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Proceedings of the 9thInternational Conference of Faculty of Architecture Research Unit (FARU), Uni-
versity of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, September 09-10, Colombo pp. 000–000. ©
IMPACT OF CLASS ROOM COLOUR ON PRIMARY EDUCATION;
A study implemented in a boys’ primary school, Colombo
HETTIARACHCHI. A. A1 and NAYANATHARA. A. S 2
1 Department of Architecture, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
2 Department of Architecture, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
Primary School is considered the starting point of the learning process of a child and
should be designed with a conducive learning environment aligned with the intended
learning outcomes. Colour being an important visual element of design is recognized to
have a direct impact on a child’s psychophysiological and behavioural aspects. This
study investigates the impact of long term exposure to a monochromatic class room on
Participants were 213 grade 2 students (age-7, gender- male) of a boys’ primary
school in Colombo studying in identical classrooms (n=6) having a monochromatic inte-
rior (orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, pink) for two consecutive years (grade1 and
grade 2). Students and class teachers were given two distinct questionnaires on student’s
preference, performance, learning and behavior.
Subject preference of student participants revealed that certain colours support spe-
cific skills of primary grade children. Blue and orange demonstrated most favourable
impacts on their learning and behaviour. Blue was found to enhance creative artistic
skills of children while orange and yellow were identified to support logical thinking
associated with mathematics. Green and purple were found to have a balanced impact on
improving both logical and creative thinking. Orange and green classes were with a ma-
jority of students significantly skilled in learning. A positive impact of blue colour on
school attendance was identified.
Accordingly, the potential of colours in creating conducive learning spaces aligned
with the learning objectives of primary education, was revealed.
Keywords: Primary education, class room colour, skill development, preference,
2 HETTIARACHCHI. A.A, AND NAYANATHARA. A. S
Primary School initiates the learning process of a child after being guided by
the parents for nearly five years since their birth. This stage is supposed to
permit kids more freedom to develop thinking creatively and with reasoning
(Wegerif, 2010). Accordingly, being the space where the students spend
most of their time, the learning environments should be conducive in en-
hancing the performance of teaching and learning tasks optimally. As stated
by Grangaard (1995), the enhancement of human performance requires the
optimum environment and that educators must recognize the fact that sur-
roundings are never neutral. This statement portrays the importance of inte-
grating appropriate stimuli in the learning environment.
Children are known to be very sensitive and fond of colours. Consequent-
ly, colours can be a very effective tool in stimulating kids in their visual
learning environment. Several scholars around the world have looked in to
the diverse effects of colours on children and found favourable effects on
their psychological and behavioural aspects which directly relate with child-
hood development. For instance colours are found to aid in creating a posi-
tive school ambience generating supportive feelings, emotions and psycho-
logical behaviour, reducing off task behaviour, disruptive behaviour and
increasing attention and academic performance of children (Mahnke,1996).
1.1. NEED OF THE STUDY
As highlighted by Mahnke (1996), the choice of colour in schools directly
correlates with its efficiency, quality, security and the cost factor. However,
the impact of colour has been overlooked when designing learning spaces.
Choosing the colour scheme in most cases is done by the administrators or
teachers in an extremely subjective basis without considering any of the es-
tablished scientific principles. Even the professionals more often do not plan
colour at the onset. Often their approach is not sound knowledge of psycho-
physiological factors (Mahnke,1996) and emerge as an afterthought.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The impact of colour on primary learning environments could be distinct
based on its composition. Whether it is a single (Monochromatic) colour or a
combination of several colours may bring about different impacts on the
learner. On the other hand this impact also will be determined based on
whether the colours are warm, cool or neutral and the time of exposure. This
investigation claims its originality for examining the impact of long term ex-
posure to a monochromatic classroom in enhancing skills and behaviour re-
IMPACT OF CLASS ROOM COLOUR ON PRIMARY EDUCATION;
A study implemented in a boys primary school, Colombo 3
lated to primary education. It specifically attempts to identify colours which
positively impact skills and behaviour while recognizing the distinction of
the impact between the dichotomies of warm vs cool colours.
3.1. SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The investigation was carried out in a primary section of a leading boy’s
school with adequate learning facilities. The research is limited only to boys
(n=213) in a specific age category (7years). Also the research focuses on in-
vestigating the impact of six selected colours; three warm colours (yellow,
orange, pink) and three cool colours (blue, green, purple). The research is
further narrowed to classrooms having a monochromatic colour scheme, thus
psychophysiological impacts of class rooms with colour combinations are
not considered here.
2. Literature Review
2.1 PRIMARY EDUCATION
According to the ministry of education, Sri Lankan education system is di-
vided mainly in to four categories; primary school (age 5-10), junior second-
ary school (age 11-14), senior secondary school or GCE-O/L (age 15-16)
and collegiate or GCE-A/L (Age 17-18) (MOHE, 2013). Each of these age
categories have definite teaching and learning methods aligned with specific
learning outcomes. In the teaching and learning of subjects, guided play will
dominate as the main learning mode with second emphasis on active learn-
ing and minimum emphasis on desk work in key stage 1 ( grade 1,2) while
activity and deskwork will gradually replace play as the child proceeds to
key stage 3; grade 5 ( MOHE, 2013).
As per the popular culture, logical, methodical and analytical people are
left-brain dominant, while the creative and artistic types are right-brain dom-
inant. The right brain-left brain theory was originated in the work by Sperry
(1981) cited in Cherry (2016). According to this theory, right side of the
brain is best at expressive and creative tasks such as recognizing faces, ex-
pressing emotions, music, reading emotions while the left-side of the brain is
considered to be skilful at tasks that involve logic, language and analytical
thinking (Cherry, 2016). However, this notion has not been supported via
scientific inquiry (Wanjek, 2013) and largely been debunked (Rogers, 2013).
Contemporary research has revealed that the brain is not nearly as dichoto-
mous as once believed. For instance, it is identified that the abilities in sub-
jects such as maths are strongest when both halves of the brain work togeth-
4 HETTIARACHCHI. A.A, AND NAYANATHARA. A. S
er. Today, neuroscientists distinguish that the two sides of the brain collabo-
rate to perform a broad variety of tasks and that the two hemispheres com-
municate through the corpus callosum (Ursyn, 2016). Primary education is
supposed to lay the initial foundation in developing both logical thinking
(mathematics, language and environment studies) and creative thinking (arts)
equally to support successive stages of learning, leading to a well-balanced
2.2 IMPORTANCE OF COLOUR IN VISUAL LEARNING ENVIRON-
MENT – A REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The ideal school conveys the feeling that it is a place which cares about
students as individuals which paves the way towards responsible adulthood
(Mahnke 1996). Providing good education is setting up a positive social cli-
mate within school, a sense of caring and guidance that must take place in a
positive environmental setting (Mahnke 1996).
The design of the visual learning environment can have major conse-
quences on attention, cognition, and learning of children. Colour plays a
predominent role in a child’s visual environment. The long held belief that
the school environments should be coloured in white is not valid anymore
due to the established sterile, neutral and non-stimulating effects of colour
white on children. As established by literature, the design elements in the
class room should be manipulated in such a way to stimulate children, pro-
voking feelings of liveliness, excitement and happiness making them better
thinkers and learners. Under-stimulation and lack of visual pleasure in a
classroom channels the children’s feelings towards irritability, fidgeting, etc
(Mahnke 1996). On the other hand, environments conducive to learning
should be designed carefully without over-stimulating learners.
As clarified by Mahnke (1996), under no circumstances should it be be-
lieved that by pinning drawings, cartoons or the like on the wall the chil-
dren's need for change in hue, colour intensity and lightness is satisfied or
that it will reduce a monotonous room experience (Mahnke, 1996). Numer-
ous colours and details found in such material on walls may cause visual
noise distracting the learners. Accordingly as a principle, the presence of
colour in classroom design should neither over-stimulate nor under-stimulate
a learner. Colour for the sake of colour accomplishes little that is construc-
tive, just as bleak, less coloured environments accomplishes nothing con-
structive either (Mahnke 1996).
As per the theory of colour, the colour wheel makes a clear division be-
tween warm and cool colours. The theories and principles on the properties,
characteristics and effects of colour too are principally explained to be dual
IMPACT OF CLASS ROOM COLOUR ON PRIMARY EDUCATION;
A study implemented in a boys primary school, Colombo 5
based on the aforesaid warm / cool dichotomy. For instance warm colors are
identified to be stimulating and cool colours are pacifying (Schaie and Heiss,
1964, Plack & Shick 1974, Wineman 1979, Walters et al 1982, Whitfield
&Wiltshire 1990, Mahnke 1996, Stone 2001 and Ballast 2002). Hence, inte-
gration of de-intensified warm colours (tints, shades and tones of red, oeange
and yellow) in the classrooms are suggestive as a ground rule in creating a
stimulating environment conducive for learning.
Many studies have established the favourable impacts of incorporating
colours in learning environments. For instance, appropriate colours are im-
portant in manipulating the visibility of learning material in protecting eye-
sight, creating favourable surroundings to improve student’s attention span,
facilitating active learning and in prompting physical and psychological
health aspects of children. Many cases of nervousness irritability, lack of in-
terest, and behavioral problems can be attributed directly to incorrect envi-
ronmental conditions involving poorly planned light and colour (Mahnke
By a study conducted with 10,000 children around the world, Frieling's
(1957 cited in Mahnke 1996) identified best suiting colours for school envi-
ronments based on age groups. His study found black, white grey and dark
brown to be rejected by children between ages 5-8 while red, orange, yellow
and violet were preferred. However, he pointed out the difficulty of using
preferred colours identified by the tests as wall colours always and stressed
the necessity to modify considering the other factors such as visual ergonom-
ics (Frieling, 1957). Wohlfarth (1982 cited in Mahnke 1996) established the
impacts of colour and light on development of elementary school children.
The students who were exposed to light and colour changes were found to be
least stressed, reporting reduced incidents of destructive behavior, aggres-
siveness and habitual disruptiveness (Wohlfarth, 1982). Introducing light
and colour was also found to improve academic performance and I.Q test
scores of elementary school children in a large percentage (Wohlfarth,
On the other hand Grangaard (1995) changed the classroom colour from
white to blue, which is a cool colour, while removing much of the visual
noise and installed full spectrum lighting with UV content. The findings of
the study concluded that off task behavior declined and academic standings
improved. Another study done by Ertel (1973), assessed the impact of envi-
ronmental color on learning capacity. Classrooms painted light blue, yellow,
yellow-green and orange were found to raise IQ levels while stimulating
alertness and creativity in children. Contrastingly, white, black and brown
were found to make the learners duller, causing a drop in their IQ level. Ertel
6 HETTIARACHCHI. A.A, AND NAYANATHARA. A. S
(1973) further revealed the favorable impacts of orange on social behaviour,
cheering the spirit and decreasing irritability.
By tracking more than 600 participants' performance on six cognitive
tasks that required either detail-orientation or creativity, red was identified to
boost performance on detail-oriented tasks such as memory retrieval and
proofreading while blue was found to boost creative tasks (Zue, 2009). This
finding proposes the impact of red (warm colours) on left brain thinking and
the influence of blue (cool colours) on the right brain.
2.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRESCHOOLS AND ELEMENTARY
As identified by Mahnke (1996), children of kindergarten through elemen-
tary school ages are mostly extraverted by nature. Accordingly a warm
bright yet de-intensified colour scheme (light salmon, soft warm yellow, pale
yellow-orange, coral and peach) in their visual learning environment com-
plements this tendency, thereby reducing tension, nervousness, and anxiety.
As accents, colours of the opposite temperature (cool) should also be intro-
duced (Mahnke, 1996). Accordingly, the colours should be in a harmonious
compositions of two opposite temperatures.
It is essential to reduce visual noise, visual distractions or chaos as much
as possible in the learning environment which detract children’s learning and
performance (Grangaard, 1995). Apart from colour, using full spectrum
lighting is highly recommended to support effective learning (Grangaard,
2.4 RESEARCH GAP.
The study identified a gap in available literature on the impact of long term
exposure to a single/monochromatic colour on performance and behaviour of
3. Research Design
A preliminary questionnaire survey was conducted with grade 2 students of a
school in Akuressa, Matara (n=86) to understand the nature of responses and
vocabulary of primary school children. The final questionnaire was designed
eliminating errors identified in the pilot study for the final outcome to be
more accurate. Grade two class rooms in the primary section of a boy’s
school in Colombo were selected for the investigation based on their unique
usage of colour. The students study in identical monochromatic classrooms
(n=6) in the same location having walls and furniture coloured with six dif-
IMPACT OF CLASS ROOM COLOUR ON PRIMARY EDUCATION;
A study implemented in a boys primary school, Colombo 7
ferent colours; orange, yellow, green, blue, purple pink throughout two con-
secutive years (grade1and 2) with the same class teacher. Accordingly all the
parameters leading to the learning environment are fixed for two years.
However the influence of the class teacher remains a significant parameter
for their education, which is beyond the control of the investigator.
All the grade two students of the primary section (n=213) and the respec-
tive class teachers (n=6) were selected as the participants for the final inves-
tigation. Students and class teachers were given two distinct questionnaires
seeking the impacts of exposure to classroom colour (warm colours; orange,
yellow and pink and cool colours; blue, green, and purple) on student’s pref-
erence, performance, learning and behavior. A numbered colour palette hav-
ing 6 colours was used as a guide for the convenience of children in filling
the questionnaire. The teachers also provided their opinion on children’s ac-
ademic performance and behaviour in relation to classroom colours; statisti-
cal records related to student’s attendance, sickness, punishments and out-
standing/weak students. Both qualitative and quantitative survey methods
were used in gathering information.
4. Data presentation and analysis
4.1 COLOUR PREFERENCE
The majority (45%) selected red as their favourite colour. The second, third
and fourth significantly favoured colours were blue (21%) green (13%) and
purple (9%) respectively. Accordingly, the most preferred colour of primary
children is a warm colour followed by three cool colours. Conversely the
majority selected black (30%) and pink (24%) colours as their least favourite
colours while the third least favoured colour was found to be yellow (11%).
Figure1, Class rooms of Primary Section; Grade 1 and 2
8 HETTIARACHCHI. A.A, AND NAYANATHARA. A. S
Figure 4, Subject Preference of Children
4.2 SUBJECT PREFERENCE VS CLASSROOM COLOUR
Specific classroom colours were found to be supportive in specific subject
areas. In general terms, a majority of students in all the classes preferred arts
over other subjects (Sinhala, Mathematics). However there was a significant
difference in the blue class where 86% students significantly preferred arts
over other subjects (Sinhala-11% and Mathematics- 3%). Accordingly, long
term exposure to blue colour has impacted students to prefer a subject that
involves creative thinking. A study done by Zue (2009) has similarly identi-
fied the impact of blue colour in improving creativity of participants.
Accordingly it can be suggested adopting Sperry’s (1981) conventional
theory that blue supports right brain thinking in primary learning environ-
Figure 2, Preferred Colours
Figure 3, Least preferred colours
IMPACT OF CLASS ROOM COLOUR ON PRIMARY EDUCATION;
A study implemented in a boys primary school, Colombo 9
ments. On the other hand most of the students in the blue classroom had an
extremely low preference to Mathematics (3%); a subject which involves
critical analytical, left brain thinking (Sperry, 1981). The same finding could
be seen in the pink class as well (3%). Blue and pink are established to be
pacifiers as per literature (Schauss 1979, Mahnke1996, Stone 2001).
The highest percentage of children who preferred Mathematics were
found in the Orange class (30%), where the second highest is from yellow
class (26%). Accordingly, aligning with Zue’s (2009) findings both yellow
and orange (warm colours) are found to boost left brain thinking and are
suggestive to be integrated in learning environments to boost logical think-
However the highest number of students who preferred Sinhala subject
(language) were seen in the Green class (33%), Pink class (38%) and purple
class (29%) which involves logical left brain thinking (Sperry, 1981). Here
green (yellow+ blue), purple (red + blue) and pink colours (red + white)
have a warm colour as a parent colour. Most importantly the children of the
green class were found to have a balanced preference to all the three sub-
jects. Purple class was identified to be the second in line to have a balanced
preference to all the subjects. Both green and purple are cool colours and
secondary colours; a mixture of a warm primary colour and a cool primary
colour in equal amounts. (Green = Blue + Yellow, Purple = Blue + Red).
This might be the reason for green and purple to support both left and right
4.3 CLASSROOM COLOUR VS ATTENDANCE
Figure 6, Attendance Vs Classroom colour - 2015
10 HETTIARACHCHI. A.A, AND NAYANATHARA. A. S
The teacher of the pink class could not provide details of attendance and be-
low analysis was done using the data of other 5 classes. The maximum num-
ber of students who maintained 100% attendance in 2015 was reported in
green class (24%). But in 2016 the highest 100% attendance was recorded in
Orange class (32%). The result of the Green class was found to be the same
as the previous year. However considering the student's attendance between
90% -100% the maximum number was reported in yellow class (58% and
59% respectively in 2015 and 2016). The other significant finding about yel-
low class is that none of the students had maintained attendance below 70%
in both 2015 and 2016. On the other hand no one had maintained 100% at-
tendance in the yellow class in both the years.
The highest number of students who had maintained attendance less than
70% in year 2015 were reported from green and purple class (7%) in both
years which is another considerable finding.
The percentage of students who had maintained attendance above 80% in
year 2015 was; 93% (blue class), 84% (Purple class), 83% (yellow class),
79% (Green class) and 77% (orange class). The students who have main-
tained attendance above 80% in year 2016 are; 89% (blue class), 87% (or-
ange class).86% (yellow class), 65 % (Purple class), and 64% (Green class).
Accordingly a positive impact of blue colour on student’s attendance was
4.4 CLASSROOM COLOUR VS PERFORMANCE
Orange class (n=15) and green class (n=12) show the highest number of stu-
dents who significantly demonstrate the relevant skills consistently. On the
other hand blue class was found to have the least number of significantly
skilled students (n=1).
Figure 5, Attendance Vs Classroom colour - 2016
IMPACT OF CLASS ROOM COLOUR ON PRIMARY EDUCATION;
A study implemented in a boys primary school, Colombo 11
5. Conclusion and recommendation
Several colours which are supportive in primary learning environments for
learning and skill development were revealed by this investigation. Exposure
to blue, orange and yellow colours were found as significant to have a
maximum impact on primary education. Yellow and orange (warm colours)
in learning environments were identified to have a positive effect on improv-
ing logical, analytical thinking ability of a child. Long term exposure to blue
which is a cool colour was significantly dominating in improving creative
thinking in primary learning environments. Evidence of a positive impact of
blue colour on child’s mentality for better school attendance is revealed.
Green and purple colours being secondary cool colours were found to have a
balanced impact on improving both logical and creative thinking.
Colour associated personal preferences of each student and teacher, their
psychophysiological states, preconceived ideologies, copying others answers
and reluctance to give genuine answers would have an impact on the accura-
cy of the responses. Accordingly it is recommended to conduct the investiga-
tion considering diverse samples in large sizes namely female samples and
different age categories. Beyond the tested six limited monochromatic situa-
tions, the research can be broadened up in seeking the impact of other col-
ours and their different values. Investigating on the impact of long term ex-
posure to classroom interiors with different colour combinations is another
facet worth investigating.
The observations made are highly beneficial in selecting the interior col-
ours to create most conducive primary educational environments in future
Figure 7, Performance Vs Classroom colour
12 HETTIARACHCHI. A.A, AND NAYANATHARA. A. S
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