Article

The potential impact of aquatic nuisance species on recreational fishing in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi and Ohio River Basins

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Abstract

Concern over the potential transfer of aquatic nuisance species (ANS) between the Great Lakes basin and the Upper Mississippi River basin has motivated calls to re-establish hydrologic separation between the two basins. Accomplishing that goal would require significant expenditures to re-engineer waterways in the Chicago, IL area. These costs should be compared to the potential costs resulting from ANS transfer between the basin, a significant portion of which would be costs to recreational fisheries. In this study, a recreational behavior model is developed for sport anglers in an eight-state region. It models how angler behavior would change in response to potential changes in fishing quality resulting from ANS transfer. The model also calculates the potential loss in net economic value that anglers enjoy from the fishery. The model is estimated based on data on trips taken by anglers (travel cost data) and on angler statements about how they would respond to changes in fishing quality (contingent behavior data). The model shows that the benefit to recreational anglers from re-establishing hydrologic separation exceeds the costs only if the anticipated impacts of ANS transfer on sport fish catch rates are large and widespread.

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... These examinations, however, almost always focus narrowly on projecting changes to the number of recreational fishing participants and not on other outcomes such as the amount of fishing activity (e.g., Arlinghaus 2006;Arlinghaus et al. 2015; but see Post and Parkinson (2012) for an exception). This parochial focus is surprising given the growing interest in understanding how persistent environmental stressors such as aquatic invasive species (AIS) establishment and climate change influence fishing activities and the benefits that people obtain from fishing (e.g., Ahn et al. 2000;Ready et al. 2018). These stressors often occur over time scales that make it unreasonable to ignore the potential effects of human population change. ...
... Following past research on Great Lakes recreational fisheries (e.g., Jones and Lupi 1999;Melstrom and Lupi 2013;Ready et al. 2018), fishing trips were grouped into trip types that are defined by the thermal guild of the target species and fishing mode. These thermal guild targets are a useful grouping, as fish species with different thermal preferences tend to be found in different areas or depths, and thus, recreational fishers tend to target species based on their thermal guild. ...
... Following past Great Lakes-based research (Melstrom and Lupi 2013;Ready et al. 2018), a repeated nested-logit model (Morey et al. 1993) was used to predict effort and site choice decisions by recreational fishers. The model includes three nests (levels) that provide predictions about where recreational fishers fish, what The 16 Great Lakes fishing areas in Ontario, Canada, and 106 specific destinations (GB = Georgian Bay part of Lake Huron, LE = Lake Erie, LH = Lake Huron, LO = Lake Ontario, LS = Lake Superior; characters after dash: E = east, M = middle, N = north, NC = North Channel, Q = Quinte, S = south, ST = St. ...
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Article
We project how human population change (2018 to 2046) and aquatic invasive species (AIS) establishment events of bigheaded carps (Hypopthalmichthys spp.) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) might combine to affect future Canadian recreational fishing activity for the Laurentian Great Lakes. Human population change is expected to affect the total number of fishing trips (increase of about 143 000 trips or 11.4%) more than any of the AIS establishment events (maximum decrease of about 44 000 trips or 3.5%). The projected 11.4% increase to the number of fishing trips from human population change, however, lags the 38% projected increase to Ontario, Canada’s population from 2018 to 2046. Increasing urbanization and an aging population, which are associated with reduced rates of fishing participation, were responsible for this difference. The combined effects of human population change and AIS establishment illustrate the importance of accounting for human population change as it reverses the conclusions and results in a projected net increase of between 92 000 and 125 000 in the number of fishing trips. The combined model also identifies potential growth areas for fishing such as shore fishing by urbanites on the western portion of Lake Ontario.
... We assessed best-case and worst-case scenarios for how a range of AIS could affect recreational fishing participation and economic value. We utilized previously developed scenarios for how AIS could affect sportfish populations as input for a recreational fishing model developed by Ready et al. (2018). Their model estimated changes in fishing participation and economic value from such scenarios. ...
... Some have utilized findings from other invasions in other contexts (Kulhanek et al., 2011;Ricciardi and Rasmussen, 1998) or developed empirical models (Rinella and Luschei, 2007). Others have approached this task using theorydriven assessments and models based on understanding how invasive species impacts are influenced by community structure (Parker et al., 1999), population dynamics (Love and Newhard, 2012), niche overlap with native species (Thum and Lennon, 2009), and the comparative functional responses of invasive and native species Dodd et al., 2014). ...
... These estimates were intended to establish the bounds within which the effects of invasive species on Great Lakes sportfish populations were likely to fall. Our next step was to develop and apply an economic model (Ready et al., 2018) to assess how the predicted changes in sportfish population in the Great Lakes would affect recreational fishing participation and the net economic value of recreational fishing. Ready et al. (2018, p. 306) explained the concept of net economic value in this context: ''When an angler goes on a fishing trip, he or she gets enjoyment out of that experience and places some value on that enjoyment. ...
Article
The impacts of aquatic invasive species (AIS) on the recreational fishery in the Laurentian Great Lakes are of concern to managers and policy makers. Some AIS have the potential to depress sportfish populations, reducing recreational fishing opportunities and damaging local economies. Alternatives that could reduce the threat of AIS could be costly. Assessments of how AIS could affect recreational fishing participation and the economic value derived from it would contribute to the evaluation of these alternatives. We assessed best-case and worst-case scenarios for how a range of AIS could affect recreational fishing participation and economic value. We utilized previously developed scenarios for how AIS could affect sportfish populations as input for a recreational fishing model developed by Ready et al. (2018). Their model estimated changes in fishing participation and economic value from such scenarios. Given uncertainty in how AIS could affect sportfish, projected effects of AIS on economic value varied widely, with some scenarios likely to have minimal effects and others leading to losses of over $100 million annually. None of the scenarios would lead to a large percentage decrease in recreational fishing in the eight Great Lake states, largely because anglers have numerous inland fishing opportunities. Nevertheless, lakeshore communities dependent on Great Lakes fishing could still suffer considerable economic loss. Collectively the economic valuation of the range of scenarios narrows down the possible impacts on fishing and the economy that decision makers need to consider.
... Cho et al., 2014;Ezebilo et al., 2015;Ovaskainen et al., 2012;Shrestha et al., 2007), gender (e.g. Ready et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2015), and employment status (Ready et al., 2018). The sign and whether they have a statistically significant impact on the recreation visit frequency have varied across studies. ...
... Cho et al., 2014;Ezebilo et al., 2015;Ovaskainen et al., 2012;Shrestha et al., 2007), gender (e.g. Ready et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2015), and employment status (Ready et al., 2018). The sign and whether they have a statistically significant impact on the recreation visit frequency have varied across studies. ...
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The need for monetary valuation of recreational ecosystem services in urban areas is greatly acknowledged in several contexts. Most often, studies provide a total value of recreational visits, but a separate contribution of ecosystem, cultural, and commercial services to the value of recreation in urban ecosystems is rarely provided. In this study, the recreational importance of an urban park including streams is assessed, and the welfare implications of planned future improvements in three types of service are revealed, i.e. the restoration of the reproductive brown trout population, an increased number of happenings or events, and the service of a cafeteria-restaurant. Travel cost and contingent behavior methods are combined, which has not previously been applied in such a context. The results show that people perceive the park’s importance for their well-being. The improvements of each service separately tended to increase the value between 14% and 21%, and of all services simultaneously by 66%. Remarkably, individuals with low incomes valued the park more than wealthier individuals. As the park is a free access environment, this suggests that the improvement of its recreational possibilities may especially benefit those with fewer opportunities for chargeable free time activities. Respondents’ awareness of the reconstruction and management project of the park and the streams tended to increase the number of visits to and value of the park. At the societal level, the stream restoration was found to be highly profitable.
... Around Lake Michigan, there is an aggregate WTP of over $200 million to achieve a 50% reduction in Dreissenid mussels for thirty years and an over $600 million WTP to achieve a 99% reduction (Lodge et al., 2016). Yet, for some species, the cost of preventing future invasions may not exceed the economic value of keeping them out (Ready et al., 2018). Specifically, Ready et al. (2018) used a travel cost model with contingent behavioral responses to model that the "worst-case" scenario for invasive Asian Carp entering the Great Lakes was large, but most likely did not exceed the high costs of hydrologically re-separating the Great Lakes form the Upper Mississippi Basin. ...
... Yet, for some species, the cost of preventing future invasions may not exceed the economic value of keeping them out (Ready et al., 2018). Specifically, Ready et al. (2018) used a travel cost model with contingent behavioral responses to model that the "worst-case" scenario for invasive Asian Carp entering the Great Lakes was large, but most likely did not exceed the high costs of hydrologically re-separating the Great Lakes form the Upper Mississippi Basin. ...
Article
Since 2010, over $2.4 billion in public funds have been invested in the cleanup and restoration of the Great Lakes Basin through the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. Efforts have targeted restoration of Areas of Concern and other degraded sites. While the ecological benefits of Great Lakes restoration have been highlighted by the Environmental Protection Agency, and the economic benefits studied by the binational International Joint Commission, public preferences for Great Lakes conservation and restoration have not been well studied. Using best-worst scaling and a seven-preference choice set, 1,215 Basin residents quantitatively ranked their preferred reasons to restore and conserve Great Lakes shorelines and waterways, with a focus on restoration at Areas of Concern and National Park Service sites. The analysis shows the most preferred reason for restoration and conservation is to promote human health, followed by the protection of native species, and the prevention of new invasive species from entering the Great Lakes. The least preferred reason for restoration and conservation is to improve local property values. Although respondents' top reason was human-centered, respondents' preferred ecosystem conservation over the benefits of economic revitalization, recreational use, and improved property values. Preferences analyzed by gender, income, and home location followed these same rankings. Preferences for habitat restoration and the prevention of invasive species align with the focus areas guiding the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, providing evidence of public support for this expansive, publicly funded restoration effort.
... Therefore, holding all other factors constant, anglers who place less importance on cost would be willing to pay more for increases to catch rates than would anglers who are more sensitive to costs. Of course, if reduced cost sensitivity increases angler mobility, this could lead to spread of AIS by these anglers, and AIS can negatively affect the economic value of a fishery (Ready et al. 2018). ...
... This contingent behaviour, CB) may later be lumped with observations on actual trips to the site under the current conditions of the attribute (Grijalva et al. 2002). These changes in the attributes of a site are measured through a change in behavior, that is, visit frequency (Wang et al. 2017;Ready et al. 2018). For example, Pueyo-Ros et al. (2018) developed a combined model with TCM and CB to assess the economic value of coast restoration in Costa Brava (Spain) and to understand the influence of this restoration on visitors' behaviour. ...
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In the last few winters, shark communities have been aggregating near the Israeli Mediterranean coast, at a specific point, near the Hadera power station. This unusual phenomenon has fascinated residents, visitors, kayakers, divers, and swimmers. We analyze the effects of this intense human interest on the sharks, using contingent behavior, in Hadera and in Ashkelon, where sharks are present and there is available infrastructure for their observation. We also report on changes in shark behaviour due to changes in tourism intensity. We find a change of about ILS 4.1 million annually for both sites but a larger individual consumer surplus in Hadera, where sharks are currently observable. Touristic intensity crosses the threshold level by about 12% and making the socio-equilibrium sustainable for both humans and sharks would have a social cost of ILS 0.157 million. This paper, which is based on the assessment of conservation values to marine and coastal tourists, raises a need for spatial planning in order to protect this endangered species.
... Recreational angling has raised interest in economic terms because it represents a source of income for local communities that are frequently located in remote and relatively poor areas (Cookie & Cowx, 2005;Curtis, Breen, O'Reilly, & O'Donoghue, 2017;Lawrence, 2005;Toivonen et al., 2004), as well as its impact on environmental sustainability (Gagne et al., 2017;Ready et al., 2018). It is estimated that 11% of the world population practice fishing as a social and leisure activity (Arlinghaus, Tillner, & Bork, 2015). ...
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This paper presents a methodology that uses fishery data collected for the purpose of administering and monitoring harvest quotas in a recreational fishery to give additional insights into effectiveness of various fishing methods, and expected catch rates associated with different licence types. The empirical application is based on the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recreational fishery in Ireland but the statistical analysis is easy to replicate and the models are flexible enough to allow different specifications applicable to other fisheries. The output of the analysis facilitates a better understanding of the factors associated with recreational catches, which in turn provides supplementary information to inform the regulation and management of recreational fisheries.
... Bigheaded carps filter feed on plankton and were imported to the United States in the early 1970s to improve water quality in wastewater treatment plants and aquaculture facilities (Kolar et al. 2007). Establishment of large populations following escapements of fish between the 1970s and 1980s has had damaging effects on native fish populations (Schrank et al. 2003;Irons et al. 2007;Sampson et al. 2009;Solomon et al. 2016) and negative impacts on the ecology and economy of invaded regions (Ready et al. 2018). U.S. and Canadian natural resource agencies have focused on preventing establishment of self-sustaining populations of bigheaded carp in new locations (Conover et al. 2007). ...
... This contingent behaviour, CB) may later be lumped with observations on actual trips to the site under the current conditions of the attribute (Grijalva et al. 2002). These changes in the attributes of a site are measured through a change in behavior, that is, visit frequency (Wang et al. 2017;Ready et al. 2018). For example, Pueyo-Ros et al. (2018) developed a combined model with TCM and CB to assess the economic value of coast restoration in Costa Brava (Spain) and to understand the influence of this restoration on visitors' behaviour. ...
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In the last few winters, shark communities have been aggregating near the Israeli Mediterranean coast, at a specific point, near Hadera power station. This unusual phenomenon has fascinated residents, visitors, kayakers, divers, and swimmers. We analyse the effects of this intense human interest on the sharks, using contingent behaviour, in Hadera and in Ashkelon, where sharks are present and there is available infrastructure for their observation. We also report on changes in shark behaviour due to change in tourism intensity. We find a change of about ILS 4.1 million annually for both sites but a larger individual consumer surplus in Hadera, where sharks are currently observable. Touristic intensity crosses the threshold level by about 12% and making the socio-equilibrium sustainable for both humans and sharks would have a social cost of ILS 0.157 million. This paper, which is based on the assessment of conservation values to marine and coastal tourists, raises a need for spatial planning in order to protect this endangered species.
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Unimpeded transfer and spread of invasive species throughout freshwater systems is of global concern, altering species compositions, disrupting ecosystem processes, and diverting economic resources. The magnitude and complexity of the problem is amplified by the global connectedness of human movements and the multiple modes of inter-basin transport of aquatic invasive species. Our objective was to trace the fishing behavior of anglers delineating potential pathways of transfer of invasive species throughout the vast inland waters of the Great Lakes of North America, which contain more than 21% of the world's surface freshwater and are among the most highly invaded aquatic ecosystems in the world. Combining a comprehensive survey and a spatial analysis of the movements of thousands of anglers in 12 states within the US portion of the Great Lakes Basin and the Upper Mississippi and Ohio River Basins, we estimated that 6.5 million licensed anglers in the study area embarked on an average of 30 fishing trips over the course of the year, and 70% of the individuals fished in more than one county. Geospatial linkages showed direct connections made by individuals traveling between 99% of the 894 counties where fishing occurred, and between 61 of the 66 sub-watersheds in a year. Estimated numbers of fishing trips to individual counties ranged from 1199–1.95 million; generally highest in counties bordering the Great Lakes. Of these, 79 had more than 10,000 estimated fishing trips originating from anglers living in other counties. Although angler movements are one mechanism of invasive species transfer, there likely is a high cumulative probability of invasive species transport by several million people fishing each year throughout this extensive freshwater network. A comprehensive georeferenced survey, coupled with a spatial analysis of fishing destinations, provides a potentially powerful tool to track, predict, curtail and control the transfer and proliferation of invasive species in freshwater.
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Four species of non-indigenous Asian carp are expanding their range in U.S. waterways, resulting in a variety of concerns and problems. Three species-bighead, silver, and black carp-are of particular note, based on the perceived degree of environmental concern. Current controversy relates to what measures might be necessary and sufficient to prevent movement of Asian carp from the Mississippi River drainage into the Great Lakes through the Chicago Area Waterway System. Bills have been introduced in the 111th Congress to direct actions to avoid the possibility of carp becoming established in the Great Lakes. According to the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Asian carp pose a significant threat to commercial and recreational fisheries of the Great Lakes. Asian carp populations could expand rapidly and change the composition of Great Lakes ecosystems. Native species could be harmed because Asian carp are likely to compete with them for food and modify their habitat. It has been widely reported that Great Lakes fisheries generate economic activity of approximately $7 billion annually. Although Asian carp introduction is likely to modify Great Lakes ecosystems and cause harm to fisheries, studies forecasting the extent of potential harm are not available. Therefore, it is not possible to provide estimates of potential changes in the regional economy or economic value (social welfare) by lake, species, or fishery.
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This paper examines the site choices of recreational deer hunters in context of changing levels of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and its management in Alberta. CWD is a prion disease that affects wild cervids and is found in Saskatchewan and Alberta. There are no known human health risks from CWD but the condition is fatal for cervids. The methodological approach employed utilizes both revealed and stated preference data collected from resident hunters using a computer-based survey. The results suggest that while hunting behavior is not significantly altered by current CWD levels and management programs, there would be some changes given higher prevalence and spread levels of the disease. To avoid a situation of high CWD spread and prevalence, hunters would be willing to pay on average $20.35 per trip to keep CWD at current levels. This translated into just under a million dollars of direct economic value. Although the estimate is not large compared to other provincial economic activities, when added up over a number of years the economic losses could be substantial.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Michigan State University. Dept. of Park and Recreation Resources, 1986. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 184-194). Microfilm. s
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This paper reviews the marketing, transportation and environmental economics literature on the joint estimation of revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) data. The RP and SP approaches are first described with a focus on the strengths and weaknesses of each. Recognizing these strengths and weaknesses, the potential gains from combining data are described. A classification system for combined data that emphasizes the type of data combination and the econometric models used is proposed. A methodological review of the literature is pursued based on this classification system. Examples from the environmental economics literature are highlighted. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of jointly estimated model is then presented. Suggestions for future research, in particular opportunities for application of these models to environmental quality valuation, are presented. Copyright © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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Corruption in the public sector erodes tax compliance and leads to higher tax evasion. Moreover, corrupt public officials abuse their public power to extort bribes from the private agents. In both types of interaction with the public sector, the private agents are bound to face uncertainty with respect to their disposable incomes. To analyse effects of this uncertainty, a stochastic dynamic growth model with the public sector is examined. It is shown that deterministic excessive red tape and corruption deteriorate the growth potential through income redistribution and public sector inefficiencies. Most importantly, it is demonstrated that the increase in corruption via higher uncertainty exerts adverse effects on capital accumulation, thus leading to lower growth rates.
Asian Carp Could Hurt Boating, Fishing Industry in Great Lakes
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Belkin, D., 2009. Asian Carp Could Hurt Boating, Fishing Industry in Great Lakes. Wall Street Journal. Nov. 20.
New York Statewide Anger Survey
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Binational Ecological Risk Assessment of Bigheaded Carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat. Research Document
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