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The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in Surabaya, Indonesia

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Abstract

The high demand for residential housing encourages Citraland Residential Surabaya, Indonesia to provide many types of houses. The houses are of several sizes, on different size plots, in different densities and varying building styles. This paper studies ten types of house in seven sizes of cluster. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors homebuyers consider when selecting their houses in a middle-up estate in Surabaya, Indonesia. This study proposes a theory that social factors (family weekend activities, guest visit frequency), psychological factors (psychological needs, expectations from new environment, renovation needs), and demographic factors (age group, type of degree) may affect the physical characteristics (building sizes, plot sizes, cluster sizes and building styles) of the houses homebuyers choose to buy. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 41 respondents randomly chosen. The collected data was further analyzed by chi square test to verify the seven hypotheses proposed. The statistical results show that the building size of the houses homebuyers choose are influenced by family weekend activities such as eating/dining out, sightseeing and gathering at home. The cluster size of the houses homebuyers choose are influenced by psychological needs such as comfort, security and self-actualization. Finally, the building style of the houses homebuyers choose are influenced by age in three groups from 20-35 years old, 36-45 years old and more than 45 years old. In conclusion, based on the lowest chi square test result p value 0.00287, the most important consideration is psychological factors, which is psychology needs namely comfort, security and self-actualization.
The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in
Surabaya, Indonesia
ArchitectureScience, No. 15, pp.1~16, June 2017
DOI:10.3966/221915772017060015001
The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House
Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in Surabaya, Indonesia
N. P. Aryani 1* K. J. Tu 2
1PhD Student, Department of Architecture, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
2Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
*Corresponding author Email: d10313802@gmail.com; Tel:+886-2-27333141ext.7277; Fax:+886-2-27376721
(Received Jan. 10, 2017; Accepted Jun. 20, 2017)
ABSTRACT
The high demand for residential housing encourages Citraland Residential Surabaya, Indonesia to
provide many types of houses. The houses are of several sizes, on different size plots, in different
densities and varying building styles. This paper studies ten types of house in seven sizes of cluster.
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors homebuyers consider when selecting their
houses in a middle-up estate in Surabaya, Indonesia. This study proposes a theory that social factors
(family weekend activities, guest visit frequency), psychological factors (psychological needs,
expectations from new environment, renovation needs), and demographic factors (age group, type of
degree) may affect the physical characteristics (building sizes, plot sizes, cluster sizes and building
styles) of the houses homebuyers choose to buy. A questionnaire survey was conducted on 41
respondents randomly chosen. The collected data was further analyzed by chi square test to verify the
seven hypotheses proposed.
The statistical results show that the building size of the houses homebuyers choose are influenced
by family weekend activities such as eating/dining out, sightseeing and gathering at home. The cluster
size of the houses homebuyers choose are influenced by psychological needs such as comfort, security
and self-actualization. Finally, the building style of the houses homebuyers choose are influenced by
age in three groups from 20-35 years old, 36-45 years old and more than 45 years old. In conclusion,
based on the lowest chi square test result p value 0.00287, the most important consideration is
psychological factors, which is psychology needs namely comfort, security and self-actualization.
KEYWORDS: Chi Square test, Social Factors, Psychological Factors, Demographic Factor
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Architecture Science, No. 15, June 2017
1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.1.1. Interesting phenomena of home buying
behavior at Citraland Residential Surabaya
Citraland Residential Surabaya, Indonesia, is one
of the biggest developments established since 1991 for
middle and upper income residential housing. Citraland
has built 39 sizes of cluster and 64 types of house and
grouped by different building sizes, plot sizes, cluster
sizes, and building styles. Interestingly, every group has
it is own unique qualities, corresponding to social
factors, psychological factors, and demographic factors.
Based on the results of questionnaires, the most
selected building is Recital, a Mediterranean style, a
building of 130 sqm size and on a 210 sqmplot. Recital
lies in a small cluster, less than 5000sqm in area, the
style is selected by the age group over 45 years old. The
second type selected is Conrad, a minimalist style of 247
sqm building size, on a 220 sqmplot in 6.160 sqmcluster
areas. Conrad is chosen by people between 20 and 35
years old. The third is Aspial, the transitional style
between Mediterranean and minimalist style. The
building size is 80 sqm on 150 sqm plots, in cluster size
10.050 sqm; chosen by 36 to 45 year old consumers.
1.1.2. Deficiencies in existing theories of home buying
behavior
The majority of discussion in previous studies
associated internal and external factors; intrinsic and
extrinsic housing attributes (Cupchik, Ritterfeld, &
Levin, 2003; Dale-Johnson & Phillips, 1984; Greene &
Ortuzar, 2002). However, a study in China (Zeng, 2013)
stated consumers are also heavily influenced by factors
that exist within consumers, who have social
considerations and psychological concerns, such as
location of facilities and services, aesthetics, age, marital
status, consideration of educational background.
There are not many previous studies which discuss
and assess for social factors, lifestyles such as weekend
activities and social relationships with neighbors or
colleagues. Furthermore, there is a lack of research on
psychological factors, such as comfort, security, and self-
actualization; the expectations from a new environment
considering security, clean and green environment; and
renovation needs to extend the initial house.
Demographic factors, such as which age group buys
which house; and how degree of education influences
rationales of prospective consumers when buying a
house.
1.2 Research Objectives
The main objectives of this study are:
(1) To determine the reasons (from consumers) for
selecting a home at Citraland Residential Surabaya;
(Family weekend activities, guest visit frequency,
psychological needs, expectations from new
environment, renovation needs, age group, and type
of education).
(2) To find out the most important factor (social factors,
psychological factors, and demographic factors).
2 Literature Review
2.1 The important factors of home buying behavior
from existing theories
Studies of housing and residential choice
(Friedman, 1980; Gabriel & Rosenthal, 1989; Hua, 2007)
have stated that neighborhood quality; local public
services and quantity of housing services affect choice of
residence. Also, research to determine the factors which
have effects on residential development (Susilawati &
Anunu, 2001) has stated that building quality, design,
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The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in
Surabaya, Indonesia
price, building area, land area, affordable down payment,
interest rate, payment period, cleanliness, safety, and
aesthetics, electricity, and other factors are important.
Many researchers into house buying behavior have
not been greatly concerned with subconscious processes
and the roles of needs, goals, and emotions (Bargh,
2002). In research into buying behavior for commercial
housing in Nanning, China, (James & Luo, 2013) found
that it was important to understand and comprehend the
perception and behavior of homebuyers. Furthermore, a
conclusion of a study in China (Zeng, 2013) stated, that
social and cultural considerations have heavy impacts on
the relative’ importance of housing attributes and they
influence consumer’s final house purchase decisions.
Based on relevant research in Saudi Arabia (Al-Nahdi, et
al., 2015) declared that attitude, subjective norm,
perceived behavioral control, and finance, affected a
consumer’s intention to purchase a house.
2.2 Plausible Theory
In general (Koklic & Vida, 2009) have stated that
current research on consumer behavior focuses on
psychological and social decision factors. In addition,
recently conducted research about consumer behavior
(Hansen, 2005; Erasmus, Boshoff & Rousseau, 2001;
Loewenstein, 2001; Peter & Olson, 2002) has proposed a
new concept of consumer buying behavior.
Based on research on culture and housing
preferences in a developing city (Jabaren, 2005) proved
that social factors and cultural factors, determined by
religion, kinship and social relations, played a significant
role in the relative importance of housing preferences. In
terms of social relations, human’s lifestyle is the result of
social influences and frequently provides the basic
motivation and guidelines for purchases (Hawkins, et al.,
2007). Furthermore, the values of various properties
attributes change due to lifestyle change. For example,
modern people at Citraland spend more time outside the
house for work and social activities, especially on
weekends, providing reasons for potential consumers to
prefer smaller homes and several small areas for
particular activities. Hence, the function of each space is
reduced (Ahluwalia, 1996). People often consider their
houses to be parts of personal identity like symbols of
experiences and relationships; a home can develop a
distinctive identity over time (Csikszentmihalyi &
Rochberg-Halton, 1981; Hummon, 1989; Somerville,
1997).
A study for residential appraisal (DeLisle, 2012)
determined that psychological factors which affect the
most probable perception of real estate purchasers should
be considered. This means, stimuli from outside of
human feelings encourage people to take an action,
which can be translated into hopes, wishes, and
expectations, which can be an important consideration in
purchasing a home. Thus, psychological factors can form
a self-concept of the house consumers want to buy and
occupy. Self-concept can be explained to be the totality
of the individual's thoughts and feelings having reference
to him or herself as an object (Hawkins, et al, 2007).
According to a study of consumers (Belk, 1988), a house
presents a strong source of personal identity.
Furthermore, the expectations of living in a new
environment, which is more secure, clean, and green are
the demands of today's consumers in Surabaya. A study
about consumers purchasing housing (Gibler & Nelson,
2003) stated that people want a house to reflect their
actual or ideal self-concept.
Based on the research for strategic household
purchase for consumer house buying behavior (Nelson &
Gibler, 1998) did research which stated that search might
be related to several demographic characteristics (Beatty
and Smith, 1987). Age has a special role in people’s
experience; older consumers have greater experience
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with many products so they can rely on internal
information. Older consumers will choose the
appropriate style of a building according to their
experience. Besides, more educated consumers search
more, perhaps because of their greater confidence in their
ability to undertake the search and use the information
gathered effectively (Duncan & Olshavsky, 1982). For
certain types of degrees, consumers care more about a
style of building in accordance with the level of
education they have.
3 Theoretical Framework
3.1 Social, Psychological and Demographic Concepts
In order to explain home buying behavior in this
paper, the theoretical framework has recourse to two
clusters of factors, behavioral and environmental.
Behavioral factors include social, psychological and
demographic considerations. Weekend activities and
frequency of visits are social factors; psychological
needs, expectation from the new environment and
renovation needs are psychological factors; age group
and type of degree are demographic factors.
Environmental factors can be translated to physical
characteristics which are building size, plot size, cluster
size, and building style. Building size, plot size and
cluster size are three different groups, which relate to
size, and depend on the design by the developer.
Building style consists of three group styles, which are
mediterannean, transitional and minimalist.
3.1.1. The proposed research model
The research model is shown in Figure 1 rests on
two groups, which are Behavioral Factors and
Environmental Factors. The two groups comprise seven
hypotheses from independent variables and dependent
variables.
Independent variables have seven variables, which
Figure 1 Theoretical Framework
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The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in
Surabaya, Indonesia
are family weekend activities, the decisive factor
fordetermining space requirements. Guest visit frequency
as social relation activities is also a consideration to
determine the size of space. The psychological needs
have an important role in selecting a new home related to
feelings. Consumer expectations from the new
environment, such as security, cleanliness and green
environment get special consideration before the
decision is made. The possibility to renovate the initial
building based on the needs has some influence on
selecting plot size. While the demographic factors for
age group and type of degree mean that age gives more
experience to help people consider; and type of degree
perhaps gives better methods to analyze purchases based
on the information and their knowledge.
Dependent variables have four factors, which are the
physical characteristics of housing in Citraland.
Building size is determined by layout plan, type of
rooms, room sizes and building sizes. Plot size is the
total square meters of land on which the building is
erected. Cluster size is the total area of housing
complex with one or two particular building styles.
Finally, building style is the appearance of house
determined by developer and depends on the year of
construction.
3.2 Hypotheses development
The hypotheses were designed based on the
theories used as framework, and the explanations are as
follows:
3.2.1. Family weekend activities and Building size
(H1)
H1: Residents who have eat-out weekend activity
tend to choose smaller buildings. Residents who have
sightseeing weekend activity tend to choose medium
buildings. Residents who have family gathering weekend
activity tend to choose larger buildings.
Hypothesis 1 predicted that family weekend
activities are positively related to building size.
3.2.2. Guest visit frequency and Building size (H2)
H2: Residents who rarely have guests visit tend to
choose a smaller building size. Residents who are once
in a week have guest visittend to choose medium
building size. Residents who are every day have guest
visit tend to choose larger building size.
Hypothesis 2 predicted that guest visit frequency is
positively related to building size.
3.2.3. Psychological needs and Cluster size (H3)
H3: Residents who look for comfort tend to choose
small cluster area. Residents who prefer security tend to
choose medium cluster area. Residents who prefer self-
actualization tend to choose larger cluster size.
Hypothesis 3 predicted that psychological needs
are positively related to cluster size.
3.2.4. Expectations from new environment and
Cluster size (H4)
H4: Residents who prefer secure environment tend
to choose small cluster area. Residents who prefer clean
environment tend to choose medium cluster area.
Residents who prefer green environment tend to choose
larger cluster area.
Hypothesis 4 predicted that the expectations from
new environment are positively related to cluster size.
3.2.5. Renovation needs and Plot size (H5)
H5: Residents who plan less than 50 sqm of
renovation needs tend to choose a smaller land area.
Residents who plan 50 sqm-100 sqm of renovation needs
tend to choose a medium land area. Residents who plan
more than 100 sqm of renovation needs tend to choose a
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larger land area.
Hypothesis 5 predicted that renovation needs are
positively related to plot size.
3.2.6. Age group and Building style (H6)
H6: Residents between 20-35years old tend to
choose minimalist buildings. Residents 36-45 years old
tend to choose transitional buildings. While residents
more than 45 years old tend to choose mediterranean
buildings.
Hypothesis 6 predicted that group by age is
positively related to building style.
3.2.7. Type of' degree and Building style (H7)
H7: Residents who have Senior High School
degree tend to choose transitional buildings. For
residents who have Bachelor degree tend to choose
minimalist buildings, and residents who have Master
degree tend to choose mediterranean buildings.
Hypothesis 7 predicted that type of degree is
positively related to building style.
3.3 Variables (operation definitions)
Behavioral factors and environmental factors can
be translated into variables to be used to analyze the
relationships between all variables. The categories of
variables may be described by an operational definition
as shown in Table 1and Table 2.
For Independent variables, family weekend
activities are the special activities on weekend, especially
to refresh after weekdays; determined by three activities
such as eat/dinner out with family, sight seeing/window
shopping at mall/department store, and gathering with
family at home. Guest visit frequency is the chance to
have guest (s) visit at home-after office hours, which can
be used to determine the size of living room/family
Table 1 Operation Definition-Independent Variables
Type of Factor Concept Independent variables Definition
Social
Family Activities Family weekend activities The special activities on weekend
especially to refresh after weekdays
(eating/dine out, Sight seeing,
gathering at home).
Social
Relationship
Guest visit frequency The chance to have guest (s) visit at
home after office hours, classed by
daily, weekly, rarely.
Psychological
Psychological
expectation
Psychological needs The main psychological needs or
feelings expected by respondents
(comfort, security, self-actualization).
Psychological
expectation from
the new
environment
Expectation from the new
environment
The wish from physical
condition/new environment (secure
environment, clean environment,
green environment).
Psychological
desire to alter
extent of the
initial house
Renovation needs The needs to extend sizes of initial
house categorized into (small,
medium, and large).
Demographic
Category of years
life time
Age group The age category of a respondent,
grouped into (20-35 years old, 36-45
years old, more than 45 years old).
Level of
education
Type of degree The highest education degree of
respondents earned (Senior High
School degree, Bachelor degree,
Master degree).
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The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in
Surabaya, Indonesia
room; this is split into three categories daily, weekly and
rarely.
Psychological needs is the main psychology needs
or feelings expected by respondents to be met comfort,
security, and self-actualization; these needs encourage
consumers to choose the area they want to live in. The
expectation from the new environment is the wish from
physical condition/new environment as secure, clean,
and green. While the renovation needs to extend size of
initial house classed as small, medium and large.
The age group is the age category of a respondent,
grouped into 20 to 35 years old, 36 to 45 years old and
more than 45 years old. While level of education is the
highest education degree of respondents earned, group
into Senior High School degree, Bachelor degree and
Master degree.
The dependent variable for building size is total
floor area of a house, which is designed and planned by
the in-house architect. In this study building size is
divided into three groups, there are 80 sqm to 149 sqm
(S), 150 sqm to 249 sqm (M), and 250 sqm to 500 sqm
(L).Plot size is total area of property on which to build
the house and divided into three groups, less than 149
sqm (S), 150 sqm to 249 sqm (M), and more than 250
sqm (L).
Cluster size is the total area of a zone with
different numbers of houses and styles and it is also
divided into three groups, less than 5000 sqm (S), 5000
sqm to 10.000 sqm (M) and more than 10.000 sqm (L).
Finally, building style is the style for a particular house,
dependent on the year of construction. Building styles at
Citraland residential Surabaya aredivided into three
groups, minimalist, transitional, and mediterannean.
4 Method
4.1 Physical Context
This research was conducted at Citraland
Table 2 Operation Definition-Dependent variables
Type of Factor Concept Dependent Variables Definition
Physical
Characteristic
Building area Building size The size of the total floor area of a house, it
is divided into three groups (small,medium,
and large).
Land area Plot size The total area of property on which to build
the house, it is divided into three groups
(small,medium, and large).
Cluster area Cluster size The total area of a zone with different
number houses and styles, it is divided into
three groups (small, medium, and large).
Building design Building Style The style of a particular house, depending
on the year of construction, it is determined
into three groups (minimalist, transitional,
and mediterannean).
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Architecture Science, No. 15, June 2017
Residential Surabaya, Indonesia and was limited to
construction years 2003 to 2010, with 21 clusters and 44
styles of house. Based on the answers from the
questionnaire, there are only ten house style designs most
preferred and seven clusters most preferred, as shown on
Figure 2.
Table 3 shows the Styles of House at Citraland
Residential Surabaya, the figures provide name style,
cluster location, layout plan, elevation and pictures.
There are ten styles as Conrad, Astrid, Auris, Aspial,
Pistia, Marcellia, Victoria, Recital, Royal Queen, and
Royal Prince. The seven clusters are Golf Avenue, Royal
Park,Greenwood, Villa Taman Telaga, South Emerald
Mansion, Fullerton, and Queenstown.
Based on the result of questionnaires, the data is
divided into two main groups, the data that is associated
with social factors, psychological factors, and
demographic factors, named Behavioral Factors.
The physical characteristics of the property such as
building size, plot size, cluster size and building style,
Figure 2 Site Plan and Seven Clusters Studied
(Source: Citraland Residential Surabaya, 2012)
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The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in
Surabaya, Indonesia
named Environmental Factors. After collecting the data
according to size, location, and style of the building, then
names and codes are assigned.
Through the above three stages, the key data of
research were typed into the software program for
analysis. The data in this study was entered into the Chi-
square test to analyze the relation between two main
groups.
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Architecture Science, No. 15, June 2017
Table 3 Styles of House Researched (Source: Citraland Residential Surabaya, 2012)
No STYLE CLUSTER FLOOR PLAN ELEVATION PICTURE
1 CONRA
D
GOLF
AVENUE
2 ASTRID ROYAL
PARK
3 AURIS GREENWO
OD
4 ASPIAL VILLA
TAMAN
TELAGA
5 PISTIA SOUTH
EMERALD
MANSION
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The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in
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(Continued) Table 3 Styles of House Researched (Source: Citraland Residential Surabaya, 2012)
No STYLE CLUSTER FLOOR PLAN ELEVATION PICTURE
6 MARCE
LLIA
SOUTH
EMERALD
MANSION
7 VICTOR
IA
ROYAL
PARK
8 RECITA
L
FULLERTO
N
9 ROYAL
QUEEN
SOUTH
EMERALD
MANSION
10 ROYAL
PRINCE
QUEENSTO
WN
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Architecture Science, No. 15, June 2017
4.1.1. Data analysis methods
Chi test was employed to test the seven hypotheses
proposed with excel software (statistical functions),
which are commonly used to compare data according to
a specific hypothesis. The chi squaretest was used to
obtain the relationship between the two variables, and
how independent variables influenced dependent
variables. Excel software was used to specify the
percentages for each data category for independent
variables and dependent variables.
4.2 Descriptive statistic of variables
4.2.1. Independent variables
The statistical data for independent variables is at
Table 4, characterizing family weekend activities,
48.78% (ET) eat/dinner at restaurants; while 34% of
respondents cited sightseeing (SS) at mall, and 17.07%
repliedgathering (GT) with family at home. This
indicates almost half of respondents have eat/dinner out
as a family weekend activity. Guest visit frequency
showedthat 78.04% very rarely (RR) have guests visit at
home, only 7.31% have guests visit every day (ED), and
14.63% have guests visit once a week (OW). This
means, most of the respondents do not spend social time
at home, especially for respondents who are very busy on
weekdays.
The data demonstrated the most pressing
psychological needs are comfort (CM) cited by 63.41%
of respondents, self-actualization (SA) cited by 21.95%,
and security (SE) by 14.63%. Secure environment is
expected (SE) by 56,09%, while clean environment (CE)
is expected by 14.63% and green environment (GE) by
17.07%. This data indicates security is the most
important consideration. The renovation needs start at
the process of evaluation, respondents who want to
renovate the initial house by a small number of square
meters (LT) are 51.21%, medium number of square
meters (MD) is 34.14%; and many square meters (MN)
is 14.63%.
The age groups 20 years old to 35 years old and
more than 45 years old have similar percentages, which
is 43.1%; while aged 36 years old to 45 years old for
31.7%. the type of degree, bachelor degree is the highest,
it is held by 58.53% of respondents; and master degree is
held by 12.19% while senior high school degree by
29.26%. This indicates that most of the respondents have
bachelor degree for their level of education.
In this study, the objectsdesignated as physical
characteristics are divided into four namely: building
size,plot size, cluster size, and building style as shown at
Table 5.
Thestatistical datafor dependents variables
demonstrated that more than half respondents select
small (S) buiding area cited by 53.65%, medium (M) by
31.70%, and large (L) by 14.63%. This means small
building size is selected by more than half respondents.
Plot size discribed most respondents choose medium (M)
cited by 82.92%, small (S) cited by 9.75%, and large (L)
cited by 7.31%. It indicates that medium plot is chosen
by more than seventy five percent respondents. Cluster
size has almost the same percentages for every groups,
small (S) by 34.16%, medium (M) cited by 39.02%, and
large (L) by 26.82%. This means every cluster is
enthused by almost similar number respondents.
Building style variables are defined into three different
groups based on the style; there are MN=minimalist;
TR=transition and MD=mediterannean. The minimalist
building style had been selected by 48.78%, this means
almost half of respondents select minimalist. Nearly
equal to minimalist is mediterannean chosen by 43.90%
and the lowest percentage is transitional for 7.31%.
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The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in
Surabaya, Indonesia
5 Results
The research performed chi test result shown in
Table 6.
5.1 H1 is supported; there is relation between family
weekend activities and building size.
Table 6 shows the result of chi square test for H1 is
0.00882(p value <0.05). This means family weekend
activities were significant, and have a positive effect on
selecting building size. Smaller building is selected by
eat/dine out weekend activity relate to lifestyle, medium
building is chosen by sight seeing weekend activity
because of the trend of modern family, while larger
building is chosen by gathering at home weekend
activity concerned to family togetherness. Thus, H1 is
supported.
5.2 H2 is not supported, no relation between guest
visit frequency and building size.
Table 6 shows the p value for H2 is 0.90092(p
value> 0.05).It indicates, guest visit frequency did not
affect residents in choosing building size. Thus, H2 is not
supported.
5.3 H3 is supported; there is relation between
psychological needs and cluster size.
Table 6 shows the chi square test result for H3 is
0.002287(p value <0.05). This shows psychological
needs and cluster size have relation, and this measure
was significant with regard to cluster size. Smaller
Table 4Descriptive Statistics for Independent Variables
Social Psychological Demographic
Family
Weekend
Activities
Guest Visit
Frequency
Psychological
Needs
Expectation
from the New
Environment
Renovation
Needs
Age Group Type of
Degree
ET = 20
(48.78%)
RR = 32
(78.04%)
CA = 26
(63.41%)
SE = 23
(56.09%)
LT = 21
(51.21%)
20-35 = 14
(34.1%)
SHS = 12
(29.26%)
SS = 14
(34.14%)
ED = 3
(7.31%)
SE = 6
(14.63%)
CE = 11
(14.63%)
MD = 14
(34.14%)
36-45 = 13
(31.7%)
GRD = 24
(58.53%)
GT = 7
(17.07%)
OW = 6
(14.63%)
SA = 9
(21.95%)
GE = 7
(17.07%)
MN = 6
(14.63%)
Over 45 = 14
(34.1%)
MAS = 5
(12.19%)
Total = 41 Total = 41 Total = 41 Total = 41 Total = 41 Total = 41 Total = 41
Table5DescriptiveStatistics for Dependent Variables
Physical Characteristics
Building Size Plot Size Cluster Size Building Style
S = 22 (53.65%) S = 4 (9.75%) S = 14 (34.16%) MN = 20 (48.78%)
M = 13 (31.70%) M = 16 (82.92%) M = 16 (39.02%) TR = 3 (7.31%)
L = 6 (14.63%) L = 3 (7.31%) L = 11 (26.82%) MD = 18 (43.90%)
Total = 41 Total = 41 Total = 41 Total = 41
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Architecture Science, No. 15, June 2017
cluster is selected by respondents who need comfort
because easy to know others, medium cluster is chosen
by respondents who need more secure since secure is
very important in Surabaya, and larger cluster is selected
by respondents who need more self-actualization to show
the personal identity. Thus, H3 is supported.
5.4 H4 is not supported, no relation between the
expectation from new environment and cluster size.
Table 6 shows the expectations from new
environment was not significant with cluster size; the
result of chi test for H4 is 0.52424(p value> 0.05). Thus,
H4 is not supported.
5.5 H5 is not supported, no relation between
renovation needs and plot size.
Table 6 shows the p value for H5 is 0.82279(p
value> 0.05).It proves, renovation needs was not
influential in choosing plot size. Thus, H5 is not
supported.
5.6 H6 is supported; there is relation between age
group and building style.
Table 6 shows the result of chi square test for H6 is
0.02557, (p value <0.05). This indicates age group has a
positive effect on selecting building style, minimalist is
chosen by young respondents regard to modern lifestyle,
transitional is chosen by middle age respondents relate to
the needs, and mediterannean is chosen by old
respondents since timeless and long lasting. Thus, H6 is
supported.
Table 6 Hypotheses Testing Results
Social Factors Psychological Factors Demographic Factors
Physical
Characteristics
Family
Weekend
Act.
Guest Visit
Frequency
Psychological
Needs
Expectation
from the New
Environment
Renovation
Needs
Age
Group
Type of
Degree
Building
Size
H1
supported
Chi-test =
0.00882
H2 rejected
Chi-test =
0.90092
Building
Style
H6
supported
Chi-test =
0.02557
H7
rejected
Chi-test =
0.59536
Cluster
Size
H3 supported
Chi-test =
0.00287
H4 rejected
Chi-test =
0.52424
Plot Size H5 rejected
Chi-test =
0.82279
14
The Factors Affecting the Home Buying Decisions Related to House Physical Characteristics in a Middle-Up Estate in
Surabaya, Indonesia
5.7 H7 is not supported, no relation between type of
degree and building style.
Table 6 shows the chi square test result for H7 is
0.59536, (p value> 0.05). This means, type of degree was
not significant with regard to building style, so type of
degree did not affect choice of building style. Thus, H7 is
not supported.
5.8 Hypotheses Testing Results
There are three affected factors that have been
found from the analysis as family weekend activities,
psychology needs, and age group. The reason for
consumers to select building size is family weekend
activities, to select cluster size is psychological needs,
and to select building style is age group. The most
powerful factor is psychological needs, which has the
lowest p value= 0.00287. This proves psychological
factors have the most important influence on consumers.
6 Conclusion and practical implication
6.1 Research Findings
Relate to the research objectives for the reasons
and to find out the most important factor to selecting a
home at Citraland Residential Surabaya; and based on
the social factors on the research on culture and housing
preferences in a developing city(Jabaren, 2005), the
psychological factors which affect the most probable
perception of real estate purchasers(DeLisle, 2012), on
the basic motivation and guidelines for
purchases(Hawkins, Mothersbaugh, & Best, 2007); and
demographic factors for consumer house buying
behavior(Nelson & Gibler, 1998) related to several
demographic characteristics (Beatty and Smith, 1987)to
physical characteristics as building size, plot size, cluster
size and building style, the seven hypotheses was tested.
The study has shown chi square test analysis of the
most influential factor on house buying behavior on
family weekend activities, psychological needs, and
group by age (p value < 0.05), which have tested as valid
predictive hypotheses. For guest visit frequency,
expectation from the new environment, renovation
needs, and type of degree the p values are > 0.05; these
are not valid. Thus, the seven hypotheses testing results
asserted three hypotheses supported and four hypotheses
rejected. Based on chi square test results and hypotheses
test, there are three factors that affected consumer house
buying which are family weekend activities,
psychological needs, and group by age; and
psychological needs have the lowest chi square test result
(p value) 0.00287, which is the most important role for
homebuyers in choosing one of the houses at Citraland
Residential Surabaya.
6.1.1. Contributions to the environment-behavior
field
This research has identified some important factors
for selecting a home (Jabaren, 2005), especially social
factors. In modern social relationships, the values of
various properties attributes change due to life
stylechange (Hawkins, et al., 2007); that is because the
function of each space is reduced (Ahluwalia, 1996). The
study also generalizes the importance of psychological
factors (DeLisle, 2012), to support the self-concept of
real estate purchasers (Hawkins, et al., 2007). It also
supports theories about several demographic
characteristics such as age and education (Gibler &
Nelson, 1998). Age has a special role in people’s
experience; education helps people to search more, and
use the information gathered effectively (Duncan and
Olshavsky, 1982).
6.1.2. Limitations and Future Research
This study only focused on the housing purchase
15
Architecture Science, No. 15, June 2017
decision process, as influence by social factors,
psychological factors, and demographic factors for
individual residential purchases at medium price level
and higher at Citraland Residential Surabaya, Indonesia.
The research for this study cannot provide a general
picture of all customers in Surabaya, Indonesia. A
number of further research opportunities are suggested,
for additional research in many different locations and
similar developers in big cities in Indonesia can be
conducted to generalize the findings.
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