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Computer Aided Design (CAD): A New Era in Design of Farm Machines
Rajvir Yadav* and Er Ronak Jakasania
Department of Farm Engineering, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, India
Received date: Sep 06, 2017; Accepted date: Sep 11, 2017; Published date: Sep 16, 2017
Copyright: © 2017 Yadav R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Citation: Yadav R, Jakasania ER (2017) Computer Aided Design (CAD): A New Era in Design of Farm Machines. J Ergonomics S6: e001. doi:
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is becoming one of the most
important soware tools in the design industry. Quite simply, CAD
programs allow the designer to draw the object on his or her computer
screen, instead of using pencil and paper. It uses the computer systems
to assist in the creation, modication, analysis and optimization of a
design. In today’s World, everything from small nut-bolt to large
machines is being visualized and designed using Computer-Aided
Design (CAD) soware. By using CAD, engineers, manufacturers and
draers can imagine, invent and revise detailed drawings used to give
physical form to their ideas. is eld oen appeals to individuals with
a construction background who prefer designing projects over
physically building them.
Numerical methods have been used to solve complicated problems
in dierent engineering disciplines. In mechanical design process, one
of the most used numerical methods is Finite Element Method (FEM).
is method has been developed at the beginning of 1950’s in order to
computing stress distribution of complicated structure in aeronautic
industry. Today, the method can be used nearly all kind of dierent
engineering eld together with developing technologies and
computers. In addition, using these applications are so important in
agricultural mechanization system design. e FEM is also being used
to study soil cutting and tillage. e goal of modern farming system is
to economize energy consumption and thereby reduce farming cost.
Optimal design of agricultural machines proportionate to the present
tractor power must be considered in order to achieve this goal. is
leads to an increase in farm eective eciency, timeliness in farm
operations and maximizing the use of tractor power.
A number of dierent types of tillage equipment designs can be seen
in agricultural elds, which are used for a number of varied
applications. When working with the tillage equipment, its
construction is subjected to reaction forces from the soil due to the
deep tillage. According to these working conditions, if the construction
does not compensate the soil reaction forces, elements of the tillage
implement could be subjected to forces that cause deformation. is
deformation could cause machinery failure during operation. Hence,
the basic elements of an implement construction must be durable
enough during tillage operations. erefore, proper design of these
machines is necessary in order to increase their working life time and
reduce the farming costs. Although much research can be found about
tillage eects or its soil interaction conditions, it can be concluded that
there have been limited studies about the structural optimization of the
construction and constituent elements using CAE applications. Finite
Element (FE) is one of those methods which used for evaluation of a
structure under static and dynamic loads before making the main
model. Subsoiler and rotavator blade type equipment have high
magnitude reaction forces from the soil during tillage operation. For
these reaction forces aect construction elements of subsoiler and
rotavator blade directly or indirectly. If the construction elements
cannot compensate the reaction forces, they become useless due to
plastic deformation or fracture.
erefore, structure of these type of tillage equipment must have
been designed as stable and durable enough to avoid undesired failure
cases. Usually, machine manufacturers uses materials, which have high
safety coecient or high weight machine members to avoid
unappreciated case and operating conditions. However, this is not an
optimum way. Actually, stress distribution should be well known to
generate design, optimum material shape and durability of elements
according to dened operating conditions. In fact, not all of the factors
(non-linear and dynamic) can be described exactly in real working
condition on eld. erefore, some assumptions are generated to
dene these factors for developing approaches to reality like all
engineering problems. erefore, proper design of tillage equipment is
necessary in order to increase their working life time and reduce the
farming costs. So we analysed dierent tillage equipment like subsoiler,
rotavator blade and M.B. plough in CAD soware for static structural
Static structural analysis of subsoiler, rotavator blade and M.B.
plough were carried out using Creo and ANSYS soware. 3D models
of these tillage implements were made using Creo soware and static
structural analysis and optimization were carried out using ANSYS
soware. e material and dimensions were taken from the local
manufacturing database. A eld experiment was conducted to
determine maximum dra force of the subsoiler for the boundary
condition. Results of simulation provide maximum deformation,
maximum equivalent (von-mises) stresses and minimum factor of
safety type dierent parameter as per the requirement. If factor of
safety was found to be very low and do not satisfy the safety conditions
then optimize design is required. So ANSYS designXplorer type
dierent module was utilized for the optimization study.
erefore, CAD application in agricultural eld is very important
because CAD application gives the value of deformation, stress, factor
of safety type dierent parameters with their better solution and also
increase their working life time, reduce the costs of tillage equipment
in agro industries.
This article was originally published in a special issue, entitled: "Ergonomics in
Product Design and Development", Edited by Thaneswer Patel
ISSN: 2165-7556
Journal of Ergonomics Yadav and Jakasania, J Ergonomics 2017, S6
DOI: 10.4172/2165-7556.1000.S6-e001
Editorial OMICS International
J Ergonomics, an open access journal Ergonomics in Product Design and Development ISSN:2165-7556
*Corresponding author: Rajvir Yadav, Professor and Head, Department of Farm Engineering, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362001, India, Tel:
919426420561; E-mail:
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