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The Influence of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) as Feed Additive on Hematological Traits of Local Iraqi Geese

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Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding diets containing different levels of parsley on hematological traits of local Iraqi geese. A total of twenty four local geese, one year old, were used in this experiment. The birds were allocated for four treatment groups consisted of six geese each. Treatment groups were: Control diet (C) (free from parsley), T1: Control diet + 80 g/d parsley, T2: Control diet + 160 g/d parsley; T3: Control diet + 240 g/d parsley. At the end of experiment, blood samples were obtained from all geese from brachial vein by venipuncture. Hematological traits included in this study were red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), thrombocytes count, white blood cells count (WBC) and percentages of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eiosinophils and heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L) ratio. Results revealed that supplementing the diet of geese with different levels of parsley (T1, T2 and T3) resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase in Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, thrombocytes, WBC and lymphocytes and significant (P<0.05) decrease in H / L ratio and eiosinophils in comparison to C group. Whereas, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences among all experimental groups as regards heterophils, monocytes and basophils. However, T3 group surpass other treatment groups (C, T1 and T2) concerning RBC count, while there were no significant differences among C, T1, T2 groups with respect to RBC count. In conclusion, supplementing the ration of geese with parsley resulted in significant improvement in most of blood traits involved in this study.
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AdvancesinNutritionResearchISSN: 2222-5757
www.ijscience.com
The Influence of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) as Feed Additive on Hematological Traits of
Local Iraqi Geese
Hazim J. Al-Daraji, H. A. Al-Mashadani, A. S. Al-Hassani, H. A. Mirza, W. K. Al-Hayani
University of Baghdad, College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Resource
ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding diets containing different levels of parsley on
hematological traits of local Iraqi geese. A total of twenty four local geese, one year old, were used in this experiment.
The birds were allocated for four treatment groups consisted of six geese each. Treatment groups were: Control diet
(C) (free from parsley), T1: Control diet + 80 g/d parsley, T2: Control diet + 160 g/d parsley; T3: Control diet + 240
g/d parsley. At the end of experiment, blood samples were obtained from all geese from brachial vein by
venipuncture. Hematological traits included in this study were red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration
(Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular
hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), thrombocytes count, white blood cells count (WBC) and percentages of
heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eiosinophils and heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L) ratio. Results
revealed that supplementing the diet of geese with different levels of parsley (T1, T2 and T3) resulted in significant
(P<0.05) increase in Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, thrombocytes, WBC and lymphocytes and significant (P<0.05)
decrease in H / L ratio and eiosinophils in comparison to C group. Whereas, there were no significant (P>0.05)
differences among all experimental groups as regards heterophils, monocytes and basophils. However, T3 group
surpass other treatment groups (C, T1 and T2) concerning RBC count, while there were no significant differences
among C, T1, T2 groups with respect to RBC count. In conclusion, supplementing the ration of geese with parsley
resulted in significant improvement in most of blood traits involved in this study.
Keywords: Parsley, Hematological Traits, Geese
Corresponding author: Hazim J. Al-Daraji, Department of Animal Resource, College of Agriculture, University of
Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
INTRODUCTION
Animal health depends on many factors and recently
it has been appreciated that diet plays a pivotal role in
health maintenance and prevention of many diseases
(Finkel and Holbrooke, 2000). Feed additives are
important materials that can improve the efficiency of
feed utilization and animal performance. However, the use
of chemical products especially those of antibiotics and
hormones may cause unfavourable effects. Many attempts
in the field of animal nutrition are being done to achieve
an increase in animal production and thereby profit
(Abdou, 2001).
Old drugs industry depends upon the raw material of
medicinal herbs and plants and their extracts, which
always proved safe. Inversely, many synthesized
chemicals caused many hazards to animals, plants and
human. The world health organization encourages using
medicinal herbs and plants to substitute or minimize the
use of chemicals through the global trend to go back to
nature (Allam et al., 1999). Leafy vegetables play crucial
roles in alleviating hunger and food security and that is
why they are very important in the diet of many people.
They are valuable sources of nutrients where they
contribute substantially to proteins, minerals, vitamins,
fibres, and other nutrients which are usually in short
supply in daily diets (Solanke and Awonorin, 2002). In
addition to their high concentration of micronutrients,
vegetables provide little dietary energy, making them
valuable in energy limited diets. The fibre content has
been reported to have beneficial effects on blood
cholesterol and aids in the prevention of large bowel
diseases, while in diabetic subjects, they improve glucose
tolerance (Ashaye, 2010).
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is an important
culinary herb native to the Miditerranean area. Parsley is a
member of the Umbelliferae family that has been
employed in the food, pharmaceutical, perfume, and
cosmetic industries (Lopez et al., 1999). Parsley has been
reported to have a number of possible medicinal attributes
including, antimicrobial (Wong and Kitts, 2006),
antianemic, menorrhagic (Baytop, 1984), anticoagulant,
antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic (Ozturk et al., 1991),
antioxidant (Nielsen et al., 1999) and laxative
(Kreydiyyeh et al., 2001). It has been used to treat
lumbago, as a blood pressure regulator, to treat eczema,
knee, ache, impotence and nose bleed (Manderfeld et al.,
1997). Parsley seeds are also used as a diuretic and the
Adv Nutr Res, 2012, 1(1): 1-5.
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hypoglycaemic activity of parsley has been shown by
Ozsoy et al. (2006). The constituents of parsley which
include ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, coumarins,
apiole, various terpenoic compounds, phenyl propanoids,
phathalides, furano coumarins, and tocopherol, have been
chemically investigated (Tunali et al., 1999). Components
of freshly parsley scavenge superoxide anion in vitro
(Campanella et al., 2003), and the methanol extracts of
parsley scavenge hydroxyl radical in addition to
protecting against ascorbic acid induced membrane
oxidation (Fejes et al., 2000). Supplementation of the
diets with fresh parsley leaf can significantly increase
antioxidant capacity (Hempel et al., 1999).
The present study was conducted to determine the
effect of dietary parsley supplementation on certain
haematological characteristics of local Iraqi geese.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A total of twenty four local geese, one year old, were
used in this study. The birds were housed on four separate
floor pens under artificial lighting program of 12L:12D.
For three months of experiments, all geese were fed 200
g/d, a commercial ration for geese breeding which
containing 2919 Kcal metabolisable energy and 17%
crude protein (Table 1). Parsley was offered to geese in
the form of fresh leaves. Fresh parsley leaves were cut
into pieces and put on separated trays inside the pens of
geese. The birds were separated into four treatment groups
consisted of six geese each. Treatments were as following:
Control diet (free from parsley; C)
T1: Control diet + 80 g/d parsley
T2: Control diet + 160 g/d parsley
T3: Control diet + 240 g/d parsley
At the end of end of experiment, blood samples were
obtained from each geese by venipuncture from the
brachial vein, using disposable needles (25 G) fitted with
plastic syringe, and was carefully transferred to collecting
tubes containing potassium EDTA (1.5 g/ml). The blood
collection tubes were kept cool on ice and transported to
the laboratory where cell counting and haematological
analyses were performed. In the laboratory, aliquots were
diluted 200 times for red blood cell (RBC) and white
blood cell (WBC) counts in haematological pipette with
Natt–Herric solution (Natt and Herrick, 1952). Total RBC
and WBC counts were determined in a Neabur chamber
(Al-Daraji et al., 2008). Haemoglobin concentration (Hb)
was determined by a cyanomethaemoglobin method
following lysate centrifugation (Zinkl, 1986). Packed cell
volume (PCV) was determined by microhematocrit
centrifugation. Mean cell volume (MCV), mean
corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular
haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated
using standard formulae as reported by Al-Daraji et al.
(2008). Blood smears were fixed in methanol and stained
with commercial Giemsa stain diluted 1: 4 (v/v) in
phosphate buffer, pH 6.80, for 1 hour. Identification and
counting of leucocytes and thrombocytes was done under
a light microscope using an oil immersion lens (× 100). At
least 200 leucocytes were counted in each sample to
establish cell ratio (Leonard, 1982). The number of
thrombocytes was obtained by an estimation method
which consists of counting the number of thrombocytes in
five fields submerged and applying the following formula
(Al-Daraji et al., 2008)
Estimated number of thrombocytes (thrombocytes/µl) =
(mean number of thrombocytes in five fields × 3,500,000)
× 10–3.
The data was assessed by analysis of variance using
the General Linear Model method (SAS, 2000). Test of
significance for the difference between different
treatments was done by Duncan multiple range test
(Duncan, 1955).
Table 1: Ingredients and chemical composition of the diet
fed to geese
Ingredients Percentage composition (%)
Wheat 34.5
Yellow corn 38
Soybean meal (44%) 13
Protein concentrate* 5
Oil 2
Limestone 6
Dicalcium phosphate 1
Vitamins + minerals** 0.2
Sodium chloride 0.3
Calculated content***
Crude protein (%) 15.78
Metabolisable energy (Kcal/Kg) 2919
Total calcium 2.7
Available phosphorus 0.41
Methionine 0.38
Lysine 0.73
Cystine 0.24
*Wafi protein concentrate provided per kg: : 2150 ME / kg; 40%
crude protein; 5% crude fat; 2% crude fiber; 5.6% calcium; 2.6%
available phosphorus; 3.85% lysine; 1.25 methionine; 4.10%
methionine + cystine **Vitamins and minerals mixture provided
per kg: 8,000,000 I.U. Vit. A; 1,500,000 I.U. Vit. D3; 1000 I. U.
Vit E; 2000 mg Vit. K3; 500 mg Vit. B1; 500 MG Vit. B2; 200
mg Vit. B6; 8 mg Vit. B12; 4000 mg Ca Pantothenate; 6000 mg
Nicotinmide; 50 mg Folic acid; 0.40 gm Mn sulphate; 0.15 gm
Zinc sulphate; 0.50 gm Iron sulphate; 0.04 gm Copper sulphate;
0.01 gm cobalt chloride; ***Calculated composition was
according to NRC (1994)
RESULTS
Data presented in Table 2 showed that geese fed
different levels of parsley as fresh leaves (T1, T2 and T3)
recorded the highest (P<0.05) values of Hb, PCV, MCV,
MCH, MCHC and thrombocytes in comparison with C
group. However, T3 group surpassed other groups (C, T1
and T2) concerning RBC count, while there were no
significant differences among C, T1 and T2 with relation
to RBC count in spite of that there was increasing trend in
T1 and T2 groups than C group. Furthermore, there were
no significant differences between T2 and T3 groups in
the mean values of Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC and
thrombocytes (Table 2). The current results clearly
revealed that dietary supplementation with different levels
of parsley (T1, T2 and T3) resulted in significant (P<0.05)
increase in WBC count and percentage of lymphocytes in
comparison with C group (Table 3). Moreover, it was
noticed from Table 2 that control group (C) recorded the
highest means of H/L ratio and percentage of eosinophils
as compared with parsley treated groups (T1, T2 and T3).
Results also indicated no significant (P>0.05) effect on
percentages of heterophils, monocytes and basophils.
Adv Nutr Res, 2012, 1(1): 1-5.
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Table 2: Effect of dietary parsley supplementation on some blood traits of local geese
Treatments
Traits C T1 T2 T3
RBC (× 106 / µl) 3.60 ± 0.27b 3.67 ± 0.31b 3.79 ± 0.15b 4.25 ± 0.39 a
Hb (g / dL) 8.32 ± 0.99c 9.23 ± 0.79b 11.07 ± 0.82a 11.37 ± 0.90a
PCV (%) 37.85 ± 1.03c 39.11 ± 0.89b 41.23 ± 1.11a 44.02 ± 0.26a
MCV (fL) 105.1 ± 1.03c 106.5 ± 2.18b 108.7 ± 1.33a 108.6 ± 2.03a
MCH (Pg) 23.11 ± 0.92c 25.14 ± 0.83b 29.20 ± 0.80a 26.75 ± 0.79b
MCHC (g / dL) 21.98 ± 0.26c 23.60 ± 0.29b 26.84 ± 0.41a 25.82 ± 0.30a
Thrombocytes (× 103 / µl) 19.11 ± 0.76c 20.25 ± 0.95b 21.34 ± 0.35a 21.55 ± 0.51a
C: Control group; T1, T2 and T3: Diet supplemented with 80, 160, 240 g / d parsley, respectively; a-cValues within rows followed by
different letters differ significantly (P< 0.05)
Table 3: Effect of dietary parsley supplementation on certain blood characteristics of local geese
Treatments
Traits C T1 T2 T3
WBC (×103/µl) 9.35 ± 0.77c 10.22 ± 0.91b 11.33 ± 0.85a 11.56 ± 0.99a
Heterophils (%) 27.40 ± 1.92 27.20 ± 1.63 27.35 ± 1.55 27.49 ± 1.92
Lymphocytes (%) 57.17 ± 0.95c 58.99 ± 0.89b 60.11 ± 0.73a 60.33 ± 0.87a
H/L ratio 0.47 ± 0.09a 0.46 ± 0.05b 0.45 ± 0.01c 0.45 ± 0.03c
Monocytes (%) 8.11 ± 0.89 8.15 ± 0.71 8.00 ± 0.95 8.00 ± 0.99
Basophils (%) 4.23 ± 0.81 4.25 ± 0.69 4.27 ± 0.51 4.20 ± 0.62
Eisonophils (%) 3.09 ± 0.15a 1.41 ± 0.15b 0.27 ± 0.08c 0.31 ± 0.02c
C: Control group; T1, T2 and T3: Diet supplemented with 80, 160, 240 g / d parsley, respectively
a-c Values within rows followed by different letters differ significantly (P< 0.05)
However, Table 3 also denoted that there were no
significant (P>0.05) differences between T2 and T3
regarding WBC count, H/L ratio and percentages of
lymphocytes and eiosinophils.
DISCUSSION
In general, adding fresh parsley leaves to the diet of
geese resulted in significant improvement in most
haematological traits involved in this study. This
improvement in haematological traits as a result of the
treatments may be explained by the way that parsley is a
good source of iron, beta carotene and vitamin C, useful
for enhancement of general health status (Ragab et al.,
2010). Duke et al. (2009) reported that parsley builds up
the blood because it is high in iron and its high level of
vitamin C content assist the absorption of iron. Parsley is
an excellent digestion restorative remedy. It improves the
digestion of proteins and fats, therefore, promoting
intestinal absorption, liver assimilation and storage.
Because of its high enzyme content, parsley benefits
digestive activity and elimination (Bahnas et al., 2009).
Osman et al. (2004) indicated that the high vitamin C,
beta carotene, B12, chlorophyll and essential fatty acid
content of parsley enhance immunity. Parsley is an
immune–enhancing multi–vitamin and mineral complex
in green plant form and one of the most important herbs
for providing vitamins to the body (Hassan et al., 2004).
This result is in agreement with the results of the present
study that parsley treated groups (T1, T2 and T3) recorded
the highest means of WBC count and percentage of
lumphocytes in comparison to C group (Table 3). In the
current study, it was noticed that H/L ratio was
significantly higher in C group as compared with parsley
treated groups (T1, T2 and T3) as shown in Table 3. Al-
Daraji et al. (2010) reported that bird under greater stress
have high H/L ratio, partly due to the release of
corticosterone and the corresponding effect of enhancing
heterophils and decreasing lymphocytes. However, it was
known that parsley alleviate stress by its role in enhancing
general health status and immunity (Richmond et al.,
2000).
Hassan et al. (2006) found that treated mice with
Zearalenone (non–steroidal esterogenic mycotoxin present
in corn) induces sever stress on the testis and on the
endocrine function including the testis itself and indirectly
on the pituitary gland. However, these authors found that
treatment these mice with parsley resulted in significant
improvement in all the tested parameters. Zheng et al.
(1992) reported that parsley is rich in myristicin which
showed a high activity as an inducer of the detoxifying
enzyme glutathione S–transferase (GST) in the liver and
small intestine mucosa of mice. Fejes et al. (1998)
indicated that parsley contain flavonoids (apiin, luteolin -,
pigenin - glycosides), essential oil (apiol, miriszticin),
cumarines (bergapten and imperatorin) and vitamin C.
The protective role of parsley may be attributed to its
higher content of these flavonoids which either scavenge
free radicals or increase the production of GST. Ozsoy-
Sacan et al. (2006) concluded that parsley extract
probably, due its antioxidant property, has protective
effects against hepatotoxicity caused by diabetes and have
free radical scavenging and membrane protective effects
(Fejes et al., 2000). In the same way, Nielsen et al. (1999)
reported that treated human with parsley oil resulted in
increased levels of glutathione reductase and superoxide
dismutase and total antioxidant activity. Chlorocompound
in parsley often show significant biological activities, e.g.
antibiotic, antitumour, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-
inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, pesticidal antioxidant
activities which all reflect enhanced the general health
condition of body (Holst and Engvild, 2000; Kery et al.,
2001; Al-Howiriny et al., 2003). Abbas (2010) found that
dietary parsley resulted in significant improvement in live
body weight, feed efficiency and feed intake in broiler
chickens.
Adv Nutr Res, 2012, 1(1): 1-5.
4
Conclusion
In conclusion it was found that supplementing the
diet of geese with different levels of fresh parsley leaves
(80, 160 or 240 g/d) resulted in significant improvement
in most haematological characteristics included in this
study. Therefore, parsley could be used as an efficient
feed additive for enhancement general physiological
status of birds.
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... Diet in animals has been appreciated as one of the vital factors that affect health maintenance and prevent occurrence of many disease [1]. Feed additives, natural and chemical are important materials that used to improve the efficiency of feed utilization and general animal performance [2]. However, the use of chemical products especially antibiotics and hormones may cause unfavorable effects. ...
... However, the use of chemical products especially antibiotics and hormones may cause unfavorable effects. Old drug industry depend on raw material of plant origin (herbs or their extract) which was proved save but many synthesized chemicals are recorded to be hazardous to both man and animals [2]. In order to minimize the harmful effect of the synthetic additives now a day's attention to natural plants is consider. ...
... Dietary VE supplementation, however, is known to have a direct effect on rate of blood synthesis (red blood and white blood cells formation) as observed at the highest supplementation level when compared to the control group. Increase in blood synthesis resulted in higher PCV, as an increase in PCV is linked with the increase in total red blood cells count (Al-Daraji et al., 2012). PCV is the indirect way of assessing values of red blood cells in circulation as it indicates the percentage of RBC in the blood (Purves et al., 2003), and used as a simple screening test for anaemia (Bashar et al., 2010). ...
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With the increase in consumers’ concern for safe food, it is highly imperative for livestock farmers to adopt feeding practices that enhance good health and high-quality products. A 49-day trial was conducted to ascertain effect of vitamin E and selenium (VE + Se) on performance, haematological indices and oxidative stability of chicken meat. A total of 150 Ross 7-day-old chicks were weighed and allotted to five treatments comprising dietary levels of 0 mg VE + 0 mg SE (Control), 100 mg VE + 0.05 mg Se, 200 mg VE + 0.1 mg Se, 300 mg VE + 0.15 mg Se and 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg Se per kg of feed in a completely randomised design. Feed and water were provided ad libitum . The data collected on performance, haematological indices and oxidative stability of meat were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance in a completely randomised design. Performance indices were significantly ( p < 0.05) influenced by VE + Se supplementation. Mean daily live-weight gain (48.68 g /bird /day) was highest ( p < 0.05) in the 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg group. The mean daily feed intake (g /bird / day) was highest in birds fed the diet containing 200 mg VE + 0.1 mg. The least or best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in the group fed 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg SE. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased as the level of VE + Se increased with the highest activity in 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg Se group. The highest packed cell volume, haemoglobin and red blood cell values were observed in birds fed the diet containing 400 mg VE + 0.20 mg Se. In conclusion, to ensure good performance of the chickens and improved oxidative stability of chicken meat in hot climate, feeding broilers VE + SE at 400 mg VE + 0.2 mg Se is recommended.
... The herbs have used a long history in order to fertility regulation and increase activity of sexual organs 5,6 . Parsley is used to treat various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, strokes, thrombosis and against cardiovascular diseases 7,8 . It also used to treated jaundice, colic, edema, rheumatism, diseases of prostate ant anemic, antimicrobial, anticoagulant, antimenorrhagia, antihepatic fibrosis and antioxidant, anticoagulantas a blood pressure regulator, to treat eczema, knee nose bleed 9,10,11 . ...
... In popular medicine, parsley is used to treat various illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, thrombosis and strokes. Parsley is widely employed against cardiovascular diseases [27,28]. Also, parsley leaves were used for treatment of constipation, jaundice, colic, flatulence edema, rheumatism. ...
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Abstract Background: CCl4 causes disorders in different body organs especially kidneys by generating free radicals. High exposure to CCl4 can cause kidney damage. It produces renal diseases in human. Metabolism of CCl4 involves in the production of free radicals through its activation by drug metabolizing enzymes located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Parsley has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities, and probable immune boosting properties make it relevant in the traditional treatment of urinary tract infection, nephritis, and cystitis. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of parsley against the histopathological and biochemical alterations induced in the kidney by CCl4 of male rats. Materials and methods: 24 male rats were used for this study and divided into 4 groups. The first group was control group injected intraperitoneally with olive oil (1ml/kg of body weight) three time/week, the 2nd was injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1ml/kg of body weight) three time/week, the 3rd was injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1ml/kg of body weight) three time/week concurrently with receiving aqueous Parsley leaves extract (5g/kg body wt/day) by gastric intubation’s, the 4th was injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1ml/kg of body weight) three time/week concurrently with receiving aqueous Parsley leaves extract (20g/kg body wt/day) by gastric intubation’s, respectively for 4 weeks. The Kidneys were dissected out and specimens were taken and processed for light microscopic examinations. Blood samples were obtained for assessment of serum urea, creatinine, and uric acid. Results: The results showed a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, K+, and Cl- concentrations and a significant decrease in serum Na+ concentration in rats treated with CCl4 compared with controls. Histopathological investigation of rats treated with CCl4 showed degeneration of epithelial lining and disruption of brush borders of the proximal convoluted tubules and presence of epithelial debris inside their lumens. The renal corpuscle appeared with degeneration of the glomerulus and disrupted Bowman's capsule. Extensive perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells and massive interstitial hemorrhage were seen. Co-administration of Parsley with CCl4 significantly dose dependent improvement in the structural changes in the kidney and the serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, K+, and Cl- concentrations were significantly declined and serum Na+ concentration was significantly increased compared with CCl4 treated group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that, carbon tetrachloride has adverse effects on the kidney, it caused a serious pathophysiological changes in the kidney. Parsley aqueous extract was able to protect the kidney against these effects. So, the persons expose to CCl4 should be advised to take parsley aqueous extract. Keywords: CCl4, Parsley, Nephrotoxicity, Nephroprotective, Renal pathophysiological changes, Histopathology
... Richmond and Mackley (2000) reported that parsley is rich in minerals such as calcium, potassium, iron and vitamins such like A, C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. Al-Daraji et al. (2012a) found that supplementing the ration of geese with parsley resulted in significant improvement in most of blood traits . Abaas (2010) found that the supplementation of broiler chicks' diets with 3g/kg parsley seeds improved productive performance such as Feed intake, live body weight, feed efficiency and lowering blood serum cholesterol. ...
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This study was carried out in Animal field, College of Agriculture, University of Tikrit during the period from 11/3/2014 to 11/5/2014, to investigate the impacts of different levels of Parsley seeds (Petroselinium crispum) on physiological performance of Japanese quail. The total number of the experimental birds (94) were divided into four treatments (24 birds each). Each treatment contained 3 replicates of 8 birds. The experimental treatments were T1 as control (without Parsley seeds supplementation), T2, T3 and T4 include (0.5, 1 and 1.5) % of Parsley seeds respectively. Results showed that birds fed of parsley had no significantly differs (P<0.05) among treatments in uric acid, ALT, RBC count, liver weight % and heart weight %. T2 showed significantly lower in albumin concentration. The birds fed of parsley showed significantly lower in cholesterol concentration but T4 showed significant increase in AST, Triglycerides and WBC count although T4 showed significantly lower in PCV and ovary weight %. T3 and T4 showed significant increase in body weight, T2 showed significant in ova duct weight %. In conclusion, supplementing the ration with parsley significant improvement in most of blood traits and physiological performance of Japanese quails.
... Parsley is an immune-enhancing multi-vitamin and mineral complex in green plant form and one of the most important herbs for providing vitamins to the body (Hassan et al., 2004). Al-Daraji, et al. (2012) found that supplementing the diet of geese with different levels of fresh parsley leaves (80, 160 or 240 gram / day) resulted in significant improvement in most haematological characteristics , parsley could be used as an efficient feed additive for enhancement general physiological status of birds. Tahan and Bayram (2011) they concluded that use dry parsley in the laying quail rations as feed additives have a synergetic effect on body weight gain, egg production and hatchability. ...
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to investigate the effect of adding Parsley seeds (Petroselinum crispum) in the diets on feed consumption, feed efficiency and egg production in the performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Ninety six laying quails (72 females and 24 males) at 48 weeks of age were reared in cages and randomly allocated with 4 dietary treatments one was the control group (without any additives) (T1); the others were (0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 % parsley) added to (T2, T3 and T4) respectively, each group consist of 24 birds and divided to 3 Replicates (8 birds). Water and feed were provided ad libitum during the experimental period. There were no significant difference in egg weight and feed efficiency among the groups while there were significant in hen day egg production (H.D %), total cumulative egg number, egg mass and feed consumption due to parsley seeds in quail compared with control. Concluded from this study that use of parsley to improve productive performance of Japanese quails.
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This study was conducted at Poultry Farm of Animal Resources Dept., College of Agriculture, University of AL-Qasim Green to investigate Study the effect of addition different levels of Parsley leaves powder (petroselinum sativum) to the ration on some blood serum biochemical traits of broiler Ross 308. Use the 180 broiler chicks Ross 308 day-old were randomly assigned to four treatments (by 3 replicates per treatment 15 chicks per replicate), and treatments were as follows : Treatment for the first (control) without adding Parsley leaves powder into the ration, the second treatment: Add Parsley leaves powder by 500 mg / kg feed, third-treatment: Add Parsley leaves powder by a 1000 mg / kg feed and treatment fourth: Add Parsley leaves powder by a 1500 mg / kg feed. The experiment included a study of the following characteristics : total protein concentration, albumin, globulin and the concentration of glucose. The results indicated that the addition of Parsley leaves by 1000 and 1500 mg / kg feed to broiler diet led to a significant improvement (p<0.05) in total protein concentration, albumin, and globulin and significant decrease (p<0.05) in concentration of glucose .It concluded from this experience, that the addition of Parsley leaves by 1000 and 1500 mg / kg feed to the ration can lead to improve in some blood serum biochemical traits of broiler Ross 308.
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This study was conducted at Poultry Farm of Animal Resources Dept., College of Agriculture, University of ALQasim Green to investigate Study the effect of addition different levels of Parsley leaves powder (petroselinum sativum) to the ration on some blood serum biochemical traits of broiler Ross 308. Use the 180 broiler chicks Ross 308 day-old were randomly assigned to four treatments (by 3 replicates per treatment 15 chicks per replicate), and treatments were as follows : Treatment for the first (control) without adding Parsley leaves powder into the ration, the second treatment: Add Parsley leaves powder by 500 mg / kg feed, third-treatment:Add Parsley leaves powder by a 1000 mg / kg feed and treatment fourth: Add Parsley leaves powder by a 1500 mg / kg feed. The experiment included a study of the following characteristics : total protein concentration, albumin, globulin and the concentration of glucose . The results indicated that the addition of Parsley leaves by 1000 and 1500 mg / kg feed to broiler diet led to a significant improvement (p<0.05) in total protein concentration, albumin, and globulin and significant decrease (p<0.05) in concentration of glucose .It concluded from this experience, that the addition of Parsley leaves by 1000 and 1500 mg / kg feed to the ration can lead to improve in some blood serum biochemical traits of broiler Ross 308. Keywords: Parsley Leaves powder, blood serum biochemical traits, broiler
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Oxygen free radicals play an important role in the development of different disorders like inflammatory-immune injury, carcinogenesis, hepatic toxicity and artherosclerosis. The antioxydant role of a wide spectrum of natural products has been established. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds (proanthocyanidins, rosmarinic acid, hydroxicinnamic derivatives, catechines, etc.) of plant origin have been reported as scavengers and inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. We have studied the antioxidant activity as well as content and composition of natural phenolics in a series of medicinal plants with phytotherapeutical significance. Thus we determined the total phenol contents and studied the composition of flavonoids, polyphenols, phenolic acids of different vegetative and reproductive organs of medicinal plants: Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm., Petroselinum crispum L., Cichorium intybus L., Helichrysum arenarium D.C.„cempervivum tectorum L., Taravacum officinale Web. Characteristic constituents in the various crude drugs were determined by chromatographic (TLC, HPLC) and spectroscopic (UV, UV-VIS) methods. The non specific scavenger activities of the medicinal plant extracts were studied by the chemiluminometric technique. The changes of chemiluminescence intensity of the H,G,•0H-luminol system at increasing concentrations of the H702/ -OH were measured. Inhibitory effects of selected standardized fractions from plants were tested on ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver and homogenates. The best correlation were established with total phenolics in some medicinal plants (S. tectorum, T. officinale) while activities in other cases seem to be influenced by flavonoids (P. crispum, H. arenarium, A. cerefolium) and by hydroxicinnamic derivatives (C. intybus).
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The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with different fat sources on blood parameters of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Eighty four 7-week old laying quail were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (21 birds per group) with 3 replicates for each treatment group and fed for three months on a commercial diet supplemented with 3% of either sunflower oil (T1), flax oil (T2), corn oil (T3) or fish oil (T4). The birds received water and feed ad libitum during the experiment. During the last month of experiment blood samples were collected fortnightly from each bird. The first blood samples collection was used to determine fresh blood parameters, while the second blood samples collection was used after pooled blood samples for each replicate of treatment group to determine serum chemistry traits. Dietary supplementation with 3% fish oil (T4) caused a significant (p<0.05) increase in erythrocyte number, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, Mean Corpuscular Values (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), thrombocyte number and leukocyte number and serum total protein, albumen, globulin, glucose, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), calcium and phosphorus concentration, followed by the results of flax oil (T2), whereas sunflower oil (T1) and corn oil (T3) revealed the lowest values respecting these traits. However, adding sunflower (T1) and corn oil (T3) to the diet of laying quail resulted in significant (p<0.05) increase in percentage of reticulocytes and Heterophil to Lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), uric acid, creatinine, Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), followed by the results of the flax oil (T2), while fish oil (T4) exhibited the lowest means with relation to these traits. From this experiment it is concluded that dietary fish and flax oils at inclusion level of 3% resulted in significant improvement in blood profile of laying quail. Consequently, fish and flax oils can be added during the laying period to the diet of Japanese quail to enhance general physiological status of these birds.
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Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties of an ethanolic extract of Parsley 'Petroselinum crispum' leaves. Materials and methods: An ethanolic extract of Parsley was subjected for evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatotoxic activities against inflammation induced by carrageenan and cotton pellet granuloma and hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride, respectively in rats. Apart from enzymes, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups were also estimated in liver. Histopathological test on liver was carried out and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time in mice was also measured in different groups. Results: The phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, sterols and or triterpenes. The extract exhibited significant protection against carrageenan-induced inflammation, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and CCl 4-induced hepatic damage. Conclusion: Petroselinum crispum exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatotoxic activities which merits further detailed investigations.
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Fifteen lactating buffaloes aged 4-6 years, 4 weeks before calving were divided into five feeding treatments, 3 animals each. Medicinal plant seeds were added to basic diet at levels of 200 g fenugreek seeds (T1), 50 g caraway (T2), 50 g black seeds (T3) and 100 g lepidium sativum (T4) were fed for 12 weeks of lactation. Dry matter intake was slightly (p>0.05) increased in T1 than the other groups. Feeding herbs significantly (p<0.05) increased nutrient digestibility (DM, OM, CF and NFE) and significantly (p<0.01) increased digestibility co-efficient of CP and EE compared with control. Milk yield and 4% FCM were significantly (p<0.05) increased in treated animals than those of control being 6.08 (control), 7.56 (T1), 6.43 (T2), 6.95 (T 3) and 7.35 (T4) for milk yield and 7.96 (control), 9.84 (T1), 8.5 (T2), 9.1 (T3) and 8.97 (T4) for FCM yield, respectively. Daily fat SNF, lactose and protein yield were significantly (p<0.05) increased with treated groups than control group. Milk composition was not affected by medicinal plants additives except that lactose content significantly (p<0.05) increased with treated animals than those of control being 4.5, 5.05, 4.84, 4.94 and 4.97 respectively. However, fat content was slightly (p>0.05) decreased with treated groups being 6.27, 6.11, 6.09, 6.19 and 5.54 for control, T1, T2, T3 and T 4, respectively. The calculated efficiencies of milk yield/DMI and 4% FCM/DMI were improved (p<0.05) in treatment (T2) compared with other groups. Fenugreek seeds (FG) treatments showed non significant lower values of cholesterol and total lipids, however, FG significantly (p<0.05) increased blood glucose, TP, Albumin and creatinine compared with other groups. Values of blood plasma for globulin, urea, Alk-p-ase and GOT were not significantly affected by added of medicinal plants.