute pancreatitis is potentially lethal, with mortality rates up to 35%. Therefore, there is growing interest in minimally invasive treatment options, such as (EUS-guided) endoscopic transgastric necrosectomy. Retrospective cohort study on EUS-guided endoscopic transgastric necrosectomy in patients with infected necrosis in acute pancreatitis. 8 patients (age 38-75, mean 50 years) with documented infected peripancreatic or pancreatic necrosis were included. Median time to first intervention was 33 days (range 17-62) after onset of symptoms. At the time of first intervention 2 patients had organ failure. All patients were managed on the patient ward. Initial endoscopic drainage was successful in all patients, a median of 4 (range 2-6) subsequent endoscopic necrosectomies were needed to remove all necrotic tissue. Two patients needed additional surgical intervention because of pneumoperitoneum (n = 1) and insufficient endoscopic drainage (n = 1). Six patients recovered, with 1 mild relapse during follow-up (median 12, range 8-60 months). One patient died. EUS-guided endoscopic transgastric necrosectomy of infected necrosis in acute pancreatitis appears to be a feasible and relatively safe treatment option in patients who are not critically ill. Further randomized comparison with the current 'gold standard' is warranted to determine the place of this treatment modality.
Working Group IAPAPAAPG. IAP/APA evidencebased guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis
Working Group IAPAPAAPG. IAP/APA evidencebased guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology 2013; 13 (suppl 2): e1-15.
Peroral transgastric/ transduodenal necrosectomy: success in the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis
  • J Escourrou
  • H Shehab
  • L Buscail
Escourrou J, Shehab H, Buscail L, et al. Peroral transgastric/ transduodenal necrosectomy: success in the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis. Ann Surg 2008; 248: 1074-80.