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Abstract and Figures

In debates over post‐capitalist politics, growing attention has been paid to the solidarity economy (SE), a framework that draws together diverse practices ranging from co‐ops to community gardens. Despite proponents’ commitment to inclusion, racial and class divides suffuse the SE movement. Using qualitative fieldwork and an original SE dataset, this article examines the geospatial composition of the SE within the segregated geography of Philadelphia. We find that though the SE as a whole is widely distributed across the city, it is, with the exception of community gardens, largely absent from poor neighborhoods of color. We also identify SE clusters in racially and economically diverse border areas rather than in predominantly affluent White neighborhoods. Such findings complicate claims about the SE's emancipatory potential and underscore the need for its realignment towards people of color and the poor. We conclude with examples of how the SE might more fully address racial injustice.
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Solidarity*Economy*Divided:*A*Philadelphia*Case*Study*
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/-,-#(&-0-(@7!$0;!.2@#$2!#$,/-#!,/$0!@0%8(#A!$0;!7%0&@2$#!9H@22-#!-,!$2!DEFEb!a%O7(0Qa#$/$A!
DEEGb!U--!-,!$2!DEEcb!4%,?/-22!DEEcB=!I/-!L;%6-#7-!-?(0(A%-7N!$..#($?/!.%(0--#-;!O3!8-A%0%7,!
&-(&#$./-#7!d=e=!a%O7(0Qa#$/$A!/$7!(.-0-;!%A.(#,$0,!0-)!#-7-$#?/!,#$P-?,(#%-7!$#(@0;!.(7,Q
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a%O7(0Qa#$/$A!-,!$2!DEF`b!<(-26%0*!-,!$2!DEFGB=!+%A%2$#!(.-0%0&7!/$6-!O--0!8(#&-;!,/#(@&/!,/-!
)(#*!(8!7(?%(2(&%7,7!7@?/!$7!'($6-0,@#$!;-!+(@7$!+$0,(7!9DEEfB!$0;!M#%*!g2%0!\#%&/,!9DEFfBK!
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6$2(#%^-!0(0?$.%,$2%7,K!7(2%;$#%,3QO$7-;!-?(0(A%?!.#$?,%?-7!$0;!,/-%#!,#$078(#A$,%6-!.(,-0,%$2=!!
!
>@-K!%0!.$#,K!,(!7@?/!%0,-#6-0,%(07K!%,!%7!0()!.(77%O2-!,(!8%0;!$!&#()%0&!0@AO-#!(8!7,@;%-7!(0!
?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07!9>#$*-!$0;!U$)7(0!DEFfb!M%^-0O-#&!DEFDb!e#-A-#!$0;!>-U%O-#,3!DEFFb!
U$)7(0!DEEGBK!,%A-!O$0*7!$0;!?(AA@0%,3!?@##-0?%-7!9"(22(A!-,!$2!DEFDb!J(#,/!DEFfBK!
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9'(#()%$*!-,!$2!DEFXb!>-22-#!-,!$2!DEEhBK!,(!&%6-!P@7,!$!8-)!-V$A.2-7=!I/-7-!$#-!%A.(#,$0,!
?(0,#%O@,%(07K!,(!O-!7@#-=!J-6-#,/-2-77K!A(7,!(8!,/-7-!-A.%#%?$2!7,@;%-7!,#-$,!,/-!;%88-#-0,!
,3.-7!(8!%0%,%$,%6-!%0!%7(2$,%(0!8#(A!(0-!$0(,/-#=!I/@7!)(#*-#!?((.-#$,%6-7!$#-!7,@;%-;!
7
%0;-.-0;-0,23!8#(A!?#-;%,!@0%(07K!)/%?/!$#-!7,@;%-;!%0;-.-0;-0,23!8#(A!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07K!
,%A-!O$0*7K!$0;!7(!8(#,/=!I/%7!.%-?-A-$2!$..#($?/!?(0,#%O@,-7!,(!,/-!.-#?-.,%(0!,/$,!
$2,-#0$,%6-7!,(!?$.%,$2%7A!(??@.3!$,!O-7,!7A$22!0%?/-7!%0!,/-!(6-#$22!-?(0(A3=!<-2$,%6-23!2%,,2-!
-A.%#%?$2!#-7-$#?/!/$7!O--0!;(0-!9%0!,/-!:+B!,(!-6$2@$,-!,/-!?(22-?,%6-!?(0,#%O@,%(07!(8!,/-7-!
;%6-#7-!%0%,%$,%6-7!,$*-0!$7!$!)/(2-=!I/%7!%7!)/-#-!,/-!+M!?(0?-.,!%7!.$#,%?@2$#23!@7-8@2!$7!$!
@0%83%0&!8#$A-)(#*=!
!
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&2(O-!$7!$!)$3!,(!?(A.#-/-0;!$0;!8(7,-#!6$2@-7QO$7-;!-?(0(A%?!.#$?,%?-7!$0;!$7!$!)$3!,(!
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$0;!&#(@.7!(0!7%V!?(0,%0-0,7!?(00-?,-;!O3!,/-!]0,-#?(0,%0-0,$2!J-,)(#*!8(#!,/-!5#(A(,%(0!(8!
,/-!+(?%$2!$0;!+(2%;$#%,3!M?(0(A3!9<]5M++B=!!C7!,/-!?(0?-.,!/$7!,#$6-2-;K!%,7!A-$0%0&!/$7!O--0!
$;$.,-;!,(!2(?$2!$0;!#-&%(0$2!?(0,-V,7!9'(#()%$*!DEFGb!+$8#%!DEFGb!+$,&$#!DEFfB=!]0!,/-!:+K!
)/-#-!,/-!+M!A(6-A-0,!%7!7,%22!0$7?-0,K!?((.-#$,%6-7!$0;!?#-;%,!@0%(07!,-0;!,(!O-!-7.-?%$223!
.#(A%0-0,K!,/(@&/!$!6$#%-,3!(8!(,/-#!%0%,%$,%6-7!$#-!%0?2@;-;!$7!)-22=!!
!
H(#!A$03!.#(.(0-0,7K!,/-!+M!$0;!%,7!6$#%(@7!-2-A-0,7!(88-#!#-2$,%6-23!@0;-#-V.2(#-;!)$37!,(!
O#%;&-!7(?%$2!$0;!-?(0(A%?!;%6%;-7!$0;!8(7,-#!&#-$,-#!-?(0(A%?!#-7%2%-0?-!$0;!82(@#%7/%0&!
$?#(77!7(?%-,3!9>$?/-$@V!$0;!a(@P(0!DEFDb!e$)$0(!DEFEb!<(;#j&@-^Qa$#$6%,(!DEEXb!:,,%0&!
DEFGB=!],!%7!#-&$#;-;!0(,!7%A.23!$7!$!.(6-#,3!#-;@?,%(0!7,#$,-&3!O@,!$7!$!A-$07!(8!7(?%$2!$0;!
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DEFfB=!g@,7%;-!,/-!:+K!$0;!-7.-?%$223!%0!,/-!&2(O$2!+(@,/K!A$03!+M!A(6-A-0,7!;#$)!/-$6%23!
8#(A!,/-!7,#@&&2-7!(8!%0;%&-0(@7!.-(.2-7!$0;!.((#!$0;!A$#&%0$2%^-;!.(.@2$,%(07!(8!?(2(#!
7--*%0&!,(!%A.#(6-!,/-%#!?(0;%,%(07K!(8,-0!,/#(@&/!%08(#A$2!?(22-?,%6-7!$0;!737,-A7!(8!A@,@$2!
$%;=!C7!,/-!(.-0%0&!6%&0-,,-7!7@&&-7,K!/()-6-#K!A(#-!?#%,%?$2!6(%?-7=!/$6-!-V.#-77-;!?(0?-#0!
,/$,!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7!?$0!$?,@$223!#-.#(;@?-!$0;!-V$?-#O$,-!-0,#-0?/-;!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!;%6%7%(07=!
H(#!A$03!2()Q%0?(A-!?(AA@0%,%-7K!8(#!%07,$0?-K!%0%,%$,%6-7!2%*-!$#,%7,!?(22-?,%6-7!$0;!?((.7!$#-!
8
7--0!0(,!$7!7(@#?-7!(8!-A.()-#A-0,!O@,!#$,/-#!$7!/$#O%0&-#7!(8!&-0,#%8%?$,%(0!$0;!
;%7.2$?-A-0,K!-7.-?%$223!)/-0!,/-3!$#-!%0%,%$,-;!O3!0-)?(A-#7!,(!,/-!?(AA@0%,3!)/(!(??@.3!
;%88-#-0,!?2$77!(#!#$?%$2!.(7%,%(07=!g,/-#!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7K!%0?2@;%0&!-7.-?%$223!,/(7-!$77(?%$,-;!)%,/!
,/-!$2,-#0$,%6-!8((;!A(6-A-0,K!/$6-!O--0!?#%,%?%^-;!8(#!?#-$,%0&!.#%6%2-&-;!LA(0(?@2,@#-7N!
,/$,!$#-!&-$#-;!.#%A$#%23!,()$#;7!$882@-0,!\/%,-!?(07@A-#7!$0;!,/$,!.-#.-,@$,-!\/%,-0-;!
;%7?(@#7-7!$0;!7.$?-7!,/$,!$#-!$2%-0$,%0&!8(#!.-(.2-!(8!?(2(#!9C2*(0!$0;!C&3-A$0!DEFFb!C2*(0!
$0;!4?"@22-0!DEFFb!a@,/A$0!DEEcb!+2(?@A!DEEXK!DEEiB=!I/-!#/-,(#%?!(8!%0?2@7%(0!%7!(8,-0!
O-2%-;!%0!.#$?,%?-!O3!7@O?@2,@#$2!?@-7!(8!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!-V?2@7%(0!9k%,^-#!DEFGB=!C;;%,%(0$223K!
2(0&!/%7,(#%-7!(8!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!(..#-77%(0!/$6-!&-0-#$,-;!;--.!.$,,-#07!(8!;%7,#@7,!%0!A$03!
?(AA@0%,%-7!,/$,!?$0!7,3A%-!-6-0!)-22Q%0,-0,%(0-;!-88(#,7!,(!#-$?/!$?#(77!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!
;%6%;-7!%0!,/-!.@#7@%,!(8!-?(0(A%?!7(2%;$#%,3=!C7!(0-!.$#,%?%.$0,!$,!,/-!DEFX!+(?%$2!+(2%;$#%,3!
M?(0(A3!H(#@A!%0!>-,#(%,!;-7?#%O-;K!L7(2%;$#%,3!?$0!O-!$!/@#,8@2!)(#;N!)/-0!;-?2$#$,%(07!(8!
7@..(#,!$?#(77!7(?%$2!;%6%7%(07!$#-0Z,!8(22()-;!@.!)%,/!%0?2@7%6-!$0;!7@..(#,%6-!$?,%(0=%!!
!
J(0-!(8!,/%7!7/(@2;!,$*-!$03,/%0&!$)$3!8#(A!?(@0,-#-V$A.2-7!(8!#$;%?$223!%0?2@7%6-!+M!
.#$?,%?-7K!A%0(#%,3Q2-;!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7K!$0;!+M!(#&$0%^$,%(07!;-7%&0-;!$7!O@2)$#*7!$&$%07,!
&-0,#%83%0&!.#-77@#-7!97--K!8(#!-V$A.2-K!)))=?((.-#$,%(0P$?*7(0=(#&B!!g@#!.(%0,!/-#-!%7!,/$,!
7%&0%8%?$0,!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!;%6%;-7!7@88@7-!,/-!O#($;-#!+M!A(6-A-0,!$0;!,/$,!7@?/!;%6%;-7!$#-!
(8,-0!2-8,!@0$?*0()2-;&-;!$0;!@0;-#7,@;%-;=!]0!#-$?,%(0K!7(A-!$?,%6%7,7!/$6-!O-&@0!
;-A$0;%0&!,/-!L;-?(2(0%^$,%(0!(8!,/-!7(2%;$#%,3!-?(0(A3N!,(!#-$2%&0!,/-!+M!A(6-A-0,!A(#-!
8@223!)%,/!%,7!()0!?(#-!.#%0?%.2-7!$0;!,(!8@#,/-#!-0&$&-!)%,/!,/-!-V.-#%-0?-7K!?(0?-#07!$0;!
2-$;-#7/%.!(8!#$?%$2!A%0(#%,%-7!$0;!?(2(0%^-;!.-(.2-7!9aMg!DEFGb!1@;7(0!DEFXB=!!
!
g@#!#-7-$#?/!?(0,#%O@,-7!&-(&#$./%?!.-#7.-?,%6-!,(!7@?/!?(0?-#07=!\-!#-?(&0%^-!,/$,!,/-!
$O%2%,3!(8!+M!-0,%,%-7!,(!8@28%22!,/-%#!-,/%?(Q.(2%,%?$2!?(AA%,A-0,7!%7!?(07,#$%0-;!0(,!(023!O3!
?@2,@#$2!.#(?-77-7!O@,!$27(!O3!7.$,%$2!7-&#-&$,%(07!,/$,!$88-?,!-6-#3;$3!-?(0(A%-7!%0!
-V?2@7%(0$#3!)$37=!M0;@#%0&!.$,,-#07!(8!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!7-&#-&$,%(0!$#-!;(A%0$0,!
?/$#$?,-#%7,%?7!(8!A$03!:+!?%,%-7=!]0!,/-!?(0,-V,!(8!7@?/!;%6%7%(07K!,(!.#-7@A-!,/-!+M!%7!
@0%6-#7$223!$??-77%O2-!$?#(77!0-%&/O(#/((;7!(#!7(A-/()!@0$88-?,-;!O3!7-&#-&$,-;!?%,37?$.-7!%7!
9
,(!#-.#(;@?-!.#-?%7-23!,/-!7(#,!(8!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!;%7$6()$2!,/$,!?#%,%?7!(OP-?,!,(=!C!O-,,-#!
$..#($?/!%7!,(!-0&$&-!;%#-?,23!)%,/!,/-!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!?(0,(@#7!(8!,/-!+M=!4$..%0&!?$0!O-!$!
.()-#8@2!,((2!8(#!,/%7=!a-(&#$./-#7!/$6-!2(0&!7,@;%-;!/()!7.$?-K!.2$?-K!$0;!7(?%(Q-?(0(A%?!
.()-#!A@,@$223!?(07,%,@,-!-$?/!(,/-#!91$#6-3!Fhi`b!4$77-3!DEEGb!I@$0!FhiiB=!>--.!%0-R@$2%,3!
%0!)-$2,/!$0;!%0?(A-K!$7!)-22!$7!#$?%$2!;%88-#-0?-7K!6$#3!O3!&-(&#$./%?!2(?$,%(0=!I/-3!$#-K!%0!
,@#0K!A$%0,$%0-;!,/#(@&/!@0-R@$2!$0;!.2$?-Q7.-?%8%?!$??-77!,(!7(?%$2K!-?(0(A%?K!.(2%,%?$2K!$0;!
?@2,@#$2!#-7(@#?-7!9a2$7A-%-#!DEEGb!4%,?/-22!-,!$2!DEEfB=!C0;!$7!?#%,%?$2!&-(&#$./-#7!/$6-!
(O7-#6-;K!,/-!.#(;@?,%(0!(8!A$.7!%7!0(,!$!6$2@-Q0-@,#$2!$77-AO2%0&!(8!(OP-?,%6-!&-(&#$./%?!
8$?,7=!],!%7K!#$,/-#K!$!.#(?-77!%AO@-;!)%,/!.()-#!9"#$A.,(0!DEEFb!M2)((;!DEEXb!1$#2-3!Fhccb!
5$62(67*$3$!DEEXb!+,!4$#,%0!DEEGB=!a-(7.$,%$2!,-?/0(2(&%-7K!%0!,/%7!6%-)K!;(!0(,!A-#-23!
;-7?#%O-!#-$2%,3b!,/-3!$#-!.()-#8@2!,((27!8(#!?(07,#@?,%0&!2$0;7?$.-7!O3!#-0;-#%0&!,/-A!6%7%O2-!
$0;!-0;()%0&!,/-A!)%,/!(0,(2(&%?$2!.()-#=!I/-!A$..%0&!(8!?(AA(023!@0;-##-.#-7-0,-;!
7(?%$2!$?,(#7!$0;!.#(?-77-7!,/$,!2$?*!.(2%,%?$2!#-?(&0%,%(0!?$0!7-#6-!,/-%#!-A.()-#A-0,!$0;!
,#$078(#A!#-2$,%(07!(8!;(A%0$,%(0!9>$0;(!DEFEb!1$00$/!DEEFb!5$62(67*$3$!$0;!'%-#!DEFDB=!],!%7!
%0!,/%7!7.%#%,!,/$,!)-!/$6-!@0;-#,$*-0!,(!A$.!O(,/!@0;-##-.#-7-0,-;!-?(0(A%?!$?,%6%,%-7!9,/-!
+MB!$0;!,/-%#!#-2$,%(0!,(!;%7$;6$0,$&-;!.(.@2$,%(07=!]0!,/-!#-A$%0;-#!(8!,/%7!-77$3K!)-!.#-7-0,!
8%0;%0&7!8#(A!,/-!5/%2$;-2./%$!?$7-!7,@;3!$0;!(@#!-88(#,!,(!@7-!A$..%0&!,-?/0%R@-7!,(!%;-0,%83!
/()!,/-!6$#%(@7!-2-A-0,7!(8!,/-!+M!8%,!;%88-#-0,23!)%,/%0!#$?%$2%^-;!2$0;7?$.-7!(8!7(?%$2!$0;!
-?(0(A%?!0--;=!!
!!
The*Philadelphia*Case*Study*
I/-!5/%2$;-2./%$!?(A.(0-0,!(8!,/%7!.#(P-?,!8(?@7-;!(0!?(A.%2%0&!$!O#($;!%06-0,(#3!(8!+M!
-0,%,%-7!%0!,/-!?%,3!$0;!?(0;@?,%0&!&-(7.$,%$2!$0$237%7!(8!,/(7-!+M!-0,%,%-7!%0!?(A.$#%7(0!,(!
7.$,%$2!.$,,-#07!(8!%0?(A-K!#$?-!$0;!-,/0%?%,3=!+-6-#$2!8-$,@#-7!(8!5/%2$;-2./%$!A$*-!%,!$!
.$#,%?@2$#23!%0,-#-7,%0&!?(0,-V,!8(#!,/%7!7,@;3=!\%,/!$!.(.@2$,%(0!(8!$#(@0;!F=G!A%22%(0K!
5/%2$;-2./%$!%7!,/-!2$#&-7,!?%,3!%0!5-007326$0%$!$0;!,/-!8%8,/!2$#&-7,!?%,3!%0!,/-!:0%,-;!+,$,-7=!],!%7!
%0!7(A-!#-7.-?,7!$!?2$77%?!L<@7,O-2,N!?%,3S!%,7!-?(0(A%?!8(#,@0-7!#(7-!;#$A$,%?$223!)%,/!
%0;@7,#%$2%^$,%(0!%0!,/-!-$#23!DE,/!?-0,@#3K!8(22()-;!O3!2(0&!.-#%(;7!(8!@#O$0!;-?2%0-!$0;!
;-%0;@7,#%$2%^$,%(0!%0!,/-!7-?(0;!/$28!(8!,/$,!?-0,@#3=!I/-!?%,3Z7!.(.@2$,%(0!.-$*-;!$,!$#(@0;!D!
A%22%(0!%0!FhGE!$0;!,/-0!;-?2%0-;!@0,%2!DEEEK!$8,-#!)/%?/!%,!/$7!7,$O%2%^-;!(#!&#()0!72%&/,23=!
10
<$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!;%6%;-7!$#-!6-#3!.#(A%0-0,!%0!5/%2$;-2./%$=!I$O2-!F!7@AA$#%^-7!7(A-!?(#-!
5/%2$;-2./%$!;-A(&#$./%?!7,$,%7,%?7=!!
!
Table!1:!Philadelphia!Demographic!Statistics!
!
+(@#?-S!:=+=!"-07@7!'@#-$@K!/,,.Sll)))=?-07@7=&(6lR@%?*8$?,7l,$O2-l5+IEfGDFGlfDFEF!!!
!
g8!,/-!FE!2$#&-7,!:+!?%,%-7K!5/%2$;-2./%$!%7!,/-!.((#-7,=!C7!7--0!%0!I$O2-!FK!(6-#!$!R@$#,-#!(8!,/-!
?%,3Z7!.(.@2$,%(0!2%6-7!O-2()!,/-!.(6-#,3!2%0-=!I/%7!%7!$2A(7,!;(@O2-!,/-!0$,%(0$2!$6-#$&-!(8!
Ff=cm=!C#(@0;!F`m!(8!,/-!.(.@2$,%(0!2%6-7!%0!L;--.!.(6-#,3KN!;-8%0-;!$7!%0?(A-!2-77!,/$0!/$28!
,/-!0$,%(0$2!.(6-#,3!,/#-7/(2;=!5(6-#,3!7-&#-&$,%(0!%0!,/-!5/%2$;-2./%$!#-&%(0!%7!$27(!$A(0&!,/-!
)(#7,!%0!,/-!?(@0,#3!9H2(#%;$!$0;!4-22$0;-#!DEFGB=!]0!7(A-!$#-$7!(8!,/-!?%,3K!0-$#23!-6-#3!?/%2;!
2%6-7!$,!(#!0-$#!,/-!.(6-#,3!2%0-=!g,/-#!$#-$7K!%0?2@;%0&!-7.-?%$223!,/-!&-0,#%8%-;!?%,3!?-0,-#K!
/$6-!/%&/!?(0?-0,#$,%(07!(8!)-$2,/!$0;!/$6-!O--0!@0;-#&(%0&!$0!-?(0(A%?!#-6%6$2!;#%6-0!O3!
/%&/Q,-?/!8%#A7!2%*-!"(A?$7,K!$!2$#&-!0@AO-#!(8!/(7.%,$27!$0;!@0%6-#7%,%-7K!$0;!$!3(@0&!$0;!
2%6-23!$#,7K!8((;!$0;!?@2,@#-!7?-0-=!!
!
]0!$;;%,%(0!,(!.(6-#,3K!,/-!?%,3!$27(!7@88-#7!8#(A!;--.!.$,,-#07!(8!#$?%$2!;%6%7%(0K!$7!%7!#-82-?,-;!
%0!7,$#*!7.$,%$2!7-.$#$,%(07!O-,)--0!/%&/23!?(0?-0,#$,-;!\/%,-K!'2$?*!$0;!U$,%0(!
0-%&/O(#/((;7=!g8!,/-!FEE!A(7,!.(.@2(@7!?%,%-7!%0!,/-!:+K!5/%2$;-2./%$!/$7!O--0!8(@0;!,(!O-!
,/-!f,/!A(7,!#$?%$223!7-&#-&$,-;!9+%26-#!DEFGB=!I/-!?%,3Z7!7-&#-&$,-;!2$0;7?$.-K!%,7-28!,%-;!,(!2(0&!
Philadelphia*2015**
U$0;!$#-$!9DEFEBS!!!!F`f!7R=!A%2-7!
5(.@2$,%(0S!!!!!FKGXiKffD!
\/%,-!$2(0-S! !! ! ! `G=cm!
'2$?*!lC8#%?$0!CA-#%?$0!$2(0-S!! ! f`=f!m!
C7%$0!$2(0-S!!!!i=fm!
1%7.$0%?lU$,%0(nS!!!!Ffm!
4-;%$0!1(@7-/(2;!]0?(A-!9DEFEQFfBS!o`iKfXE!
5-#!"$.%,$!]0?(A-!9DEFEQFfBS! ! oDDKGfD!
<-7%;-0,7!O-2()!.(6-#,3!2%0-S!! ! DG=cm!
!
*!In!the !census,!race!is!treated!separately!from!Hispanic/Latino!origin.
11
/%7,(#%-7!(8!#$?%$2!;%7?#%A%0$,%(0K!%7!$27(!2%0*-;!,(!,/-!2$#&-#!-?(0(A%?!#-&%(0K!)/%?/!%0?2@;-7!
#-2$,%6-23!$882@-0,K!A$P(#%,3Q\/%,-!7@O@#O7K!,(!)/%?/!A$03!@.)$#;23QA(O%2-!8$A%2%-7!A(6-K!
2-$6%0&!O-/%0;!@#O$0!/$#;7/%.!$0;!$!7/#%0*%0&!,$V!O$7-!9C;$A7!-,!$2!DEEcB=!
!
C&$%07,!,/%7!O$?*;#(.!(8!7-.$#$,%(0!$0;!%0-R@$2%,3K!5/%2$;-2./%$!0-6-#,/-2-77!/$7!/%&/!2-6-27!(8!
+M!%00(6$,%(0=!],!%7!/(A-!,(!/@0;#-;7!(8!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07K!$!,/#%6%0&!0-)!?#(77Q7-?,(#$2!
0-,)(#*!(8!?((.-#$,%6-7K!$0!-V?-.,%(0$223!/%&/!0@AO-#!(8!?#-;%,!@0%(07K!$0;!7?(#-7!(8!"+C7K!
$A(0&!A$03!(,/-#!7@?/!%0%,%$,%6-7=!I/-#-!%7!$27(!$!2(0&!/%7,(#3!(8!?((.-#$,%6-7!$0;!A@,@$2!$%;!
%0!5/%2$;-2./%$Z7!'2$?*!?(AA@0%,%-7K!,/(@&/!,/%7!/%7,(#3!/$7!O--0!2$#&-23!8(#&(,,-0!%0!#-?-0,!
;-?$;-7!9>@'(%7!Fchhb!J-AO/$#;!DEFfB=!C;;%,%(0$223K!,/(@&/!,/-!?%,3!;(-7!0(,!/$6-!A@?/!
A(0-3K!%,!;(-7!/$6-!$!#-2$,%6-23!#-7.(07%6-!?%,3!?(@0?%2K!$!;--.!.((2!(8!?(AA@0%,3!$?,%6%7,7K!$0;!
$!2$#&-!0@AO-#!(8!7@..(#,!(#&$0%^$,%(07!7--*%0&!,(!%0?@O$,-!7(2@,%(07!8(#!5/%2$;-2./%$Z7!7(?%$2!
$0;!-?(0(A%?!;%88%?@2,%-7=!!
!
I/%7!%7!,/-!?(0,-V,!%0!)/%?/!$!,-$A!(8!8$?@2,3!$0;!7,@;-0,!#-7-$#?/-#7!O$7-;!$,!pppppp!"(22-&-!
&-0-#$,-;!$!7.$,%$2!;$,$O$7-!(8!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7!%0!,/-!5/%2$;-2./%$!#-&%(0=!]0!(#;-#!,(!
(.-#$,%(0$2%^-!,/-!+M!8(#!,/%7!#-7-$#?/K!)-!?(07@2,-;!,/-!+M!,3.(2(&3!&-0-#$,-;!O3!,/-!:+!
+(2%;$#%,3!M?(0(A3!J-,)(#*!9:++MJBK!$0!(#&$0%^$,%(0!,/$,!8(7,-#7!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7!$#(@0;!,/-!
?(@0,#3=!I$O2-!D!#-.#(;@?-7!$!6-#7%(0!(8!,/%7!,3.(2(&3=!!
!
!Table!2:!Typology!of!SE!Entities!
Consumption*
Production**
Finance*
Exchange*
!
"(07@A-#!?((.-#$,%6-7n!
'@3%0&!?2@O7!
"(Q/(@7%0&!
]0,-0,%(0$2!?(AA@0%,%-7n!
1(@7%0&!?((.-#$,%6-7n!
"(AA@0%,3!2$0;!,#@7,7n!
!
!
!
\(#*-#!?((.-#$,%6-7n!
5#(;@?-#!"((.-#$,%6-7n!
q(2@0,--#!?(22-?,%6-7n!
"(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07n!
"(22-?,%6-7!(8!7-28Q
-A.2(3-;n!
:0.$%;!?$#-!)(#*!
!
!
"#-;%,!:0%(07n!
"(AA@0%,3!;-6-2(.A-0,!
?#-;%,!@0%(07!9">":7Bn!
5--#!U-0;%0&!
4@,@$2!$77(?%$,%(07!
!
H$%#!,#$;-!0-,)(#*7!
"(AA@0%,3!7@..(#,-;!
$&#%?@2,@#-l8%7/-#%-7n!
"(A.2-A-0,$#3!?@##-0?%-7n!
'$#,-#!0-,)(#*7n!
H#--Q?3?2-!0-,)(#*7n!
I%A-!O$0*7n!
n!+M!,3.-7!@7-;!%0!,/%7!7,@;3!!!!!!!+(@#?-S!$;$.,-;!8#(A!'(#()%$*K!DEFG!
!
12
!
I/-!,3.(2(&3!O#-$*7!,/-!+M!;()0!%0,(!(#&$0%^$,%(0$2!,3.-7!,/$,K!O3!6%#,@-!(8!,/-%#!?(#-!
7,#@?,@#-K!$#-!,/(@&/,!,(!#-82-?,!7@O7,$0,%$2!$2%&0A-0,!)%,/!?(#-!+M!6$2@-7K!%0?2@;%0&!-R@%,3K!
7@7,$%0$O%2%,3K!7(2%;$#%,3K!;-A(?#$?3K!$0;!.2@#$2%7A=!]0!?(07,#@?,%0&!,/%7!,3.(2(&3K!-A./$7%7!)$7!
&%6-0!,(!(#&$0%^$,%(07!,/$,!$#-!?(22-?,%6-23!$0;!;-A(?#$,%?$223!#@0!8(#!,/-!O-0-8%,!(8!,/-%#!
A-AO-#7!(#!,/-!?(AA@0%,3=!I/-#-!%7K!/()-6-#K!$0!%A.2%-;!#-?(&0%,%(0!,/$,!-V?-.,%(07!-V%7,=!
J(,!$22!(#&$0%^$,%(07!,/$,!8%,!$!,3.-!0-?-77$#%23!#-82-?,!+M!6$2@-7!%0!.#$?,%?-=!+(A-!?#-;%,!@0%(07K!
8(#!-V$A.2-K!$#-!/$#;23!;%7,%0&@%7/$O2-!8#(A!?(06-0,%(0$2!O$0*7!8#(A!,/-!.-#7.-?,%6-!(8!
?(07@A-#7!7--*%0&!8%0$0?%$2!7-#6%?-7=!"(06-#7-23K!(,/-#!(#&$0%^$,%(07!-V%7,!,/$,!7,#(0&23!@./(2;!
+M!6$2@-7!3-,!;(!0(,!8%,!,(!$03!(8!,/-!2%7,-;!(#&$0%^$,%(0$2!?$,-&(#%-7=!I/-#-!$#-!$27(!A3#%$;!
,3.-7!(8!%08(#A$2!-?(0(A%?!7(2%;$#%,3!8(#!)/%?/!;$,$!%7!-%,/-#!@0$6$%2$O2-!(#!0(0-V%7,-0,=!I/-!
,3.(2(&3!%7!,/@7!0-%,/-#!$O7(2@,-!0(#!-V/$@7,%6-=!H(#!(@#!.@#.(7-7K!%,!(88-#-;!$0!%0%,%$2!)$3!,(!
(.-#$,%(0$2%^-!7%&0%8%?$0,!.(#,%(07!(8!,/-!+M!7(!)-!A%&/,!-6$2@$,-!,/-%#!7.$,%$2!$0;!;-A(&#$./%?!
8((,.#%0,=%%!!
!
\%,/!,/%7!,3.(2(&3!$7!(@#!&@%;-K!)-!@7-;!7(?%$2!0-,)(#*7K!#-&%(0$2!$0;!0$,%(0$2!$77(?%$,%(07K!
$0;!7,#--,Q2-6-2!8%-2;)(#*!,(!?(A.%2-!$0!%0%,%$2!%06-0,(#3!(8!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7!%0!,/-!5/%2$;-2./%$!
#-&%(0=!\-!2%A%,-;!(@#!#-7-$#?/!,(!+M!,3.-7!8(#!)/%?/!)-!)-#-!?(08%;-0,!)-!?(@2;!$?R@%#-!
#-2%$O2-!;$,$!9$7,-#%7*-;!%0!I$O2-!DB=!\-!;%;!0(,!#-R@%#-!,/$,!(#&$0%^$,%(07!-V.2%?%,23!7-28Q%;-0,%83!
$7!.$#,!(8!,/-!+M!A(6-A-0,K!(023!,/$,!,/-%#!(#&$0%^$,%(0$2!7,#@?,@#-!#-82-?,!+M!6$2@-7=!]0!7(A-!
?$7-7K!)-!8@#,/-#!;%88-#-0,%$,-;!7@O,3.-7!$??(#;%0&!,(!,/-!&((;7!(#!7-#6%?-!O-%0&!.#(6%;-;=!]0!
,/-!-0;K!)-!%;-0,%8%-;!(6-#!cEE!+M!-0,%,%-7!)%,/%0!,/-!5/%2$;-2./%$!?%,3!2%A%,7=!I$O2-!`!.#(6%;-7!$!
7%A.2-!O#-$*;()0=!!
*
! !
13
Table!3:!Inventory!of!Solidarity!Economy!Entities!in!Philadelphia!(2015)!
!
!Ffh!"+C!.%?*Q@.!2(?$,%(07!98#(A!Fi!;%7,%0?,!"+C7B!
! i! "(07@A-#!"((.-#$,%6-7!!
!Fc!! 1(@7%0&!"((.-#$,%6-7!$0;!]0,-0,%(0$2!"(AA@0%,%-7!
!h!! \(#*-#!"((.-#$,%6-7!
!h!! "((.-#$,%6-!"/%2;?$#-!"-0,-#7!!
!FF!! C#,%7,!"(22-?,%6-7!
!F!! "(AA@0%,3!U$0;!I#@7,!
!fif!! "(AA@0%,3!a$#;-07!
!FEF!! "#-;%,!:0%(0!O#$0?/-7!9-V?2@;%0&!">":7B!
!X!! "(AA@0%,3!>-6-2(.A-0,!"#-;%,!:0%(0!O#$0?/-7!9">":7B!
!FF!! g,/-#!"((.-#$,%6-7!$0;!"(22-?,%6-7!
!G!! '$#,-#lH#--!"3?2-!J-,)(#*7!
! f! I%A-!'$0*7!
******
*805*Total*
!
!!!!!!!!
H#(A!,/%7!2%7,K!)-!7-.$#$,-;!(@,!ihf!+M!.#$?,%?-7!,/$,!/$6-!;%7,%0?,!./37%?$2!2(?$,%(07!$A-0$O2-!
,(!7.$,%$2!A$..%0&=%%%!I/%7!%0?2@;-7!?((.7!$0;!?(22-?,%6-7K!%0,-0,%(0$2!?(AA@0%,%-7K!?#-;%,!@0%(0!
$0;!">":!O#$0?/-7K!,%A-!O$0*7K!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07K!"+C7!;#(.Q(88!7%,-7K!$0;!?(AA@0%,3!2$0;!
,#@7,7=!!\-!,/-0!.2(,,-;!,/-%#!?((#;%0$,-7!$&$%07,!;-A(&#$./%?!;$,$!(0!#$?-K!-,/0%?%,3K!$0;!
%0?(A-!;#$)0!8#(A!M+<]Z7!DEFG!-7,%A$,-7=!>(%0&!7(K!)-!-V.-?,-;!,(!8%0;!,/$,!,/-!+M!$7!$!)/(2-!
9(#!$,!2-$7,!,/-!7@O7-,7!)-!/$6-!%;-0,%8%-;B!%7!#-2$,%6-23!)%;-7.#-$;!$?#(77!,/-!?%,3=!\-!$27(!
-V.-?,-;!,(!8%0;!,/$,!,/-!7.$,%$2!;%7,#%O@,%(0!)(@2;!6$#3!O3!,3.-!$0;!,/$,!,/%7!)(@2;!#-82-?,!
@0;-#23%0&!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!6$#%$O2-7=!\-!)-#-!2-77!?-#,$%0!/()!-V$?,23!,/$,!6$#%$,%(0!)(@2;!
2((*=!]0!,/-!0-V,!7-?,%(0!)-!.#-7-0,!(@#!8%0;%0&7=!
*
Mapping*SE*Footprints:*Income*Divisions*
\-!O-&%0K!%0!H%&@#-!FK!O3!.2(,,%0&!(@#!?(A.2-,-!7-,!(8!+M!7.$,%$2!;$,$!$&$%07,!.-#!?$.%,$!%0?(A-!
2-6-27!%0!5/%2$;-2./%$=!I/-!A$.!;%7.2$37!,/-!?%,3Z7!/%&/!#$,-7!(8!.(6-#,3!$0;!.(6-#,3!7-&#-&$,%(0=*
*
14
Figure!1:!Solidarity!Economy!Entities!and!Per!Capita!Income!
!
!
I/#(@&/(@,!,/-!6$7,!A$P(#%,3!(8!,/-!?%,3Z7!0-%&/O(#/((;7K!.-#!?$.%,$!%0?(A-!%7!@0;-#!oDGKEEEK!
)%,/!2$#&-!7)$,/7!(8!,/-!?%,3!2%6%0&!)%,/!.-#!?$.%,$!%0?(A-!@0;-#!oFDKEEE!9,/-!DEFG!.(6-#,3!
,/#-7/(2;!8(#!$!7%0&2-!%0;%6%;@$2B=!]0?(A-!2-6-27!$#-!/%&/!%0!,/-!?%,3!?-0,-#K!6%7%O2-!%0!,/-!2()-#!
A%;;2-!.(#,%(0!(8!,/-!A$.K!O@,!;#(.!.#-?%.%,(@723!$7!(0-!A(6-7!0(#,/!$0;!7(@,/)-7,!8#(A!
;()0,()0=!4@?/!(8!5/%2$;-2./%$Z7!.((#!.(.@2$,%(0!$0;!A(7,!(8!%,7!;--.!.(6-#,3!?$0!O-!8(@0;!
%0!,/-!$#-$!P@7,!0(#,/!(8!7(A-!(8!,/-!?%,3Z7!/%&/-7,!)-$2,/!?(0?-0,#$,%(07=!!
!
C&$%07,!,/%7!O$?*;#(.K!)-!8%0;!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7!,(!O-!6-#3!)-22Q;%7,#%O@,-;!$?#(77!,/-!?%,3K!)%,/!,/-!
0@AO-#7!,/%00%0&!(@,!$7!3(@!A(6-!$)$3!8#(A!,/-!?%,3!?-0,-#!,()$#;7!2-77!;-07-23!.(.@2$,-;!
$0;!72%&/,23!A(#-!$882@-0,!0-%&/O(#/((;7!%0!,/-!0(#,/)-7,!$0;!0(#,/-$7,=!+M!-0,%,%-7!?$0!O-!
8(@0;!$?#(77!O(,/!#%?/!$0;!.((#!$#-$7=!I/-!;%7,#%O@,%(0!?/$0&-7K!/()-6-#K!(0?-!)-!
;%7$&&#-&$,-!,/-!;$,$!O3!+M!,3.-=!]0!H%&@#-!D!)-!.2(,!(023!?((.-#$,%6-7!$0;!?(22-?,%6-7K!
-V?2@;%0&!?#-;%,!@0%(07K!$&$%07,!,/-!7$A-!%0?(A-!;$,$=!!
*
!
15
Figure!2:!Cooperatives!and!Per!Capita!Income!
!
*
\/$,!7,$0;7!(@,!$O(@,!,/%7!A$.!%7!/()!8-)!(8!,/-!?((.7!?$0!O-!8(@0;!%0!,/-!?%,3Z7!.((#-7,!
#-&%(07=!CA(0&!,/(7-!,/$,!?(A-!?2(7-7,!$#-!$!.#-;(A%0$0,23!\/%,-K!#-2%&%(@723!%07.%#-;!
?((.-#$,%6-!%0,-0,%(0$2!?(AA@0%,3!)%,/!2%,,2-!?(AA-#?%$2!$?,%6%,3!%0!J(#,/-$7,!5/%2$;-2./%$!$0;!
,)(!?((.7!2(?$,-;!%0!,/-!A%;;2-!(8!,/-!:0%6-#7%,3!(8!5-007326$0%$!?$A.@7!)/-#-!7,@;-0,7!;#%6-!
;()0!.-#!?$.%,$!%0?(A-!2-6-27=!I/-!A$.!7-.$#$,-7!(@,!?/%2;?$#-!?((.7!9,/#--!)%,/!)(#*-#7!$7!
A-AO-#7!$0;!-%&/,!)%,/!.$#-0,7!$7!A-AO-#7BK!)/%?/!$#-!.$#,%?@2$#23!#-82-?,%6-!(8!?2$77!
;%6%7%(07=!C2,/(@&/!,/-!0--;!8(#!$88(#;$O2-!?/%2;?$#-!%7!0-$#!@0%6-#7$2K!%,!%7!0(,!7/$#-;!%0!,/-!
7$A-!)$3!$A(0&!#%?/!$0;!.((#!?(AA@0%,%-7=!<-?-0,!7,@;%-7!7/()!,/$,!,/-!(6-#$22!7@..23!(8!
?(AA-#?%$2!?/%2;?$#-!%0!5/%2$;-2./%$!%7!7@O7,$0,%$223!&#-$,-#!%0!$0;!$#(@0;!$#-$7!)%,/!/%&/-#!
#$,-7!(8!.(6-#,3!$0;!%0!$0;!$#(@0;!.#-;(A%0$0,23!'2$?*!0-%&/O(#/((;7!$0;!2()Q%0?(A-!$#-$7!
9I<H!DEFfB=!\-K!O3!?(0,#$7,K!8%0;!(023!$!/$0;8@2!(8!?/%2;?$#-!?((.7!$2(0&!,/-!-;&-7!(8!.((#-#!
#-&%(07!$0;!0(,!%0!,/-!/-$#,!(8!5/%2$;-2./%$Z7!.((#!'2$?*!0-%&/O(#/((;7=!
!
16
g@#!%0,-#6%-)7!)%,/!#-7%;-0,7!%0!7(A-!(8!,/(7-!0-%&/O(#/((;7!7@&&-7,!,/$,!8$A%2%-7!7--*%0&!
$2,-#0$,%6-7!,(!?(06-0,%(0$2!?/%2;?$#-!?-0,-#7!,@#0!0(,!,(!?((.7!O@,!,(!%08(#A$2!$##$0&-A-0,7!
)%,/!*%0K!0-%&/O(#7K!$0;!8#%-0;7=!!
!
g0-!A$P(#!-V?-.,%(0!,(!,/%7!.$,,-#0!(8!?((.-#$,%6-7Z!$O7-0?-!8#(A!.((#!#-&%(07!%7!,/-!5-(.2-Z7!
5$.-#!"((.!$0;!MV.@0&-A-0,!5#(P-?,!955"M5BK!)/%?/!%7!2(?$,-;!#%&/,!$,!,/-!?-0,-#!(8!.((#!
J(#,/!5/%2$;-2./%$!$0;!$2(0&!,/-!O(#;-#!O-,)--0!.#-;(A%0$0,23!'2$?*!$0;!.#-;(A%0$0,23!
U$,%0(!0-%&/O(#/((;7!97--!H%&@#-7!G!$0;!cB=!I/%7!2(?$,%(0!A$*-7!7-07-!&%6-0!,/-!(#&$0%^$,%(0Z7!
A%77%(0=!I/-!55"M5!O#%0&7!8(#A-#23!%0?$#?-#$,-;!%0;%6%;@$27!,(&-,/-#!,(!?(22$O(#$,%6-23!#@0!$!
?#$8,QO$7-;!O@7%0-77!$0;!,(!$;6(?$,-!8(#!%0;%6%;@$27!@.(0!#--0,#3!8#(A!,/-!?#%A%0$2!P@7,%?-!
737,-A=!CA(0&!(,/-#!7-#6%?-7K!,/-!55"M5!7-227!.$.-#!.#(;@?,7!A$;-!O3!8(#A-#23!%0?$#?-#$,-;!
%0;%6%;@$27K!.#(6%;-7!#--0,#3!)(#*7/(.7!$0;!#-7(@#?-!&@%;-7K!$0;!(88-#7!8#--!2-&$2!?2%0%?7!%0!
)/%?/!?(AA@0%,3!A-AO-#7!?$0!?2-$0!,/-%#!?#%A%0$2!#-?(#;7!$0;!A$*-!/$0;A$;-!.$.-#!(@,!(8!
,(#0Q@.!?(.%-7!(8!,/-%#!(2;!#-?(#;7=!C2,/(@&/!,/-!55"M5!%7!0(,!$!?((.!%0!,/-!.@#-!7-07-_%,!%7!
%07,-$;!$!7@O7%;%^-;!%0%,%$,%6-!(8!I/-!q%22$&-!(8!C#,7!$0;!1@A$0%,%-7K!$!0(0.#(8%,!$#,7!
(#&$0%^$,%(0!,/$,!%7!$0!$0?/(#!8(#!7(?%$2!-A.()-#A-0,!%0!,/-!7@##(@0;%0&!0-%&/O(#/((;7_)-!
0-6-#,/-2-77!%0?2@;-!%,!/-#-!O-?$@7-!(8!,/-!?-0,#$2!.2$?-!(8!.$#,%?%.$0,!?((.-#$,%(0!%0!%,7!
$?,%6%,%-7!$0;!O-?$@7-!%,7!A%77%(0!#-7(0$,-7!7(!7,#(0&23!)%,/!+M!.#%0?%.2-7=!!
!
"#-;%,!@0%(07!/$6-!$!A$#&%0$223!&#-$,-#!.#-7-0?-!%0!.((#!0-%&/O(#/((;7!,/$0!(,/-#!?((.7!;(=!
C7!H%&@#-!`!#-6-$27K!7(A-!?#-;%,!@0%(0!O#$0?/-7!?$0!O-!8(@0;!$?#(77!A@?/!(8!\-7,K!J(#,/!$0;!
J(#,/-$7,!5/%2$;-2./%$K!)-22!(@,7%;-!(8!,/-!A(7,!.#(7.-#(@7!?(AA@0%,%-7=!!
*
! !
17
Figure!3:!Credit!Unions!and!Per!Capita!Income!
!
!
'@,!?#-;%,!@0%(07K!,((K!$#-!6%#,@$223!$O7-0,!8#(A!7(A-!(8!,/-!$#-$7!(8!;%#-7,!.(6-#,3!%0!J(#,/!$0;!
+(@,/!5/%2$;-2./%$=!I/%7!%7!-6-0!,#@-!(8!">":7K!)/%?/!$#-!,((!7A$22!$0;!,((!8-)!%0!0@AO-#!,(!
#-$?/!$22!$#-$7!(8!0--;!;-7.%,-!,/-%#!A%77%(0!,(!7@..(#,!;%7$;6$0,$&-;!?(AA@0%,%-7=%6!!
!
\/-0!%,!?(A-7!,(!/$6%0&!$!7%&0%8%?$0,!.#-7-0?-!%0!.((#!0-%&/O(#/((;7K!%,!%7!#-$223!(023!
?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07!,/$,!7,$0;!(@,K!$7!#-82-?,-;!%0!H%&@#-!f=!
*
! !
18
Figure!4:!Community!Gardens!and!Per!Capita!Income!
!
!
C2,/(@&/!,/-3!;(0Z,!#-$?/!$7!8$#!%0,(!,/-!J(#,/-$7,!(8!,/-!?%,3K!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07!$#-!
.#-6$2-0,!%0!%A.(6-#%7/-;!$#-$7!0(#,/K!)-7,K!$0;!7(@,/!(8!,/-!?%,3!?-0,-#=!I/-7-!8%0;%0&7!$#-!
?(07%7,-0,!)%,/!(,/-#!7,@;%-7!(8!&$#;-07!%0!5/%2$;-2./%$=!e#-A-#!$0;!>-U%O-#,3!9DEFFBK!8(#!
-V$A.2-K!8(@0;!%0!DEFF!,/$,!(6-#!GEm!(8!,/-!8((;Q.#(;@?%0&!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07!%0!5/%2$;-2./%$!
)-#-!2(?$,-;!)%,/%0!0-%&/O(#/((;7!)%,/!$00@$2!.-#!?$.%,$!%0?(A-!(8!oFcKEEE!(#!2-77=!+@?/!
.$,,-#07!A%&/,!O-!-V.-?,-;!&%6-0!,/-!$6$%2$O%2%,3!(8!$O$0;(0-;!2(,7!%0!.((#!0-%&/O(#/((;7!$0;!
?(07%;-#%0&!,/$,!&$#;-07!.#(6%;-!$!7@..2-A-0,$2!8((;!7(@#?-!$?R@%#-;!,/#(@&/!,/-!)(#*!(8!
(0-Z7!/$0;7!#$,/-#!,/$0!,/#(@&/!)$&-7=!C7!q%,%-2(!$0;!J$%#0!9DEEhB!7@&&-7,K!&$#;-07!%0!.((#-#!
$#-$7!(8!5/%2$;-2./%$!/$6-!7(A-)/$,!;%88-#-0,!8@0?,%(07!%0!,/-%#!?(AA@0%,%-7!,/$0!&$#;-07!%0!
#%?/-#!?(AA@0%,%-7!;(=!I/-!8((;!,/-3!&#()!,-0;7!,(!.2$3!A(#-!-77-0,%$2!-?(0(A%?!#(2-7!%0!,/-!
-V,-0;-;!8$A%2%-7!$0;!7(?%$2!0-,)(#*7!(8!&$#;-0-#7=!C7!(0-!2(?$2!&$#;-0!?((#;%0$,(#!.@,7!%,K!L]!
?$00(,!?(06%0?-!$!/%&/!R@$2%,3!&#(?-#3!7,(#-!?/$%0!,(!(.-0!7,(#-7!%0!+(@,/)-7,K!0(#!?$0!]!2@#-!
,/-!-;@?$,%(0!(#!P(O7!)-!)(@2;!0--;!,(!*--.!7,#(0&!O@7%0-77!%0!(@#!?(AA@0%,3K!O@,!]!?$0!&#()!
$!7--;N!952$05/%223K!DEFXB=!
!!
19
Solidarity*Economy*and*Racial*Segregation*
]0!5/%2$;-2./%$K!-?(0(A%?!?2$77!%7!(023!(0-!8(#A!(8!7.$,%$2!7-&#-&$,%(0=!+.$,%$2!;%6%7%(07!
$??(#;%0&!,(!#$?-!$#-!-6-0!A(#-!.#(0(@0?-;=!H%&@#-!G!A$.7!?((.-#$,%6-7!$&$%07,!.-#?-0,!'2$?*!
.(.@2$,%(0=!]0!,/-!A$.K!,/-!7.$,%$2!7-&#-&$,%(0!7,$0;7!(@,!%AA-;%$,-23K!)%,/!7/$#.!?(0,#$7,7!
O-,)--0!#-&%(07!)%,/!(6-#!iGm!'2$?*!.(.@2$,%(0!$0;!,/(7-!)%,/!GE!.-#?-0,!(#!8-)-#=!
!
Figure!5:!Cooperatives!and!Percent!Black!Population!
!
!
C7!7,#%*%0&!%7!,/-!6%#,@$2!$O7-0?-!(8!?((.7!%0!'2$?*!0-%&/O(#/((;7=!\%,/!,/-!-V?-.,%(0!(8!(0-!
;$3?$#-!?((.-#$,%6-!$0;!(0-!/(@7%0&!?((.-#$,%6-_O(,/!%0!\-7,!5/%2$;-2./%$_0(0-!(8!,/-!
?((.-#$,%6-7!$#-!2(?$,-;!%0!0-%&/O(#/((;7!)/-#-!'2$?*!.(.@2$,%(07!$#-!A(7,!?(0?-0,#$,-;=!],!%7!
$7!%8!,/-!?((.-#$,%6-7!$#-!.$,,-#0-;!,(!8#$A-!,/-!A$P(#%,3!'2$?*!0-%&/O(#/((;7b!,/-3!7*%#,!,/-!
-;&-7!O@,!,/-3!0-6-#!8@223!-0,-#!,/-A=!I/%7!%7!,/-!?$7-!%0!J(#,/)-7,!5/%2$;-2./%$!$2(0&!
a-#A$0,()0!C6-0@-K!%0!,/-!$#-$7!)-7,!(8!,/-!:0%6-#7%,3!(8!5-007326$0%$!%0!\-7,!5/%2$;-2./%$K!
$0;!%0!,/-!#-&%(0!P@7,!0(#,/!(8!;()0,()0=!!
!
20
I/-!$O7-0?-7!$#-!7(A-)/$,!2-77!%0,-07-!)/-0!)-!%0?2@;-!?#-;%,!@0%(0!O#$0?/-7!97--!H%&@#-!`K!
)/-#-!,/-%#!;%7,#%O@,%(0!%7!7/()0!$&$%07,!%0?(A-B=!C..#(V%A$,-23!$!R@$#,-#!(8!,/-!?%,3Z7!?#-;%,!
@0%(07!#-.(#,!/$6%0&!A-AO-#7/%.!(#!-V-?@,%6-!2-$;-#7/%.!,/$,!%7!(6-#!GEm!'2$?*K!U$,%0(!(#!
C7%$0=!CO(@,!/$28!(8!,/-7-!$#-!7A$22!?/@#?/QO$7-;!?#-;%,!@0%(07!(#!">":7K!#-82-?,%0&!O(,/!,/-!
2%A%,-;!?$.%,$2!%0!A%0(#%,3!0-%&/O(#/((;7!$0;!,/-!%A.(#,$0?-!(8!A%77%(0=!"#-;%,!@0%(07!$#-K!
0(0-,/-2-77K!7,%22!#-2$,%6-23!7?$#-!%0!,/-!/-$#,!(8!J(#,/!5/%2$;-2./%$!$0;!$2A(7,!-0,%#-23!$O7-0,!
8#(A!,/-!?(0?-0,#$,-;!.((#!'2$?*!0-%&/O(#/((;7!(8!+(@,/!5/%2$;-2./%$=!
!
+%A%2$#!#$?%$2%^-;!&-(&#$./%-7!$#-!8(@0;!)/-0!)-!2((*!$,!(,/-#!+M!,3.-7=!H%&@#-!XK!8(#!-V$A.2-K!
#-.#-7-0,7!"+C!;#(.Q(88!.(%0,7!,(&-,/-#!)%,/!8((;!?((.-#$,%6-7K!O(,/!A$P(#!?(A.(0-0,7!(8!,/-!
$2,-#0$,%6-!8((;!A(6-A-0,=!!
!
!Figure!6:!CSAs!and!Food!Cooperatives!and!Percent!Black!Population!
!
!
I/-!"+C!.$,,-#0!%7!-7.-?%$223!.#(0(@0?-;=!g@,!(8!$!,(,$2!(8!Ffh!;#(.Q(88!7%,-7K!O$#-23!FEm!$#-!%0!
A$P(#%,3!'2$?*!0-%&/O(#/((;7!$0;!(023!(0-!%7!2(?$,-;!7R@$#-23!%0!,/-!6$7,!7,#-,?/-7!(8!,/-!?%,3!
21
/$6%0&!$!iGm!(#!&#-$,-#!'2$?*!.(.@2$,%(0=!I$*-0!,(&-,/-#K!7@?/!8%0;%0&7!7--A!,(!?(08%#A!#$?%$2!
$0;!?2$77!?#%,%?%7A7!(8!O(,/!?((.7!$0;!,/-!$2,-#0$,%6-!8((;!-?(0(A3=!
*
<$?%$2%^-;!.$,,-#07!%0!,/-!;%7,#%O@,%(0!(8!+M!-0,%,%-7!?$0!$27(!O-!8(@0;!%0!U$,%0(!0-%&/O(#/((;7=!
H%&@#-!i!A$.7!$22!+M!-0,%,%-7!-V?-.,!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07!$&$%07,!;-A(&#$./%?!;$,$!(0!
5/%2$;-2./%$Z7!U$,%0(!.(.@2$,%(0=!!
*
Figure!7:!SE!Entities!(Excluding!Community!Gardens)!and!Percent!Latino!Population!
!
!
C7!,/%7!A$.!#-6-$27K!,/-!2%0-7!;%6%;%0&!A$P(#%,3!U$,%0(!0-%&/O(#/((;7!8#(A!(,/-#!0-%&/O(#/((;7!
%7!$O(@,!$7!7,$#*!$7!,/(7-!%0!,/-!.#-;(A%0$0,23!'2$?*!0-%&/O(#/((;7K!,/(@&/!,/-!U$,%0(!
.(.@2$,%(0!%7!7A$22-#=!I/-!U$,%0(!.(.@2$,%(0!%7!R@%,-!6%7%O23!?(0?-0,#$,-;!%0!$0!$#-$!(8!J(#,/!
5/%2$;-2./%$!7/$.-;!2%*-!$0!%06-#,-;!,#%$0&2-!#-$?/%0&!8#(A!,/-!e-07%0&,(0!0-%&/O(#/((;!%0!,/-!
7(@,/-$7,!,(!J%0,/!+,#--,!%0!,/-!)-7,!$0;!<((7-6-2,!'(@2-6$#;!%0!,/-!0(#,/=!+(A-,%A-7!
;-7?#%O-;!$7!5/%2$;-2./%$Z7!barrioK!,/%7!$#-$!%7!.(.@2$,-;!.#%A$#%23!O3!5@-#,(!<%?$07K!O3!8$#!,/-!
2$#&-7,!U$,%0(!;-A(&#$./%?!%0!,/-!?%,3=!\/$,!%7!7(!7,#%*%0&!$O(@,!,/%7!A$.!%7!0(,!(023!,/$,!,/%7!
#-2$,%6-23!2$#&-!$#-$!%7!(0-!(8!,/-!.((#-7,!%0!,/-!?%,3_.-#!?$.%,$!%0?(A-!%7!O-2()!ocKEEE!%0!
7-6-#$2!(8!,/-7-!O2(?*7_O@,!$27(!,/$,!+M!-0,%,%-7!$#-!$2A(7,!-0,%#-23!$O7-0,=!!
22
!
+@?/!$O7-0?-7!?$0!O-!$,,#%O@,-;!%0!.$#,!,(!,/-!,#-A-0;(@7!2(&%7,%?$2!$0;!%08(#A$,%(0$2!/@#;2-7!
.#-7-0,-;!O3!$;6-#7-!-?(0(A%?!?(0;%,%(07=!<-7%;-0,7!%0!.(6-#,3!7,#%?*-0!$#-$7!(8,-0!2$?*!,/-!
;%7.(7$O2-!%0?(A-!$0;!7$6%0&7!?$.$?%,3!,(!7@7,$%0!?(AA-#?%$2!?(07@A-#!?((.7!$0;!?#-;%,!
@0%(07=!]0!(@#!8%-2;)(#*K!#-7%;-0,7!?(A.2$%0-;!$O(@,!,/-!0--;!8(#!O-,,-#!-;@?$,%(0!$O(@,!
-?(0(A%?!$2,-#0$,%6-7=!I/-3!$27(!.(%0,-;!,(!-?(0(A%?!737,-A7_8#(A!.#-;$,(#3!2-0;%0&!,(!;#@&!
A$#*-,7_,/$,!#-%08(#?-!-?(0(A%?!.#-?$#%,3!$0;!?(##(;-!,#@7,=!C7!(0-!U$,%0(!(#&$0%^-#!%0!J(#,/!
5/%2$;-2./%$!;-7?#%O-7!%,K!!
r,s#3%0&!,(!O#%0&!.-(.2-!,(&-,/-#!$0;!&-,!,(!*0()!-$?/!(,/-#K!7(!,/$,!)$3!,/-3!?$0!,#@7,!
-$?/!(,/-#!%7!#-$2!/$#;K!%,Z7!6-#3!;%88%?@2,t!;(%0&!,/-!)(#*!(8!,/-!?(AA@0%,3!$0;!,/-0!
;(%0&!,/-!)(#*!(8K!3(@!*0()K!-?(0(A%?!7(2%;$#%,3_$!2$#&-!.$#,!(8!%,!/$7!,(!O-!,/$,!$22!
A-AO-#7!/$6-!,(!,#@7,!-$?/!(,/-#=!!
\/-#-!,#@7,!%7!-V?--;%0&23!2()K!&-,,%0&!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7!(88!,/-!&#(@0;!,(!?(@0,-#$?,!.#-;$,(#3!
-?(0(A%?!737,-A7!?$0!O-!%AA-07-23!?/$22-0&%0&K!-6-0!)%,/!;-;%?$,-;!&#$77#((,7!2-$;-#7/%.=!!
!
I#@7,!.#(O2-A7!$27(!-V,-0;!,(!%0%,%$,%6-7!(#%&%0$,%0&!8#(A!(@,7%;-=!C7!(0-!U$,%0(!?(8(@0;-#!(8!$!
?(07,#@?,%(0!?(A.$03!#-A$#*-;K!L]ZA!6-#3!7@7.%?%(@7!(8!&#%0&(7t!I/-!\/%,-!.-(.2-!)$0,!@7!,(!
A$*-!$!?((.-#$,%6-=!'@,!,/-3!;(0Z,!*0()!@7=!I/-3!;(0Z,!*0()!@7t!)-!$#-!%0!$!737,-A!)/-#-!
)-!?$0Z,!)%0=N!C2,/(@&/!7@?/!7,#(0&!7-0,%A-0,!)$7!0(,!7/$#-;!O3!$22!%0,-#6%-)--7K!%,!;(-7!
/%&/2%&/,!,/-!-V.-#%-0?-!(8!$;6-#7%,3!$0;!,/-!.-#?-.,%(0!,/$,!?((.-#$,%6-7!$#-!$!\/%,-!8%V$,%(0=!
],!$27(!@0;-#7?(#-7!,/$,!,/-!+MZ7!2%A%,-;!.#-7-0?-!%0!.(#,%(07!(8!5/%2$;-2./%$!A%&/,!7,-A!8#(A!
,/-!2%A%,$,%(07!(8!;(A%0$0,!&#(@.7!$7!A@?/!$7!8#(A!,/-!?(07,#$%0,7!8$?-;!O3!A$#&%0$2%^-;!(0-7=!!
H(#!%0;%6%;@$27!$0;!?(AA@0%,%-7!(??@.3%0&!;%88-#-0,!.(7%,%(07!)%,/%0!#$?%$2%^-;!7,#@?,@#-7!(8!
-?(0(A%?!%0-R@$2%,3!$0;!;(A%0$,%(0!7@?/!$7!)-!8%0;!%0!5/%2$;-2./%$K!O@%2;%0&!-?(0(A%?!
7(2%;$#%,3!%7!$!?/$22-0&-!@0;-#!$03!?%#?@A7,$0?-7=!],!O-?(A-7!A@?/!A(#-!;%88%?@2,!)/-0!,/-!
2-$;-#7/%.!$0;!7,#$,-&%?!6%7%(07!%0!,/-!+M!$#-!.-#?-%6-;!$7!\/%,-!$0;!(0-Q7%;-;=!!
!
H%&@#-!i!9$O(6-B!#-6-$27!,/-!+MZ7!#-2$,%6-!$O7-0?-!8#(A!U$,%0(!0-%&/O(#/((;7=!C!;%88-#-0,!
%A.#-77%(0!-A-#&-7K!/()-6-#K!)/-0!)-!.2(,!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07!$&$%07,!,/-!7$A-!;-A(&#$./%?!
23
;$,$=!H%&@#-!c!7/()7!,/$,!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07!0(,!(023!#-$?/!%0,(!,/-7-!0-%&/O(#/((;7K!,/-3!$#-!
$?,@$223!/%&/23!?(0?-0,#$,-;!,/-#-=!!
*
Figure!8:!Community!Gardens!and!Percent!Latino!Population!
!
!
Y@$2%,$,%6-!%0,-#6%-)7!#-6-$2!,/-!%A.(#,$0?-!(8!O(,/!-?(0(A%?!$0;!?@2,@#$2!8$?,(#7!$7!)-22!$7!
%07,%,@,%(0$2!(0-7=!EconomicallyK!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07!,-0;!,(!(887-,!,/-!2$?*!(8!7$6%0&7!$0;!
;%7.(7$O2-!%0?(A-!%0!,/-!?(AA@0%,3!O3!7@O7,%,@,%0&!?(AA@0%,3Q&#()0!.#(;@?-!8(#!8((;!%,-A7!
,/$,!)(@2;!(,/-#)%7-!O-!.@#?/$7-;!8#(A!&#(?-#7!%8!$,!$22=!CulturallyK!,/-#-!%7!$!7%&0%8%?$0,!/%7,(#3!
(8!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-0%0&!$A(0&!U$,%0(7!%0!,/-!:+!&-0-#$223K!$0;!$A(0&!5@-#,(!<%?$07!
7.-?%8%?$223!94$#,%0-^!DEFEb!+$2;%6$#QI$0$*$!$0;!e#$703!DEEfB=!+-6-#$2!(8!,/-!&$#;-07!/$6-!O--0!
;-6-2(.-;!,(!?@2,%6$,-!.2$0,7!0$,%6-!,(!5@-#,(!<%?(!$0;!A$03!(8!5/%2$;-2./%$Z7!5@-#,(!<%?$0!
8$A%2%-7!A$%0,$%0!8$A%23!?(00-?,%(07!,(!#@#$2!#-&%(07!(8!5@-#,(!<%?(=!4$03!(8!,/-7-!&$#;-07!$27(!
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24
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Figure!9:!Cooperatives!and!Percent!White!Population!
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Seeds*for*a*Decolonized*Solidarity*Economy*
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28
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$0;!,/$,!-V.2%?%,23!-AO#$?-7!,/-!+M!8#$A-)(#*!$0;!$!#$?%$2!P@7,%?-!(#%-0,$,%(0=!I/#(@&/!7,@;3!
?%#?2-7!A(;-2-;!(0!C8#%?$0!CA-#%?$0!$0;!5/%2$;-2./%$!?((.-#$,%6-!/%7,(#3K!5C"C !%7!/-2.%0&!,(!
&-0-#$,-!$7!A$03!$7!DE!?((.-#$,%6-!7,$#,Q@.7!8#(A!@0;-##-.#-7-0,-;!?(AA@0%,%-7K!%0?2@;%0&!
A%&#$0,!U$,%0(!?(07,#@?,%(0!)(#*-#7K!7-V!)(#*-#7K!$0;!-6-0!+(%2!a-0-#$,%(0!%,7-28K!$A(0&!A$03!
(,/-#7=!!
!
I/-7-!7-6-#$2!%22@7,#$,%(07!(8!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7!$;6$0?%0&!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!P@7,%?-!%0!5/%2$;-2./%$!
.#(6%;-!$0!%A.(#,$0,!?(@0,-#.(%0,!,(!,/-!+MZ7!$..$#-0,!$O7-0?-7!)%,/%0!,/-!?%,3Z7!#$?%$2%^-;!$0;!
?2$77-;!&-(&#$./3=!I/-3!@0;-#7?(#-!,/-!%A.(#,$0?-!(8!0(,!(023!?#%,%R@%0&!,/-!+M!O@,!$27(!
?@2,%6$,%0&!%,7!O-,,-#!.(,-0,%$27=!!
!
Caveats*and*Conclusions**
\-!O-&$0!,/%7!.$.-#!)%,/!,)(!$0-?;(,-7!$O(@,!.#(.(0-0,7!)/(K!%0!,/-%#!-88(#,7!,(!6$2%;$,-!,/-!
+M!$7!$!)/(2-K!8(@0;!,/-A7-26-7!$??@7-;!(8!0-&2-?,%0&!@0;-#23%0&!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!;30$A%?7=!],!
%7!#-2$,%6-23!-$73!,(!7-,!,/%7!@.!%0!$0!(..(7%,%(0$2!)$3=!H(#!,/(7-!A-#-23!7--*%0&!,(!;#$)!
$)$#-0-77!,(!,/-!+M!$7!$!?#-;%O2-!?(0?-.,!$0;!A(6-A-0,K!7@?/!$??@7$,%(07!$#-!,/#-$,-0%0&S!
29
,/-3!P-(.$#;%^-!@0%6-#7$2!0$##$,%6-7!(8!,/-!+MZ7!.(,-0,%$2!$,!,/-!6-#3!A(A-0,!,/$,!,/-!+M!%7!
8%0$223!&$#0-#%0&!&#-$,-#!$,,-0,%(0=!H(#!?#%,%?7K!O3!?(0,#$7,K!,/-!+M!%7!/$#;23!$!?#-;%O2-!A(6-A-0,!
%8!%,!0-&2-?,7!#$?%$2!$0;l(#!?2$77!%0P@7,%?-=!<$,/-#!,/$0!7-,,%0&!,/-7-!.-#7.-?,%6-7!%0!(..(7%,%(0!,(!
(0-!$0(,/-#K!)-!/$6-!7(@&/,!,(!A(;-2!/()!)-!A%&/,!7,@;3!$0;!6$2%;$,-!,/-!+M!$7!$!)/(2-!
.#-?%7-23!O3!$0$23^%0&!%,!,/#(@&/!$!#$?-!$0;!?2$77!2-07=!!
!
\-!/$6-!@7-;!,/-!A$.7!$O(6-!,(!6%7@$2%^-!$!7-,!(8!7.$,%$2!#-2$,%(07/%.7!O-,)--0!;%88-#-0,!,3.-7!
(8!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7!$0;!5/%2$;-2./%$Z7!7(?%$2!&-(&#$./3=!I/%7!)(#*!;-A(07,#$,-7!,/-!.2$@7%O%2%,3!$0;!
6$2@-!(8!7,@;3%0&!,/-!+M!$7!$!)/(2-!%0!$;;%,%(0!,(!7,@;3%0&!%,7!;%6-#7-!-?(0(A%?!$0;!7(?%$2!
-2-A-0,7=!],!$27(!&%6-7!$0!%0;%?$,%(0!(8!/()!2$#&-!,/-!7.$,%$2!8((,.#%0,!(8!,/-!+M!A%&/,!O-!%8!)-!
2((*!$,!6$#%(@7!%0%,%$,%6-7!,(&-,/-#!#$,/-#!,/$0!%0!%7(2$,%(0!8#(A!(0-!$0(,/-#=!I/%7K!%0!,@#0K!
?(0,#%O@,-7!,(!-88(#,7!,(!?/$22-0&-!/-&-A(0%?!8#$A%0&7!(8!,/-!-?(0(A3!$7!%0/-#-0,23!?$.%,$2%7,!
$0;!-?(0(A%?!$2,-#0$,%6-7!$7!%0-6%,$O23!7A$22!$0;!%0?(07-R@-0,%$2=!!!
!
I/%7!#-7-$#?/!/$7!2%A%,7=!H(#!A-,/(;(2(&%?$2!#-$7(07K!)-!/$6-!-V?2@;-;!%0%,%$,%6-7!,/$,!2$?*!$!
;%7?#-,-!./37%?$2!$;;#-77K!$7!)-22!$7!$!6$#%-,3!(8!(#&$0%^$,%(0$2!,3.-7!8(#!)/%?/!;$,$!)$7!0(,!
#-$;%23!$6$%2$O2-=!\-Z6-!$27(!-V?2@;-;!%08(#A$2!-V.#-77%(07!(8!-?(0(A%?!7(2%;$#%,3K!)/%?/K!
,/(@&/!%A.(#,$0,!,(!$?*0()2-;&-K!$#-!8$#!A(#-!?/$22-0&%0&!,(!-6$2@$,-!$0;!%0?(#.(#$,-!%0,(!$!
7,@;3!7@?/!$7!,/%7=!\-#-!)-!,(!%0?2@;-!$22!7@?/!%0%,%$,%6-7K!,/-!+MZ7!8((,.#%0,!)(@2;!$..-$#!-6-0!
2$#&-#=!!
!
\-!$27(!#-?(&0%^-!,/$,!(88%?-!2(?$,%(07!$#-!0(,!$2)$37!#-2%$O2-!%0;%?$,(#7!(8!(#&$0%^$,%(07Z!7.$,%$2!
#$0&-!$0;!%A.$?,=!"(07@A.,%(0K!.#(;@?,%(0K!$0;!#-7%;-0?3!$#-!$,!O-7,!%A.-#8-?,23!$2%&0-;!%0!
A(7,!7-?,(#7=!\/-#-$7!7(A-!%0%,%$,%6-7!$#-!/%&/23!0-%&/O(#/((;Q7.-?%8%?!$0;!;#$)!
?@7,(A-#7l@7-#7l)(#*-#7!.#%A$#%23!8#(A!,/-!7@##(@0;%0&!?(AA@0%,3K!(,/-#7!,$.!%0,(!$!)%;-#!
&-(&#$./3=!C22%$0?-!I$V%!"((.K!8(#!-V$A.2-K!%7!$!,$V%!?(A.$03!7-#6%0&!?@7,(A-#7!$?#(77!,/-!?%,3=!
],!@0;-#7,$0;$O23!/$7!$!)%;-#!&-(&#$./%?!8((,.#%0,!,/$0!$!)(#*-#!?((.!?$8-!2(?$,-;!(0!,/-!
7$A-!?%,3!O2(?*=!+@?/!R@$2%8%?$,%(07!$0;!-V$A.2-7!@0;-#7?(#-!,/-!0--;!8(#!A(#-!8%0-Q&#$%0-;!
30
?$7-!7,@;%-7!(8!,/-!7.$,%$2!$0;!;-A(&#$./%?!?(A.(7%,%(0!(8!,/-!)(#*8(#?-!$0;!?(07@A-#!O$7-!
(8!+M!(#&$0%^$,%(07!$7!$!?(A.2-A-0,!,(!,/-!7(#,!(8!A$?#(!$0$237%7!)-!/$6-!?(0;@?,-;!/-#-=!!
!
\/-0!%,!?(A-7!,(!R@-7,%(07!$O(@,!,/-!#$?%$2!$0;!?2$77!;%6%;-7!)%,/%0!,/-!+M!A(6-A-0,K!(@#!
#-7-$#?/!.$%0,7!$!A%V-;!.%?,@#-=!g0!(0-!/$0;K!)-!/$6-!(O7-#6-;!,/$,K!)%,/!,/-!A$P(#!-V?-.,%(0!
(8!?(AA@0%,3!&$#;-07K!7@#.#%7%0&23!8-)!8(#A7!(8!+M!$#-!8(@0;!%0!0-%&/O(#/((;7!)%,/!
.#-;(A%0$0,23!.((#!.-(.2-!(8!?(2(#=!I/%7!/$7!%A.(#,$0,!%A.2%?$,%(07!8(#!,/-!+M!A(6-A-0,=!!
"(0?-#0!8(#!-,/0%?l#$?%$2!A%0(#%,%-7!$0;!,/-!-?(0(A%?!@0;-#?2$77!%7!6%,$2!,(!,/-!?(#-!
./%2(7(./%-7!@0;-#23%0&!,/-!+M!A(6-A-0,K!O(,/!0$,%(0$223!$0;!%0,-#0$,%(0$223=!'3!;#$)%0&!
$,,-0,%(0!,(!/()!,/-!7.$,%$2!;%7,#%O@,%(0!(8!+M!%0%,%$,%6-7!#-.2%?$,-7!.$,,-#07!(8!7-&#-&$,%(0!%0!
,/-!?%,3!)-!?(A.2%?$,-!?2$%A7!$O(@,!,/-!+M!O#%;&%0&!7(?%$2!;%6%;-7K!-0/$0?%0&!?(AA@0%,3!
#-7%2%-0?-K!$0;!$;;#-77%0&!.(6-#,3=!g@#!8%0;%0&7!7@&&-7,!,/$,!,/-!+MZ7!$O%2%,3!,(!$;;#-77!7@?/!
%77@-7!%7!/%&/23!A-;%$,-;!O3!&-(&#$./3!$0;!O3!?(0,-V,@$2!8$?,(#7!(8!#$?-!$0;!?2$77=!'3!
%A.2%?$,%(0K!?#-;%O2-!-88(#,7!,(!?@2,%6$,-!,/-!+MZ7!-A$0?%.$,(#3!.(,-0,%$2!A@7,!?(0,-0;!)%,/!
,/-7-!@0;-#23%0&!8$?,(#7=!!
!
g0!,/-!(,/-#!/$0;K!)-!8%0;!0@A-#(@7!+M!(#&$0%^$,%(07!,/$,!$#-!$2#-$;3!.-#8(#A%0&!.#-?%7-23!
,/-!7(#,!(8!O#%;&-QO@%2;%0&!$0;!#$?-!$0;!?2$77!P@7,%?-!)(#*!O-%0&!;-A$0;-;=!H(#!$!;-?(2(0%^-;!
+M!,(!O-?(A-!$!&-0@%0-!.(77%O%2%,3!%0!$!7-&#-&$,-;!-06%#(0A-0,!2%*-!5/%2$;-2./%$K!,/-!0--;7K!
-V.-#%-0?-7K!.-#7.-?,%6-7!$0;!2-$;-#7/%.!(8!A$#&%0$2%^-;!.(.@2$,%(07!0--;!,(!O-!A$;-!A(#-!
?-0,#$2!,(!,/-!+MZ7!(6-#$22!A-$0%0&!$0;!;$3Q,(Q;$3!.#$?,%?-=!H(#!,/%7K!.(7%,%6-!-V$A.2-7!7@?/!$7!
,/-!(0-7!)-Z6-!%;-0,%8%-;!7/(@2;!O-!;#$)0!8@#,/-#!%0,(!,/-!8(#-&#(@0;=!'@,!%,!%7!0(,!-0(@&/!,(!
2((*!(023!$,!)/$,!%0;%6%;@$2!+M!(#&$0%^$,%(07!do=!],!%7!$27(!0-?-77$#3!,(!2((*!$,!where!they!are!
(and!are!not).!'-3(0;!8$?%2-!#/-,(#%?!(8!%0?2@7%(0!$0;!7(2%;$#%,3K!;-?(2(0%^%0&!,/-!+M!#-R@%#-7!,/-!
;%7?(A8(#,%0&!)(#*!(8!?(08#(0,%0&!#$?-!$0;!?2$77!.#%6%2-&-!0(,!(023!%0!7(?%-,3!$,!2$#&-!O@,!$27(!
)%,/%0!,/-!+M!%,7-28=!I/%7!7,@;3!%7!%0,-0;-;!$7!$!?(0,#%O@,%(0!,(!P@7,!7@?/!$!.#(P-?,=!!
!
31
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5-#.-,@$,%(07!t!"(0,-7,$,%(07T!Antipode!439fBSh`ivhGh!
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:0.@O2%7/-;!5/>!,/-7%7K!:0%6-#7%,3!(8!4$77$?/@7-,,7!v!CA/-#7,!
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Journal!439DB!
"/$,,-#,(0!5!$0;!5%?*-#-22!d!9DEFEB!M6-#3;$3!C?,%6%7A!$0;!I#$07%,%(07!,()$#;7!5(7,Q?$.%,$2%7,!
\(#2;7=!Transactions!of!the!Institute!of!British!Geographers!359fBSfiGvfhE!
"(22(A!MK!U$7*-#!d!$0;!e3#%$?(@!"!9DEFDB!Equal!Time,!Equal!Value:!Community!Currencies!and!
Time!Banking!in!the!U.S.!J-)!u(#*S!<(@,2-;&-!
32
"#$A.,(0!d!\!9DEEFB!4$.7!$7!+(?%$2!"(07,#@?,%(07S!5()-#K!"(AA@0%?$,%(0K!$0;!q%7@$2%^$,%(0=!
Progress!in!Human!Geography!259DBSD`GQDGD!
>$?/-$@V!M!$0;!a(@P(0!>!9DEFDB!I/-!+(2%;$#%,3!M?(0(A3S!C0!C2,-#0$,%6-!>-6-2(.A-0,!
+,#$,-&3T!International!Social!Science!Journal!62SDEGQDFG!
>$0;(K!"!M!9DEFEB!I/-!4$.!5#(6-7!],S!4$.!:7-!O3!,/-!CA-#%?$0!\(A$0!+@88#$&-!4(6-A-0,=!
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Cooperatives=!4$;%7(0S!:0%6-#7%,3!(8!\%7?(07%0!"-0,-#!8(#!"((.-#$,%6-7!
>%00-#7,-%0!C!"!9DEFfB!I/-!/%;;-0!7%;-!(8!7(?%$2!$0;!7(2%;$#%,3!-?(0(A3S!+(?%$2!A(6-A-0,7!$0;!
,/-!w,#$072$,%(0w!(8!++M!%0,(!.(2%?3!9U$,%0!CA-#%?$B=!UNRISD!SSE!Occasional!Papers!SeriesK!
hK!g??$7%(0$2!.$.-#!J(!h!
>#$*-!U!$0;!U$)7(0!U!9DEFfB!q$2%;$,%0&!q-#;$0?3!(#!q$?$0?3T!I/-!<-2$,%(07/%.!(8!"(AA@0%,3!
a$#;-07!$0;!q$?$0,!U$0;7!%0!,/-!:=+=!Cities!4095$#,!'BSF``QFfD!
>@O(%7!\!M!'!9FhEiB!"(Q(.-#$,%(0!CA(0&!J-&#(!CA-#%?$07=!
/,,.Sll7?@$=2%O#$#3=@A$77=-;@l;%&%,$2l;@O(%7l;@O(%7FD=.;8!92$7,!$??-77-;!D!J(6-AO-#!
DEFXB!
M%^-0O-#&!M!9DEFDB!C?,@$223!MV%7,%0&!"(AA(07S!I/#--!4(A-0,7!(8!+.$?-!(8!"(AA@0%,3!a$#;-07!
%0!J-)!u(#*!"%,3=!Antipode!449`BSiXfvicD!
M2)((;!+!9DEEXB!J-&(,%$,%0&!e0()2-;&-!5#(;@?,%(0S!I/-!M6-#3;$3!]0?2@7%(07K!MV?2@7%(07K!$0;!
"(0,#$;%?,%(07!(8!5$#,%?%.$,(#3!a]+!<-7-$#?/=!The!Professional!Geographer!589DBSFhiQ
DEc!
33
M7,-3!e!9DEFFB!>(A-7,%?!\(#*-#7!$0;!"((.-#$,%6-7S!'-3(0;"$#-!a(-7!'-3(0;!"$.%,$2%7AK!$!
"$7-!+,@;3!%0!'#((*230K!J-)!u(#*=!WorkingUSA!149`BS!`fiv`XG!!
M6-#7!C!$0;!U$6%22-!dQU!9DEEfB!>-8%0%0&!,/-!I/%#;!+-?,(#!%0!M@#(.-=!]0!C!M6-#7!$0;!dQU!U$6%22-!9-;7B!
The!Third!Sector!in!Europe!9..!FFQfDB=!"/-2,-0/$AS!M;)$#;!M2&$#!
H2(#%;$!<!$0;!4-22$0;-#!"!9DEFGB!Segregated!City:!The!Geography!of!Economic!Segregation!in!
America’s!Metros=!I(#(0,(S!I/-!4$#,%0!5#(7.-#%,3!]07,%,@,-!
H@22-#!>K!d(0$7!C!M!a!$0;!U--!<!9-;7B!9DEFEB!Interrogating!Alterity:!Alternative!Economic!and!
Political!Spaces=!'@#2%0&,(0K!qIS!C7/&$,-!
a#$77#((,7!M?(0(A%?!g#&$0%^%0&!9aMgB!9DEFGB!\-O%0$#S!>-?(2(0%^%0&!(@#!7(2%;$#%,3!-?(0(A3=!
/,,.Sll)))=&-(=?((.l7,(#3l;-?(2(0%^%0&Q(@#Q7(2%;$#%,3Q-?(0(A3!92$7,!$??-77-;!Fi!
d$0@$#3K!DEFiB!
a%O7(0Qa#$/$A!d!e!9DEEGB!Post-Capitalist!Politics=!4%00-$.(2%7S!:0%6-#7%,3!(8!4%00-7(,$!!
a%O7(0Qa#$/$A!d!eK!"$A-#(0!d!$0;!1-$23!+!9DEF`B!Take!Back!the!Economy:!An!Ethical!Guide!for!
Transforming!Our!Communities=!4%00-$.(2%7S!:0%6-#7%,3!(8!4%00-7(,$!5#-77!
a2$7A-%-#!C!9DEEGB!An!Atlas!of!Poverty!in!America:!One!Nation,!Pulling!Apart!1960–2003=!J-)!
u(#*S!<(@,2-;&-!
a@,/A$0!d!9DEEcB!“]8!I/-3!g023!e0-)NS!"(2(#!'2%0;0-77!$0;!:0%6-#7$2%7A!%0!"$2%8(#0%$!
C2,-#0$,%6-!H((;!]07,%,@,%(07.!Professional!Geographer!609`B:`ci`hi!
1$00$/!4!a!9DEEFB!+$A.2%0&!$0;!,/-!5(2%,%?7!(8!<-.#-7-0,$,%(0!%0!:=+=!"-07@7!DEEE=!
Environment!and!Planning!D:!Society!and!Space!199GBSGFGQG`f!
34
1$#2-3!d!'!9FhccB!4$.7K!e0()2-;&-K!$0;!5()-#=!]0!>!M!"(7&#(6-!$0;!+!>$0%-27!9-;7B!The!
iconography!of!landscape:!Essays!on!the!symbolic!representation,!design,!and!use!of!
past!environments!9..!DiiQ`FDB=!"$AO#%;&-S!"$AO#%;&-!:0%6-#7%,3!5#-77!
1$#6-3!>!9Fhi`B!Social!Justice!and!the!City=!'$2,%A(#-S!d(/07!1(.*%07!:0%6-#7%,3!5#-77!
1@;7(0!U!9DEFXB!J-)!u(#*!"%,3S!+,#@&&2-7!g6-#!,/-!J$##$,%6-!(8!,/-!+(2%;$#%,3!M?(0(A3=!5$.-#!
.#-7-0,-;!$,!,/-!C00@$2!4--,%0&!(8!,/-!C77(?%$,%(0!(8!CA-#%?$0!a-(&#$./-#7K!+$0!
H#$0?%7?(K!:+CK!4$#?/=!
e$)$0(!MK!4$7,-#7(0!I!$0;!I-22-#QM27O-#&!d!9DEFEB!Solidarity!Economy!I:!Building!Alternatives!
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... The critical diversity literature, we argue, should engage much more with spaces where the economy and life are organized differently, a Solidarity Economy explicitly aiming at building a more just economy for all, that prioritizes the creation and sharing of work, wealth, power, and prosperity (cf. Bell et al., 2018;Berry, 2011;Borowiak et al., 2017;Romani et al., 2021;Zanoni, 2020;Zanoni et al., 2017). A small, but growing body of MOS research has started to explore how cooperatives, collectives, community supported agriculture, community currencies, community land trusts, worker-own businesses, democratically run organizations, and other forms of collective, solidarity-based organizations can combat structural marginalization by redressing the multiple economic, social and environmental inequalities associated with capitalism as a mode of organizing the economy. ...
... At the same time, self-reflective of the risks of co-optation, this literature conceptualizes the relation of community economies and capitalism as fraught with contradictions and thus itself as a terrain of struggle (e.g. Borowiak in this symposium; Borowiak et al., 2017;McLean, 2020). ...
Conference Paper
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The solidarity economy refers to a diverse set of cooperative and community-based economic practices ranging from cooperatives and credit unions to community gardens. It also refers to an anti-capitalist transnational social movement that aims to promote such practices as a way to transform the larger economy to make it better sustain vibrant communities and the environment. This symposium contributes to the current debate on diversity through alternative modes of organizing the economy for social justice. First, it explores how the government of organizations in alternative economies creates novel opportunities for historically subordinated and marginalized groups in the capitalist economy. The inadequacy of capitalist institutions has become particularly visible in the wake of the economic crisis of 2008 and, more recently, in the light of harsh consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, boosting wealth inequality, globally. These disparities have most strongly affected low-wage workers, often women and racial and ethnic minorities, long marginalized in organizations. Second. we consider successes and known problems with alternative economies organizations. We also explore their homogeneity, how problematic such homogeneity is, what can be done to address these, and other issues that may hinder the goals toward equity, and the reduction of poverty of the Solidarity Economy. We bring together a diverse group of scholars from diverse disciplines based in Austria, Belgium, South Africa, and the United States.
... At its center, SE is an effort to privilege the needs of people and planet over profit. Beyond this premise, there are a range of views, projects, interests, and understandings that are projected onto SE (Akuno 2017;Borowiak et al. 2018;Matthaei 2018;Miller 2006;Safri 2015;Satgar 2014;Shear 2020b), which serves as a sort of "boundary object" (Star and Griesemer 1989) for non-, anti-, and post-capitalist imaginaries. ...
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This essay explores the potential of solidarity economy (SE) as theory, practice, and movement, to engender an ontological politics to create and sustain other worlds that can resolve the existential crises of ecological destruction and historic inequalities. We argue that such a politics is necessary to go beyond the world as it is and exceed the dictates of a dominant modernity—capitalism, white supremacy, patriarchy—that positions itself as the only singular reality—or One World World (Law J (2011) What’s Wrong with a One World World. Heterogeneities. http://www.heterogeneities.net/publications/Law2011WhatsWrongWithAOneWorldWorld.pdf). What is needed are alternatives to development in contrast to alternative developments. Over the past decade, the SE movement in Massachusetts has advanced a fight and build approach, which has reframed economy as a matter of concern, as something that communities can, and already do, shape themselves—and that powerfully disrupts the reality of a singular capitalist economy. At the same time, the heterogeneous elements of SE are caught up in and assembling political projects with multiple orientations: modernist, social justice, and ontological (Escobar, Pluriversal politics: the real and the possible, Duke University Press, Durham, 2020). SE movement can remain stuck in a modernist politics of growing and scaling businesses and jobs. Even though a social justice approach attends to power and is more amenable to a relational view of reality where things only exist in interconnection, it too can remain mired in One World World liberal politics of redistribution and market ‘solutions’. How SE movement might actualize an ontological politics is a matter of care, an attunement to how relational worlds are coming into being and maintained. As an ontological politics, SE is not about economy qua economy at all, but about creating and sustaining worlds, pluriversal realities where we can be in solidarity with other people, beings, and planetary life systems.
... However, within the context of a competitive procurement programme and due to the costly, expertise-heavy, and time-intensive nature of CRE development, there is high risk that decision-making power will remain in the hands of groups and individuals with access to money, expertise, and time. Albeit predicated on practical capacity limitations in the face of complex and costly preparatory activities, these decisions made by RE co-ops also speak to the works of scholars focusing on implicit and explicit ways in which racialized and otherwise marginalised community members are excluded from membership in and benefits of alternative economic organisations (Borowiak et al. 2018;Gordon Nembhard 2020;Hossein 2019;Zitcer 2015). In this specific case, without an explicit motive to make membership racially and socio-economically uniform, the decisions made by RE co-ops implicitly resulted in only social groups being able to invest in and reap the benefits of CRE initiatives. ...
... The solidarity network cultivated through the exchange of coffee makes possible a site of care and is a process and practice of "development" that is multiple and not homogenizing, that is in place. These sites of exchange differ from conventional development practices in that they prioritize care rather than profit (see Borowiak et al. 2018). Indeed, while participating in one of the annual audits for Maya Vinic the community kitchen was entirely overlooked, not seen as a way to make the operations of Maya Vinic more "businesslike." ...
Article
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An(other) world is already existing and present across place. Capitalist-style economic development occurs within and alongside multiple ways of knowing and creating ‘livable worlds.’ Moreover, as part of the multiple ontologies and epistemologies of what it means to live well together, people practice various forms of economic exchanges. In this paper, I examine how the performance of solidarity in the exchange of coffee assists with rethinking development and what it means to build dignified livelihoods and livable worlds. By decentering capitalism and considering multiple forms of economic exchange, such as those built through solidarity networks, I argue that not only is ‘another world possible,’ but that it is present and in the continuous and messy process of becoming. Drawing on over a decade of ethnographically informed work with coffee cooperatives in rebel autonomous zones in Chiapas, Mexico and coffee roasters in the U.S. I ask, how do capitalist and more-than-capitalist exchanges both foster and expose the friction in economic development solidarity work? Here, I address development as multiple, rather than other forms as ‘alternative’ as part of the project of destabilizing capitalist hegemony and making visible already existing performances and practices of development that transcend white, western, and Anglophone ways of knowing and being.
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Black and low-income neighborhoods tend to have higher concentrations of fast-food restaurants and low produce supply stores. Limited access to and consumption of nutrient-rich foods is associated with poor health outcomes. Given the realities of food access, many members within the Black communities grow food as a strategy of resistance to food apartheid, and for the healing and self-determination that agriculture offers. In this paper, we unpack the history of Black people, agriculture, and land in the United States. In addition to our brief historical review, we conduct a descriptive epidemiologic study of community food-growing spaces, food access, and neighborhood racial composition in present day Philadelphia. We leverage one of the few existing datasets that systematically documents all community food growing locations throughout a major US city. By applying spatial regression techniques, we use conditional autoregressive models to determine if there are spatial associations between Black neighborhoods, poverty, food access and urban agriculture in Philadelphia. Fully adjusted spatial models showed significant associations between Black neighborhoods and urban agriculture (RR: 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.59) and poverty and urban agriculture (RR: 1.27, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.46). The association between low food access and the presence of urban agriculture was generally increased across neighborhoods with a higher proportion of Black residents. These results show that Philadelphia neighborhoods with higher populations of Black people and neighborhoods with lower incomes, on average, tend to have more community gardens and urban farms. While the garden data is non-temporal and non-causal, one possible explanation for these findings, in alignment with what Philadelphia growers have claimed, is that urban agriculture may be a manifestation of collective agency and community resistance in Black and low-income communities, particularly in neighborhoods with low food access.
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United States cities have developed urban agri­culture support systems with different priorities and institutional structures, with significant impacts and implications for social equity and justice. Some treat farming and gardening as public goods, public spaces, valued for their community-building, environmental and public health promotion, and other social benefits. Others have sought to extract more economic and redevelopment gains from urban agriculture. These represent divergent, often opposing expectations of what urban agriculture can yield, and what it should be, often present in the same city. This article, a combination of mixed methods research and reflection, traces the evolution of urban agriculture practice, support, and policy in Philadelphia and Chicago since the 1990s. In both cities, community gardens first declined and then grew in number since the late 2000s; both cities became prominent centers of urban farming. The two cities’ policies and support systems started from a similar place in the 1990s, but Chicago increasingly treated urban agriculture a public good, while the place of agriculture in Philadelphia remained more contested and unstable. These histories reflect broader tensions and the diversity of approaches in governing, supporting, and practicing agriculture in cities.
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Here we reflect on diverse economies scholarship following Gibson‐Graham’s call to adopt performative practices for other worlds. Urging scholars to move from paranoia to possibility through weak theory methodology, their call provided momentum for work on economic difference that sustained critiques of capitalocentrism launched in 1996. In this clarion call to read for difference and possibility, a diverse economies framing facilitated a wholesale rejection of strong theory and paranoia. As a subdiscipline in the making, diverse economies scholars are challenged and critiqued as we seek to develop the framework and apply it to economic activities that exist within, alongside, and outside capitalism. Creating the language of diverse economies is continuous; here we consider a geopolitics of knowledge production in reading economic practice for difference, challenging the disuse of strong theory. We argue for deeper engagement with the power imbalances present in building livable worlds, putting diverse economies and decolonial theory in conversation to address power and strike a balance between paranoia and possibility.
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On June 13, 2012, two hundred people participated in a one-day conference at Drexel University that explored what urban areas of Philadelphia and Madison, and rural areas in Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, can learn from one another about building cooperatives and cooperative networks, and what cooperatives contribute to cities, regions, and states. The conference included sessions that examined specific cooperatives in detail. This publication is a compilation of 20 case studies presented at the conference.
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Mass incarceration entrenches racial and class inequality and segregation. Before, during, and after low-income people of color enter prison, they experience a range of barriers and biases that make it difficult to break out of the prison pipeline. This article investigates food justice and restorative justice activists in Oakland, California who are intervening at the point of reentry. I argue for the significance of teasing out the connections between food and carceral politics as a way to expand the practice and understanding of food justice. Specifically, I show how the incarcerated geographies of former prisoners, that is, perspectives and experiences that result due to the prison pipeline, motivate the formation of a restorative food justice. The associated healing and mutual aid practices increase social equity by creating spaces to overcome the historical trauma of mass incarceration, produce living wage jobs, rearticulate relationships to food and land, and achieve policy reforms.
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Life's Work is a study of the shifting spaces and material practices of social reproduction in the global era. The volume blurs the heavily drawn boundaries between production and reproduction, showing through case studies of migration, education and domesticity how the practices of everyday life challenge these categorical distinctions. New and innovative study of the shifting spaces and material practices of social reproduction in the global era. Investigates changing conceptions of subjectivity, national identity and modernity. Focuses on both theoretical and practical issues. Includes case studies on migration, education and domesticity.
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The solidarity economy in North America has received growing attention at multiple scales in the past ten years. As worker cooperatives in New York City enjoy newfound municipal support, narrative struggles emerge between actors within the solidarity economy space. The solidarity economy may be theorized as capitalism's feminized ‘other’: malleable, unfixed, local, and difficult to quantify. This feminization extends to both its workforce, a majority of whom are women, and the labor it produces, primarily domestic work. It is for these reasons that solidarity economy work is often overlooked as a political economy capable of structural transformation, and the discomfort with its breadth has lead movement leaders to uphold and advocate for more ‘formal’ models like cooperatives and deploy ‘poverty alleviation’ and entrepreneurship narratives to stabilize the fluid field. I argue that this project blanches the radical edges of a movement, minimizing not only those whose labor accounts for the majority of solidarity economy work, but ignoring the transformative potential of sites where such work happens. Based on a series of qualitative interviews with solidarity economy practitioners, this paper argues that the dominant narrative of solidarity economy work in New York City ignores where most of this work occurs and by whom, erasing and undermining those efforts. Counter-narratives emerge in those ‘forgotten’ spaces and thus transform them into sites of radical, anti-capitalist organizing. In so doing, this paper poses a question for geographers about how movements may continue to challenge our assumptions about space.
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There is no doubt that “economy” is a keyword in contemporary life, yet what constitutes economy is increasingly contested terrain. Interested in building “other worlds,” J. K. Gibson-Graham have argued that the economy is not only diverse but also open to experimentations that foreground the well-being of humans and nonhumans alike. Making Other Worlds Possible brings together in one volume a compelling range of projects inspired by the diverse economies research agenda pioneered by Gibson-Graham. This collection offers perspectives from a wide variety of prominent scholars that put diverse economies into conversation with other contemporary projects that reconfigure the economy as performative. Here, Robert Snyder and Kevin St. Martin explore the emergence of community-supported fisheries; Elizabeth S. Barron documents how active engagements between people, plants, and fungi in the United States and Scotland are examples of highly productive diverse economic practices; and Michel Callon investigates how alternative forms of market organization and practices can be designed and implemented. Firmly establishing diverse economies as a field of research, Making Other Worlds Possible outlines an array of ways scholars are enacting economies differently that privilege ethical negotiation and a politics of possibility. Ultimately, this book contributes to the making of economies that put people and the environment at the forefront of economic decision making. Contributors: Elizabeth S. Barron, U of Wisconsin–Oshkosh; Amanda Cahill; Michel Callon, École des mines de Paris; Jenny Cameron, U of Newcastle, Australia; Stephen Healy, Worcester State U; Yahya M. Madra, Bogazici U; Deirdre McKay, Keele U; Sarah A. Moore, U of Wisconsin–Madison; Ceren Ozselçuk, Bogazici U; Marianna Pavlovskaya, Hunter College, CUNY; Paul Robbins, U of Wisconsin–Madison; Maliha Safri, Drew U; Robert Snyder, Island Institute; Karen Werner, Goddard College. © 2015 by the Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.