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Raising Women’s Interest in Entrepreneurship - Effects of Images and Language in Advertisements

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... But, also non-verbal images shape how we perceive the world. For example, Hentschel et al. (2017) explore advertisements for entrepreneurship programmes and the impact on applications by women, given potentially gendered images and linguistic forms. Their findings show that women were less interested and perceived themselves as less fitting in those cases where the programme were advertised using typical masculine images and/or a solely masculine form for entrepreneur. ...
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In this chapter, I am going to illustrate how contextualizing entrepreneurship and innovation through words and images can assist us in gaining a more realistic understanding, whilst at the same time offering scope for theory development and novel research questions. Words and images are powerful: they frame the ways we perceive what entrepreneurship and innovation is and what not. Recently, entrepreneurship scholars have started paying more attention to linguistics, metaphors and images. Some entrepreneurship scholars also have turned to visual analysis, but there is scope to further implement that into entrepreneurship research. If we expand on the language, images and pictures we use to describe and visualize innovative entrepreneurs, we will be able to study and see the greater variety and heterogeneity of the phenomenon, adding to more realistic entrepreneurship research. TO BE PUBLISHED IN: David Audretsch and Albert N. Link (eds.), A Research Agenda on Entrepreneurship and Innovation. Elgar Research Agenda Series. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
... Words and pictures matter, because they generally influence our perceptions of the world and which options are available to us. In this regard, Hentschel et al. (2017) showed that women were less interested and perceived themselves as less fitting when an entrepreneurship programme was advertised using typical masculine images and/or a solely masculine form for entrepreneur. ...
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Purpose This paper aims to illustrate the main contributions of the context-gender discussion in entrepreneurship research and its main developments over time to identify promising future research avenues. Design/methodology/approach This paper builds on the author’s extensive knowledge of the context-gender debate and on several recent overviews and reviews of the debate. It is written as essay, introducing its main themes through a personal reflection and complemented by a selective review of research on gendered contexts and women’s entrepreneurship. Findings The context-gender discussion has moved forward. The first wave of context-gender studies contextualized gender, considering the impact of contexts on women’s entrepreneurship. Nowadays, studies are conducted on how contexts are gendered and how they are constructed in gendered ways through, for example, words, images, cognitions, as well as how women entrepreneurs can impact on and enact their contexts. Originality/value This paper contributes novel insights into contextualizing gender and gendering contexts. It is unique in suggesting that a perspective on gendering contexts will allow to explore the diversity of entrepreneurship and further develop theories related to contexts and gender.
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As the breadth and empirical diversity of entrepreneurship research have increased rapidly during the last decade, the quest to find a "one-size-fits-all" general theory of entrepreneurship has given way to a growing appreciation for the importance of contexts. This promises to improve both the practical relevance and the theoretical rigor of research in this field. Entrepreneurship means different things to different people at different times and in different places and both its causes and its consequences likewise vary. For example, for some people entrepreneurship can be a glorious path to emancipation, while for others it can represent the yoke tethering them to the burdens of overwork and drudgery. For some communities it can drive renaissance and vibrancy while for others it allows only bare survival. In this book, we assess and attempt to push forward contemporary conceptualizations of contexts that matter for entrepreneurship, pointing in particular to opportunities generating new insights by attending to contexts in novel or underexplored ways. This book shows that the ongoing contextualization of entrepreneurship research should not simply generate a proliferation of unique theories – one for every context – but can instead result in better theory construction, testing and understanding of boundary conditions, thereby leading us to richer and more profound understanding of entrepreneurship across its many forms. Contextualizing Entrepreneurship Theory will critically review the current debate and existing literature on contexts and entrepreneurship and use this to synthesize new theoretical and methodological frameworks that point to important directions for future research. Open Access Link: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/contextualizing-entrepreneurship-theory-ted-baker-friederike-welter/10.4324/9781351110631
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In 2015/16, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) study completes 17 years of the journey to create knowledge on entrepreneurship around the world. The study has a noble mission to generate globally comparative data to understand the entrepreneurial activity. This would help identify factors determining national levels of entrepreneurial activity, as well as policies aimed at enhancing entrepreneurial activity. It measures entrepreneurship through surveys and interviews of field experts conducted by the teams in the respective countries. The GEM survey generates a variety of relevant primary information on different aspects of entrepreneurship and provides harmonised measures about individuals’ attributes and their activities in different phases of venturing (from nascent to start-up, established business, and discontinuation). This 2015/16 GEM report covers results based on 60 economies completing the Adult Population Survey (APS) and 62 economies completing the National Expert Survey (NES). The present report provides insights into entrepreneurial activities in India. The GEM India study was conducted using a well-established GEM research methodology that is consistent across all participating countries, thus enabling cross-country comparison. The APS was conducted among 3,413 samples and provides information regarding the level of entrepreneurial activity in the country based on the national framework conditions, whereas the NES was conducted on 72 national experts with an average age of 41 years. The NES focuses on entrepreneurial start-up environment in India with regard to nine entrepreneurial framework conditions (EFCs).
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Thesis
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Stellenanzeigen online in Jobportalen zu inserieren, ist eines der wichtigsten Instrumente im Rekrutierungsprozess für Unternehmen. Eine adäquate Beschreibung der Stelle mit ihren Aufgaben und kombiniert mit passenden Bildern ist deswegen notwendig, um die optimale Besetzung der Stelle zu erhalten. Umso interessanter ist es, dass oftmals sprachliche Möglichkeiten nicht ausgeschöpft werden, um den/die ideale/n Kanditat/en/in zu erreichen und von einer geschlechtergerechten Darstellung oftmals nicht die Rede sein kann. In dieser Arbeit wird betrachtet, ob die sprachliche Struktur von Stellenanzeigen im Online-Jobportal Stepstone mit ihrer kommunikativen Funktion der Aufforderung zu einer Bewerbung übereinstimmt. Ich erläutere die unterschiedlichen Möglichkeiten der Personenreferenz. Nach einem Überblick über vorhandene Stellentitel aus 18 Berufsgruppen, wird eine tiefergehende Analyse der Kategorie Führungskräfte durchgeführt, die auf Grundlage sprachlicher, bildlicher und kontextueller Indikatoren erfolgt. Betrachtet werden Stellenanzeigen, die mit einem maskulinen Nomen und dem Zusatz m/w formuliert und mit dem Bild eines Menschen visualisiert wurden. Es wird angenommen, dass es Stellenanzeigen gibt, die nicht geschlechtergerecht formuliert wurden. Da dies aufgrund des Allgemeinen Gleichbehandlungsgesetzes nicht explizit möglich ist, soll eruiert werden, ob ein indirekter Weg gewählt wurde, der sich anhand der genannten Indikatoren aufzeigen lässt.
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Data gathered by the authors from undergraduate and part-time graduate business students in 1976-1977 suggested that men were more likely than women to aspire to top management and that, consistent with traditional stereotypes of males and managers, a gender identity consisting of high masculinity and low femininity was associated with aspirations to top management. As a result of gender-related social changes, we expected the gender difference in aspirations to top management but not the importance of gender identity to have decreased over time. We collected data in 1999 from the same two populations to test these notions. In newly collected data, high masculinity (but not low femininity) was still associated with such aspirations, and men still aspired to top management positions more than women. However, the gender difference in aspirations to top management did not decrease over time.
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Argues that occupational sex bias is not inevitable nor invariable and presents a "lack of fit" model to describe the dynamics of sex bias and the conditions that prompt and support its occurrence in organizational settings. The model uses a single principle to explain how both self-directed sex bias (self-limiting behavior) and other-directed sex bias (discrimination) operate before and after a woman's entry into an organization. Areas considered include selection, evaluation, and causal explanations of success. A review of the literature demonstrates the integrative capacity of the model, and consideration of the model's implications illustrates its practical utility in furthering organizational change to reduce sex bias in the workplace. (71 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This reply to D. L. Meyer (see record 1992-03999-001) explains again that cell means, although usually the result of greatest interest, should not be confused with interaction effects. Unless all main effects are 0, one cannot accurately interpret an interaction by plotting the cell means. To interpret an interaction, it is the residuals remaining after removal of constituent effects (e.g., row and column effects in 2-factor analyses) that must be examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the process of deciding whether or not to apply for jobs, using the verbal protocol analysis (VPA) technique. Verbal reports provided by participants as they evaluated job postings and decided whether or not to interview for jobs were analyzed to assess what information was heeded, the impact of incomplete or unusual information, and the role of inferences regarding job characteristics and probability of hire. Results indicated that location and compensation received the most attention and that participants also responded to the amount of information provided. In addition, participants made inferences about unobserved characteristics and probability of hire, although the latter played little role in the decision to interview. The study also provided support for the usefulness of VPA by demonstrating that neither the verbal protocol process nor the use of prompts significantly influenced participants' decisions (as compared with the decisions of control groups). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
An unanswered question in recruitment research is whether and how the media used to communicate recruitment messages influence important outcomes. Drawing from research and theory on persuasive communication and media richness and features, we propose and test a model of the effects of media and media features (amount of information, opportunities for 2-way communication, personal focus, social presence, symbolism) on communication outcomes (credibility and satisfaction), attitudes, intentions, and behavior associated with joining the organization. Results of an experiment with 989 undergraduate students show that a constant recruitment message delivered via different media (face-to-face, video, audio, text) influenced perceptions of featares, and perceptions of features were related to important pre-hire outcomes.
Article
Our study investigated applicant characteristics in response to organizations incorporating an affirmative action policy (AAP) statement in recruitment material. Study participants (N = 217; White upper-level management students) randomly received recruitment material containing one of three statements (e.g., affirmative action, equal employment opportunity (EEO), or no statement regarding affirmative action or EEO) and were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the organization publicizing the designated policy. Results indicated that individuals responded negatively to AAPs in recruitment material because of prejudice attitudes, the perceived unfairness of such programs (which we relate to equity sensitivity), or in an attempt to protect their own self-interest (which we relate to general self-efficacy). Additionally, individuals' equity sensitivity and general self-efficacy both moderated the relationship between racial prejudice and organizational attractiveness. Specifically, the negative relationships between participants' prejudice attitudes and the attractiveness of organizations publicizing an affirmative action policy were stronger for benevolents (persons tolerant of situations where they are under-rewarded) and for persons low in self-efficacy. Implications of our findings for organizational recruitment practices are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This research explores the effect of gender on organizational performance. Data used in the analysis was collected from small businesses in South Central Indiana from 1985-1987. The businesses were from the food and drink, computer sales and software, and health industries. Of the businesses surveyed, 312 were headed by men while 99 where headed by women. On average, these individuals were 44-45 years of age. Organizational performance is examined through two different concepts, survival and success. The results indicate that women were not more likely to go out of business than men, and only prior self-employment had different effects for men and women. Further, there was not a difference in this area among the differing industries. The results also indicate that both genders were equally confident and believed they had the ability to influence business outcomes. As for the success of these businesses, there again was no difference between the males and females with respect to earnings growth. These results are contrary to the traditional thinking that men have an advantage over women with respect to entrepreneurship and organizational performance. Since the dataset used in this analysis was limited in scope, further research is necessary to determine if these results will hold true across other industries. (SRD)
Article
The relationships between gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial intentions were examined for two sample groups: adolescents and adult master of business administration (MBA) students. Similar gender effects on entrepreneurial self-efficacy are shown for both groups and support earlier research on the relationship between self-efficacy and career intentions. Additionally, the effects of entrepreneurship education in MBA programs on entrepreneurial self-efficacy proved stronger for women than for men. Implications for educators and policy makers were discussed, and areas for future research outlined.
Article
In this study we examine the role of socially constructed gender stereotypes in entrepreneurship and their influence on men and women's entrepreneurial intentions. Data on characteristics of males, females, and entrepreneurs were collected from young adults in three countries. As hypothesized, entrepreneurs were perceived to have predominantly masculine characteristics. Additional results revealed that although both men and women perceive entrepreneurs to have characteristics similar to those of males (masculine gender-role stereotype), only women also perceived entrepreneurs and females as having similar characteristics (feminine gender-role stereotype). Further, though men and women did not differ in their entrepreneurial intentions, those who perceived themselves as more similar to males (high on male gender identification) had higher entrepreneurial intentions than those who saw themselves as less similar to males (low male gender identification). No such difference was found for people who saw themselves as more or less similar to females (female gender identification). The results were consistent across the three countries. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
The present paper reports the results from two investigations that examined the degree to which racial tolerance influences Caucasians' attraction to organizations. In Study 1, 280 Caucasian job seekers rated the extent to which various organizational features would influence their interest in an organization. Findings suggested that (a) racial tolerance was related to the importance placed on organizational diversity, but not other factors (e.g., pay), and (b) that racial tolerance predicted the importance placed on organizational diversity above and beyond other relevant individual differences. Study 2 extended Study 1 by examining whether the diversity values expressed in job advertisements affect Caucasians' perceptions of organizational image and subsequent job pursuit intentions. The results of Study 2 indicated that racial tolerance was significantly related to organizational perceptions and pursuit intentions when strong diversity values were communicated in a job advertisement.
Article
A key aim of social psychology is to understand the psychological processes through which independent variables affect dependent variables in the social domain. This objective has given rise to statistical methods for mediation analysis. In mediation analysis, the significance of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables has been integral in theory testing, being used as a basis to determine (1) whether to proceed with analyses of mediation and (2) whether one or several proposed mediator(s) fully or partially accounts for an effect. Synthesizing past research and offering new arguments, we suggest that the collective evidence raises considerable concern that the focus on the significance between the independent and dependent variables, both before and after mediation tests, is unjustified and can impair theory development and testing. To expand theory involving social psychological processes, we argue that attention in mediation analysis should be shifted towards assessing the magnitude and significance of indirect effects.
Article
Two studies are reported which indicate that both sex-biased wording in job advertisements and the placement of help-wanted ads in sex-segregated newspaper columns discourage men and women from applying for “opposite-sex” jobs for which they might well be qualified. Both studies were originally conducted and presented as part of legal testimony in actual sex discrimination cases.
Article
The relationship between recruitment advertisement variables and applicant response rate was investigated. Three hundred and fifty companies were surveyed about applicant responses to their classified advertisements. One hundred and thirty-three surveys were completed and sent back for a return rate of 38%. The results of this study indicate that advertisements which include variables to enhance the physical features of the advertisement: such as white space, size, border, and graphics—are positively related to the quantity of an applicant pool.
Article
Previous research on the psychology of entrepreneurs found that personality traits such as locus of control failed to distinguish entrepreneurs from managers. In search of an individual characteristic that is distinctively entrepreneurial, we proposed an entrepreneurial self-efficacy construct (ESE) to predict the likelihood of an individual being an entrepreneur. ESE refers to the strength of a person’s belief that he or she is capable of successfully performing the various roles and tasks of entrepreneurship. It consists of five factors: marketing, innovation, management, risk-taking, and financial control.
Article
Participants are not always as diligent in reading and following instructions as experimenters would like them to be. When participants fail to follow instructions, this increases noise and decreases the validity of their data. This paper presents and validates a new tool for detecting participants who are not following instructions – the Instructional manipulation check (IMC). We demonstrate how the inclusion of an IMC can increase statistical power and reliability of a dataset.
Article
The underrepresentation of women at the top of math-intensive fields is controversial, with competing claims of biological and sociocultural causation. The authors develop a framework to delineate possible causal pathways and evaluate evidence for each. Biological evidence is contradictory and inconclusive. Although cross-cultural and cross-cohort differences suggest a powerful effect of sociocultural context, evidence for specific factors is inconsistent and contradictory. Factors unique to underrepresentation in math-intensive fields include the following: (a) Math-proficient women disproportionately prefer careers in non-math-intensive fields and are more likely to leave math-intensive careers as they advance; (b) more men than women score in the extreme math-proficient range on gatekeeper tests, such as the SAT Mathematics and the Graduate Record Examinations Quantitative Reasoning sections; (c) women with high math competence are disproportionately more likely to have high verbal competence, allowing greater choice of professions; and (d) in some math-intensive fields, women with children are penalized in promotion rates. The evidence indicates that women's preferences, potentially representing both free and constrained choices, constitute the most powerful explanatory factor; a secondary factor is performance on gatekeeper tests, most likely resulting from sociocultural rather than biological causes.