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The role of teaching practice in teacher education programmes: designing framework for best practice

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DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjedr.v16i2.4
GLOBAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VOL 16, 2017: 101-110
COPYRIGHT© BACHUDO SCIENCE CO. LTD PRINTED IN NIGERIA. ISSN 1596-6224
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THE ROLE OF TEACHING PRACTICE IN TEACHER
EDUCATION PROGRAMMES: DESIGNING FRAMEWORK
FOR BEST PRACTICE
GENEVIEVE AGLAZOR
(Received 17, July 2017; Revision Accepted 9, August 2017)
ABSTRACT
The teaching practice exercise is the culminating point where the relationship among the three major
players: university supervisor, host teacher, and aspiring teacher interface to determine the quality of
experience the aspiring teaching will take away. It becomes the bedrock on which the aspiring teacher
once certified and employed builds his/her professional identity. It is therefore, necessary that aspiring
teachers are paired with competent, knowledgeable and concerned university supervisors to help them
assume the full range of duties of a teacher during this hands-on training period. Host teachers have
equally vital influence in aspiring teachers’ professional growth and development. This paper outlines
the rudimentary elements involved in designing teaching practice field exercise for the student teachers.
INTRODUCTION
Philosophy of Teaching Practice
Good teaching practice is a key influence
on student learning - a desired outcome and
primary goal of higher educational institutions.
Teachers strive to meet the principles of good
practice in an effort to provide the best learning
experience for their students - Flinders
University.
Student Teaching is the most important
experience in teacher education programme and
is generally based on a country’s National
Education policy. Teaching practice is a
compulsory course for all aspiring student
teachers registered in a teacher preparation
programme in Nigeria. It is one-semester in
duration; usually lasting from the beginning to the
end of the First Semester of the final year of
students’ training. During this period, most
programmers focus on:
Instructional planning
Instructional technology
Micro-teaching mentoring (Model
Teaching, Assessment, Feedback
Reports etc.)
Studies in teaching methods
Posting of students to schools where
they can practice their major courses of
study
The Student Teaching Program at any
higher institution is a well-structured programme
designed to provide an opportunity to develop
and evaluate aspiring teachers’ competence in
an actual classroom within school settings. In a
paper on Global exposure presented at the
Research Seminar Series, Aglazor(2011) noted
that field-based experiences such as study
abroad and student teaching are intended to
bridge theory and practice. The teaching practice
exercise is the culminating point where the
relationship among the three major players:
university supervisor, host teacher, and aspiring
teacher interface to determine the quality of
experience the aspiring teaching will take away. It
becomes the bedrock on which the aspiring
teacher once certified and employed builds their
professional identity. It is therefore, necessary
that aspiring teachers are paired with competent,
knowledgeable and concerned university
supervisors to help them assume the full range of
duties of a teacher during this hands-on training
Genevieve Aglazor
,
Department of Curriculum & Teaching, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross
River State, Nigeria.
101
period. Host teachers have equally vital influence
in aspiring teachers professional growth and
development.
A College of Education or University
Faculty of Education Teacher Education
Programme is informed by its institution’s unique
vision and mission. For validity, education
programmers’ must be guided by their
institution’s vision and philosophical theories.
This underscores the reason why programmers
must make sure their student teachers
understand both the institution and programme’s
educational philosophy.
COURSE DESCRIPTION
A course description is a brief statement
designed and intended to inform students about
the subject matter, content, breadth and practical
applicability of the course. It is also used to
inform for student enroll and transfer. Students
like to know what they are going to learn in a
course before they enroll in a course. Also, if a
student transfers to another institution, the course
description helps them identify transferable and
equivalent courses to the new school.
Additionally, it is used for institutional
accreditation as proof of content covered in the
different subject areas.
In the tradition of best practice, all
courses are expected to have course
descriptions; so does Teaching Practice. It is
important that your faculty of education design a
course description for your teaching practice
programme.
SAMPLE COURSE DESCRIPTION
This Teaching Practice course (EDU
0000) is based on National Universities
Commission and the National Policy on
Education mandate for Basic primary and
secondary education programmes. The Student
Teaching Programme is designed to develop and
evaluate student teachers’ competence in actual
classroom and school settings. The programme
is intended to bridge theory and practice by
providing opportunity for hands-on learning for
Student Teachers. Consequently, participants are
given the opportunity to demonstrate clear
understanding of best practice in different
teaching methods to meet students’ learning
needs and classroom management skills. Relying
on the partnership of competent, knowledgeable
and caring cooperating teachers and host
schools, Student Teachers assume the full range
of duties of a teacher in real classrooms. Based
on meaningful mentoring and collaboration
among University Supervisors, Cooperating
Teachers and the Student Teachers at the end of
this field experience participants would
demonstrate clear understanding of best practice
in students developmental levels, different
teaching methods to meet students’ learning
needs and classroom management skills.
OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING PRACTICE
According to National Universities
Commission (NUC, 2007) Benchmark and
National Commission for Colleges of Education
(NCCE, 2015), the following sets of objectives
have been established for why teaching practice
is a mandatory component of teacher training.
i. To expose student-teachers to real life
classroom experiences under the
supervision of professional teachers.
ii. To provide the forum for student-teacher
to translate educational theories and
principles into practice.
iii. To enable student-teachers discover
their own strengths and weaknesses in
classroom teaching and provide
opportunities to enable them address
their weaknesses and enrich their
strengths.
iv. To familiarize student-teachers with real
school environment as their future work
place.
v. To provide student-teachers with an
opportunity for further acquisition of
professional skills, competencies,
personal characteristics and experience
for full-time teaching after graduation.
vi. To help student-teachers develop a
positive attitude towards the teaching
profession.
vii. To serve as a means of assessing the
quality of training being provided by
teacher training institutions.
Teaching Practice Committee
Teaching Practice Committee is a vital
tool to programme managers. Depending on the
size of your school, your teaching practice
committee serves as an advisory board for
decisions and changes that lead to programme
improvement. Membership of the teaching
practice committee can be by appointment or
selection. One objective way to go about it is to
102
GENEVIEVE AGLAZOR
have a faculty member from every department in
the Faculty of Education and other departments
whose students participate in teaching practice
field experience. So the teaching practice
committee should be a balanced representation
of the faculty of education. The different roles that
can be assigned to committee members include,
but not limited to:
Coordinator of T P/Chair of T P Committee,
Secretary, Members, Social Secretary
Duties of committee members include
searching for and securing schools for teaching
practice, field supervision and first line
respondents in times of crisis at host schools. It is
suggested that committee members’ contact
information be made available to students on
teaching practice should they need advice and
support at any point during their field experience.
The chart below is only a guide and should be
modifies to suit your institution and programme
needs.
Teaching Practice Triad
This triangle is also referred to as
‘Student Teaching Triad. Success of teaching
practice depends on the collaboration among
cooperating teacher, university supervisor and
aspiring teacher. The primary goal of this team is
to guide the aspiring teacher to successful
completion of teaching practice. It is important for
the team to have a clear understanding of the
programme expectations for teaching practice
participants. To function as a team,
communication and positive interaction are
necessary ingredients needed for clarity of
purpose and for collaboratively guiding,
mentoring and supporting student teachers.
The Aspiring Teacher’s field experience
is the culminating activity for teacher candidates.
Efforts should be made by programme managers
to place aspiring teachers at schools and
subjects that corresponds with their intended
teaching license.
Cooperating Teachers are integral to
successful professional teacher training or
teacher education programme. They are field
mentors due to their experience in the
classrooms. They are expected to guide student
teachers during their teaching practice in areas of
instructional design, classroom management,
Cooperating
Teacher
University
Supervisor
Teaching
Practice
Aspiring
Teacher
103
assessment and broader notion of being a
teacher.
Different institutions may have
established standards that cooperating teachers
must meet in order to host their student teachers.
For example, cooperating teachers should have a
minimum of three years of teaching experience at
their current school. This will provide them
enough knowledge about the school and the
system to guide student teachers. Cooperating
teachers should be required to complete a course
or seminar in supervision of student teachers.
They should also hold some kind of teaching
license.
The University Supervisor who is the
third prong of the triad should be well acquainted
with the professional teacher training or teacher
education programme and performance
expectations for the student teacher. They are
the performance experts charged with evaluating
and assessing student teachers during teaching
practice. Ideally, supervisors should visit and
meet with student teachers at their assigned
postings at least three times during the twelve-
week field experience to enable the supervisors
make informed decisions regarding aspiring
teachers’ progress and performance in as
prospective classroom teachers. The first
meeting should be at the beginning of the
teaching practice. At this meeting supervisor
should set expectations, answer any questions
that the student teacher may have. The second
meeting should be evaluative in nature; where
the supervisor observes the student teacher and
provide feedback, set on-going goals and answer
any new questions that the student teacher may
have. The final meeting should be a conclusive
evaluation meeting to determine completion of
the field experience and final grade. The
supervisors also facilitate the scheduled
meetings among cooperating teachers, student
teachers and supervisors otherwise known as
‘Triad Meetings’ to ensure open communication
regarding overall programme and successful
completion of teacher education requirements for
licensure. Triad meetings also provide
opportunities for student teachers to discuss in a
safe supportive environment and issues that
emerge during field experience. Supervisors are
also responsible with assigning final grades for
completing student teaching.
Primary Goals of Teaching Practice
The central goal of Student Teaching
Programmes is to provide aspiring teachers
challenging, relevant and rewarding field
experiences to inculcate essential teaching skills
and professional growth.
Teaching Practice is an opportunity for aspiring
teachers to understand the role and operation of
how the business of schooling is done. This field
experience provides a challenging yet rewarding
experience of working with students in actual
classrooms and acquiring professional
competence. It is believed that these experiences
have the potential to enhance the teachers’
acquisition of professional competence. Acquired
experiences will include among other things, their
ability to assume the various responsibilities of
the classroom teacher as shared by Saphier,
Haley-Speca & Gower (2008).
Plan and deliver instruction that meets
the learning needs of all students
regardless of their individual learning
styles, developmental and cognitive
levels.
Organize and manage the classroom
environment for maximum academic
performance.
Manage classroom interactions and
student’s behavior to create safe,
conducive learning atmosphere for
student academic success.
Work cooperatively and collaboratively
with students, parents, and other
members of school community for the
benefit of students learning.
Exercise decision making in identifying
and using age, content and grade level
appropriate instructional strategies in
lesson delivery.
Using appropriate assessment tools and
methods to determine student learning
Use reflective practice to evaluate
effectiveness of meeting intended
instructional objectives.
Create a dynamic classroom
environment which fosters positive,
effective communication among
students, teachers, parents and other
members of school community.
Demonstrate self-confidence and
knowledge of your content and the
importance of your curriculum to
students’ everyday life.
Understand the role and operation of the
school
104
GENEVIEVE AGLAZOR
Respect and work effectively with
students of varying backgrounds and
cultures
Assume the various responsibilities of
the classroom teacher
Plan instruction and learning experiences
which recognize the individual needs and
differences of students
Organize and manage the classroom
environment to maximize learning
Manage classroom interactions and
student conduct to create a positive
climate for learning
Identify and use appropriate instructional
techniques, methods, and resources
Evaluate learning to determine the extent
to which instructional objectives are
achieved by students
Establish positive and effective
communication with students, parents,
colleagues, administrators and
community members
Accept and assume the responsibilities
associated with being a competent
professional and lifelong learner
Recognize and practice self-reflection for
the purpose of personal professional
growth.
Ethical Standards for Nigerian Teachers
From a philosophical standpoint, ethics are moral
beliefs and rules about right and wrong. It is also
the study of questions about what is morally right
or wrong. The businessdictionary.com defines
ethical standards as “Principles that when
followed, promote values such as trust, good
behavior, fairness, and or kindness.” Applying
this to the teaching profession, the Trade Union
of Education in Finland notes that because
teaching is regarded as a profession, it requires
its own code of “quality control.” It adds that
many other professions throughout the
generations ‘have set themselves ethical
guidelines that express the attitudes and sense of
responsibility that its members are required to
show toward their work and clearly stating the
common values and principles that they should
possess with respect to their profession.’
This notion led regulatory bodies in Nigeria
education system to establish standards, rules
and code of ethics for teachers.
The Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria
(TRCN) was born in 1993 as a professional
regulatory body to oversee Nigeria’s education
professional standards. It acknowledges that the
teaching profession in Nigeria now has the
features associated with other noble professions.
It notes that these features are collectively called
‘Professional Standards’ which “clearly and
precisely define the core values, ideals and
conduct that the professional must exhibit.”
(TRCN 2012, P. 1). Its stated mission includes
assuring teacher excellence and professionalism
across all levels of the education system,
overseeing the effective registration and licensing
of teachers, monitoring and supervising teacher
education programmes as well as maintaining
discipline within the profession (TRCN 2012).
In addition to establishing minimum professional
knowledge, skills, membership obligation and
guidelines for induction, the TRCN also instituted
the following standards on professional values,
attitudes and conduct:
105
The Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN) professional values, attitudes and conduct:
Teachers…
Honor learners’ rights and dignity Serve as model and mentors to learners
Have empathy for learners Are corruption-free
Maintains confidentiality of learners’ personal
information
Do not administer corporal punishment on learners
Shun sexual and related abuses of power Inspire self-discipline among learners
Are vanguard against examination misconduct Check their ideological beliefs in dealing with
learners
Uphold learners human right and discourage any
form of discrimination
Do not plagiarize
Promote democratic decision-making Control personal bias and apply objectivity in
discharge of their professional duties
Contribute to academic development through
teaching, research and community service
Treat parents and guardians with respect and
courtesy
Stick to their areas of professional competence Project exemplary character in society
The above list of expectations outlined by the
TRCN is an indication of the effort made by the
National Assembly of the Federal Republic of
Nigeria to regulate and standardize the quality of
the teaching profession in Nigeria.
Earlier, in 1969, the Nigerian Union of Teachers
(NUT) had formulated professional code of ethics
for Nigerian teaching profession. While the main
purpose for the NUT was to regulate the
behaviour of teachers, the Ontario College of
Teachers, a world class teacher education
institution states that the purpose for ethical
standards for the teaching profession is as
follows:
to inspire members to reflect and uphold
the honour and dignity of the teaching
profession
to identify the ethical responsibilities and
commitments in the teaching profession
to guide ethical decisions and actions in
the teaching profession
to promote public trust and confidence in
the teaching profession
(Ontario College of Teachers, 2007.
http://www.oct.ca/public/professional-
standards/ethical-standards)
In his review of ethical standards for Nigerian
Teachers, Professor Durosaroof the Faculty of
Education, university of Ilorin, Nigeria notes that
ethics have to do with moral uprightness in
dealing with others(Durosaro, 2015). When
applied to a profession, it refers to moral
principles or rules of conduct or social control
mechanism that governs the actions of members
of an occupation. In essence, professional code
of ethics stipulates rules and regulations which
are intended to guide and regulate the conduct of
the members of the profession (Ingvarson, 1998).
While the focus here is Nigeria’s code of ethics, it
is further enlightening to be aware of standards
observed by teachers in other parts of the world.
Aglazor & Obi (2016) joins the professional
bodies Nigerian ethical standards and Ontario
Public Professional standards in the chart below
to highlight some standards.
106
GENEVIEVE AGLAZOR
Nigeria Union of Teacher’s Code of Professional Ethics Canada’s Ethical Standards for the Teaching
Profession
Commitment to the student:
The primary obligation of
the teaching profession in Nigeria is to guide children,
youths and adults in the pursuit of knowledge and skill to
develop healthy attitudes and enable them live in
harmony with all other Nigerians, and to become happy,
useful and responsible citizens. The ultimate strength of
the nation lies in the social responsibility, economic
competence and moral strength of individuals.
Commitment to parents. We members of the teaching
profession share with parents the task of shaping each
student’s behaviour towards socially acceptable ends.
We share with all other citizens’ responsibility of the
development of sound public policy. We are accountable
for participating in development of sound educational
programmes and policies and of interpreting them to the
public.
Commitment to the community. Teaching profession
in Nigeria occupies a position of public trust involving not
only the individual teacher’s personal conduct, but also
the interaction of the school and community. Education
is most effective when these many relationships operate
in a friendly cooperative and constructive manner.
Commitment to the employer. The members of the
teaching profession in Nigeria are inescapably involved
in employer—employee relationship. For the purpose of
fulfilling our obligation to our students the State of our
nation, employ—employee relationship should be so
regulated that there shall be mutual respect,
understanding and good faith.
Commitment to the profession. The teaching
profession is a unique occupation and we believe that
the quality of the services of the teaching profession in
Nigeria directly influences the future of the nation and its
citizens. We strive to give our best to the nation by
making the teaching profession attractive so as to
encourage persons worthy of the trust to take up
teaching as a career.
Care
The ethical standard of Care includes
compassion, acceptance, interest and
insight for developing students' potential.
Members express their commitment to
students' well-being and learning through
positive influence, professional judgment
and empathy in practice.
Respect
Intrinsic to the ethical standard of Respect
are trust and fair-mindedness. Members
honour human dignity, emotional wellness
and cognitive development. In their
professional practice, they model respect for
spiritual and cultural values, social justice,
confidentiality, freedom, democracy and the
environment.
Trust
The ethical standard of Trust embodies
fairness, openness and honesty. Members'
professional relationships with students,
colleagues, parents, guardians and the
public are based on trust.
Integrity
Honesty, reliability and moral action are
embodied in the ethical standard of Integrity.
Continual reflection assists members in
exercising integrity in their professional
commitments and responsibilities.
The role of teaching practice in teacher
education
There is overwhelming consensus that
teaching practice is central to teacher education
programmes everywhere in the world (Kasanda,
1995; Ngidi & Sibaya, 2003:18; Marais & Meier,
2004:220; Perry, 2004:2). Different institutions
and teacher education programmes design or
adopt teaching practice policies that are informed
by the institution’s mission and vision. This
mission must be anchored on the belief that
aspiring teachers need to clearly understand the
responsibilities they are about to undertake.
Additionally, aspiring teachers need to be
adequately prepared for the classroom by
providing enough hands-on practice during
teaching practice field experience. Menter
(1989:460) reiterates the notion of teaching
THE ROLE OF TEACHING PRACTICE IN
TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
107
practice as an experiential practice by
highlighting literature associated with the
apprenticeship model to the concept of
field/school experience. Similarly, Lave & Wenger
(1991) point out that regardless of how it may be
envisaged, the notion of teaching practice is
entrenched in experience-based learning initiated
by Dewey (1938), Vygotsky's (1978) social
cognitive theory, and founded on the premise of
situated learning.
This preparation takes many dimensions
in scope and in content. During the one semester
field experience, student teachers are expected
to observe, learn and participate in all teaching,
learning and general schooling activities.
Teaching practice provides opportunities for and
enables aspiring teachers to:
1. Get to know the school community which
includes mentor teacher, school
administrators, students, classroom and
school routines.
2. Gradually begin taking over some daily
classroom and school responsibilities
(e.g., morning business, supervising
students at recess, taking students to
and from lunch and other classes).
3. Work with individuals and small groups,
and whole class as assigned by mentor
teacher.
4. Develop a communication plan with
mentor and field supervisor (e.g., calls,
emails, logs, journals).
5. Learn to develop a semester teaching
plan (co-teaching and solo) with mentor
teacher and supervisor.
6. Attend staff and other school related
meetings (e.g., parent conferences, IEP
meetings).
7. Begin to take over more daily
responsibilities and teach whole class
lessons.
8. Plan and co-teach with mentor teacher
as scheduled.
9. Plan and solo teach for a designated
period of time each day.
10. Develop and present lesson plans to
mentor teacher in advance for guidance.
11. Take complete responsibility for
classroom.
12. Schedule mid-semester conference with
mentor teacher for evaluation purpose.
13. Plan and prepare for supervisor visit
based on feedback from mentor teacher.
14. Undergo supervision by university
supervisor(s).
15. Schedule end-of-semester conference
with mentor teacher and field supervisor.
16. Reflect on overall field experience and
develop ongoing professional growth
plan.
17. Complete and sign end-of-semester
evaluation forms.
CONCLUSION
It is noteworthy that while their Canadian
colleagues emphasized character traits in their
professional ethical standards, Nigeria standards
focused on duty and relationships. It is also
important to note that one cannot dismiss the role
of culture in thought processes that gives birth to
these values. For global relevance, it is
recommended that both standards be practiced.
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Reproduced with permission of copyright owner. Further reproduction
prohibited without permission.
... Professionally, teaching practice is a crucial component of teacher education since it serves as the cornerstone of professional development [5,6]. Depending on the level of education, such as preparing to be a primary or secondary school teacher, and the higher education institutional operational structure and regulatory framework in place, secondary school student-teachers may choose to focus on teaching either one or two teaching subjects [7]. ...
... Student-teachers worry about their supervisors' quality [8,9]. During teaching practice, they expect final coaching, advice, evaluation, and fair assessment [7]. Scholars in teacher education suggest that supervisors should have the relevant abilities, topic knowledge, and pedagogical understanding, as required by principles of teaching and assessment [10,11] without depending just on theory, to scaffold student instructors and prepare them for classroom dynamics and learner variety [12], due to the discrepancy between theory and practice in the university and after graduation [13]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The chapter portrays the impact of COVID-19 and tropical cyclones on scrambled teaching practice supervision in the Southern African Development Community countries. Focus group discussions with student-teachers and field supervisors revealed that the pandemic and the natural disasters highly hampered teaching practice supervision quality. Delayed commissioning of the exercise due to damaged infrastructure and minimal physical mobility between the college and the practice schools impacted the frequency and spacing of field visits. Neither of the players preferred the scrambled supervision model. The chapter emphasizes that face-to-face traditional teacher education methods cannot absolutely stand the taste of pandemics and tropical cyclones. Resilient higher education institutions and requisite structures are key to sustainable quality teacher education amidst cyclones and pandemics.
... Any higher education institution's Student Teaching Program is a well-structured program meant to build and evaluate aspiring teachers' competency in a real classroom in a school setting [1]. observed that field-based experiences such as study abroad and student teaching are designed to bridge theory and practice in a paper on global exposure delivered at the Research Seminar Series. ...
... Any higher education institution's Student Teaching Program is a well-structured program meant to build and evaluate aspiring teachers' competency in a real classroom in a school setting. [1] observed that field-based experiences such as study abroad and student teaching are designed to bridge theory and practice in a paper on global exposure delivered at the Research Seminar Series. The teaching practice exercise is the point at which the three primary players: the university supervisor, the host teacher, and the aspiring teacher, come together to determine the quality of experience the aspiring teacher will take away. ...
Conference Paper
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This study aimed at exploring pre-service teachers' view on the Implementation of Virtual Internship Program during Covid-19 Pandemic. The data were gathered from deep interview with five pre-service teachers due to their experience in virtual internship program during Covid-19 Pandemic. These data were analyzed using Thematic Analysis (TA). The Thematic Analysis in this research resulted in two predominant themes, such as the implementation of virtual internship program and dynamical feelings of pre-service teacher during the virtual internship program. Each of these findings is presented in relation to Pre-Service Teachers' View on the Implementation of Virtual Internship Program during Covid-19 Pandemic. In addition, the university should be able to increase the benefits and usability of technology as a learning resource by developing its own Learning Management System (LMS) which is easy to use.
... At NCE level, it is a one-semester duration; usually lasting from the beginning to the end of the first semester of the final year of students' training while at the degree level, it is a six-weeks duration each at the end of the second year and third year before the commencement of the third year and fourth year in their programme respectively. During this period, most programmers focus on; instructional planning, instructional technology, micro-teaching mentoring, studies in teaching methods and posting of students to schools where they can practice their major courses of study (Aglazor, 2017). ...
... It is intended to bridge theory and practice. Indeed, the teaching practice exercise is the cumulating point where the relationship among three players; university supervisor, host/co-operating teacher and aspiring teacher interface to determine the quality of experience the aspiring teacher will take away (Aglazor, 2011;Aglazor, 2017). It becomes the bedrock on which the would-be-teachers once certified and employed build their pedagogical and professional image. ...
Article
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The study investigated the level of student’s exposure to sexual activities during Covid-19 pandemic lockdown, The study adopted survey research design. The population of the study consisted of all basic nine students in Oyo State. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed for the study. Out of the 625 secondary schools in Oyo state, forty schools were selected randomly. The sample size consisted of 400 students from the forty schools that were selected randomly. Five Male and five Female Basic Nine students were randomly selected in each of the schools to make a total of ten students in a school. An instrument titled Students Sexual Activities Exposure Questionnaire (SSAEQ) was validated and administered on the participants for the study. Four research questions were raised. Data obtained were analysed using frequency count, percentage, mean and standard deviation. The results revealed that movies had the highest percentage(70%) as a factor that influence students’ involvement in sexual activities followed by social media(64.3%) and friends influence (50.5%). It also revealed that 18.8% of students has been exposed to sexual activities before the lockdown, 10.8% started practicing it during the lockdown, 18.0% feel sexually active more than before while 25.0% watch pornography more often during Covid-19 pandemic lockdown. It further revealed that male students at (1.68±0.47) and students between ages 12-15years at (1.69±0.46) are more exposed to sexual activities during the lockdown. It can be concluded that Covid-19 pandemic lockdown has contributed to sexual activities exposure of students in Oyo State.
... A studentteacher can also be called 'pupil-teacher' or 'practice-teacher' because they practice teaching under actual classroom conditions with the guidance of a certified teacher. Teaching practice is the most important experience in teacher education programme and is generally based on a country's National Education Policy (Aglazor, 2017). ...
... During teaching practice exercise, lecturers from the teacher training institutions are expected to supervise/monitor the student-teachers in other to ensure that certain standards and objectives are met. Teaching practice programme at any higher institution is a well-structured programme designed to provides opportunities for aspiring teachers to develop instructional competence and evaluate in an actual classroom within a classroom or school settings (Aglazor, 2017). Supervision entails giving direction, overseeing and guiding to make sure that expected standards are met. ...
... Gray (2019) writes about the importance of preservice teaching in a study on first year student-teachers who reflected on their experience to develop effective classroom management systems ( cited in Varela and Desiderio, 2021). Smith and Rayfield (2017) and Aglazor (2017) reiterate the importance of student teaching as an opportunity of transformative experience (cited in Varela and Desiderio, 2021). ...
Article
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Internship has an essential role in developing the teaching competency of the pre-service teachers. The objective of this research was to explore the perceptions of teachers under training towards various aspects of internship. Further this study also aimed to compare the perspectives of student teachers enrolled in 4-year integrated and two year specific professional courses. The sample included 250 student teachers from Regional Institute of Education, Bhubhaneswar who had recently completed their internship. Out of 250 students, 150 were from 4-year integrated courses and 100 were from two year courses. Purposive sampling was used for this study. The data collection and analysis revealed that most of the student teachers agreed to the fact that internship is very important as a part of any teachers’ training program. Further the findings of the study revealed that there were significant differences in the perceptions of student teachers of integrated and specific courses with respect to appropriateness of duration of internship, number of lesson plans assigned, practice of teaching skills and use of ICT in classroom during internship.
... 2020). Η αποτελεσματική μάθηση στην εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευση των ενηλίκων συνίσταται στην παρουσία του εκπαιδευτή ως διευκολυντή της παραγωγής γνώσης, ως ισότιμου με τους εκπαιδευόμενους και όχι ως αυθεντία (Φραγκούλης & Ανάγνου, 2014;Armakolas, Panagiotakopoulos, & Magkaki, 2018;Aglazor, 2017;Ahmed Abdullah, & Sultana Mirza, 2020). Επιπροσθέτως συνίσταται, όταν χαρακτηριστικά όπως η εξωστρέφεια, η αποδοχή και δεκτικότητα νέων εμπειριών από την πλευρά του εκπαιδευτή συνεισφέρουν περισσότερο στο χτίσιμο και την αποτελεσματικότητα μιας ομάδας. ...
... In-service teacher training activities enable teachers to teach their subjects with confidence and practice in a safe environment, increasing the professionalism of the education system (Aglazor, 2017). Ntawiha et al. (2011) found that the resolution to poor performance of teachers in subjects of mathematics and physics should be the provision of meetings and other manipulative skills that will help to achieve the main goal of education in their report about the activities of upgrading the skills and knowledge of educators. ...
... There are a number of factors responsible for examination malpractice in Nigeria. Sorbari and Ereie (2018), Aglazor (2017), Tambuwal (2015), Baji, (2008), Afolabi and Loto (2005), Bernard (1998) and Denga (1996) have posited the following as the underlying causes of examination malpractice: Psychological Factors: This includes all forms of stress, tension and anxiety experienced by the students in the course of teaching and learning as well as undertaking school programmes or activities. Thus, psychological reasons such as stress, tension, fear and anxiety of failure may lead to emotional upset and prompt students to develop undesirable habit of cheating in trying to meet the various academic strains, demands and challenges. ...
Article
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This paper discussed the relevance of science and technology education, as important instruments for acquiring innovative and entrepreneurial skills for poverty eradication towards sustainable development in Nigeria. Specifically, this paper explained some of the best and easiest ways of eradicating poverty in order to achieve sustainable development as to be through acquisition of innovative and entrepreneurial skills embedded in the science and technology curriculum from secondary and tertiary levels of education. Innovative and entrepreneurial skills acquisition in Nigeria entails focusing on what should be done to bridge the gap between the school and labour market, where the learner will work after graduation, so as to be self-sustain and self-reliant in the society and also to guarantee sustainable development. Entrepreneurship is considered as an alternative way to tackle some of the socio economic problems that bedeviled many nations presently and Nigeria is not an exceptional, especially the problem of high rate of poverty due to the high rate of unemployment in Nigeria. Innovative and entrepreneurial skills are acquired through training that emphasizes the acquisition and development of appropriate knowledge and skills and enable an individual tomaximize the resources around him within the limit of his capability which could invariably lead to poverty eradication and thereby resulting to sustainable development. It was concluded that science and technology education must be given due attention by the ministry of education and the teachers in secondary and tertiary institutions as it could equip learners with the appropriate innovative and entrepreneurial skills for poverty eradication; stimulating employment and economic growth and thereby resulting to sustainable development. The paper recommended among others that, since innovative and entrepreneurial skills can be acquired through efficient and effective knowledge of science and technology; science and technology education should be taught with relevant and appropriate tools by teachers.
... Additionally, it allows student-teachers to observe all the components of the physical and human school environment to learn the roles and relationships of each individual and their own expected role as future teachers. In other words, they get to "assume the full range of duties of a teacher during this hands-on training period" (Aglazor, 2017). Practice teaching also builds positive attitudes toward teaching and allows student-teachers to learn more about the strengths and weaknesses of their teaching skills. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the effect of selfie video reflection, model lesson video reflection, and peer-coaching relating to model lesson videos and selfie videos on TEFL student-teachers' receptive skills teaching practices. An observation checklist of (11) teaching practices was used by the participants during reflection. Four groups of (6) participants carried out two practice teaching days each week for three months and met with the researcher monthly. The first group recorded their lessons and reflected on them. The second watched model lesson videos and reflected on the teacher's performance. The third watched videos of model lessons, reflecting on them with peers, as well as recording their practice teaching and reflecting on their performance with peers. The fourth received only educational supervisors' and mentor teachers' feedback. The results reveal that the use of peer coaching with the model lesson and self-recorded videos enhances teaching practices relating to receptive skills.
Article
This paper is concerned with the school experience component of initial teacher education (ITE). School experience (or teaching practice, as it is more commonly known) is widely recognised as particularly influential in the professional socialisation of student teachers. I draw on recent field‐work which I have carried out in order to explore some of the tensions and contradictions which characterise both my own and others’ experiences of working in ITE. By using aspects of ‘race’ and ‘gender’ as ‘sociological indicators’ I seek to discover the extent to which school experience can play a part in the preparation of teachers who are reflective, critical and enquiring. The conclusions I reach are not encouraging. Teaching practice is characterised by ‘stasis’, a strong tendency for those most closely involved to avoid conflict or confrontation. Even mild criticism of existing classroom practices is avoided. To the extent that approaches to the appraisal of practising teachers are based on similar ‘supervisory’ models, the implication is that the effect will not be the ‘development’ or ‘improvement’ of practice so much as the reinforcement of existing practices, whether good or bad.
Article
Practical teaching forms an integral part of teacher training. Teacher education programmes at the University of South Africa (Unisa) are no exception. However, there are two sides to this coin. On the one side, research studies led to the conclusion that teaching practice is a valued and a very necessary part of teacher education for students to become competent teachers. On the other side, it was also concluded that teaching practice was less than satisfactory because of deficiencies in the quality of supervisor teachers and in the application of theory in practice. Given the critical importance of practical teacher education, there has been a concern among lecturers at Unisa about how student teachers experience their teaching practice periods. A survey based on two unstructured questions and open-ended semistructured questions as a data collection instrument was undertaken with a sample population of third-year teacher training students to determine the negative and positive experiences of student teachers during their teaching practice. It was evident from the findings that the most outstanding positive experience of the student teachers concerned was the support system offered to them by the supervisor teacher. Negative experiences included exposure to bad discipline in the classrooms and the enlistment of students as cover teachers, thus precluding the presentation of lessons as planned. These findings compelled the researchers to prepare students during their training more thoroughly for what they might experience while doing their teaching practice.
Article
Many researchers who study the relations between school resources and student achievement have worked from a causal model, which typically is implicit. In this model, some resource or set of resources is the causal variable and student achievement is the outcome. In a few recent, more nuanced versions, resource effects depend on intervening influences on their use. We argue for a model in which the key causal agents are situated in instruction; achievement is their outcome. Conventional resources can enable or constrain the causal agents in instruction, thus moderating their impact on student achievement. Because these causal agents interact in ways that are unlikely to be sorted out by multivariate analysis of naturalistic data, experimental trials of distinctive instructional systems are more likely to offer solid evidence on instructional effects.
Book
Experience and Educationis the best concise statement on education ever published by John Dewey, the man acknowledged to be the pre-eminent educational theorist of the twentieth century. Written more than two decades after Democracy and Education(Dewey's most comprehensive statement of his position in educational philosophy), this book demonstrates how Dewey reformulated his ideas as a result of his intervening experience with the progressive schools and in the light of the criticisms his theories had received. Analysing both "traditional" and "progressive" education, Dr. Dewey here insists that neither the old nor the new education is adequate and that each is miseducative because neither of them applies the principles of a carefully developed philosophy of experience. Many pages of this volume illustrate Dr. Dewey's ideas for a philosophy of experience and its relation to education. He particularly urges that all teachers and educators looking for a new movement in education should think in terms of the deeped and larger issues of education rather than in terms of some divisive "ism" about education, even such an "ism" as "progressivism." His philosophy, here expressed in its most essential, most readable form, predicates an American educational system that respects all sources of experience, on that offers a true learning situation that is both historical and social, both orderly and dynamic.
Global exposure: Preservice teachers' perspective on the role of study abroad. Paper presented at Research Seminar Series by Career and Technical Education, Department of Curriculum and Instruction
  • G Aglazor
Aglazor, G., 2011. Global exposure: Preservice teachers' perspective on the role of study abroad. Paper presented at Research Seminar Series by Career and Technical Education, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, Purdue University, March 25 th , 2011
Teaching practice handbook for programmers, students and supervisors
  • G Aglazor
  • F B Obi
Aglazor, G. N and Obi, F. B., 2016. Teaching practice handbook for programmers, students and supervisors. University of Calabar Press, Calabar, Nigeria.
Code of ethics in the teaching profession
  • D O Durosaro
Durosaro, D. O., 2015. Code of ethics in the teaching profession, http://distantlibraryn g.blogspot.com.ng/2015/02/nigerianunion-of-teachers-code-of.html Good Teaching Practice -Flinders University.https://www.flinders.edu.au ›
Teaching practice at the University of Namibia: Views from student teachers
  • C D Kasanda
Kasanda, C. D., 1995. Teaching practice at the University of Namibia: Views from student teachers. Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research, 7:57-68.