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Interrelations among dimensions of ethnic-racial identity during adolescence

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Abstract

Two approaches to conceptualizing ethnic-racial identity development dominate the literature within developmental psychology—1 focused on the process of ethnic-racial identity development, including exploration and commitment, and another focused on the evaluative components of identity, including private and public regard. In this study, we examined the interrelations among exploration, commitment, private regard, and public regard across three years in an ethnically diverse sample of Black, Dominican, Chinese, and White early adolescents. To examine the temporal precedence of multiple identity components, we used autoregressive latent trajectory analysis, which estimated time specific relationships, as well as covariation between latent factors. Findings indicated significant cross-time relationships among all identity components. For the most part, exploration predicted commitment, private regard, and public regard but not the reverse. Relationships between commitment and regard were reciprocal. Findings varied across ethnic-racial groups. We discuss the implications of our work for understanding identity processes.

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Chapter
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Preprint
We examined whether the longitudinal inter-relation between discrimination and identity varies according to the perpetrator of discrimination. We used three waves of data from early adolescents (n = 387; ages 11-12 at Wave 1) to assess the strength and direction of relations between perceived discrimination from adults and peers vis-à-vis ethnic-racial identity exploration, commitment, private regard, and public regard. Cross-lagged autoregressive path analyses showed that more frequent discrimination, regardless of source, had reciprocal and significant longitudinal inter-relations with exploration and public regard. Peer discrimination predicted lower commitment and private regard one year later, whereas adult discrimination did not. We discuss the implications of these findings as they relate to the role of peers and ethnic-racial identity processes during early adolescence.
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Chapter
IntroductionWhat We Know About Ethnic SocializationOverview of the StudyThe Salience of Ethnic-Racial Socialization to ParentsRetention of Cultural ValuesResistance Against DiscriminationPreparation for Bias:EgalitarianismPromotion of MistrustSummary and Conclusion
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With a thorough review of social scientific literature on Negro identity conducted between 1936 and 1967, Cross demonstrates that important themes of mental health and adaptive strength have frequently been overlooked by scholars, both Black and white, obsessed with proving Black pathology. He examines the Black Power Movement and critics who credit this era with a comprehensive change in Black self-esteem. Allowing for considerable gains in group identity among Black people during this period, Cross shows how, before this, working and middle-class, and even many poor Black families were able to offer their progeny a legacy of mental health and personal strength that sustained them in their struggles for political and cultural consensus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
assess the extent to which American-born minority youths [African-American, Latino and Asian-American high school and college students] and a comparison group of White youths define their identity with respect to their ethnic group and to the mainstream culture / describe demographic variables that are related to these dimensions, and . . . examine their relationship to self-esteem (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this article, the authors examine the conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity as a multidimensional, dynamic construct that develops over time through a process of exploration and commitment. The authors discuss the components of ethnic identity that have been studied and the theoretical background for a developmental model of ethnic identity. The authors review research on the measurement of ethnic identity using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. Phinney, 1992) and present a revised version of the measure. The authors conclude with a consideration of the measurement issues raised by J. E. Helms (2007) and K. Cokley (2007) and suggestions for future research on ethnic identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Family Relationships and Parenting Friendships Educational Achievement And Attainment Identity Processes Conclusion Keywords: ethnicity; culture; immigration; ethnic identity; socioeconomic status; discrimination
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Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research investigates how early adolescents received ethnic–racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this study were drawn from a multimethod study of ethnically and socioeconomically diverse early adolescents in three mid- to high-achieving schools in New York City. After accounting for the influences of race/ethnicity, social class, gender, immigrant status, and self-esteem, parental ethnic–racial socialization was associated with higher levels of ethnic centrality (i.e., the extent to which youth identify themselves in terms of their group), more positive private regard (i.e., feelings about one's own ethnic group), and public regard (i.e., perceptions of other people's perceptions of their ethnic group). Ethnic discrimination from adults at school and from peers was associated with more negative perceptions of one's ethnic group (i.e., public regard). In addition, the association of ethnic–racial parent socialization and ethnic identity beliefs was stronger for those who reported higher levels of adult discrimination. Results highlight key ways in which ethnic identity may be shaped by the social ecologies in which adolescents are embedded.
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Administered a collective self-esteem scale (CSES) and measures of psychological well-being (personal self-esteem, life satisfaction, depression, and hopelessness) to 91 Black, 96 White, and 35 Asian college students. Correlations between the Public and Private subscales of the CSES were near zero for Blacks, moderate for Whites, and strong for Asians. The membership and private subscales of the general CSES were related to psychological well-being, even when the effects of personal self-esteem on well-being were partialed out. However, when the 3 groups were examined separately, the relation of CSE to well-being with personal self-esteem partialed out was nonsignificant for Whites, small for Blacks, and moderate to strong for Asians. General and race-specific CSE were correlated for all 3 groups, although the correlations were strongest for Asians. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Traditional theories of the “looking glass self” and “social mirroring” assume that people's views of their own group reflect the societal view. Crocker and colleagues (Crocker, J., Luhtanen, R., Blaine, B., & Brodnax, S. (1994). Collective self-esteem and psychological well-being among white, black, and Asian college students. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 503–513), however, found ethnic group differences in the extent to which private and public views correspond. We report data from two studies that further examine this correspondence in (a) a sample of first- and second-generation Black immigrants and (b) samples of first- and second-generation Asian/Pacific Islander, Black, Latino, and White immigrants. Study 1 shows significant shifts for Black immigrants, from a high correlation between public and private regard in the first generation to a non-significant relationship in the second generation. Study 2 replicates the findings for the Black sample and shows different patterns of association for the other three groups. It also shows that endorsement of multiculturalism moderates the relationship between public and private regard among first generation Black and Latino immigrants. We discuss these results in terms of managing the negative value associated with one's group in society and consider immigration as a site for studying social change.
Article
A review of theoretical articles demonstrates that the theoretical claims of the identity status model have been greatly moderated over the past 30 years. It has been established that the model is not sufficiently specific to qualify as a developmental theory, and a teleological and unidirectional interpretation of identity development has been abandoned. The development does not have a fixed end-target, achievement, and is also not unidirectional, i.e., always proceeding from the low statuses to the high: a reverse developmental pathway is also possible. The moderation outlined here does not mean that a dominant direction in development must be denied, nor does it conflict with the fundamental developmental hypothesis of the identity status model, which (1) assumes a decrease in diffusion and foreclosure and an increase in achievement during the course of development and (2) specifies a pattern of identity status transitions underlying this progressive development. Reviews of empirical studies on identity development support the first assumption of the fundamental developmental hypothesis but not the second, owing to lack of research. An analysis of empirical studies on the relationship between identity status and psychological well-being further specifies the developmental hypothesis. In view of its associated level of psychological well-being, foreclosure emerges as another possible end-point of identity development, in addition to achievement. The developmental hypothesis and the relationship between identity status and psychological well-being are again addressed in a longitudinal study investigating relational and societal identity in a sample of 1538 Dutch adolescents. Four new identity statuses are used in this study: diffusion, closure, moratorium, and achieving commitment. The results support the first assumption of the developmental hypothesis, although not completely. For relational identity we find a decrease in diffusion and an increase in achievement and for societal identity a decrease in diffusion and an increase in closure. This means that a direction can in fact be indicated in the development of identity, but that closure can also serve as the end-point of the development, particularly for societal identity. Moreover, the domain of societal identity in general displays a less pronounced development than relational identity. This difference between relational and societal identity can be interpreted in terms of the distinction between open and closed domains of identity. In order to test the second assumption of the developmental hypothesis, the patterns of identity development were investigated for the first time in identity status research using log-linear analyses. A number of the status transitions proposed by the developmental hypothesis do not occur, and the developmental pathways are also less comprehensive. We found no indications that identity development proceeds faster in a certain period of adolescence than in other periods. However, the stability of relational identity increases, particularly in postadolescence, and a slow development of identity results in a lower level of psychological well-being.
Article
Written from the standpoint of the social behaviorist, this treatise contains the heart of Mead's position on social psychology. The analysis of language is of major interest, as it supplied for the first time an adequate treatment of the language mechanism in relation to scientific and philosophical issues. "If philosophical eminence be measured by the extent to which a man's writings anticipate the focal problems of a later day and contain a point of view which suggests persuasive solutions to many of them, then George Herbert Mead has justly earned the high praise bestowed upon him by Dewey and Whitehead as a 'seminal mind of the very first order.'"—Sidney Hook, The Nation
Article
Within an ethnically diverse sample of young adults (n = 223, 26% Latin American, 14% Asian American, 32% Filipino American, 28% European American), average levels of ethnic identity was found to vary significantly across different relational contexts. Regardless of ethnicity, young adults reported highest levels of ethnic exploration and ethnic belonging with parents, followed by same-ethnic peers, then different-ethnic peers. Significantly greater variation between relational contexts generally was found for ethnic exploration compared to ethnic belonging. Greater variation in ethnic identity, particularly between same-ethnic and different-ethnic contexts was associated with lower self-esteem, positive affect, relational competence, and higher negative affect, though these liabilities were only found for European American youth. The discussion emphasizes the importance of examining ethnic identity as a dynamic construct that can vary as a function of relationships, and proposes directions for future research.
Article
We report a two-wave longitudinal study of 1,571 Dutch adolescents concerning the role of commitment and exploration in identity development. We used the Utrecht-Groningen Identity Development Scale to measure commitment and exploration in the domains of relational and societal identity. Our results can be summarized in three points. (1) Commitment and exploration are related processes in the development of identity. Adolescents with strong commitments also frequently explore them, and adolescents with low exploration in general have weak commitments. (2) The longitudinal stability of commitment and exploration has a medium effect size. For relational identity the stability of commitment is greater than that of exploration, but this is not the case for societal identity. The explanation we give for the lack of this difference in stability between commitment and exploration in societal identity is that the formative period for societal identity comes primarily at the end of adolescence. In that connection, we conclude that for present-day Dutch adolescents the formation of relational identity probably precedes that of societal identity. (3) In neither identity domain is commitment predictive of exploration three years later, nor is the reverse the case. We conclude that no long-term developmental sequentiality of commitment and exploration was found, but the results do not rule out the possibility of short-term developmental sequentiality.
Article
The authors offer a framework for conceptualizing collective identity that aims to clarify and make distinctions among dimensions of identification that have not always been clearly articulated. Elements of collective identification included in this framework are self-categorization, evaluation, importance, attachment and sense of interdependence, social embeddedness, behavioral involvement, and content and meaning. For each element, the authors take note of different labels that have been used to identify what appear to be conceptually equivalent constructs, provide examples of studies that illustrate the concept, and suggest measurement approaches. Further, they discuss the potential links between elements and outcomes and how context moderates these relationships. The authors illustrate the utility of the multidimensional organizing framework by analyzing the different configuration of elements in 4 major theories of identification.
Article
The association of adolescents' ethnic identification with their academic attitudes and achievement was examined among a sample of 589 ninth-grade students from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Adolescents from all backgrounds chose a variety of ethnic labels to describe themselves, with those from Mexican, Chinese, and immigrant families incorporating more of their families' national origin and cultural background into their chosen ethnic labels. Nevertheless, the strength of adolescents' ethnic identification was more relevant to their academic adjustment than the specific labels that they chose, and it was most important for the extra motivation necessary for ethnic minority students to attain the same level of academic success as their European American peers.
Equity and justice in developmental science: Implications for young people, families, and communities
  • D L Hughes
  • J A Watford
  • J Toro
Hughes, D. L., Watford, J. A., & Del Toro, J. (2016). A transactional/ ecological perspective on ethnic-racial identity, socialization, and discrimination. In S. S. Horn, M. D. Ruck, & L. S. Liben (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior: Vol. 51. Equity and justice in developmental science: Implications for young people, families, and communities (pp. 1-41). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press.
T]hey say Black men won't make it, but I know I'm gonna make it": Ethnic and racial identity development in the context of cultural stereotypes
  • N Way
  • O Rogers
Way, N., & Rogers, O. (2015). "[T]hey say Black men won't make it, but I know I'm gonna make it": Ethnic and racial identity development in the context of cultural stereotypes. In K. C. McLean & M. Syed Moin (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of identity development (pp. 269 -285). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.