ArticleLiterature Review

# The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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## Abstract

Objective: This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for eating disorders. Method: Randomized controlled trials of CBT were searched. Seventy-nine trials were included. Results: Therapist-led CBT was more efficacious than inactive (wait-lists) and active (any psychotherapy) comparisons in individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Therapist-led CBT was most efficacious when manualized CBT-BN or its enhanced version was delivered. No significant differences were observed between therapist-led CBT for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder and antidepressants at posttreatment. CBT was also directly compared to other specific psychological interventions, and therapist-led CBT resulted in greater reductions in behavioral and cognitive symptoms than interpersonal psychotherapy at posttreatment. At follow-up, CBT outperformed interpersonal psychotherapy only on cognitive symptoms. CBT for binge eating disorder also resulted in greater reductions in behavioral symptoms than behavioral weight loss interventions. There was no evidence that CBT was more efficacious than behavior therapy or nonspecific supportive therapies. Conclusions: CBT is efficacious for eating disorders. Although CBT was equally efficacious to certain psychological treatments, the fact that CBT outperformed all active psychological comparisons and interpersonal psychotherapy specifically, offers some support for the specificity of psychological treatments for eating disorders. Conclusions from this study are hampered by the fact that many trials were of poor quality. Higher quality RCTs are essential. (PsycINFO Database Record

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... The preliminary conversational content and decision tree for KIT was developed by the authors, in collaboration with the helpline and communications teams at the Butterfly Foundation (a national charity based in Australia, which provides support for body image and eating disorders). The conversation content was based on evidence-based information/interventions for eating disorders, specifically, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), acceptance commitment therapy (ACT), and mindfulness [25,26], and adapted for delivery by a chatbot. Owing to the short and simple style of conversations KIT was designed to deliver, we were highly selective in the therapeutic elements we chose from CBT (eg, education on cognitive distortions or unhelpful thinking styles), ACT (eg, practicing detaching from unhelpful thoughts via cognitive defusion exercises), and mindfulness (eg, mindful breathing) [17,25,26]. ...
... The conversation content was based on evidence-based information/interventions for eating disorders, specifically, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), acceptance commitment therapy (ACT), and mindfulness [25,26], and adapted for delivery by a chatbot. Owing to the short and simple style of conversations KIT was designed to deliver, we were highly selective in the therapeutic elements we chose from CBT (eg, education on cognitive distortions or unhelpful thinking styles), ACT (eg, practicing detaching from unhelpful thoughts via cognitive defusion exercises), and mindfulness (eg, mindful breathing) [17,25,26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Body image and eating disorders represent a significant public health concern; however, many affected individuals never access appropriate treatment. Conversational agents or chatbots reflect a unique opportunity to target those affected online by providing psychoeducation and coping skills, thus filling the gap in service provision. Objective A world-first body image chatbot called “KIT” was designed. The aim of this study was to assess preliminary acceptability and feasibility via the collection of qualitative feedback from young people and parents/carers regarding the content, structure, and design of the chatbot, in accordance with an agile methodology strategy. The chatbot was developed in collaboration with Australia’s national eating disorder support organization, the Butterfly Foundation. Methods A conversation decision tree was designed that offered psychoeducational information on body image and eating disorders, as well as evidence-based coping strategies. A version of KIT was built as a research prototype to deliver these conversations. Six focus groups were conducted using online semistructured interviews to seek feedback on the KIT prototype. This included four groups of people seeking help for themselves (n=17; age 13-18 years) and two groups of parents/carers (n=8; age 46-57 years). Participants provided feedback on the cartoon chatbot character design, as well as the content, structure, and design of the chatbot webchat. Results Thematic analyses identified the following three main themes from the six focus groups: (1) chatbot character and design, (2) content presentation, and (3) flow. Overall, the participants provided positive feedback regarding KIT, with both young people and parents/carers generally providing similar reflections. The participants approved of KIT’s character and engagement. Specific suggestions were made regarding the brevity and tone to increase KIT’s interactivity. Conclusions Focus groups provided overall positive qualitative feedback regarding the content, structure, and design of the body image chatbot. Incorporating the feedback of lived experience from both individuals and parents/carers allowed the refinement of KIT in the development phase as per an iterative agile methodology. Further research is required to evaluate KIT’s efficacy.
... Early detection of the presence of these symptoms and behaviours will likely lead to reduced number of full-threshold disorders developing via the successful early intervention treatment of the disordered eating behaviours and body image concerns with effective psychological therapies such as cognitive-behavioural therapy. 28 Based on the results of this study, we conclude that responsible clinical practice in this vulnerable cohort requires assertive assessment for the presence of disordered eating behaviours and body image concerns to be standard practice in any youth mental health service, even when the young person does not self-identify as presenting with concerns about their eating. A valid and reliable screening tool for eating disorder symptoms should be included as part of a comprehensive youth mental health assessment in order to facilitate the best possible mental healthcare for young people, and to have the opportunity to provide early intervention treatment to prevent a fullthreshold eating disorder from emerging. ...
Article
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Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of disordered eating in young people attending a headspace centre, an enhanced primary care centre providing early intervention services for mental health disorders for young people aged 12–25 years, in metropolitan Sydney. Design Cross-sectional assessment of disordered eating symptoms and behaviours. Setting An enhanced primary care youth mental health service in inner urban Sydney, Australia. Participants A sequential cohort of 530 young people aged 14–26 years presenting to headspace Camperdown for support with mental health concerns. Outcome measures Participants completed a series of questionnaires online which included items assessing the presence of eating disorder symptoms and behaviours. Results Over one-third of young people aged 14–26 years presenting to headspace Camperdown in a 22-month period reported symptoms of disordered eating. Of these, 32% endorsed overeating behaviours, 25% endorsed dietary restriction and 8% reported purging behaviours. In total, 44% reported engaging in one of more of these behaviours on a regular basis. Almost half reported experiencing significant shape and weight concerns. Eating disorder behaviours were particularly prevalent among female and gender-diverse participants (48% of females and 46% of gender-diverse participants compared with 35% of males) and overall scores across all of the eating disorder and body image items assessed were significantly higher for female participants compared with males. Conclusions Disordered eating behaviours and symptoms are common among those presenting to youth mental health primary care services. Proactive screening for these behaviours presents opportunities for early detection and specific interventions. Trial registration number ACTRN12618001676202; Results.
... DBT was initially designed to treat suicidal patients and successfully utilized as an intensive outpatient treatment program for individuals with BPD (Linehan and Kehrer, 1993). DBT has also been successful in treating various other psychological disorders such as anxiety, mood, and eating disorders (Neacsiu et al., 2010;Webb et al., 2016;Conrad et al., 2017;Linardon et al., 2017). There is, however, only preliminary evidence on the efficacy of DBT for SUD (Stotts and Northrup, 2015) and even fewer trials of DBT for BPD and SUD (Lee et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with comorbid substance use disorder can be challenging due to symptom overlap and limited assessment methods. Preliminary evidence has shown promising effectiveness of dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) for BPD with comorbid substance use disorders. The current study compared the benefits of a 28-day transitional DBT treatment program for individuals with BPD with and without substance use disorders through evaluating the changes in coping skills, generalized anxiety, and depression symptom scales at admission and discharge. A total of 76 patients were split into two groups: Group 1 consisted of individuals with BPD without substance use disorders ( n = 41), and Group 2 involved individuals with BPD and a substance use disorder (SUD) ( n = 35). A univariate general linear model showed significant differences between the two groups in improvement of coping skills and depressive symptoms. After a 28-day transitional DBT treatment program there were significant decreases from severe to moderate depression scores in both groups. Our findings support the effectiveness of DBT treatment in patients with comorbid BPD and SUD.
... Similarly, in the case of Lauren, weekly in-session exposures and daily home-based exposure appeared to result in successful reintroduction of foods and introducing oral medication. Frequency and duration of sessions were intensive, with Rachel receiving 30 sessions of 50 minute duration over a period of six months and Lauren receiving 23 sessions of 50 minute average duration over a period of 8 months, with the number of sessions being consistent with evidence based ED treatments such as cognitive behavioural therapy for adults (e.g., (Fairburn, 2008;Linardon et al., 2017). ...
Article
Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a Feeding and Eating Disorder newly added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5 th Edition, which presents with high prevalence rates in community and clinical settings. Given its recent diagnostic recognition, validated and standardized treatments for this population are lacking. In addition, given the complexity, heterogeneity of symptoms, and high rates of psychiatric comorbidities in the ARFID population, new models of care are required. The current therapy model combines two evidence-based treatments - Family Based Treatment (FBT) and the Unified Protocols for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Children and Adolescents (UP-C/A) - for young patients with ARFID plus Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), which allows clinicians to personalize care based on each patient's unique presenting needs. This paper presents two distinct cases which showcase the use of the FBT+UP for ARFID approach for treating comorbid ARFID and ASD in a clinical setting. Case 1 demonstrates the application and reliance on FBT, while Case 2 draws upon UP to facilitate behavioural change in the patient. Case backgrounds, presenting problems, and treatment approaches combining the two evidence-based treatments are presented and discussed. The cases demonstrate the unique challenges of treating young patients with comorbid ARFID and ASD, along with the proposed benefits of the combined approach with this population.
... CBT is a therapeutic approach with the strongest scientific support for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, anger control problems, eating disorders, and general stress. (Hofmann et al., 2012) A metaanalysis involving 79 trials concluded that CBT is an evidence-based intervention for treating binge eating disorder, the most common eating disorder (Linardon et al., 2017). The goals of CBT for this group is to encourage participants to improve eating patterns and body image by setting goals, self-monitoring, restructuring distorted cognitions and self-perceptions, and managing stress in ways that do not involve food. ...
Article
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Poor lifestyle behaviors impact (pre)pregnant women by affecting pregnancy outcomes and offspring health. This systematic review provides an overview of psychological therapies to support lifestyle behavior changes among (pre)pregnant women. Scientific databases were searched from their inception to 20 December 2020 for studies investigating the effects of psychological therapies on improvements in lifestyle behaviors. Studies were eligible if they included (pre)pregnant women, examined the effects of a psychological therapy on at least one lifestyle behavior and used a control group receiving usual pregnancy care or a non-psychological intervention. Lifestyle behaviors of interest were dietary intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, body weight loss and body weight gain during pregnancy. Pregnancy complications were included as outcome measures. Motivational interviewing (MI) (n=21), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) (n=8), incentive-based contingency management (IBCM) (n=9), mindfulness (n=1) and hypnosis (n=1) were investigated as lifestyle behavior interventions. The findings revealed that MI was effective in reducing (self-reported) smoking and alcohol consumption and restricting gestational weight gain (GWG). CBT was only studied as an intervention to restrict GWG and the results predominantly confirmed its effectiveness. IBCM showed the strongest effect on reducing smoking and substance use. The studies using hypnosis or mindfulness to reduce smoking or restrict GWG, respectively, showed no associations. The use of psychological therapies to improve lifestyle behaviors among (pre-)pregnant women is new and the scientific proof is promising. Before wide implementation is legitimated, more evidence is needed on the consequences of lifestyle change for pregnancy outcomes.
... An emerging need is revealed for sport-specific, gender-specific preventive actions to deescalate the risk of eating disorder and behavior, in both professional and non-professional athletes [26]. In addition, personalized nutritional and psychological therapy [27,28] would help the athletes at risk to obtain a healthy self-acceptable body image. One limitation of this study was the relatively small sample, particularly of females. ...
Article
Full-text available
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding (professional and recreational) and strength athletes. This cross-sectional single time point study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. Scores on the items of the questionnaires according to sex were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test and differences according to bodybuilding performance status or/and body weight deviation category using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall (p=0.001), and the subscales of dieting (p=0.01) and bulimia (p=0.001). Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes (p=0.01). The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
... It involves monitoring eating and setting goals for food plans. Treatment focuses on creating new, healthier eating 67 habits along with disruption of poor eating habits. For example, if you are getting a snack, can you eat fruit instead of cookies? ...
Book
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Do you blame yourself for unhealthy eating patterns? Have you struggled to understand the research about healthy eating? Which combination of foods or eating patterns are healthy? This guide could help you answer these questions for yourself. The guide first discusses how vital healthy eating is to your well-being. Next, the guide tackles obstacles to healthy eating. Then, the guide discusses major dietary approaches and their pros and cons. You will also learn about successful behavioral health approaches to weight management. Finally, the guide addresses how healthy eating requirements can change as you age and how diet may affect your brain health. Each section of this guide explores a topic by reviewing recent research, summarizing key information, and posing questions for you to consider as you develop an eating pattern that works for you.
... Fairburn et al., 2003;Murray et al., 2019), but treatment outcomes remain unclear (J. Linardon, Wade, et al., 2017). Dissociation, alexithymia and emotional dysregulation have been identified as relevant comorbidities that could interfere with eating-disordered patients' improvement and recovery, but in the current literature, there is no consensus as for effective ways to reduce these symptoms (Fernández-Aranda et al., 2008;Gramaglia et al., 2020;Thompson-Brenner et al., 2019;Westwood et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The research into emotional regulation in eating disorders (EDs) has shown specific impairments and maladaptive coping strategies in patients, and there is an increasing interest in the role of the emotional domain in the treatment outcome. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a specialized inpatient treatment characterized by both an intensive and comprehensive standardized multidisciplinary program based on cognitive–behavioral therapy and a flexible and personalized component implemented by third-wave interventions. A cohort of 67 female ED patients (anorexia nervosa = 28, bulimia nervosa = 28, and binge eating disorder = 11) underwent an evaluation of emotional regulation difficulties, alexithymia, and dissociative symptomatology at admission to a specialized ED ward. The psychological modifications were subsequently re-evaluated upon discharge, after an inpatients treatment of 60 days, examining specific changes in the specific psychopathology. A significant improvement after specialized ED treatment was shown in alexithymia, emotional regulation difficulties, and dissociation symptoms, with higher effect sizes in patients with higher alexithymia scores. As regards the specific effect of the psychological improvement, changes into alexithymia scores have shown specific correlations with ED psychopathology (p < 0.010) and with difficulties in emotional regulation (p < 0.010) in patients with higher alexithymia levels at admission. Emotional regulation and dissociation should therefore be evaluated in ED patients and may be improved with specific therapeutic approaches, while alexithymia remains a clinical trait, even with a significant reduction.
... Despite the large amount of research being conducted in the field, the efficacy of BI-focused interventions in ED remains limited (Alleva et al., 2015;Ziser et al., 2018). Particularly, interventions targeting BI only, lead to small improvement, highlighting the need for enhancing current therapeutic strategies (Alleva et al., 2015;Linardon et al., 2017Linardon et al., , 2018Linardon & Wade, 2018). Additionally, there is evidence that BID persists in patients with ED once the intervention is finished (Engel & Keizer, 2017;Eshkevari et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Body image (BI) disturbance is a relevant factor in the etiology and treatment of eating disorders (ED). Although progress has been made in recent decades in understanding BI and its relationship with ED, the efficacy of BI disturbance prevention and intervention programs is still limited. In order to reach deeper understanding of BI disturbance and clarify the interactions between some protective and risk factors related to this construct, we carried out a literature review on some specific BI-related factors that so far have been analyzed independently. We specifically examined positive and negative BI; embodiment and its role in the development of positive and negative BI; and self-compassion as a protective factor that promotes positive embodiment (vs. disembodiment) and protection against body shame. We conclude that integrating the available evidence on these factors into BI models may be used to enhance our understanding of BI and improve the efficacy of prevention and intervention programs to help fight negative BI (by reducing body shame and disembodiment) and promote positive BI (by increasing self-compassion and positive embodiment). Keywords: body image, positive embodiment, body shame, self-compassion
... We found that TTIs which were underpinned by CBT and were particularly effective in interventions. This finding is consistent with previous evidence on the effectiveness of CBT on EDs [64]. Another technique used in the included studies was motivational interviewing (MI). ...
Article
Purpose Eating disorders (EDs) is a major health condition affecting 9% of the global population and 10% of those with EDs lost their lives as a result. Text-based telehealth interventions (TTIs) seem to provide a low-cost and convenient treatment option; however, the evidence is scarce. This study aimed to synthesize evidence relating to the use of TTIs for the management of EDs. Design/methodology/approach Five databases were searched published between January 2020 and May 2019. The authors used keywords relating to telehealth and EDs. The authors used Joanna Briggs Institute's (JBI's) critical appraisal instrument to assess the methodology quality of included studies. Findings Fifteen studies were included in this mix-method systematic review and assessed for methodology quality. Email, web-based texting, text-messaging and online chat room were used as mode for deliver healthcare for patients with EDs. In the treatment phase, all studies (nine studies; n = 860 participants) showed effectiveness (for RCTs) and usefulness (for non-RCT studies). In the aftercare phase (six studies; n = 364 participants), the results regarding the effectiveness of TTIs were mixed. Two studies showed effectiveness whilst four studies did not find statistically significant change of ED outcomes. Research limitations/implications The qualities of these studies varied; firstly, 66% (n = 10) of the studies were non-randomized studies (e.g. single-arm trial, case report) with small samples. Moreover, one-fourth (n = 4) of the studies did not use validated instruments or indicate the instrument. Also, half (n = 7) of the studies used TTIs as adjunct to face-to-face treatment or bigger online treatment, it is hard to make conclusion that the changes were due to TTIs' effect. In addition, follow-up rate is not satisfactory, thus results should be interpreted cautiously. Practical implications TTIs seem to be promising for management of EDs, particularly in the treatment phase. This provides an important treatment option for health practitioners and people with EDs as an alternative or in adjunct with face-to-face services. Originality/value This is the first review to synthesis the use of TTIs for ED management.
... SYMPTOMS OF EATING DISORDERS (EDs) are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the general population and are linked with numerous psychological, social, and medical complications (Mitchison et al., 2012). A range of potentially efficacious prevention (Stice et al., 2019), early intervention (Jacobi et al., 2012), and treatment (Linardon et al., 2017) programs designed to target ED symptoms and risk factors exist, yet barriers such as cost, geographical constraints, limited professional availability, and stigma continue to contribute to low rates of professional help seeking (Stice et al., 2017;Weissman & Rosselli, 2017). Since a delay in help seeking can lead to symptom escalation and, ultimately, the onset of a clinically significant ED (Schmidt et al., 2016), innovations to intervention delivery are urgently needed to increase access to and willingness to receive evidence-based care. ...
Article
Despite their potential as a scalable, cost-effective intervention format, self-guided internet-based interventions for eating disorder (ED) symptoms continue to be associated with suboptimal rates of adherence and retention. Improving this may depend on the design of an internet intervention and its method of content delivery, with interactive programs expected to be more engaging than static, text-based programs. However, causal evidence for the added benefits of interactive functionality is lacking. We conducted a randomized controlled comparison of an internet-based intervention for ED symptoms with and without interactive functionality. Participants were randomized to a four-week interactive (n =148) or static (n =145) version of an internet-based, cognitive-behavioral program. The interactive version included diverse multimedia content delivery channels (video tutorials, graphics, written-text), a smartphone app allowing users to complete the required homework exercises digitally (quizzes, symptom tracking, self-assessments), and progress monitoring features. The static version delivered identical intervention content but only via written-text, and contained none of those interactive features. Dropout rates were high overall (58%), but were significantly-yet slightly-lower for the interactive (51%) compared to the static intervention (65%). There were no significant differences in adherence rates and symptom-level improvements between the two conditions. Adding basic interactive functionality to a digital intervention may help with study retention. However, present findings challenge prior speculations that interactive features are crucial for improving user engagement and symptom improvement.
... CBT has demonstrated effectiveness in addressing unhealthy eating habits, the lack of physical activity and obesity. [20][21][22][23] CBT is beneficial to manage unhelpful thoughts and behaviours, which prevents individuals with obesity from adhering to the prescribed weight loss behaviours. Unsurprisingly, when compared with the traditional dietary treatment, weight loss programmes that incorporate CBT strategies to promote lifestyle change were able to achieve better weight losses (of between five and 20 percent of weight vs 3 percent) and lower dropout rates (average dropout rates of 20 percent vs rates as high as 58 percent). ...
Obesity is a growing global concern, and Singapore is not spared from the global epidemic. Apart from the increased risk for many serious diseases and health conditions, obese individuals are vulnerable to many psychological comorbidities. Obesity management through lifestyle changes can be limited by various barriers, increasing the challenge of implementation and leaving some clinicians feeling frustrated and stressed. The paper examines the barriers identified in the literature, discusses the use of cognitive behavioural concepts and techniques to facilitate the lifestyle change process and explores the use of motivation and readiness to change to guide the clinician’s strategies.
... A recent systematic review regarding the diagnosis prevalence of EDs established that worldwide, around 8.4% of women and 2.2% of men will be diagnosed with this condition at some point in their lifetime [6]. The main treatments for EDs, which are based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), have been demonstrated to be useful in reducing symptoms [7,8]; however, these current treatments have not always reported successful outcomes [9][10][11][12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Eating disorders (EDs) are severe psychiatric illnesses that require individualized treatments. Decision-making deficits have been associated with EDs. Decision-making learning deficits denote a lack of strategies to elaborate better decisions that can have an impact on recovery and response to treatment. This study used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to investigate learning differences related to treatment outcome in EDs, comparing between patients with a good and bad treatment outcome and healthy controls. Likewise, the predictive role of impaired learning performance on therapy outcome was explored. Four hundred twenty-four participants (233 ED patients and 191 healthy controls) participated in this study. Decision making was assessed using the Iowa Gambling Task before any psychological treatment. All patients received psychological therapy, and treatment outcome was evaluated at discharge. Patients with bad outcome did not show progression in the decision-making task as opposed to those with good outcome and the healthy control sample. Additionally, learning performance in the decision-making task was predictive of their future outcome. The severity of learning deficits in decision making may serve as a predictor of the treatment. These results may provide a starting point of how decision-making learning deficits are operating as dispositional and motivational factors on responsiveness to treatment in EDs.
... [62][63][64] Although psychological treatment approaches will vary by age and ED type, cognitive behavioral therapy interventions are implemented for adults. 65 ...
... An emerging need is revealed for sport-specific, gender-specific preventive actions to deescalate the risk of eating disorder and behavior, in both professional and non-professional athletes [19]. In addition, personalized nutritional and psychological therapy [20,21] would help the athletes at risk to obtain a healthy self-acceptable body image. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, and the subscales of dieting and bulimia. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
... To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate an individual outpatient MABT treatment based on ACT and DBT to CBT for BN spectrum disorders. The MABT tested in this trial showed prefollow-up with effect sizes similar to those reported for previous CBT outcomes for BN(Hay, Bacaltchuk, Stefano, & Kashyap, 2009;Linardon, Wade, de la Piedad Garcia, & Brennan, 2017) and other ...
Article
Objective Although existing research supports the efficacy of mindfulness- and acceptance-based treatments (MABTs) for eating disorders (EDs), few studies have directly compared outcomes from MABTs to standard CBT. Method Participants (N = 44), treatment-seeking adults with bulimia-spectrum EDs, were screened for eligibility, consented, and randomized to receive 20 sessions of outpatient, individual CBT or MABT treatment. Treatment outcomes (binge eating and compensatory behavior episodes, global ED severity, depressive symptoms, quality of life, emotional awareness/clarity, distress tolerance, values-based decision-making, and emotion modulation) were measured at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow up. Data on feasibility and acceptability are also presented. Results Treatment and assessment retention rates were comparable between MABT and CBT (p range = .51–.73) and between-group differences on acceptability measures were very small (d range = 0.03–0.19). Both conditions produced notable and generally comparable changes in most treatment outcomes at post-treatment (within group d range = 0.06–1.77). Discussion The MABT and CBT conditions demonstrated comparable degrees of feasibility, acceptability, and symptom improvement, suggesting that MABTs warrant further evaluation as ED treatments.
... Other factors, such as extreme dieting, compensatory vomiting, laxative use or excessive exercise, are seen as direct consequences of the core features. The cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders has led to the development of Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for eating disorders (CBT-E), which has proven to be an effective, transdiagnostic treatment for eating disorders (Byrne, Fursland, Allen, & Watson, 2011;Fairburn et al., 2015;Hay, 2013;Linardon, Wade, de la Piedad Garcia, & Brennan, 2017). In the first evaluations of the theory, confirmatory latent-trait analytic strategies were employed to determine whether it could be confirmed (Hoiles, Egan, & Kane, 2012;Lampard, Tasca, Balfour, & Bissada, 2013). ...
Article
Objective One of the prevailing theories of eating disorders (ED) is the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory of eating disorders, which suggests that certain ED symptoms, such as over-valuation of eating, shape, and weight, may be more central than others. In the present study, network analyses were used to evaluate these assumptions in a patient sample. Methods Participants were 336 individuals receiving treatment at an expert center for ED in the Netherlands. Eating disorder symptoms were used to create transdiagnostic and diagnosis-specific networks and assess symptom centrality and density of the networks. Results Networks for patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder confirmed that over-valuation of shape, weight, and eating is the most central symptom in the network. A transdiagnostic network of ED symptoms and separate networks for patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa showed that strict dieting was an additional central ED symptom. An exploratory analysis revealed that, although eating disorder symptoms decreased, there were no differences in density of the eating disorder networks before and after treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy. Discussion In conclusion, the current study confirmed that over-valuation of shape, weight, and eating is a central symptom across eating disorders, in agreement with the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of eating disorders. Specifically targeting this symptom in treatment could lead to other symptoms improving as a result.
... Even though BED symptoms have been demonstrated to reduce following CBT, research has shown that this treatment modality is only partially effective (56,57). Consequently, many individuals remain symptomatic or experience symptom reoccurrence following the conclusion of CBT treatment (58,59). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose A common challenge among a subgroup of individuals with obesity is binge eating, that exists on a continuum from mild binge eating episodes to severe binge eating disorder (BED). BED is common among bariatric patients and the prevalence of disordered eating and ED in bariatric surgery populations is well known. Conventional treatments and assessment of obesity seldom address the underlying psychological mechanisms of binge eating and subsequent obesity. This study, titled PnP (People need People) is a psychoeducational group pilot intervention for individuals with BED and obesity including patients with previous bariatric surgery. Design, feasibility, and a broad description of the study population is reported. Material and Methods A total of 42 patients were from an obesity clinic referred to assessment and treatment with PnP in a psychoeducational group setting (3-hour weekly meetings for 10 weeks). Of these, 6 (14.3%) patients had a previous history of bariatric surgery. Feasibility was assessed by tracking attendance, potentially adverse effects and outcome measures including body mass index (BMI), eating disorder pathology, overvaluation of shape and weight, impairment, self-reported childhood difficulties, alexithymia, internalized shame as well as health related quality of life (HRQoL). Results All 42 patients completed the intervention, with no adverse effects and a high attendance rate with a median attendance of 10 sessions, 95% CI (8.9,9.6) and 0% attrition. Extent of psychosocial impairment due to eating disorder pathology, body dissatisfaction and severity of ED symptoms were high among the patients at baseline. Additionally, self-reported childhood difficulties, alexithymia, and internalized shame were high among the patients and indicate a need to address underlying psychological mechanisms in individuals with BED and comorbid obesity. Improvement of HRQoL and reduction of binge eating between baseline and the end of the intervention was observed with a medium effect Conclusion This feasibility study supports PnP as a potential group psychoeducational intervention for patients living with BED and comorbid obesity. Assessments of BED and delivery of this intervention may optimize selection of candidates and bariatric outcomes. These preliminary results warrant further investigation via a randomized control trial (RCT) to examine the efficacy and effectiveness of PnP.
... A intervenção aqui descrita pode ser considerada como bem-sucedida, na medida em que resultou na normalização dos hábitos alimentares (com ganho de peso e aumento do IMC) e diminuição da preocupação com o peso e o corpo, áreas-chave apontadas na literatura para se avaliar a eficácia do tratamento da AN (Linardon, Wade, de la Piedad Garcia, & Brennan, 2017). É fundamental ressaltar que esse resultado foi possível também por ser um tratamento multidisciplinar, com diversos profissionais além da psicóloga, o que é indispensável no tratamento dos TAs. ...
Article
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Eating Disorders in adolescents are increasingly common and their effects must be ﬂexible, considering the individual characteristics and the development conditions of the therapy. A Multicomponent Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is a model of integration of several cognitive-behavioral techniques selected according to particularities. The aim of this study is to describe the treatment, based on Multicomponent Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, of a 13-year-old teenager diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa. Classical Cognitive Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy,Child Recycling Therapy, Schema Therapy, among others, were used. After 29 sessions, the patient shows improvement in eating behavior, mood and automatic image distortion. Among the techniques used, the enhanced living techniques or the therapeutic result, as they provide emotional experiences as problem situations. In turn, as the techniques of Classical Cognitive Therapy have not achieved satisfactory success, in part due to their imprint of logical-abstract reasoning, this seems to have caused demotivation. Thus, a Multicomponent Cognitive- Behavioral Therapy shows an important and appropriate instrument for the treatment of psychological disorders, mainly the eating disorders.
... Si bien es cierto, la AT en pacientes con DM puede ser abordada de manera multidisciplinar, el objetivo de la psicología -particularmente desde la Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual (TCC, en adelante)-es la adquisición de comportamientos saludables y funcionales para el control de la enfermedad, evitar o retrasar complicaciones y mejorar la calidad de vida de la persona (De Groot, Hill y Wagner, 2016;Hunter, 2016). En relación con la TCC, su aplicación ha resultado de utilidad para el tratamiento de la ansiedad (Cooper et al., 2017), trastornos de la ingesta y de la conducta alimentaria (Cooper et al., 2017), depresión (Linardon et al., 2017;Van der Feltz-Cornelis et al., 2021) e insomnio en pacientes con dolor crónico (Li et al., 2018), por mencionar algunos. ...
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Purpose: This article has two objectives: 1) To gather controlled and uncontrolled studies that provide evidence of the efficacy of Telepsychology on adherence to treatment indicators and behaviors of therapeutical adherence such as diet, physical activity, medication consumption, capillary glucose monitoring, foot care and Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1C) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; 2) to analyze the methodological characteristics of the studies. Methodological design: Considering PRISMA criteria and the PIT search strategy, six databases were consulted: Pubmed, OVID (PsycINFO and PsycArticles), Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science. Results: A total of 1,547 articles were identified, yet only five randomized controlled trials, met the inclusion criteria. The assessed behaviors and indicators of adherence to treatment were: HbA1C (n =3), physical activity (n = 2), medication intake (n =1), capillary glucose monitoring (n =1), and diet (n =1). In two studies, asynchronous-type Telepsychology (i.e., via websites and apps) improved HbA1C, medication intake, capillary glucose monitoring, and diet; results on physical activity differ. Limitations: Since only two studies described information on effect size and confidence interval, a metaanalysis is not feasible. Findings: Telepsychology based on asynchronous cognitive-behavioral therapy shows encouraging results in improving glycemic control and therapeutic adherence behaviors in people with diabetes mellitus. The identified research was conducted in the United States, Europe and Oceania.
... Interestingly, a post hoc analysis of the same trial, showed that the population reported bingeing conducts at the beginning of the trial (11% of general population, via a self-report questionnaire based on the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns) were less likely to complete the full 1-year assessment and to reach weight loss [49]. On the other side, four-year's results showed that dysfunctional eating affected weight loss over time, even though no data concerning T2DM management was described [50]. The failure of weight-loss treatments based on lifestyle modification in dysfunctional eaters is generally ascribed to powerful environmental, psychological, and biological pressures causing patients to overeat; novelty of our approach is the inclusion of educational, motivational, and psychological therapeutic strategies, based on cognitivebehavioural therapy (CBT), recommended for obesity and BED treatment [51]. ...
Article
Purpose: Dysfunctional eating is strongly associated with obesity and worsens type 2 diabetes (T2DM) outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the psycho-nutritional treatment (PNT) of "Centro DAI e Obesità" of Città della Pieve on weight loss and glucose management in dysfunctional eaters with obesity and T2DM. Methods: PNT includes psychotherapeutical, nutritional, physical and social activities. Subjects with obesity, T2DM and dysfunctional eating habits who completed the 8 weeks residential program between 2010 and 2019 were compared with obese, T2DM, dysfunctional eaters who underwent to a conventional, hospital-based, nutritional treatment (CT). Anthropometric variables, glucolipid panel, and body composition were assessed at baseline and at the end of the program. Weight and HbA1c were also measured after one year from the completion. Results: Sixty-nine patients completed the PNT and reduced weight (-7 ± 3.2%; p < 0.001), BMI (-7 ± 3.1%; p < 0.001), and triglycerides, AST, GGT and ALT (p ≤ 0.008); glycemic control improved (HbA1c: -1.1 ± 1.5%, mean fasting glucose: -41 ± 46 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Eleven% of subjects requiring diabetes medications at baseline discontinued the therapy. In the insulin treated group (49%), mean daily units were halved (-32.6 ± 26.0, p < 0.001). At one year, weight loss (-6 ± 7.4%, p < 0.001) and HbA1c reduction (-0.52 ± 1.4%, p = 0.029) persisted. Fifty-five patients completed the CT: HbA1c reduced (p = 0.02), but weight (-0.6 ± 3.7%), BMI (-0.7 ± 3.8%), and insulin units' reduction (-2.5 ± 11.7, p = 0.20) were lower compared to the PNT. Conclusion: PNT is effective in improving T2DM management in patients with obesity and dysfunctional eating.
... or eating disorders(Linardon et al., 2017). On the other hand, psychological distress among patients arising from SCI included combinations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), damage to their physical condition and comorbidities and preinjury and postinjury sensation loss(Gruener et al., 2018). ...
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Aim The aim of this study is to report on the extent and range of the research evaluating cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in adults with spinal cord injury. Background Spinal cord injury is a devastating event that can lead to permanent neurologic deficit. Compared with the average person, spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are at twice the risk of developing mood disorders, highlighting vulnerability of SCI patients' mental states which can be easily hurt. CBT is the most commonly used psychosocial intervention. Design This was a scoping review. Review method Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Airiti Library) were searched for articles published between 1990 and 2021. Google Scholar was utilized to search additional articles listed in the reference lists of included articles. Results Overall, 16 articles met the inclusion criteria, with the majority reporting on CBT, that focused on psychological distress and neuropathic pain. The core concept of intervention included disease identification, cognitive distortion/modification and coping strategies. Conclusions There were significant knowledge gaps on the interventions' content and effectiveness for psychological distress of persons with SCI. Development of multifaceted cognitive behaviour interventions, especially to strengthen self‐identity and to inspire patients' hope, is needed. Further research is required to investigate the long‐term effectiveness of CBT.
... In the present trial there were more than adequate sessions to deliver CBT-E (usually delivered over 20 sessions and here over 30 sessions) and HAPIFED could be conceptualized as a CBT-E 'plus' therapy -the 'plus' begin to address people's concerns overtly about weight loss and provide more detailed nutritional and activity advice, albeit that two of the three additional modules were not administered in HAPIFED. Finally, a meta-analysis has found mixed results for CBT's superiority to other psychological therapies for treatment across a range of eating disorders [50], and further studies are needed to assess CBT against other active psychological interventions. ...
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Background: Bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are eating disorders (EDs) characterized by recurrent binge eating. They are associated with medical complications, impaired adaptive function and often a high BMI, for which a multidisciplinary treatment approach may be needed. This study explored the efficacy of a novel intervention integrating Cognitive Behavioural Therapy- Enhanced (CBT-E) and weight management for people with recurrent binge eating episodes and high BMI with respect to physical, psychopathological and quality of life outcomes. Methods: Ninety-eight adults diagnosed with BN, BED, or Other Specified/Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED/UFED) and BMI ≥ 27 to <40 kg/m2 were randomized to a multidisciplinary approach, the Healthy APproach to weIght management and Food in Eating Disorders (HAPIFED) or to CBT-E. Metabolic parameters, health-related quality of life, general psychological and ED symptoms and ED diagnostic status outcomes are reported. Data were analyzed with mixed effects models adopting multiple imputed datasets where data were missing. Results: Both HAPIFED and CBT-E showed statistical significance for the time effect, with reduction in stress (p < 0.001), improvement in mental health-related quality of life (p = 0.032), reduction in binge eating severity (p < 0.001), and also in global ED symptoms scores (p < 0.001), with the significant changes found at end of treatment and sustained at 12-month follow-up. However, no statistical significance was found for differences between the interventions in any of the outcomes measured. Despite a high BMI, most participants (> 75%) had blood test results for glucose, insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol within the normal range, and 52% were within the normal range for the physical component of quality of life at baseline with no change during the trial period. Conclusion: Integrating weight and ED management resulted in comparable outcomes to ED therapy alone. Although adding weight management to an ED intervention had no adverse effects on psychological outcomes, it also had no beneficial effect on metabolic outcomes. Therefore, more intense weight management strategies may be required where indicated to improve metabolic outcomes. Safety will need to be concurrently investigated. Trial registration: US National Institutes of Health clinical trial registration number NCT02464345 , date of registration 08/06/2015. Changes to the present paper from the published protocol paper (Trials 18:578, 2015) and as reported in the Trial registration (clinicaltrials.gov) are reported in Supplementary File 1.
... Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recognized as the first-line psychological treatment for obesity to develop healthy eating behavior [27]. and seems Also, CBT has proven to be effective for individuals with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder [28]. In women with PCOS, the odds for bulimia nervosa (OR 1.37), binge eating (OR 2.95) and any eating disorder (OR 1.96) are higher than in the general population [29]. ...
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Background Eating behaviors like emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating play an important role in weight gain and weight loss in the general population. Improvements in eating behavior are important for long-term weight. This has not yet been studied in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study is to examine if a three-component lifestyle intervention (LI) is effective for improving disordered eating behavior in women with PCOS. Methods Women diagnosed with PCOS (N = 183), with a body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m ² and trying to achieve a pregnancy were either assigned to 1 year of 20 group sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) combined with nutritional advice and exercise with or without additional feedback through Short Message Service (SMS) or Care As Usual (CAU), which includes the advice to lose weight using publicly available services. Results The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ) scores worsened in CAU (47.5%) and improved in the LI (4.2%) at 12 months. The difference between the LI and CAU was significant ( P = 0.007) and resulted in a medium to large effect size (Cohen’s d: − 0.72). No significant differences were observed in EDEQ scores between LI with SMS compared to LI without SMS (Cohen’s d: 0.28; P = 0.399). Also, weight loss did not mediate the changes in eating behavior. An overall completion rate of 67/183 (36.6%) was observed. Conclusions A three-component CBT lifestyle program resulted in significant improvements in disordered eating behavior compared to CAU. Changes in disordered eating behavior are important for long-term weight loss and mental health. Trial registration : NTR, NTR2450. Registered 2 August 2010, https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/2344
... Providing effective treatment is important for improving health outcomes for these patients. Despite the development of various efficacious treatments, dropout rates within this patient group are the highest amongst all psychiatric conditions [3][4][5]. Reviews have shown that around 40% of people receiving treatment for an eating disorder do not finish the full course of treatment, with this figure rising to 50% for people with anorexia receiving inpatient treatment [6,7]. A meta-analysis of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in all eating disorders reported an estimated dropout rate from CBT of 24% [8]. ...
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Background High rates of premature treatment termination are a well-reported issue in eating disorder treatment, and present a significant barrier for treatment effectiveness and longer term health outcomes of patients with eating disorders. Understanding patient perspectives on this phenomenon is essential in improving treatment completion rates and informing research and intervention development. The aim of this review is to synthesise qualitative literature on patient perspectives of premature termination of eating disorder treatment and to summarise the key issues leading to discontinuation of treatment. Methods A systematic review of 1222 articles was conducted to identify studies using qualitative methods to investigate patient experiences of prematurely terminating eating disorder treatment. Ten articles were included in the review, with thematic synthesis used to analyse the primary research and develop overarching analytical themes. Results Conflict around enmeshment of eating disorder with identity, and lack of support with reconstructing a sense of self without the eating disorder; challenges of managing pressures of social and clinical relationships while feeling unheard and misunderstood by both; expectations and disappointments around treatment; and dissatisfaction with progress were key themes behind premature termination of treatment. Conclusions The findings of this review demonstrate the key issues influencing the decision to end treatment early, highlighting the contribution of individual, environmental, and service-level factors. Implications of these factors are discussed and suggestions raised for future research and service development.
... Estudos mostraram que a TCC, a psicoterapia complementar estruturada mais amplamente disponível para obesidade, é eficaz para identificar e combater as cognições e comportamentos que mantêm a obesidade, enquanto aumenta a motivação para a mudança (13,14). Uma meta-análise (15) verificou que a TCC é eficaz para distúrbios alimentares, mas o mesmo ainda não pode ser afirmado no auxílio da perda de peso. Ainda assim, outra meta-análise de ensaios clínicos randomizados com adultos obesos forneceu evidências de que estratégias de tratamento comportamental melhoram a adesão aos programas de intervenção no estilo de vida. ...
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INTRODUÇÃO: Intervenções nutricionais para redução de peso podem falhar e entender as causas dessas falhas pode auxiliar nutricionistas no acompanhamento e tratamento de pacientes. A terapia comportamental e cognitiva é um procedimento psicopedagógico focado no problema atual do paciente, no seu comportamento e na sua cognição de autocontrole. OBJETIVOS: Esta revisão sistemática teve como objetivo geral avaliar a terapia comportamental e cognitiva como coadjuvante da terapêutica nutricional no processo de emagrecimento. METODOLOGIA: Dezasseis estudos foram incluídos e selecionados nas bases de dados PubMed e SciElo, usando os descritores perda de peso, emagrecimento e terapia comportamental e cognitiva. RESULTADOS: Existem evidências de que a terapia comportamental e cognitiva contribui para o processo de perda de peso, especialmente em estudos de longa duração, através de melhor adesão às mudanças no estilo de vida, controle emocional e comportamental. CONCLUSÕES: Embora não se possa afirmar que a abordagem comportamental é superior à abordagem focada na restrição calórica, a terapia comportamental e cognitiva como estratégia auxiliar parece promissora e mais estudos são necessários para identificar as especificidades que apoiem melhorias duradouras na cognição e comportamento alimentar. Assim, é indicada a identificação de crenças disfuncionais em pacientes quanto à possibilidade de perda e de manutenção do peso, seguida de intervenção para transformá-las ou substituí-las por crenças funcionais para reduzir as falhas no processo de perda de peso.
... In LI, CBT was used as a technique for challenging and changing dysfunctional eating and body-related beliefs and schemas to develop and maintain a healthier eating pattern (Werrij et al., 2009). In the general population, CBT seems effective to develop healthy eating behavior (Werrij et al., 2009), especially in women with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Linardon et al., 2017). Therefore, CBT seems to be the driving factor in achieving successful weight loss by changing dysfunctional eating patterns. ...
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Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5%–10% of women in their reproductive years. Most women with PCOS struggle with obesity during their entire life. Knowing which determinants contribute to a successful lifestyle change is important to optimize treatment options for women with PCOS. Objective This analysis of secondary outcome measures aimed to determine factors of ≥5% weight loss and dropout in all arms of the study and separately in the lifestyle intervention (LI) and control (care as usual [CAU]) groups. Study design Women diagnosed with PCOS (N = 183) and a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 25 kg/m² were included. Participants were assigned to (1) 20 lifestyle sessions involving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), (2) 20 lifestyle sessions involving CBT with additional short message service (SMS), or (3) to control (CAU). A generalized linear regression was performed to identify determinants of ≥5% weight loss. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of dropout. All models were corrected by including baseline weight as a covariate. Results LI (OR 4.906, p = .001) was associated with ≥5% weight loss, while higher depression scores (OR 0.549, p = .013) had a negative association. Restraint eating was a positive factor for ≥5% weight loss in LI but a negative in CAU. Higher baseline weight (OR 1.033, p = .006), LI with SMS (OR 4.424, p = .002), and higher levels of androstenedione (OR 1.167, p = .026) were associated with dropout. Conclusions Depression and eating behavior were associated with ≥5% weight loss. Women with PCOS should be screened for depression and eating behavior before a LI.
Article
Behavioral treatments for psychological disorders characterized by reward-driven maladaptive behaviors (e.g., substance use disorder, eating disorders, behavioral addictions) primarily seek to reduce hyper-reward response to disorder-specific stimuli. Suboptimal outcomes for these treatments highlight the need to also target hypo-reward response to day-to-day life activities. The present study sought to conduct an initial test of a novel behavioral treatment, Reward Re-Training (RRT) to target hyper- and hypo-reward response in individuals with binge eating. Individuals with binge eating (N = 23) were randomly assigned to either 10 weeks of outpatient, group-based RRT treatment or a waitlist control. RRT was found to be feasible and acceptable, demonstrated large impacts on both hypo- and hyper-reward response (measured by self-report (pre-to post-treatment ηp² range 0.38–0.58) and neural activation via fMRI), and was efficacious in reducing eating disorder pathology (ηp² range 0.40–0.64, including binge eating, ηp² = 0.64) compared to waitlist control (ηp² range 0.00–0.04). This pilot data provides preliminary support for the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a novel treatment targeting reward imbalance for individuals with binge eating. Future evaluations of RRT may benefit from an active treatment comparison condition and a follow-up assessment to examine persistence of positive outcomes.
Chapter
Eating disorders are common and have a high morbidity and mortality rates. They present with a range of comorbid features and require specialized treatment to achieve a positive outcome. The literature on eating disorders has expanded rapidly in the past 20 years and this article reviews diagnostic and defining features, assessment, etiology, comorbidities and treatment options. Recent advances in the understanding and treatment of eating disorders can be expected to produce positive outcomes in most cases.
Article
Background Eating disorders are prevalent, often have chronic courses and relapses are frequent even after effective treatment approaches. Therefore, prevention is decisive; however, many of the current prevention programs are resource intensive. Internet-based interventions can represent cost-effective and low threshold alternatives but only few approaches have so far been investigated.Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an internet-based unaccompanied preventive intervention.Material and methodsThe intervention was newly developed based on behavior therapeutic techniques and piloted in a group of 200 students using a randomized waiting list control group design. Data on eating disorder-specific pathology (eating disorder examination questionnaire, EDE-Q), self-esteem (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, RSES), and well-being (World Health Organization-five well-being index, WHO-5) were collected before and after the intervention or the waiting period. Data were evaluated based on variance analysis.ResultsA total of 43% of participants completed the intervention. Self-esteem increases were stronger in the intervention group in comparison to the waiting control group with large effect sizes ($$\eta _{p}^{2}$$ = 0.33). There were no significant differences between the groups for the other variables.Conclusion Unaccompanied online self-help appears to provide a promising approach for improving self-esteem thus contributing to the prevention of eating disorders. Investigations in larger and more heterogeneous groups are necessary in the future to identify possibly present smaller preventive effects .
Article
The efficacy of individual CBT for eating disorders can be assessed by investigating the potential predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment. The present review focused on personality since its crucial role has been emphasized both by research and practice. Sixteen studies were collected, and data were extracted through a highly operationalized coding system. Overall, personality disorders were the most investigated construct; however, their influence was somewhat contradictory. A more cogent result occurred for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) when considered as a moderator (not a predictor, nor a mediator). Patients with a more disturbed borderline personality benefited to a greater extent from treatments including booster modules on affects, interpersonal relationships, and mood intolerance, rather than symptoms exclusively. Nine additional personality dimensions, beyond BPD, were investigated sparsely, and results regarding them were barely indicative in this review. However, some of these dimensions (e.g., affective lability and stimulus‐seeking behaviors) could be traced back to BPD, thereby strengthening evidence of the role of borderline disorder as a moderator. Although research on the relationship between personality and eating disorders needs to be increased and methodologically improved, personality, taken as a whole, emerged as a promising variable for enhancing the efficacy of CBT.
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Top‐tier evidence on the safety/tolerability of 80 medications in children/adolescents with mental disorders has recently been reviewed in this jour­nal. To guide clinical practice, such data must be combined with evidence on efficacy and acceptability. Besides medications, psychosocial inter­ventions and brain stimulation techniques are treatment options for children/adolescents with mental disorders. For this umbrella review, we systematically searched network meta‐analyses (NMAs) and meta‐analyses (MAs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating 48 medications, 20 psychosocial interventions, and four brain stimulation techniques in children/adolescents with 52 different mental disorders or groups of mental disorders, reporting on 20 different efficacy/acceptability outcomes. Co‐primary outcomes were disease‐specific symptom reduction and all‐cause discontinuation (“acceptability”). We included 14 NMAs and 90 MAs, reporting on 15 mental disorders or groups of mental disorders. Overall, 21 medications outperformed placebo regarding the co‐primary outcomes, and three psychosocial interventions did so (while seven outperformed waiting list/no treatment). Based on the meta‐analytic evidence, the most convincing efficacy profile emerged for amphetamines, methylphenidate and, to a smaller extent, behavioral therapy in attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder; aripiprazole, risperidone and several psychosocial interventions in autism; risperidone and behavioral interventions in disruptive behavior disorders; several antipsychotics in schizophrenia spectrum disorders; fluoxetine, the combination of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and interpersonal therapy in depression; aripiprazole in mania; fluoxetine and group CBT in anxiety disorders; fluoxetine/selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, CBT, and behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention in obsessive‐compulsive disorder; CBT in post‐traumatic stress disorder; imipramine and alarm behavioral intervention in enuresis; behavioral therapy in encopresis; and family therapy in anorexia nervosa. Results from this umbrella review of interventions for mental disorders in children/adolescents provide evidence‐based information for clinical decision making.
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Eating disorder and weight loss interventions have typically been regarded as distinct or antithetical, despite a growing number of individuals with comorbid eating pathology and obesity. This siloing of research and practice has created a clinical conundrum for providers seeking to treat individuals with an eating disorder seeking to lose weight (e.g., required pre-surgical weight loss). To date, integrated treatment research targeting both eating disorders and weight loss is rare and practical guidance is lacking, especially for restrictive/binge-purge subtypes. This case example describes how an integrated approach was applied within a naturalistic outpatient clinical practice setting to successfully treat a client presenting with excess weight and severe bulimia nervosa who was medically required to lose weight for orthopedic surgery. We conclude by reviewing the benefits and challenges of integrating eating disorder and behavioral weight loss treatments and providing practical insights for treatment providers.
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Purpose of Review Despite decades of research, knowledge of the mechanisms maintaining anorexia nervosa (AN) remains incomplete and clearly effective treatments elusive. Novel theoretical frameworks are needed to advance mechanistic and treatment research for this disorder. Here, we argue the utility of engaging a novel lens that differs from existing perspectives in psychiatry. Specifically, we argue the necessity of expanding beyond two historically common perspectives: (1) the descriptive perspective: the tendency to define mechanisms on the basis of surface characteristics and (2) the deficit perspective: the tendency to search for mechanisms associated with under-functioning of decision-making abilities and related circuity, rather than problems of over-functioning, in psychiatric disorders. Recent Findings Computational psychiatry can provide a novel framework for understanding AN because this approach emphasizes the role of computational misalignments (rather than absolute deficits or excesses) between decision-making strategies and environmental demands as the key factors promoting psychiatric illnesses. Informed by this approach, we argue that AN can be understood as a disorder of excess goal pursuit, maintained by over-engagement, rather than disengagement, of executive functioning strategies and circuits. Emerging evidence suggests that this same computational imbalance may constitute an under-investigated phenotype presenting transdiagnostically across psychiatric disorders. Summary A variety of computational models can be used to further elucidate excess goal pursuit in AN. Most traditional psychiatric treatments do not target excess goal pursuit or associated neurocognitive mechanisms. Thus, targeting at the level of computational dysfunction may provide a new avenue for enhancing treatment for AN and related disorders.
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Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a severe psychiatric illness; however, little is known regarding risk factors for MD development. Conformity to masculine norms may represent a risk factor for MD, but research has yet to establish temporal ordering for these relationships. Masculine discrepancy stress (distress at not amounting to masculine stereotypes) could represent a mechanism underlying these relationships. Therefore, the current study examined longitudinal relationships between conformity to masculine norms, masculine discrepancy stress, and MD symptoms. Participants were 272 men displaying elevated MD symptoms who completed self-report questionnaires at three timepoints. An autoregressive cross-lagged mediation model was specified to examine relationships between conformity to masculine norms and MD symptoms and test if masculine discrepancy stress mediated these relationships. Masculine discrepancy stress did not mediate relationships between masculine norms and MD symptoms. However, MD symptoms predicted increased masculine discrepancy stress, and conformity to masculine norms was related to MD symptoms. MD symptoms were both a predictor and outcome of masculine norms, and signs for relationships differed on the masculine norm endorsed. Conformity to masculine norms may represent a risk factor and outcome for MD symptoms. If clinicians provide clients with tools to reduce rigid adherence to masculine identities, this may prevent MD symptom development.
Article
Accumulating evidence suggests that the presence of shape/weight overvaluation in binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with more severe psychopathology and impairment. To further inform the role of the overvaluation construct in BED, we examined whether those with and without shape/weight overvaluation differ on four core processes that underpin the contextual behaviour therapies: distress tolerance, self-compassion, mindfulness, and experiential avoidance. These four processes were investigated as each are considered important change mechanisms in contextual behavioural therapies and are either compatible or incompatible with the emotion dysregulation known to precipitate binge eating. Participants were categorized into one of four study groups: probable BED with overvaluation (n = 60); probable BED without overvaluation (n = 108); obese control (n = 59); healthy control (n = 123). Analyses of covariance showed that the probable BED with overvaluation group reported lower levels of self-compassion and distress tolerance, and higher levels of experiential avoidance than the three other groups. The probable BED without overvaluation group did not differ to control groups on these processes, except experiential avoidance levels. Findings highlight potentially important intervention targets and constructs among a subgroup of individuals with BED.
Article
Cognitive behaviour therapy for eating disorders (CBT-ED) outperforms other treatments for non-underweight eating disorders in adults, but we have limited ability to match CBT-ED to individual profiles. We examined if we could identify who benefits most from two forms of 10-session CBT-ED; one emphasizing early behaviour change with substantial content on improving body image (CBT-T), and the other including motivational work and no content on body image using chapters from self-help books (CBTm). Participants were 98 consecutive referrals to the Flinders University Services for Eating Disorders. Fourteen clinical psychology postgraduates delivered the treatment under expert supervision. Outcome measures were completed on five occasions: baseline, 4-, 10-, 14- and 22-weeks post-randomisation. Our primary outcome was global eating psychopathology. Moderators included motivation (readiness and confidence to change) and body avoidance and body checking. Intent-to-treat analyses showed no difference between the groups with a significant main effect of time associated with large effect size improvements, commensurate with longer forms of CBT-ED. Participants with lower readiness to change in CBTm had significantly greater decreases in disordered eating over follow-up compared to those with low motivation in CBT-T. People with lower readiness to change might benefit from the incorporation of motivational work in CBT-ED.
Article
Zusammenfassung Die Binge-Eating-Störung (BES), als eigenständige Essstörung erstmals im Diagnostischen und Statistischen Manual psychischer Störungen DSM-5 definiert, ist durch wiederkehrende Essanfälle ohne gewichtskompensatorische Verhaltensweisen gekennzeichnet. Die breitere Definition in der avisierten International Classification of Diseases ICD-11 wird zu Veränderungen in Präsentation und Prävalenz dieser Störung führen. Die BES tritt vor dem Hintergrund einer komplexen, multifaktoriellen Ätiologie auf und geht mit einer erhöhten Essstörungs- und allgemeinen Psychopathologie, psychischen und körperlichen Komorbidität einschließlich Adipositas und verringertem Funktionsniveau einher. Trotz dieser Beeinträchtigungen wird die BES häufig weder diagnostiziert noch behandelt. Evidenzbasierte Therapien für die BES umfassen die Psychotherapie, wobei die Kognitive Verhaltenstherapie das etablierteste Verfahren darstellt, und die strukturierte Selbsthilfebehandlung. Andere Therapien wie die Pharmakotherapie, behaviorale Gewichtsreduktionstherapie und Kombinationstherapien erhielten in den aktuellen evidenzbasierten S3-Essstörungsleitlinien einen geringeren Empfehlungsgrad für spezielle Indikationen.
Article
Cognitive behaviour therapy-enhanced (CBT-E) is an effective treatment for non-underweight patients with eating disorders. Its efficacy and effectiveness is investigated mostly among transdiagnostic samples and remains unknown for binge eating disorder. The aim of the present study was to assess several treatment outcome predictors and to compare effectiveness of CBT-E among adult out-patients with bulimia nervosa ( n =370), binge eating disorder ( n =113), and those with a restrictive food pattern diagnosed with other specified feeding and eating disorders ( n =139). Effectiveness of CBT-E was assessed in routine clinical practice in a specialised eating disorders centre. Eating disorder pathology was measured with the EDEQ pre- and post-treatment, and at 20 weeks follow-up. Linear mixed model analyses with fixed effect were performed to compare treatment outcome among the eating disorder groups. Several predictors of treatment completion and outcome were examined with a regression analysis. No predictors for drop-out were found, except the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa. Eating disorder pathology decreased among all groups with effect sizes between 1.43 and 1.70 on the EDE-Q total score. There were no differences in remission rates between the three groups at end of treatment or at follow-up. Eating disorder severity at baseline affected treatment response. The results can be generalised to other specialised treatment centres. No subgroup of patients differentially benefited from CBT-E supporting the transdiagnostic perspective for the treatment of eating disorders. Longer-term follow-up data are necessary to measure persistence of treatment benefits. Key learning aims (1) What is the effectiveness of CBT-E among patients suffering from binge eating disorder? (2) Does any subgroup of patients suffering from an eating disorder differentially benefit from CBT-E? (3) What factors predict treatment response?
Article
Smartphone apps for mental health (MH apps) and wellness reach millions of people and have the potential to reduce the public health burden of common mental health problems. Thousands of MH apps are currently available, but real-world consumers generally gravitate toward a very small number of them. Given their widespread use and the lack of empirical data on their effects, understanding the content within MH apps is an important public health priority. An overview of the content within these apps could be an important resource for users, clinicians, researchers, and experts in digital health. Here, we offer summaries of the content within highly popular MH apps. Our aim is not to provide comprehensive coverage of the MH app space. Rather, we sought to describe a small number of highly popular MH apps in three common categories: meditation and mindfulness, journaling and self-monitoring, and AI chatbots. We downloaded the two most popular apps in each of these categories (respectively: Calm, Headspace; Reflectly, Daylio; Replika, Wysa). These six apps accounted for 83% of monthly active users of MH apps. For each app, we summarize information in four domains: intervention content, features that may contribute to engagement, the app’s target audience, and differences between the app’s free version and its premium version. In the years ahead, rigorous evaluations of highly popular MH apps will be needed. Until then, we hope that this overview helps readers stay up-to-date on the content within some of the most widely used digital mental health interventions.
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Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by recurrent binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and weight/shape overvaluation in the absence of underweight status. BN occurs across the lifespan and in all gender and racial/ethnic groups. Development of BN involves a complex interplay of genetic, personality, and developmental factors. BN can result in negative health and nutritional consequences warranting medical and dietetic management. Psychological treatments include cognitive-behavioral approaches for adults, and family-based treatment for adolescents. Pharmacotherapy is effective in managing symptoms. Future research should focus on inclusion of underrepresented groups in treatment trials. Long-term outcomes are mixed, suggesting the need for more accessible treatment.
Chapter
Eating disorders are serious psychiatric illnesses characterized by maladaptive eating behavior, difficulties regulating body weight, and body image disturbances. Eating disorders are associated with numerous negative health consequences, making them a major public health concern. This chapter provides a concise overview of the classification, epidemiology, correlates, etiology, and treatment of eating disorders across the age spectrum. Although significant progress has been made in the past several decades in understanding these complex disorders, empirical and clinical attention should continue to focus on early identification and addressing the wide treatment and research-practice gaps, as well as developing novel interventions for patients who do not respond to traditional treatments.
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The relationship between personality and eating disorders has received significant research attention. This review aimed to synthesize research regarding the Five Factor Model (FFM) and disordered eating behaviors, to gain an improved understanding of the relationship between normal‐range personality and subclinical eating disorders. Electronic Databases were used to identify studies published in English that utilized self‐report measures of disordered eating and the FFM. A qualitative synthesis of 45 papers was then conducted. High scores on Neuroticism were associated with increased disordered eating behavior. Different disordered eating behaviors were found to have unique relationships with personality dimensions. Facets within domains varied in direction of correlation with disordered eating behaviors, particularly in the Agreeableness, Contentiousness, and Openness domains. The results indicate that, further research is needed before generalizing treatment approaches for eating disorders for females, males, and gender diverse populations.
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Background: Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) experience persistent episodes of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior associated with impaired physical and mental health. Despite the existence of effective treatments, many individuals with BN remain untreated, leading to a high burden and an increased risk of chronicity. Web-based interventions may help facilitate access to evidence-based treatments for BN by reducing barriers to the health care system. Methods: The present study will investigate the effectiveness of a web-based self-help intervention for BN in a two-armed, randomized controlled trial. Individuals diagnosed with BN (N = 152) will be randomly assigned to either (1) an intervention group receiving a 12-week web-based intervention or (2) a waitlist control group with delayed access to the intervention. Further assessments will be scheduled 6 (mid-treatment) and 12 (post-treatment) weeks after baseline. Changes in the number of binge eating episodes and compensatory behaviors will be examined as primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include global eating pathology, functional impairments, well-being, comorbid psychopathology, self-esteem, and emotion regulation abilities. Discussion: Adding web-based interventions into routine care is a promising approach to overcome the existing treatment gap for patients with BN. Therefore, the current study will test the effectiveness of a web-based intervention for BN under standard clinical care settings. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT04876196 (registered on May 6th, 2021).
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Background: Binge eating is a subjective loss of control while eating, leading to the consumption of large amounts of food. It can cause significant emotional distress and is often accompanied by purging behaviours (eg, meal skipping, over-exercising or vomiting). Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the potential for mobile sensing to detect indicators for binge eating episodes, with a view toward informing the design of future context-aware mobile interventions. Methods: Our study was conducted in two stages. The first involved the development of the DeMMI app. As part of this, we conducted a consultation session to explore whether the types of sensor data we were proposing to capture were seen to be useful and appropriate, as well as gathering feedback on some specific app features relating to self-report. The second stage involved carrying out a 6-week period of data collection with 10 participants experiencing binge eating (logging both their mood and episodes of binge eating) and 10 comparison participants (logging only mood). An optional interview was conducted post-study discussing their experience with using the app, 8 participants (3 binge eating and 5 comparisons) consented. Results: Findings showed unique differences in the types of sensor data that were triangulated with individuals' episodes (with nearby Bluetooth devices, screen and app usage features, mobility features, and mood scores showing relevance). Participants had a largely positive opinion about the app, its unobtrusive role, and its ease of use. Interacting with the app increased their awareness of and reflection around mood and their phone usage patterns. Moreover, they expressed no privacy concerns as the study information sheet alleviated these. Conclusions: In this study, we contribute a series of recommendations for future studies wishing to scale our approach, and for the design of bespoke mobile interventions to support this population. Clinicaltrial:
Article
The impact of homework completion on outcome from cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) for eating disorders (EDs) is unknown. We examined homework completion during two CBTs for bulimia-spectrum EDs and tested the associations among homework and treatment outcomes. After each session, therapists rated the quantity of self-monitoring completed (e.g. tracking food intake and ED symptoms), and degree of completion of the previous week’s written (e.g. completing a worksheet) and behavioral (e.g. completing an at-home food exposure, regularly eating) homework on a Likert scale. On average, patients (N = 42) completed 50–100% of self-monitoring homework, moderate completion of written homework, and below-moderate completion of behavioral homework. Average behavioral homework completion, but not self- monitoring or written homework, was related to end-of-treatment symptom cessation. Improving homework completion might enhance the efficacy of CBTs for EDs.
Article
Objective Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are being increasingly used as interventions for eating disorders including binge eating. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess two decades of research on the efficacy of MBIs in reducing binge eating severity. Methods We searched PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library for trials assessing the use of MBIs to treat binge eating severity in both clinical and non-clinical samples. The systematic review and meta-analysis was pre-registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020182395). Results Twenty studies involving 21 samples (11 RCT and 10 uncontrolled samples) met inclusion criteria. Random effects meta-analyses on the 11 RCT samples (n = 618: MBIs n = 335, controls n = 283) showed that MBIs significantly reduced binge eating severity (g = −0.39, 95% CI -0.68, −0.11) at end of trial, but was not maintained at follow-up (g = −0.06, 95% CI, −0.31, 0.20, k = 5). No evidence of publication bias was detected. On the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2, trials were rarely rated at high risk of bias and drop-out rates did not differ between MBIs and control groups. MBIs also significantly reduced depression, and improved both emotion regulation and mindfulness ability. Conclusion MBIs reduce binge eating severity at the end of trials. Benefits were not maintained at follow-up; however, only five studies were assessed. Future well-powered trials should focus on assessing diversity better, including more men and people from ethnic minority backgrounds.
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Background: There is a lack of evidence pointing to the efficacy of any specific psychotherapy for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to compare three psychological treatments for AN: Specialist Supportive Clinical Management, Maudsley Model Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults and Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Method: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was conducted with outcomes assessed at pre-, mid- and post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up by researchers blind to treatment allocation. All analyses were intention-to-treat. One hundred and twenty individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for AN were recruited from outpatient treatment settings in three Australian cities and offered 25-40 sessions over a 10-month period. Primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder psychopathology. Secondary outcomes included depression, anxiety, stress and psychosocial impairment. Results: Treatment was completed by 60% of participants and 52.5% of the total sample completed 12-month follow-up. Completion rates did not differ between treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments on continuous outcomes; all resulted in clinically significant improvements in BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology and psychosocial impairment that were maintained over follow-up. There were no significant differences between treatments with regard to the achievement of a healthy weight (mean = 50%) or remission (mean = 28.3%) at 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: The findings add to the evidence base for these three psychological treatments for adults with AN, but the results underscore the need for continued efforts to improve outpatient treatments for this disorder. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12611000725965) http://www.anzctr.org.au/.
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Background Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention using intensive asynchronous therapeutic support to improve eating disorder psychopathology, and to reduce body dissatisfaction and related health problems among patients with eating disorders. MethodsA two-arm open randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based CBT intervention to a waiting list control condition (WL) was carried out among female patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The eating disorder diagnosis was in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and was established based on participants’ self-report. Participants were recruited from an open-access website, and the intervention consisted of a structured two-part program within a secure Web-based application. The aim of the first part was to analyze participant’s eating attitudes and behaviors, while the second part focused on behavioral change. Participants had asynchronous contact with a personal therapist twice a week, solely via the Internet. Self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology (primary outcome), body dissatisfaction, physical health, mental health, self-esteem, quality of life, and social functioning were completed at baseline and posttest. ResultsA total of 214 participants were randomized to either the Web-based CBT group (n=108) or to the WL group (n=106) stratified by type of eating disorder (BN: n=44; BED: n=85; EDNOS: n=85). Study attrition was low with 94% of the participants completing the posttest assignment. Overall, Web-based CBT showed a significant improvement over time for eating disorder psychopathology (F97=63.07, P
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Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. ISRCTN 15562271. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Objectives: This clinical practice guideline for treatment of DSM-5 feeding and eating disorders was conducted as part of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) Project 2013-2014. Methods: The CPG was developed in accordance with best practice according to the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. Literature of evidence for treatments of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), other specified and unspecified eating disorders and avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) was sourced from the previous RANZCP CPG reviews (dated to 2009) and updated with a systematic review (dated 2008-2013). A multidisciplinary working group wrote the draft CPG, which then underwent expert, community and stakeholder consultation, during which process additional evidence was identified. Results: In AN the CPG recommends treatment as an outpatient or day patient in most instances (i.e. in the least restrictive environment), with hospital admission for those at risk of medical and/or psychological compromise. A multi-axial and collaborative approach is recommended, including consideration of nutritional, medical and psychological aspects, the use of family based therapies in younger people and specialist therapist-led manualised based psychological therapies in all age groups and that include longer-term follow-up. A harm minimisation approach is recommended in chronic AN. In BN and BED the CPG recommends an individual psychological therapy for which the best evidence is for therapist-led cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). There is also a role for CBT adapted for internet delivery, or CBT in a non-specialist guided self-help form. Medications that may be helpful either as an adjunctive or alternative treatment option include an antidepressant, topiramate, or orlistat (the last for people with comorbid obesity). No specific treatment is recommended for ARFID as there are no trials to guide practice. Conclusions: Specific evidence based psychological and pharmacological treatments are recommended for most eating disorders but more trials are needed for specific therapies in AN, and research is urgently needed for all aspects of ARFID assessment and management. Expert reviewers: Associate Professor Susan Byrne, Dr Angelica Claudino, Dr Anthea Fursland, Associate Professor Jennifer Gaudiani, Dr Susan Hart, Ms Gabriella Heruc, Associate Professor Michael Kohn, Dr Rick Kausman, Dr Sarah Maguire, Ms Peta Marks, Professor Janet Treasure and Mr Andrew Wallis.
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The widespread availability of the Internet and mobile-device applications (apps) is changing the treatment of mental health problems. The aim of the present study was to review the research on the effectiveness of e-therapy for eating disorders, using the methodology employed by the UK’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Electronic databases were searched for published randomised controlled trials of e-therapies, designed to prevent or treat any eating disorder in all age groups. Studies were meta-analysed where possible, and effect sizes with confidence intervals were calculated. The GRADE approach was used to determine the confidence in the effect estimates. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. For prevention, a CBT-based e-intervention was associated with small reductions in eating disorder psychopathology, weight concern and drive for thinness, with moderate confidence in the effect estimates. For treatment and relapse prevention, various e-therapies showed some beneficial effects, but for most outcomes, evidence came from single studies and confidence in the effect estimates was low. Overall, although some positive findings were identified, the value of e-therapy for eating disorders must be viewed as uncertain. Further research, with improved methods, is needed to establish the effectiveness of e-therapy for people with eating disorders.
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Objective: The authors compared psychoanalytic psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. Method: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 70 patients with bulimia nervosa received either 2 years of weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy or 20 sessions of CBT over 5 months. The main outcome measure was the Eating Disorder Examination interview, which was administered blind to treatment condition at baseline, after 5 months, and after 2 years. The primary outcome analyses were conducted using logistic regression analysis. Results: Both treatments resulted in improvement, but a marked difference was observed between CBT and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. After 5 months, 42% of patients in CBT (N=36) and 6% of patients in psychoanalytic psychotherapy (N=34) had stopped binge eating and purging (odds ratio=13.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.45-73.42; p<0.01). At 2 years, 44% in the CBT group and 15% in the psychoanalytic psychotherapy group had stopped binge eating and purging (odds ratio=4.34, 95% CI=1.33-14.21; p=0.02). By the end of both treatments, substantial improvements in eating disorder features and general psychopathology were observed, but in general these changes took place more rapidly in CBT. Conclusions: Despite the marked disparity in the number of treatment sessions and the duration of treatment, CBT was more effective in relieving binging and purging than psychoanalytic psychotherapy and was generally faster in alleviating eating disorder features and general psychopathology. The findings indicate the need to develop and test a more structured and symptom-focused version of psychoanalytic psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.
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Approximately 25% of people with bulimia nervosa (BN) who undertake therapy are treated in groups. National guidelines do not discriminate between group and individual therapy, yet each has potential advantages and disadvantages and it is unclear how their effects compare. We therefore evaluated how group therapy for BN compares with individual therapy, no treatment, or other therapies, in terms of remission from binges and binge frequency. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of group therapies for BN, following standard guidelines. A total of 10 studies were included. Studies were generally small with unclear risk of bias. There was low-quality evidence of a clinically relevant advantage for group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) over no treatment at therapy end. Remission was more likely with group CBT versus no treatment [relative risk (RR) 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-0.96]. Mean weekly binges were lower with group CBT versus no treatment (2.9 v. 6.9, standardized mean difference = -0.56, 95% CI -0.96 to -0.15). One study provided low-quality evidence that group CBT was inferior compared with individual CBT to a clinically relevant degree for remission at therapy end (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50); there was insufficient evidence regarding frequency of binges. Conclusions could only be reached for CBT. Low-quality evidence suggests that group CBT is effective compared with no treatment, but there was insufficient or very limited evidence about how group and individual CBT compared. The risk of bias and imprecise estimates of effect invite further research to refine and increase confidence in these findings.
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Background: There are no evidence-based treatments for severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN). This study evaluated the relative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-AN) and specialist supportive clinical management (SSCM) for adults with SE-AN. Method: Sixty-three participants with a diagnosis of AN, who had at least a 7-year illness history, were treated in a multi-site randomized controlled trial (RCT). During 30 out-patient visits spread over 8 months, they received either CBT-AN or SSCM, both modified for SE-AN. Participants were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and at 6- and 12-month post-treatment follow-ups. The main outcome measures were quality of life, mood disorder symptoms and social adjustment. Weight, eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, motivation for change and health-care burden were secondary outcomes. Results: Thirty-one participants were randomized to CBT-AN and 32 to SSCM with a retention rate of 85% achieved at the end of the study. At EOT and follow-up, both groups showed significant improvement. There were no differences between treatment groups at EOT. At the 6-month follow-up, CBT-AN participants had higher scores on the Weissman Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS; p = 0.038) and at 12 months they had lower Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) global scores (p = 0.004) and higher readiness for recovery (p = 0.013) compared to SSCM. Conclusions: Patients with SE-AN can make meaningful improvements with both therapies. Both treatments were acceptable and high retention rates at follow-up were achieved. Between-group differences at follow-up were consistent with the nature of the treatments given.
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Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are equally effective in the acute treatment of adult depression, it is not known how they compare across the longer term. In this meta-analysis, we compared the effects of acute phase CBT without any subsequent treatment with the effects of pharmacotherapy that either were continued or discontinued across 6-18 months of follow-up. We conducted systematic searches in bibliographical databases to identify relevant studies, and conducted a meta-analysis of studies meeting inclusion criteria. Mental healthcare. Patients with depressive disorders. CBT and pharmacotherapy for depression. Relapse rates at long-term follow-up. 9 studies with 506 patients were included. The quality was relatively high. Short-term outcomes of CBT and pharmacotherapy were comparable, although drop out from treatment was significantly lower in CBT. Acute phase CBT was compared with pharmacotherapy discontinuation during follow-up in eight studies. Patients who received acute phase CBT were significantly less likely to relapse than patients who were withdrawn from pharmacotherapy (OR=2.61, 95% CI 1.58 to 4.31, p<0.001; numbers-needed-to-be-treated, NNT=5). The acute phase CBT was compared with continued pharmacotherapy at follow-up in five studies. There was no significant difference between acute phase CBT and continued pharmacotherapy, although there was a trend (p<0.1) indicating that patients who received acute phase CBT may be less likely to relapse following acute treatment termination than patients who were continued on pharmacotherapy (OR=1.62, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.72; NNT=10). We found that CBT has an enduring effect following termination of the acute treatment. We found no significant difference in relapse after the acute phase CBT versus continuation of pharmacotherapy after remission. Given the small number of studies, this finding should be interpreted with caution pending replication.
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Background: Anorexia nervosa is a potentially deadly psychiatric illness that develops predominantly in females around puberty but is increasingly being recognized as also affecting boys and men and women across the lifespan. The aim of this environmental scan is to provide an overview of best practices in anorexia nervosa treatment across the age spectrum. Method: A triangulation approach was used. First, a detailed review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for anorexia nervosa published between 1980 and 2011 was conducted; second, clinical practice guidelines were consulted and reviewed; third, information about RCTs currently underway was sourced. This approach facilitated a comprehensive overview, which addressed the extant evidence base, recent advances in evidence and improvements in treatment, and future directions. Results: The evidence base for the treatment of anorexia nervosa is advancing, albeit unevenly. Evidence points to the benefit of family-based treatment for youth. For adults no specific approach has shown superiority and, presently, a combination of renourishment and psychotherapy such as specialist supportive clinical management, cognitive behavioral therapy, or interpersonal psychotherapy is recommended. RCTs have neither sufficiently addressed the more complex treatment approaches seen in routine practice settings, such as multidisciplinary treatment or level of care, nor specifically investigated treatment in ethnically diverse populations. Methodological challenges that hinder progress in controlled research for anorexia nervosa are explained. Conclusions: The review highlights evidence-based and promising treatment modalities for anorexia nervosa and presents a triangulated analysis including controlled research, practice guidelines, and emerging treatments to inform and support clinical decision making.
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There is a need to improve treatment for individuals with bulimic disorders. It was hypothesised that a focus in treatment on broader emotional and social/interpersonal issues underlying eating disorders would increase treatment efficacy. This study tested a novel treatment based on the above hypothesis, an Emotional and Social Mind Training Group (ESM), against a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Group (CBT) treatment. 74 participants were randomised to either ESM or CBT Group treatment programmes. All participants were offered 13 group and 4 individual sessions. The primary outcome measure was the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) Global score. Assessments were carried out at baseline, end of treatment (four months) and follow-up (six months). There were no differences in outcome between the two treatments. No moderators of treatment outcome were identified. Adherence rates were higher for participants in the ESM group. This suggests that ESM may be a viable alternative to CBT for some individuals. Further research will be required to identify and preferentially allocate suitable individuals accordingly. ISRCTN61115988.
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Several studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between competence and outcome in CBT for depression but studies of CBT for anxiety disorders are lacking. The present study explores the relationship between competence and outcome in cognitive therapy (CT) for social anxiety disorder, using hierarchical linear modeling analyses (HLM). Data were drawn from a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Five trained raters evaluated videotapes of two therapy sessions per patient using the Cognitive Therapy Competence Scale for Social Phobia (CTCS-SP). Overall adherence to the treatment manual and patient difficulty were also assessed. Patient outcome was rated by other assessors using the Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Results indicated that competence significantly predicted patient outcome on the CGI-I (β = .79) and LSAS (β = .59). Patient difficulty and adherence did not further improve prediction. The findings support the view that competence influences outcome and should be a focus of training programs. Further research is needed to compare different ways of assessing competence and to understand the complex relationships between competence and other therapy factors that are likely to influence outcome.
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Luborsky et al.'s findings of a non-significant effect size between the outcome of different therapies reinforces earlier meta-analyses demonstrating equivalence of bonafide treatments. Such results cast doubt on the power of the medical model of psychotherapy, which posits specific treatment effects for patients with specific diagnoses. Furthermore, studies of other features of this model—such as component (dismantling) approaches, adherence to a manual, or theoretically relevant interaction effects—have shown little support for it. The preponderance of evidence points to the widespread operation of common factors such as therapist-client alliance, therapist allegiance to a theoretical orientation, and other therapist effects in determining treatment outcome. This commentary draws out the implications of these findings for psychotherapy research, practice, and policy.
Article
Objective: Depressive symptoms are an important risk factor and consequence of binge eating and purging behavior in bulimia nervosa (BN). Although psychotherapy is effective in reducing symptoms of BN in the short- and long-term, it is unclear whether psychotherapy for BN is also effective in reducing depressive symptoms. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of psychotherapy for BN on depressive symptoms in the short- and long-term. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on BN that assessed depressive symptoms as an outcome were identified. Twenty-six RCTs were included. Results: Psychotherapy was more efficacious at reducing symptoms of depression at post-treatment (g = 0.47) than wait-lists. This effect was strongest when studies delivered therapist-led, rather than guided self-help, treatment. No significant differences were observed between psychotherapy and antidepressants. There was no significant post-treatment difference between CBT and other active psychological comparisons at reducing symptoms of depression. However, when only therapist-led CBT was analyzed, therapist-led CBT was significantly more efficacious (g = 0.25) than active comparisons at reducing depressive symptoms. The magnitude of the improvement in depressive symptoms was predicted by the magnitude of the improvement in BN symptoms. Discussion: These findings suggest that psychotherapy is effective for reducing depressive symptoms in BN in the short-term. Whether these effects are sustained in the long-term is yet to be determined, as too few studies conducted follow-up assessments. Moreover, findings demonstrate that, in addition to being the front-running treatment for BN symptoms, CBT might also be the most effective psychotherapy for improving the symptoms of depression that commonly co-occur in BN.
Article
Objective: Meta-analyses have documented the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for reducing symptoms of eating disorders. However, it is not known whether CBT for eating disorders can also improve quality of life (QoL). This meta-analysis therefore examined the effects of CBT for eating disorders on subjective QoL and health-related quality of life (QoL). Method: Studies that assessed QoL before and after CBT for eating disorders were searched in the PsycInfo and Medline database. Thirty-four articles met inclusion criteria. Pooled within and between-groups Hedge's g were calculated at post-treatment and follow-up for treatment changes on both subjective and HRQoL using a random effects model. Results: CBT led to significant and modest improvements in subjective QoL and HRQoL from pre to post-treatment and follow-up. CBT led to greater subjective QoL improvements than inactive (i.e., wait-list) and active (i.e., a combination of bona fide therapies, psychoeducation) comparisons. CBT also led to greater HRQoL improvements than inactive, but not active, comparisons. Prepost QoL improvements were larger in studies that delivered CBT individually and by a therapist or according to the cognitive maintenance model of eating disorders (CBT-BN or CBT-E); though this was not replicated at follow-up CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide preliminary evidence that CBT for eating disorders is associated with modest improvements in QOL, and that CBT may be associated with greater improvements in QOL relative to comparison conditions.
Article
Objective The authors compared cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) in female adolescents. Method In this randomized controlled trial, 81 female adolescents with BN or partial BN according to the DSM-IV received a mean of 36.6 sessions of manualized disorder−oriented PDT or CBT. Trained psychologists blinded to treatment condition administered the outcome measures at baseline, during treatment, at the end of treatment, and 12 months after treatment. The primary outcome was the rate of remission, defined as a lack of DSM-IV diagnosis for BN or partial BN at the end of therapy. Several secondary outcome measures were evaluated. Results The remission rates for CBT and PDT were 33.3% and 31.0%, respectively, with no significant differences between them (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.35−2.28, p = .82). The within-group effect sizes were h = 1.22 for CBT and h = 1.18 for PDT. Significant improvements in all secondary outcome measures were found for both CBT (d = 0.51−0.82) and PDT (d = 0.24−1.10). The improvements remained stable at the 12-month follow-up in both groups. There were small between-group effect sizes for binge eating (d = 0.23) and purging (d = 0.26) in favor of CBT and for eating concern (d = −0.35) in favor of PDT. Conclusion CBT and PDT were effective in promoting recovery from BN in female adolescents. The rates of remission for both therapies were similar to those in other studies evaluating CBT. This trial identified differences with small effects in binge eating, purging, and eating concern. Clinical trial registration information—Treating Bulimia Nervosa in Female Adolescents With Either Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or Psychodynamic Therapy (PDT). http://isrctn.com/; ISRCTN14806095.
Article
This systematic review synthesised the literature on predictors, moderators, and mediators of outcome following Fairburn's CBT for eating disorders. Sixty-five articles were included. The relationship between individual variables and outcome was synthesised separately across diagnoses and treatment format. Early change was found to be a consistent mediator of better outcomes across all eating disorders. Moderators were mostly tested in binge eating disorder, and most moderators did not affect cognitive-behavioural treatment outcome relative to other treatments. No consistent predictors emerged. Findings suggest that it is unclear how and for whom this treatment works. More research testing mediators and moderators is needed, and variables selected for analyses need to be empirically and theoretically driven. Future recommendations include the need for authors to (i) interpret the clinical and statistical significance of findings; (ii) use a consistent definition of outcome so that studies can be directly compared; and (iii) report null and statistically significant findings.
Article
Background. Early weak treatment response is one of the few trans-diagnostic, treatment-agnostic predictors of poor outcome following a full treatment course. We sought to improve the outcome of clients with weak initial response to guided self-help cognitive behavior therapy (GSH). Method. One hundred and nine women with binge-eating disorder (BED) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (DSM-IV-TR) received 4 weeks of GSH. Based on their response, they were grouped into: (1) early strong responders who continued GSH (cGSH), and early weak responders randomized to (2) dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), or (3) individual and additional group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT+). Results. Baseline objective binge-eating-day (OBD) frequency was similar between DBT, CBT+ and cGSH. During treatment, OBD frequency reduction was significantly slower in DBT and CBT+ relative to cGSH. Relative to cGSH, OBD frequency was significantly greater at the end of DBT (d = 0.27) and CBT+ (d = 0.31) although these effects were small and within-treatment effects from baseline were large (d = 1.41, 0.95, 1.11, respectively). OBD improvements significantly diminished in all groups during 12 months follow-up but were significantly better sustained in DBT relative to cGSH (d = −0.43). At 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments, DBT, CBT and cGSH did not differ in OBD. Conclusions. Early weak response to GSH may be overcome by additional intensive treatment. Evidence was insufficient to support superiority of either DBT or CBT+ for early weak responders relative to early strong responders in cGSH; both were helpful. Future studies using adaptive designs are needed to assess the use of early response to efficiently deliver care to large heterogeneous client groups.
Article
Background The effects of cognitive behavioural therapy of anxiety disorders on depression has been examined in previous meta-analyses, suggesting that these treatments have considerable effects on depression. In the current meta-analysis we examined whether the effects of treatments of anxiety disorders on depression differ across generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD) and panic disorder (PD). We also compared the effects of these treatments with the effects of cognitive and behavioural therapies of major depression (MDD). Method We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and the Cochrane database, and included 47 trials on anxiety disorders and 34 trials on MDD. Results Baseline depression severity was somewhat lower in anxiety disorders than in MDD, but still mild to moderate in most studies. Baseline severity differed across the three anxiety disorders. The effect sizes found for treatment of the anxiety disorders ranged from g = 0.47 for PD, g = 0.68 for GAD and g = 0.69 for SAD. Differences between these effect sizes and those found in the treatment of MDD (g = 0.81) were not significant in most analyses and we found few indications that the effects differed across anxiety disorders. We did find that within-group effect sizes resulted in significantly (p < 0.001) larger effect sizes for depression (g = 1.50) than anxiety disorders (g = 0.73–0.91). Risk of bias was considerable in the majority of studies. Conclusions Patients participating in trials of cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders have high levels of depression. These treatments have considerable effects on depression, and these effects are comparable to those of treatment of primary MDD.
Article
Objective: This review aimed to (a) examine the effects of rapid response on behavioral, cognitive, and weight-gain outcomes across the eating disorders, (b) determine whether diagnosis, treatment modality, the type of rapid response (changes in disordered eating cognitions or behaviors), or the type of behavioral outcome moderated this effect, and (c) identify factors that predict a rapid response. Method: Thirty-four articles met inclusion criteria from six databases. End of treatment and follow-up outcomes were divided into three categories: Behavioral (binge eating/purging), cognitive (EDE global scores), and weight gain. Average weighted effect sizes(r) were calculated. Results: Rapid response strongly predicted better end of treatment and follow-up cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Moderator analyses showed that the effect size for rapid response on behavioral outcomes was larger when studies included both binge eating and purging (as opposed to just binge eating) as a behavioral outcome. Diagnosis, treatment modality, and the type of rapid response experienced did not moderate the relationship between early response and outcome. The evidence for weight gain was mixed. None of the baseline variables analyzed (eating disorder psychopathology, demographics, BMI, and depression scores) predicted a rapid response. Discussion: As there is a solid evidence base supporting the prognostic importance of rapid response, the focus should shift toward identifying the within-treatment mechanisms that predict a rapid response so that the effectiveness of eating disorder treatment can be improved. There is a need for future research to use theories of eating disorders as a guide to assess within-treatment predictors of rapid response. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Background: The best treatment options for binge-eating disorder are unclear. Purpose: To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of psychological and pharmacologic therapies for adults with binge-eating disorder. Data sources: English-language publications in EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov through 18 November 2015, and in MEDLINE through 12 May 2016. Study selection: 9 waitlist-controlled psychological trials and 25 placebo-controlled trials that evaluated pharmacologic (n = 19) or combination (n = 6) treatment. All were randomized trials with low or medium risk of bias. Data extraction: 2 reviewers independently extracted trial data, assessed risk of bias, and graded strength of evidence. Data synthesis: Therapist-led cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, and second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) decreased binge-eating frequency and increased binge-eating abstinence (relative risk, 4.95 [95% CI, 3.06 to 8.00], 2.61 [CI, 2.04 to 3.33], and 1.67 [CI, 1.24 to 2.26], respectively). Lisdexamfetamine (mean difference [MD], -6.50 [CI, -8.82 to -4.18]) and SGAs (MD, -3.84 [CI, -6.55 to -1.13]) reduced binge-eating-related obsessions and compulsions, and SGAs reduced symptoms of depression (MD, -1.97 [CI, -3.67 to -0.28]). Headache, gastrointestinal upset, sleep disturbance, and sympathetic nervous system arousal occurred more frequently with lisdexamfetamine than placebo (relative risk range, 1.63 to 4.28). Other forms of cognitive behavioral therapy and topiramate also increased abstinence and reduced binge-eating frequency and related psychopathology. Topiramate reduced weight and increased sympathetic nervous system arousal, and lisdexamfetamine reduced weight and appetite. Limitations: Most study participants were overweight or obese white women aged 20 to 40 years. Many treatments were examined only in single studies. Outcomes were measured inconsistently across trials and rarely assessed beyond end of treatment. Conclusion: Cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, SGAs, and topiramate reduced binge eating and related psychopathology, and lisdexamfetamine and topiramate reduced weight in adults with binge-eating disorder. Primary funding source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Article
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the recommended treatment for binge eating, yet many individuals do not recover, and innovative new treatments have been called for. The current study compares traditional CBT with two augmented versions of CBT; schema therapy, which focuses on early life experiences as pivotal in the history of the eating disorder; and appetite-focused CBT, which emphasises the role of recognising and responding to appetite in binge eating. 112 women with transdiagnostic DSM-IV binge eating were randomized to the three therapies. Therapy consisted of weekly sessions for six months, followed by monthly sessions for six months. Primary outcome was the frequency of binge eating. Secondary and tertiary outcomes were other behavioural and psychological aspects of the eating disorder, and other areas of functioning. No differences among the three therapy groups were found on primary or other outcomes. Across groups, large effect sizes were found for improvement in binge eating, other eating disorder symptoms and overall functioning. Schema therapy and appetite-focused CBT are likely to be suitable alternative treatments to traditional CBT for binge eating.
Article
Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has been developed for the treatment of depression but has been examined for several other mental disorders. A comprehensive meta-analysis of all randomized trials examining the effects of IPT for all mental health problems was conducted. Method: Searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, and Cochrane were conducted to identify all trials examining IPT for any mental health problem. Results: Ninety studies with 11,434 participants were included. IPT for acute-phase depression had moderate-to-large effects compared with control groups (g=0.60; 95% CI=0.45-0.75). No significant difference was found with other therapies (differential g=0.06) and pharmacotherapy (g=-0.13). Combined treatment was more effective than IPT alone (g=0.24). IPT in subthreshold depression significantly prevented the onset of major depression, and maintenance IPT significantly reduced relapse. IPT had significant effects on eating disorders, but the effects are probably slightly smaller than those of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the acute phase of treatment. In anxiety disorders, IPT had large effects compared with control groups, and there is no evidence that IPT was less effective than CBT. There was risk of bias as defined by the Cochrane Collaboration in the majority of studies. There was little indication that the presence of bias influenced outcome. Conclusions: IPT is effective in the acute treatment of depression and may be effective in the prevention of new depressive disorders and in preventing relapse. IPT may also be effective in the treatment of eating disorders and anxiety disorders and has shown promising effects in some other mental health disorders.
Article
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent health condition associated with obesity. Few people with BED receive appropriate treatment. Personal barriers include shame, fear of stigma, geographic distance to mental health services, and long wait lists. The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for adults with threshold BED (DSM-IV) and to examine the stability of treatment effects over 12 months. Participants were randomly assigned to a 16-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (n = 69) or a waiting list condition (n = 70). Binge eating frequency and eating disorder psychopathology were measured with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination administered over the telephone. Additionally, body weight and body mass index, depression, and anxiety were assessed before and immediately after treatment. Three-, six-, and twelve-month follow-up data were recorded in the treatment group. Immediately after the treatment the number of binge-eating episodes showed significant improvement (d = 1.02, between group) in the treatment group relative to the waiting list condition. The treatment group had also significantly reduced symptoms of all eating psychopathology outcomes relative to the waiting list condition (0.82 ≤ d ≤ 1.11). In the treatment group, significant improvement was still observed for all measures one the year after the intervention to relative to pretreatment levels. The Internet-based intervention proved to be efficacious significantly reducing the number of binge-eating episodes and eating disorder pathology long-term. Low-threshold e-health interventions should be further evaluated to improve treatment access for patients suffering from BED.
Article
Despite significant advances in the development of prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders and disordered eating over the last decade, there still remains a pressing need to develop more effective interventions. In line with the 2008 Medical Research Council (MRC) evaluation framework from the United Kingdom for the development and evaluation of complex interventions to improve health, the development of sound theory is a necessary precursor to the development of effective interventions. The aim of the current review was to identify the existing models for disordered eating and to identify those models which have helped inform the development of interventions for disordered eating. In addition, we examine the variables that most commonly appear across these models, in terms of future implications for the development of interventions for disordered eating. While an extensive range of theoretical models for the development of disordered eating were identified (N = 54), only ten (18.5%) had progressed beyond mere description and to the development of interventions that have been evaluated. It is recommended that future work examines whether interventions in eating disorders increase in efficacy when developed in line with theoretical considerations, that initiation of new models gives way to further development of existing models, and that there be greater utilisation of intervention studies to inform the development of theory.
Article
Objective: There is a paucity of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). Prior studies suggest cognitive-behavioral therapy adapted for adolescents (CBT-A) and family-based treatment for adolescent bulimia nervosa (FBT-BN) could be effective for this patient population. The objective of this study was to compare the relative efficacy of these 2 specific therapies, FBT-BN and CBT-A. In addition, a smaller participant group was randomized to a nonspecific treatment (supportive psychotherapy [SPT]), whose data were to be used if there were no differences between FBT-BN and CBT-A at end of treatment. Method: This 2-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial included 130 participants (aged 12-18 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for BN or partial BN (binge eating and purging once or more per week for 6 months). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. Treatments involved 18 outpatient sessions over 6 months. The primary outcome was defined as abstinence from binge eating and purging for 4 weeks before assessment, using the Eating Disorder Examination. Results: Participants in FBT-BN achieved higher abstinence rates than in CBT-A at end of treatment (39% versus 20%; p = .040, number needed to treat [NNT] = 5) and at 6-month follow-up (44% versus 25%; p = .030, NNT = 5). Abstinence rates between these 2 groups did not differ statistically at 12-month follow-up (49% versus 32%; p = .130, NNT = 6). Conclusion: In this study, FBT-BN was more effective in promoting abstinence from binge eating and purging than CBT-A in adolescent BN at end of treatment and 6-month follow-up. By 12-month follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 treatments. Clinical trial registration information: -Study of Treatment for Adolescents With Bulimia Nervosa; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00879151.
Article
Anorexia nervosa is a disorder with high morbidity and significant mortality. It is most common in young adult women, in whom the incidence may be increasing. The focus of treatment has moved to an outpatient setting, and a number of differing psychological therapies are presently used in treatment. This is an update of a Cochrane review which was last published in 2008. To assess the effects of specific individual psychological therapies for anorexia nervosa in adults or older adolescents treated in an outpatient setting. We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) (16 July 2014). This register includes relevant randomised controlled trials from: the Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We screened reference lists of all included studies and sent letters to identified, notable researchers requesting information on unpublished or ongoing studies. All randomised controlled trials of one or more individual outpatient psychological therapies for adults with anorexia nervosa, as defined by DSM-5 or similar international criteria. We selected a range of outcome variables, including physical state, severity of eating disorder attitudes and beliefs, interpersonal function, and general psychiatric symptom severity. Continuous outcome data comparisons used the mean or standardised mean difference (MD or SMD), and binary outcome comparisons used the risk ratio (RR). Two review authors (PH and AC or ST) extracted data independently. We identified 10 trials from the search, with a total of 599 anorexia nervosa participants, and included them in the review. Seven had been identified in the previous versions of this review and we now include three new trials. We now deem one previously identified ongoing trial to be ineligible, and six ongoing trials are new for this update. Two of the 10 trials included children. Trials tested diverse psychological therapies and comparability was poor. Risks of bias were mostly evident through lack of blinded outcome assessments (in 60% of studies) and incomplete data reporting (attrition bias).The results suggest that treatment as usual (TAU) when delivered by a non-eating-disorder specialist or similar may be less efficacious than focal psychodynamic therapy. This was suggested for a primary outcome of recovery by achievement of a good or intermediate outcome on the Morgan and Russell Scale (RR 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51 to 0.97; 1 RCT, 40 participants; very low-quality evidence). However there were no differences between cognitive analytic therapy and TAU for this outcome (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.00; 2 RCTs, 71 participants; very low-quality evidence), nor for body mass index (BMI). There were no differences in overall dropout rates between individual psychological therapies and TAU.Two trials found a non-specific specialist therapy (Specialist Supportive Clinical Management) or an Optimised TAU delivered by therapists with eating disorder expertise was similar in outcomes to cognitive behaviour therapy (BMI MD -0.00, 95% CI -0.91 to 0.91; 197 participants, low-quality evidence). When comparing individual psychological therapies with each other, no specific treatment was consistently superior to any other specific approach. Dietary advice as a control arm had a 100% non-completion rate in one trial (35 participants). None of the trials identified any adverse effects. Insufficient power was problematic for the majority of trials. There was a suggestion in one trial that focal psychodynamic therapy might be superior to TAU, but this is in the context of TAU performing poorly. An alternative control condition of dietary advice alone appeared to be unacceptable, but again this is based on just one trial. Owing to the risk of bias and limitations of studies, notably small sample sizes, we can draw no specific conclusions about the effects of specific individual psychological therapies for anorexia nervosa in adults or older adolescents. Larger RCTs of longer treatment duration and follow-up are needed.