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Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper's Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher

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  • Neofaculty Europe

Abstract

Why some shops attract more customers than others? At the heart of an increasingly competitive environment in which the products are less differentiated, retailers must find new ways to exist in the minds of consumers. They play, to do this, the sensitivity map to create and maintain a link with customers. A successful strategy tribal brand management via consumer tribes or the creation of an atmosphere in the image of the brand by the dramatization of the shop atmosphere appears as key success factors can enable retailers to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Although research has already highlighted the links between the shop atmosphere and consumer behavior, it has rarely done holistically and still face many problems. Through this study we try to analyze the influence of the atmosphere on shopper behavior, particularly through the study of loyalty to the brand and purchasing behavior.
Journal of Business and Economics, ISSN 2155-7950, USA
December 2016, Volume 7, No. 12, pp.
DOI:
©
Academic Star Publishing Company, 2016
http://www.academicstar.us
249
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior:
The Case of Yves Rocher
Jérémie Aboiron1, Julie Aubin2
(1. Aboiron & Associates, Paris; 2. Agence Hulotte, Paris)
Abstract: Why some shops attract more customers than others? At the heart of an increasingly competitive
environment in which the products are less differentiated, retailers must find new ways to exist in the minds of
consumers. They play, to do this, the sensitivity map to create and maintain a link with customers. A successful
strategy tribal brand management via consumer tribes or the creation of an atmosphere in the image of the brand
by the dramatization of the shop atmosphere appears as key success factors can enable retailers to achieve a
sustainable competitive advantage. Although research has already highlighted the links between the shop
atmosphere and consumer behavior, it has rarely done holistically and still face many problems. Through this
study we try to analyze the influence of the atmosphere on shopper behavior, particularly through the study of
loyalty to the brand and purchasing behavior.
Key words: shop atmosphere; direct marketing; retail; shopper behavior
JEL code: M3
1. Introduction
At the heart of an increasingly competitive environment in which products are less and less differentiated
(Lemoine, 2003; Lemoine & Badot, 2008; Filser, 2001), brands have to find new means to exist in customers
mind. To do so, they opt for sensitivity in order to create and maintain a connection with their customers (Hetzel,
1996). Adopting a successful tribal management of the brand through consumer tribes (Lemoine & Badot, 2008)
or creating an atmosphere corresponding to the brand image through retail design appear as key factors of success
allowing stores to show a long-term competitive advantage.
According to Filser (2001), customers shopping experience is what gives retail spaces their main
competitive advantage against the web. Defined as a personal often emotionally-charged experience based
on the interaction with stimuli represented by the products and services made available by the consumption
system(CARU, COVA, 2002), the customers shopping experience in the retail space is an opportunity to affect
the sensitivity of a person towards the brand. If «the distribution of a good product at a good price is not enough
anymore » to satisfy consumers (Filser, 2001), it must be because todays customers are expecting more than
simply having their needs fulfilled; successful concepts such as Nature & Découvertes, Planète Saturn or
Abercrombie & Fitch have showed that it is essential for brands to offer a rewarding customer experience.
Besides, Rieunier (2000) stresses that the life cycle of stores have been reduced by half in 20 years”. There
Jérémie Aboiron, research areas/interests:? Email: jeremie@aboiron.com.
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher
250
are 3 main reasons for this: the increasingly harder competition; the will to re-enchant the customer and the quest
for pleasure through purchase; and the increasing importance of retail design, which has become the first
communication medium of major retailers. Badot and Dupuis (2001) remind us, for that matter, the significance
and growth of investments linked to retail design.
Although studies have already showed connections between store atmosphere and the shoppers behavior
(Rieunier, 2000; Bakini Driss, Ben Lallouna Hafsia, Jerbi, 2009; Hetzel, 2000, 2002; Lemoine, 2003 for example),
they rarely did it with a holistic approach and remain confronted to many questions. This study will attempt to
analyze the influence of atmosphere on the shoppers behavior, especially through a survey on brand loyalty and
buying behavior.
2. Concept of Atmosphere in Marketing
2.1 Store Atmosphere
Kotler (1973-1974) defines store atmosphere as the effort to design buying environments to produce
specific emotional effects in the buyer such as pleasure or stimulation that enhance purchase probability”.
Later, Derbaix (1987) specified this definition and described atmosphere as an arrangement of the retail
space with an emotional orientation in order to produce feelings of well-being, welcome, joy, discount, etc.
Then, Rieunier and Dauce (2001) developed the idea that atmosphere are made of all the intangible elements
linked to physical (music, scents, colors, lights) and social environment (style of retail clerks and customers,
management of the crowd)”.
Therefore, we will keep in mind that store atmosphere refer both to the structure of the store and the
atmosphere created by the presence of other customers and store employees (Lemoine, 2003).
Authors define atmosphere according to six variables (Rieunier, 2000) and three dimensions (Lemoine, 2003).
Atmosphere are composed of six variables. Five of them are physical ones corresponding to the five senses (touch,
hearing, taste, smell and sight), which can be managed by the brands themselves; and the last variable is social
(personality of the retail clerks, type of customers, interactions, etc.) and much more difficult for retailers to
control.
Moreover, Lemoine (2003), building on the works of Baker (1986), Greenland and McGoldrick (1994) and
those of Baker, Grewal and Parasuraman (1994), defines atmosphere according to three dimensions: the
background environment (music, light, etc.), the architectural design, and the social environment (kindness,
availability, etc.).
If the background dimension was the first to be integrated by retailers, it must be noted that the design and
social dimensions have been taken into account comparatively recently even though researchers have advised for a
long time that they should be added to sensory elements.
According to Lemoine (2005), store atmosphere are considered by brands as a strategic variable: these
specific buying environments aim at offering a unique costumer experience and have one major goal: to influence
the shoppers behavior.
Besides, Lemoine (2003) reminds us that Kotler (1973) identified three important situations when
atmosphere prove to be a strategic variable: atmosphere are used all the more so as the products or services
offered are homogenized; it is especially important to control atmosphere if competitors are numerous; arranging
atmosphere is even more relevant when the target is clearly identified and accurately defined.
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher
251
Therefore, setting up a pleasant and enjoyable environment for the shopper allows the retailer to create a
re-enchantment axis of the consumers everyday spaces(Hetzel, 2002).
Moreover, the social dimension of atmosphere is difficult for competitors to imitate. If retailers can perfectly
control this dimension and manage to establish the same quality service and good reception in every store,
creating favorable interactions with shoppers, they will be able to show a long-term competitive advantage
allowing the brand to be differentiated.
Market saturation and the homogenization of offers are two major reasons for the appearance of atmosphere
stores (Lemoine, 2004). Indeed, retailers can organize stores in favor of an experiential positioning or a combined
experiential/functional positioning (Filser, 2001; Lichtle & Plichon, 2005) in order to help consumers to
differentiate and remember brand positioning according to extrinsic features and not only intrinsic features
anymore (Lemoine, 2004).
Kotler (1973-1974) supports this conclusion by underlining in his model that atmosphere have an effect on
shopperscognitive process and allows them to identify the target of the retail space, the quality of products and
services, as well as the values of the brand. Filser (2001) insists on the fact that brands such as Armani, Decathlon
or Expand use strategies and positioning which enhance customer experience, and create value through the brand
differentiation.
As the number of retailers using atmosphere increases, the goals linked to atmosphere as a strategic variable
have changed: first developed to influence sales in a transaction marketing perspective, these goals were then
more and more rooted in a logic of relationship marketing (Lemoine, 2005). This was based on the results of
surveys that, although not all of them have led to the conclusion that atmosphere influence shopping behavior,
assess the effect of atmosphere on the shoppers satisfaction and emotional states (Lemoine, 2005).
If shoppers enjoy their time in the retail space, this can be a major argument to justify investments linked to
the creation and development of atmosphere stores (Rieunier & Dauce, 2002). Retailers use atmosphere because
they are willing to offer their customers a pleasant shopping experience and want to create/reinforce the customers
relationship and affect to the brand.
2.2 Shopping Motivations
Two a pproach es h ave b een d rawn by author s to just ify the act o f sho ppin g: t he ut ili tarian a spec t an d the
hedonic aspect.
The utilitarian approach is described by Lombart (2001) as duty shopping: the shopper behaves in such a
way as to optimize the information and find the product or service needed. Utilitarian shoppers are not sensitive to
the idea of enjoyable shopping and choose the retail spaces they go to «rationally» according to the ratio
cost/profit. Shopping motivations, then, can be the geographical situation, the offer, the price and discounts,
easy-to-find products (Cottet, Lichtle & Plichon, 2005) or the necessary time to complete the shopping process,
which often correspond to the motivations given by customers for choosing one retail space or another. This
question has also been treated by Bouchra (2003) who determined four variables influencing the choice of a retail
space: the extent of products, the price, the quality of products, and proximity.
In the hedonic approach, Lombart (2001) states that the main motivation of the shopper is the quest for
pleasure. As Bakini Driss, Ben Lallouna Hafsia and Jerbi (2009) said, building on the works of Hirschman and
Holbrook (1982): all shopping experience turned towards this kind of value is rather linked to freedom, fantasy
fulfillment, the feeling of escape, and stimulation”.
This concept is related to the works on experiential marketing, defined by Hirschman & Holbrook (1982) as
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher
252
a subjective conscious state with diverse symbolic meanings, hedonic responses, and esthetic criteria, and its
goal is to give to the shopper a rewarding and pleasant customer experience. Just as she suggested different types
of shopping motivations through the utilitarian aspect, Lombart (2001) drew three perspectives of consumption
through the hedonic approach: enjoyable shoppingwhen the shopper gets the reward by the act of buying in
itself: here, as Zouari (2005) points out, shopping is a goal; window-shopping, where the shopper can be
willing to buy or not; and wandering, where the recreational motivation is dominant and for which the shopper
has no intention of buying.
By underlining the effects of the shopping value on consumers’ satisfaction and identifying the variables
linked to it, Cottet, Lichtlé & Plichon (2005) showed five factors that brands can handle to influence the shoppers
satisfaction:
l atmosphere
l peripheral services
l store employees
l products availability
l crowding.
In 1972, Tauber suggested his first typology of shopping motivations. His works show two major reasons,
each of them with different shopping motivations. According to him, there are six personal motivations: role
playing, diversion, self-gratification, learning about new trends, physical activity, and sensory
stimulation. And there are five social motivations: social experiences outside the Home, communication with
others having a similar interest, peer group attraction, status and authorityand pleasure of bargaining”.
According to Black and Westb roo k (1985), the retail space is not only selected for the products it offers, but
also for its fun aspect and its ability to give pleasure to the shopper. Authors have suggested a classification of
buyers in three categories: buyers oriented towards the productwho think the most important variables are the
offer, the level of prices, or the quality;experiential buyersfor whom the shopping environment and services are
more important than the characteristics of the product itself; and buyers both oriented towards the product and
looking for a pleasant shopping experiencefor whom all elements linked to shopping are significantly important.
Building on Black and Westbrooks typology, Dawson, Bloch and Ridgway (1990) defined in 1990 two types
of shopping motivations: utilitarian motivations and recreational motivations.
Arnold and Reynolds (2003) put forward the idea that, apart from the satisfaction consumers get from
playing their role, they also get personal satisfaction from buying for others.
If we base our work on Taubers typology (1972), we can establish the following parallels:
l Physical activity is one of the rare variables that is not taken into account by other authors;
l Sensory stimulation corresponds to the notion of quest for stimulation;
l Learning about new trends is similar to the notions of selection of products, unique products, new items,
and novelties;
l Role playing corresponds to the idea of playing a role in society;
l Self-gratification and Diversion are similar to the variables of reward and leisure;
l Social experiences outside the Home, Communication with others having a similar interest and
Peer group attraction are 3 reasons comparable to variables such as looking for interactions, the need for
advice, etc.;
l Status and authority is close to the notion of power and authority”;
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253
l Pleasure of bargaining can be associated with the satisfaction of making a good deal.
Beyond the differences and limits of each typology, we can clearly see parallels between the works of the
main authors.
2.3 Store Atmosphere and Influence on the Shoppers Behavior
As explained by Rieunier, many authors studied the influence of store atmosphere on the shoppers behavior
and suggested models integrating this influence as a situational variable.
Early works go back to environmental psychology studies published in the early 1920s and focused on the
influence of a sensory variable on peoples behavior. In 1963, SERRAF extended this research to marketing by
analyzing the effect of background music on retail customers. But it is only in 1975 that BELK published a study
with a wider thinking framework.
Belk (1974) defines situational variables as all those factors particular to a time and place of observation
which do not follow from a knowledge of personal (intra-individual) and stimulus (choice alternative) attributes,
and which have a demonstrable and systematic effect on current behavior”.
Belk suggested a typology in five groups to facilitate analysis work: Physical surroundings which include
factors such as surface area, configuration of the retail space, sensory stimuli, geographical situation; Social
surroundings integrating interactions with other customers and with the selling power of the retail space; Temporal
perspective, defined by the author as a period ranging from time of day to season of the year(Belk, 1975) and
corresponding in fact to all temporal dimensions affecting the shopper such as time since last meal, last purchase,
or last visit at the retail space; Definition of the task to be carried out; and Antecedent states of the individual.
Psychology researchers Mehrabian and Russel (1974) have established a model within which the shoppers
emotional reactions to the influence of atmosphere play an important role. They identified three emotional
variables described by the authors as pleasure, arousal and dominance. According to Mehrabian and Russel
(1974), these three dimensions explain the many possible emotional responses of the shopper.
Presenting some similarities with Mehrabian and Russels model (1974), Kotlers model (1973-1974) shows
the effects of environmental stimuli on the production of internal responses in shoppers which influence their
shopping behavior in the retail space.
Kotlers model remains a very simplified and direct model of the influence of atmosphere on the shopper and
do not take into account the moderator variable of individual perception.
Bitner (1992) suggested a relevant model presenting an important conceptual improvement for the research
field dedicated to the influence of atmosphere on customers and store employeesresponses(Rieunier, 2000).
Seen today as the most exhaustive model on the influence of atmosphere variables on individual responses,
Bitners is one of the rare models analyzing the influence of atmosphere as much on customers as on store
employees.
Moreover, Bitner (1992) thinks that shoppers first perceive their environment as a whole and then produce
responses by interacting with the employees. These responses, determining whether the customer will approach or
escape the retail space, are classified in three categories: cognitive responses, emotional responses, and
physiological responses.
Finally, this model underlines the influence of moderator variables in the relationship between stimuli
perception and customers reactions, such as character variables, the shopping goal, the expectations, and the
initial mood of the shopper.
When studying consumer behavior, authors organize responses in the following manner: cognitive >
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher
254
emotional > behavioral”.
Besides, as Lemoine (1997, 2003) explains, store atmosphere induces cognitive, conative and emotional
responses in the shopper; this influence must be understood through an emotional approach and a cognitive
approach.
The cognitive approach states that «atmosphere appear to be a set of indicators treated differently according
to the individual, depending on their perception processes» and allows us to observe behaviors such as a greater
purchase probability (Kotler, 1973-1974) after changing the informational environment of the shopper.
Lemoine and Plichon (2000), building on Howards (1963) and Zajonc and Markuss (1982) conclusions,
explain that first seen as a result of the cognitive process, emotional states have been gradually associated with
an independent concept likely to influence the individuals behavioral responses. Besides, Frijda (1989)
underlines that cognitive processes generate emotional reactions after shoppers perceive and understand their
environment.
As for the role of atmosphere towards the shopper, it should allow, for instance, a new costumer to know the
target of the brand, to estimate the quality of service as well as the values of the brand(Rieunier, 2000, building
on the work of Kotler, 1973-1974).
Lichtle and Plichon (2005) remind us that store atmosphere can affect the shoppersbehavior in the retail
space by influencing their emotional states. By creating and offering the shopper a unique, positive and
emotional experience, retailers aim at improving customer satisfaction.
Authors also put forward the variety of emotional reactions that can be generated in a commercial
environment and stress that emotional states can be:
l represented by six dimensions: fullness, escape, pleasure, nervousness, relaxation, freedom,
l of varied intensity,
l generated by physical environment and social elements.
Moreover, Derbaix and Pham (1989) give a typology of the affect in seven categories: shock emotion, feeling,
mood, disposition, preference, attitude, judgement.
It should also be noted that Derbaix and Pham (1989) have identified four dimensions through which an
emotional response must be defined: intensity, direction, content, and the awareness of having a response.
Finally, the emotional dimension is not only a factor of choice and behavioral decision for the shopper, but
also influences the time spent in the retail space, the increase of perceived value and the affect of the shopper
towards the brand. Understanding and controlling this emotional aspect seems even more important to retailers
because Lichtle and Plichon (2005) highlighted that this dimension also had an effect on purchase intentions and
communication with employees.
Even though many studies focused on the effect of isolated sensory variables such as music, colors,
lighting, or crowding on the shoppers behavior, results were often different, or even contradictory” Lemoine
(2003) indeed, if authors agree on stressing the positive influence of store atmosphere on shoppersemotional
states, conclusions often differ concerning its impact on buying behaviors.
Despite their fundamental contribution to the understanding of the influence of physical environment
variables on the shoppers behavior, studies present a huge limit: they have been focusing on the connection
between one of the atmospherevariables and the shoppers behavior. Yet, as Lemoine (2003) reminds it, based on
Divard and Uriens work (2001), managers need to be able to evaluate the influence of atmosphere as a whole on
customersbehavior. Retail space managers works on store atmosphere in a holistic manner; so it seems necessary
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher
255
that studies should focus on the influence of atmosphere with the same perspective. Indeed, it is by creating a
specific shopping environment (Lemoine, 2003, 2004, 2005; Hetzel, 1995 for example) that the brand is trying to
influence costumer behavior, and not by handling isolated sensory variables.
For this reason, if the influence of one isolated factor is verified, the same result is not necessarily true when
results of the influence of two variables, initially isolated, are added or combined (Dauce & Rieunier, 2002).
Moreover, human beings perceive and analyze their environment as a whole, so it seems logical to use the same
approach when studying the influence of store atmosphere.
Thus, Lemoine (2003) advises that the influence of store atmosphere on the shoppers behavior should be
analyzed through the three following dimensions: physical, architectural and human.
3. Do Store Atmosphere Influence the Shopper’s Behavior?
3.1 Methodology
This survey focuses on the influence of atmosphere on the shoppers behavior in the retail spaces of the
brand Yves Rocher.
It focuses on 197 shoppers, divided in two groups as follows:
l 98 customers of an old concept shop Levallois Wilson
l 99 customers of a shop called Atelier de la Cosmétique Végétale®” — Paris Ternes.
Results of these two groups will then be compared in order to point out in-store behavioral differences
especially shopping behavior through purchases in volume and value, as well as emotional reactions between
both shops.
The sample will be selected in an empirical way for convenience. The samples parent population
corresponds to the customers of the brand Yves Rocher. Because of a lack of time and means, we wont be able to
extend the survey to the whole network.
To en sure the q uality of dat a and to gua rant ee the pa rit y of cu sto mers b etw een the ol d con cept and the sh op
L’Atelier de la Cosmétique Végétale, data will be collected face to face with shoppers on their way out of the
shops and by the same pollster.
3.2 Assessment Scale
Constructs and items on which the questionnaire has been created come from scientific publications. Our
questionnaire is based on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 for several reasons:
l A range from 0 to 10 allows us to d eter mine “5” as average so that it is not a forced choice” scaleand
allows the respondent to give a neutralopinion.
l A scale wi th 11 points of measurement gives us a better moderation of the respondentsanswers than a scale
with only 5 points.
l Answers are easily provided by the respondents.
l It allows us afterwards to have data that are easy to process and understand through the SPSS software,
unlike a visual analog scale.
The questionnaire has been tested on a group of 12 people in order to check:
l The correct understanding of the questions. Respondents have to understand the meaning of the questions
they are asked in order to give relevant answers.
l The average time of questioning, estimated at 5 minutes per person.
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher
256
3.3 Data Processing
Collected data have been processed through the SPSS software. To do so, we used the following methods for
quantitative analyses:
l Analysis through descriptive statistics in order to qualify our two samples
l Bartlett sphericity test
l Factor analysis more precisely, a principal component analysis (PCA) allowing us to establish an
account of both similarities between individuals and links between quantitative variables
l Correlation analysis through Pearsons chi-squared test and/or Spearmans rho.
In order to analyze our results, we will define our samples as follows: Be “A” the general sample, including
data from the 197 respondents; be B1 the sample of 98 customers of the old concept shop; and be B2 the
sample of 99 costumers of the new concept shop.
Results show that whichever concept is studied old or new costumers come to the shop generally for
the same reasons:
l 56% (B1) and 58% (B2) of costumers come for a utilitarian motivation.
l 44% (B1) and 42% (B2) of costumers have a hedonic motivation.
We ca n see that b oth s ample s B1 and B2 have a lmost the s ame ch arac teri stic s and almos t the same
proportion of costumers coming to the shop for utilitarian reasons and costumers having hedonic motivations:
respectively 56% and 58%, then 44% and 42%.
Analyzing the volume of the average shopping basket of both samples shows that:
l costumers of the old concept shop bought an average of 1.5 product,
l costumers of the new concept shop bought an average of 2.4 products.
The median of a sample can be defined as m so that the number of values of the group superior or equivalent
to m equals the number of values inferior or equivalent to m. In this case, analyzing the median of both samples
shows that:
med(B1) < med(B2).
We c an s ee t hat:
l There are as many baskets of 0 or 1 product as baskets from 2 to 7 or more products in sample B1 (costumers
of the old concept shop).
l There are as many baskets of 0, 1 or 2 products as baskets from 3 to 7 or more products in sample B2
(costumers of the new concept shop).
Analyzing the standard deviation and the variance allows us to compare both samples in a more accurate
manner.
Sample B1 is more dispersed than sample B2, because:
l σ(B1) > σ(B2);
l Va r( B 1 ) > Va r (B 2 ) .
Data from both old and new concept samples show dissimilarities that underline the difference in shopping
behavior in value according to the type of shop.
Analyzing the value of the average shopping basket of both samples shows that costumers of the old concept
shop bought an average basket of 10 to 14 Euros, whereas costumers of the new concept shop have an average
basket of 20 to 24 Euros. In this case, analyzing the median of both samples shows that med(B1) < med(B2).
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher
257
We c an s ee that:
l There are as many baskets from 0 to 14 as baskets from 14 to 45 or more in sample B1.
l There are as many baskets from 0 to 24 as baskets from 24 to 45 or more in sample B2.
Sample B1 is more dispersed than sample B2, because:
l σ(B1) > σ(B2);
l Va r( B 1 ) > Va r (B 2 ) .
We es tabl ishe d a co rrel atio n test th roug h a bi vari ate an alys is in ord er to de term ine whe ther t he type o f shop
and the intention to come back to an Yves Rocher store were related. This test will be confirmed thanks to the
chi-squared test. Below are the results we obtained:
Pivot table Type of concept * Do you intend to come back?
Number
Do you intend to come back?
Tot al
0
3
5
9
Typ e of
concept
1
1
3
11
9
98
2
0
1
6
6
99
Tot al
1
4
17
15
197
Chi-squared test
Value
Degrees of freedom
Asymptotic significance (2-sided)
Pearsons chi-squared
11.069(a)
8
0.198
Likelihood ratio
11.726
8
0.164
Linear association
6.964
1
0.008
Number of valid observations
197
We ca n obse rve th at 10 cells (or 55.6% of all cells) have a number inferior to 5. In order for the chi-squared
analysis to be valid, this threshold should be under 20%.
To know whether the ty pe o f c once pt inf luen ces or not the shop per s intention to come back to a Yves Rocher
store, we will operate a Pearsons rho analysis:
Correlations
Typ e of co nce pt
Do you intend to come back?
Typ e of co nce pt
Pearsons correlation
1
0.188(**)
Sig. (2-sided)
0.008
N
197
197
Note: ** Correlation is significant at level 0.01 (2-sided).
We o btai ned a co rrel atio n co effi cien t of 0.1 88 ( N = 197) for a level of significance p = 0.008 (p < 0.01).
After verification in Spearmans rho table (p)1, we can note that:
l recorded rho (= |0.188|) > theoretical rho (= 0.2333).
Thus, we cannot say that the correlation between both variables is positive: the two variables are not
correlated. In both cases, the shoppers intention of coming back to a Yves Rocher shop is very strong. However,
we cannot confirm the correlation between both variables type of conceptand intention to come back”.
1 Spearmans rho table is available at the end of this memoire.
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher
258
4. Results and Limits
4.1 Results
The first assumption we made was this:
H1: Store atmosphere favorably influence the shoppers behavior, with our hypothesis H1a being the
more shoppers are stimulated by pleasant atmosphere, the higher the value of their basket, is then invalid. Our
hypothesis H1b, the more shoppers are stimulated by pleasant atmosphere, the bigger the volume of their basket,
is then valid.
In addition to our research hypothesis H1, we put forward the hypothesis H2: Store atmosphere favorably
influence the shoppers emotional responses. Given the results, our hypothesis H2 is valid.
4.2 Limits
The first limit of this survey would be the use of Likert scales; indeed, even if they have the advantage of
synthesizing efficiently the respondentsopinion, they cannot fully grasp the real perception of individuals. They
give no information about possible additional clues related to the person.
Besides, the fact that although it was known from the beginning our survey only compares two retail
spaces is biased in itself because we did not confront results on the same retail space before and after. Some
variables are specific to each retail space (work team, usual retail traffic, location, opening hours, surface area …).
We lear ned for exam ple, dur ing our surv ey, that the Lev allo is shop was one of the reta il spac es wi th the l owes t
profits in the Ile de France region, whereas the one in Paris Ternes was among the shops with highest retail traffic
and best results.
Moreover, our work was based on two samples of 98 and 99 individuals, which are still small numbers for a
quantitative data analysis. Although it would have been difficult to work on larger samples (particularly because
of a lack of time to collect data on location), the scale of our samples remain relatively small and this contributed
to increase the margin of error of our results. It would be interesting to carry out this survey again with larger
selected samples.
Finally, even though our questionnaire had been tested before being used on Yves rocher costumers, we
realized that some of them did not always understand it very well and could not differentiate some questions.
Moreover, despite the explanation I gave on the context of my work, some people were convinced that I was
working on behalf of the brand Yves Rocher, and that they had to give favorable answers to my questions, in order
to be nice to me. This represents another bias to the results we obtained.
5. Conclusion
How do store atmosphere influence the shoppers behavior? This central question we asked followed on from
several interrogations. As the environment becomes increasingly competitive, brands have to find new means to
exist in customersmind. To do so, the y op t for sensitivity in order to create and maintain a connection with their
customers (Hetzel, 1996). Creating an atmosphere corresponding to the brand image through retail design appears
as a key factor of success allowing stores to show a long-term competitive advantage.
This study allowed us to better understand the factors influencing shopping processes and emotional
responses of shoppers in the retail space or on their way out.
Influence of Store Atmosphere on the Shopper’s Behavior: The Case of Yves Rocher
259
If the works carried out by different scientists helped identifying different shopping motivations and creating
typologies of these motivations, it seems today that a general typologyhave appeared which could be analyzed
in its own right. A shoppers choice of store can be analyzed in two complementary ways: a utilitarian approach
and a hedonic approach.
These two shopping motivations generate different responses in shoppers in the retail space or on their way
out.
Shopping in a certain retail space is a source of value in itself when emotions are stimulated. Costumers do
not go to a retail space only to optimize their profits, but also for their own pleasure on location.
Our work confirmed that a good management of store atmosphere is not only favorable to the shoppers
well-being, but also presents significant marketing and financial advantages. Store atmosphere help influencing
the shoppers emotional states during and after shopping. Atmosphere also allow brands to sell moreespecially
through their effect on the volume of the average basket of shoppers.
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... The common theme among consumer behavioural studies that investigated the role of atmosphere in the retail and marketing literature found that sensory information from the atmosphere influences cognitive and affective states, which in turn influences purchase behaviours among consumers (Aboiron & Aubin, 2016;Morrison, Gan, Dubelaar, & Oppewal, 2011). In a more recent studies, researchers have highlighted the importance of atmosphere in evoking emotional connections and behavioural response amongst individuals (Choi & Kandampully, 2019;Dai & Zheng, 2021). ...
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Virtual reality (VR) technology has gained more attention in recent years where most industries, including the real estate sector are striving towards digitalization of their services. Furthermore, the advent of Covid-19 pandemic has caused a substantial shift towards digital marketing approaches. Despite the exuberance to incorporate VR as part of the marketing strategy for real estate, little is known for the impact of this technology towards potential homebuyers' emotions and purchase intention compared to conventional marketing method using physically built environment. Research in consumer behavioural studies suggests that atmosphere in physical stores or service providers plays an important role in evoking emotions that leads to positive purchase behaviour among consumers. This study proposed a theoretical framework based on the SO -R framework and hypothesized on the relationships between atmosphere towards pleasure and arousal emotion, which subsequently influences house purchase intention in the virtual environment for the digital real estate marketing using VR. An experiment with 60 real potential homebuyers was conducted to evaluate the differences of participants' evaluation of the atmosphere, pleasure, and arousal emotions, as well as the purchase intention between a real environment with a virtual environment. Partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicate that there is a significant difference in potential homebuyers' evaluation of the atmosphere and purchase intention between the real environment and the virtual environment. PLS-SEM results proved that atmosphere significantly influence pleasure and arousal emotions, and pleasure emotion was revealed to significantly influence house purchase intention. The findings in this study contributes substantially towards enhancing the application of VR for effective marketing strategies for the residential real estate sector.
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658 KM 3 route de casa Settat, Maroc 212 669335353 / 212 68420000 bouchra_lebzar@yahoo.com Nous tenons à remercier les responsables de la FNEGE, pour l'apport de la formation et leur soutien dans l'accomplissement de nos projets de recherche et le bénéfice que nos organismes de formation pourront en retirer. Nous remercions les personnes qui nous ont fait confiance et soutenu pour réaliser cette article et tout particulièrement les chercheurs de C.R.E.G.O. , IAE de Montpellier. « Autrefois, un consommateur choisissait une marque, un produit et allait chez le distributeur qui vendait la marque. Aujourd'hui, les consommateurs choisissent le plus souvent d'abord un distributeur avant de choisir une marque ou un produit. » 1 FACTEURS SITUATIONNELS ET CHOIX D'UN POINT DE VENTE : CAS DES PRODUITS ALIMENTAIRES AU MAROC RESUME : L'objet de ce papier, est de contribuer à la connaissance du comportement du consommateur face aux points de vente traditionnels et modernes à savoir les grandes surfaces. Nous allons ainsi montrer que la fréquentation plus ou moins importantes d'un certain nombre de points de vente peut s'expliquer en partie par la circonstance d'achat ainsi que par l'importance accordée par chaque consommateur aux différents attributs des magasins. ABSTRACT :The object of this paper, is to contribute to the knowledge of the consumer's behavior facing the traditional and modern retail outlets to know the big surfaces, we are going to show thus that the frequency of visits more important of certain number of stores can explain himself in part by the circumstance of purchase as well as by the importance granted by every consumer to the different attributes of stores. KEY WORDS: behavior of the consumer; situation of purchase; discerned image; distribution; polarity of the trade