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The Industrial Sector



Industry is the major user of energy in modern society, accounting for roughly 40% of final energy use Coal or oil are heavily used, especially by primary industry and manufacturing and refining. Gas is being used increasingly to replace coal because it is a cleaner fuel producing less impact on the environment. Electricity is only a minor component of industrial energy use although its use in driving electric motors is very important. This Chapter explores opportunities for governments to implement energy efficiency strategies for the Industrial Sector, which are quite different to those for most other sectors. Industry is very diverse and is often controlled by very large multi-national corporations. In this context the appropriate approach needs to be carefully considered. Industry is generally receptive to efforts to cut its energy costs but it is less likely to be attracted to regulatory measures that increase its operating costs.
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The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader application potential. The present “state-of-the-art” paper, which has been written by members of the AD management committee, reflects the latest achievements and sets future lines for further development.
This article reviews the scientific literature published in 2016 on physical, chemical, and biological treatment of hazardous contaminants and environmental bioremediation.
Preface. Notation: Acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations. Chemical symbols and abbreviations. Units of measurement. 1. Introduction. 2. Basic methods and concepts for mitigation assessment. 3. Mitigation assessment of the energy sector: an overview. 4. Industrial sector. 5. Residential and commercial sectors. 6. Transportation sector. 7. Agricultural sector - energy uses. 8. Conventional energy supply. 9. Renewable energy supply. 10. Introduction and a land-use framework for the non-energy sectors. 11. Forestry sector. 12. Agriculture. 13. Rangelands and grasslands. 14. Waste management. 15. Reporting a mitigation assessment. Glossary. Index.
The concept of Joint Implementation (JI) has been incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, under both Articles 6 and 12 (the Clean Development Mechanism or CDM). However, a number of outstanding issues remain to be settled: one such issue being the ‘banking’ of credits earned from JI projects. Currently, the Protocol specifies that ‘donor’ countries funding JI projects under the CDM may receive credits from 2000 and ‘bank’ them for use in contributing to their emissions target. Since the emission targets have only been agreed for the period 2008–2012 inclusive, we argue that credited CDM action between 2000 and 2008 could be offset by uncontrolled increases elsewhere in the donor country during this time, and hence such crediting could lead to ‘relaxation’ of the donor country targets. We detail an analysis which attempts to estimate the level of such a relaxation and conclude that it is not negligible. Hence we suggest that CDM credits should be multiplied by a ‘crediting fraction’, calculated to be between 40% and 70%, to compensate. We then discuss this in respect of the ongoing climate change negotiations, particularly considering the possibility of this sort of banking being introduced for JI projects under Article 6.
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Study 3: Solid Waste Management
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Study 45: Participatory Solid Waste Management in Dakar
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