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Integrating Mobile Building Information Modelling and Augmented Reality Systems: An Experimental Study

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... AR improves the users' perception of and the interaction with the real world, and it simplifies their lives without forcing them to change their behaviour by creating easy-to-use and intelligent services (Carmigniani et al. 2011). Recently, AR technology has been used in different applications, such as cultural heritage (Ramtohul and Khedo 2019;Park et al. 2016), emergency management (Ahn and Han 2012), navigation (Huang et al. 2012;Kim and Jun 2008), flood management (Haynes et al. 2018), building information management (Chu et al. 2018), environment planning and management (Pierdicca et al. 2016), and education and learning (Bower et al. 2014). However, research demonstrating AR effectiveness and usability in border management remains scant. ...
... Haynes et al. (2018 adapted a questionnaire to evaluate an AR with flood visualization. Chu et al. (2018) utilized the questions to investigate the AR potential to build information modeling, Zsila et al. (2018) extended a questionnaire to evaluate the AR-based outdoor games. Pombo et al. (2019) provided questions to evaluate an AR-based outdoor learning tool. ...
... To fill the gap, this study designs and develops an AR-based border management system and evaluates its efficiency to enhance the border activities in the border fields. In this research, the questionnaire, which includes statistical and interview methods provided by the previous research (Chu et al. 2018;Haynes et al. 2018), will be applied in an experimental study. These methods will be adapted to the BM application. ...
Article
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A proficient border management has typically been tied to its capability to support information structuring and to make exchanges from the distributed sources. The lack of a proper access interface to information at the right time and the right place to conduct various activities. Augmented reality (AR) has been proposed as an efficient interface in order to improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of activities in the real world. There has only been a limited amount of research that has evaluated the effectiveness and usability of AR in the border management domain. This research aims to evaluate the effectiveness of border management and AR system integration to enhance the activities’ efficiency through improving the information retrieval process. The system development steps were adopted to design, develop, and evaluate the border management AR (BM AR) system. The system contains three AR services that include pointing to border objects, showing the borderline, and locating border objects. The system also integrates the information from different resources in an interoperable way using GIS web services. The results revealed the effectiveness of using AR for border activities, which can reduce the operating costs and effectively, access the required information for doing different activities in the border field.
... In a different project, Chu et al. (2018) used a BIM integrated AR system for mobile devices to enable onsite information extraction to reduce the propensity of workers to commit cognitive failure; this work was, however, limited to an artificial scenario. Similarly, by integrating BIM into AR, an AR mobile channel called "BIM-Phase" was proposed by Zaher et al. (2018) for monitoring the progress of construction work. ...
... Previous studies reveal that MAR has been applied in construction for various purposes such as onsite data retrieval (Yeh et al., 2012); defect management (Kwon et al., 2014); learning (Kim and Irizarry, 2020); and progress monitoring (Chu et al., 2018). Although these publications demonstrated the usefulness of MR applications, the implementation evaluation of the online MR applications in the construction context is not fully explored. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to assess the usability of augmented reality (AR) based mobile app for excavation and earthmoving processes using a novel tool entitled Excavator Augmented Reality (EAR). Design/methodology/approach A mixed-methods research approach was used through conducting experimentation to collect qualitative and quantitative data collected from the Sri Lankan construction sector. EAR app was used for experimentation in outdoor areas examining how a 360° tracked hydraulic excavator can be navigated in different physical environments similar to the real prospected job. Findings The findings reveal that EAR could make a considerable impact on enhancing productivity, safety and training processes. However, the developed EAR App subjected to assessment demonstrated the highest satisfaction gap for the auditory aspects. Among the remaining criterion, the satisfaction met user expectations for comfortability and no-risk practice. An analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) conducted revealed that visualising the excavator activities and the requirements of improved features were the highest agreed strengths and weaknesses of the EAR. Among the opportunities for improvement, the necessity of improving emergency and safety reached the highest agreement. Moreover, the study presented the challenges in introducing mobile augmented reality (MAR) to the construction sector under the political, economic, sociocultural, technological, environmental and legal (PESTEL) model along with solutions to be taken. Originality/value This study provides a novel approach to addressing the safety, productivity and training concerns in heavy mobile plants and machinery on construction sites which remains to be unexplored to this end.
... It is also difficult to obtain and compare changing field conditions via BIM models. Indeed, [10] noted that existing BIM-based site management systems had not provided adequate solutions for intuitively utilizing BIM models in the field. ...
... AR has been used to directly provide relevant information in the field by superimposing 3D models and relevant field data. Existing studies have shown that AR approaches can reduce times for information searches by as much as 50% compared to conventional management methods [10]. AR has also been shown to improve the effectiveness of progress monitoring, equipment maintenance, as well as safety and quality inspections [22]. ...
Article
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The utilization of Building Information Modeling (BIM) on-site has been limited due to the lack of an appropriate medium for visualizing and accessing models and project data intuitively in the field. AROS, an Augmented Reality-based site management system, was developed to allow the visual projection of BIM models and relevant data directly to field personnel. Detailed field experiments with inspection experts revealed specific issues with the stability and accurate placement of model projections in AROS. Projection stability was improved by reducing the number of triangle meshes of the model to relieve the need for processing power. Investigations revealed that simplification rates of 40% and 20% were optimal for rectilinear and curvilinear components, respectively. Projection placement was improved by implementing a hybrid of target anchoring methods. Specifically, ARWorldMap was used to add additional anchor points, which were identified from the topologies of the structure and surrounding planes. Post-evaluations demonstrated increased stability and reductions in displacement errors. The formalizations provide measures for using AR and BIM models when applying these technologies to large-scale civil infrastructure projects.
... This innovation looks at augmented reality applications offers a distinctive understanding level (Cheng, 2020). At the same time, a previous study reported that it offers stimulation, self-representation, pleasure, and hedonic practices (Chu et al., 2018). The hedonic aspect of augmented reality significantly influences students' behavioral intentions and attitudes toward digital learning (Khodadadi et al., 2020). ...
... attitude came out to 0.725 with a t-value of 1.96, which means that there is a positive association between augmented reality applications and attitudes toward digital learning. This supports the first hypothesis and confirms the findings of previous authors (Chu et al., 2018;Chen, 2019). Similarly, the beta value for the second hypothesis comes out to 0.729, with a significant t-value of 1.99. ...
Article
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Augmented reality applications are digital learning innovations that can rapidly improve the learning of college and university students in the virtual setting. Ever since the beginning of the pandemic, on-site teaching has been pushed back to limit the spread of disease. This paper examines the attitudes and subjective and behavioral norms of 100 college students in Thailand toward digital learning innovations accessed through augmented reality applications. The study offers a theoretical model established through the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and uses it to investigate students’ choices of augmented reality applications as digital learning innovations in their courses. The data were analyzed through structural equation modeling. The findings showed that students’ acceptance of digital learning innovations through augmented reality applications could be explained through TPB wherever attitudinal and subjective factors showed significant influence; meanwhile, perceived behavioral control did not demonstrate a significant influence on college students. The findings acknowledge the positive effects of augmented reality applications as experienced by college students in Thailand.
... In addition to that, the integration of CC and BIM (here in after Cloud-Based BIM) enables the stakeholder to easily tracking facilities of the building from the design stage to maintenance stage, which covers operations, facility management, energy management and maintenance of the building (Wong, et al., 2014;Amarnath, et al., 2011). Based on that, the development of CC based BIM is an effective and collaborative project management tool (Zhang, et al., 2017;Chu, et al., 2018). In the construction industry, the stakeholder can employ cloud-based applications to get an efficient outcome in the construction process; at the same time, the stakeholder rarely utilises to use the cloudbased applications and technologies during the day-to-day activities in the construction process (Afolabi, et al., 2018). ...
... Likewise, the cloud-based BIM collaboration can reduce the issues among the stakeholder collaboration during the construction process, but there is a requirement to check the feasibility of cloud-based BIM collaboration of stakeholders practically (Alreshidi, et al., 2016). Furthermore, there is a shortage of stakeholders' cooperation via cloud-based BIM and future researchers wish to focus the stakeholder involvement level via cloud-based BIM to help the construction stakeholders in obtaining an efficient outcome in the construction process (Wong, et al., 2014;Chu, et al., 2018). According to that, there have been some disagreements regarding the collaborative involvement level of stakeholders through cloud-based BIM, which has been pointed out by many researchers. ...
Conference Paper
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The construction industry relies on the collaboration of stakeholders for a successful outcome, as most the stakeholders are from multidisciplinary organisation to achieve a particular goal. In addition, information in the construction industry must be more accurate and on time to increase the project performance. Even though cloud-based collaboration can be a useful tool for working with the stakeholder, is not being used widely yet. Therefore, it is required to analyse the feasibility of collaborative stakeholders' participation on cloud-based Building Information Modelling. Hence, this paper outlines: the level of stakeholder collaborative involvement in cloud-based Building Information Modelling; the benefits of stakeholder collaborative involvement through cloud-based Building Information Modelling; limitation for the cloud-based Building Information Modelling; as well as strategies to overcome these limitations. Findings of the study indicated that even though, the benefits derived from the stakeholder collaboration are high, the collaborative involvement level in cloud-based Building Information Modelling is very low due to several limitations. therefore, this study propose some strategies to overcome the limitations such as: the government can provide training and awareness programmes; formulate regulations allowing for electronic-data processing to lower tax; develop Building Information Modelling execution plans with assistance from the Construction Industry Development Authority; and improve Building Information Modelling Execution plans with the technology.
... Several authors have discussed the benefits and potential of augmented reality for the construction site. The main value is visualising information graphics and data on the real construction site [38,39]. In the construction stages, the visualisation of the components to be built and the construction stages for a specific construction site allows for the clarification of the construction process's doubts to the work team, thus improving the quality of the construction and avoiding the need for rework. ...
... The BIM MEP models are virtually superimposed on AR devices so that each team places the systems in the corresponding location. Thus, rework, network malfunctions, or unexpected adjustments are reduced [38,[42][43][44]. In addition, augmented reality visualisation of building systems and equipment allows access to operational and maintenance information, facilitating facility management processes [45,46]. ...
Article
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The construction site is a hazardous place. The dynamic, complex interaction between workers, machinery, and the environment leads to dangerous risks. In response to such risks, the goal is to fulfill the zero accidents philosophy, which requires the development of safety skills among workers and the provision of tools for risk prevention. In pursuit of that vision, this work studies collective protective equipment (CPE). Traditional methodologies propose visual inspections using checklists, the effectiveness of which depends on the quality of the inspection by the safety advisor (SA). This paper analyses the traditional process of safety inspections in building projects: the traditional methods, main pain points, and bottlenecks are identified, along with the key performance indi-cators (KPIs) needed to complete these processes correctly. Because of this, a methodology that digitises the CPE inspection process is proposed. Augmented reality (AR) is used as a 3D viewer with an intuitive interface for the SA, and, accordingly, functional requirements are detailed and different information layers and user interfaces for AR applications are proposed. In addition, the workflow and KPIs are shown. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal, a proof of concept is developed and evaluated. The relevance of this work lies in providing background for the use of AR in safety inspection processes on construction sites and in offering methodological recommendations for the development and evaluation of these applications.
... Some researchers suggest that overloading of information may lead to certain disadvantages as well, viz., important information retrieval, which may cause efficiency reduction (Chu et al., 2018) [4]. Rework due to lack of clarity in the received drawing set or due to human error, is an add-on in terms of cost and stand-by time which could be resolved using AR technology. ...
... Some researchers suggest that overloading of information may lead to certain disadvantages as well, viz., important information retrieval, which may cause efficiency reduction (Chu et al., 2018) [4]. Rework due to lack of clarity in the received drawing set or due to human error, is an add-on in terms of cost and stand-by time which could be resolved using AR technology. ...
Article
Digitalization has become a new normal. The mobile augmented reality technology adds another dimension like visualization of ongoing or unfurnished property, space measurement, exploring multiple design options among the variety of applications in the real estate sector. The success of any technology will depend on the users’ acceptance of the technology and their intention to use it for a project. Here the researcher tries to explore those pre-usage critical factors with the help of the technology acceptance model followed by verifying it with post-usage perception by using the expectation confirmation model. These theories are tested for confirmatory factor analysis in which these research models were tested for data reliability and discriminant validity. Later the factors were statistically interpreted using the correlation test to conclude the significance of pre and post-usage behavior in technology continuance.
... While access to BIM models is conditioned by computational power and adequate software, which can be a major limitation for instant use, AR augments accessibility to BIM content and offers an interactive environment with the BIM model. For instance, AR can promote BIM information and improve the efficiency of operations on the job site (Chu et al., 2018). In this context, the use of low-cost mobile devices is very promising to allow more access to AR applications. ...
... AR can promote BIM information and improve its efficiency at several levels. It ameliorates the efficiency of operations on the job site (Chu et al., 2018), enhances BIM at the visualisation level of the building site (Machado and Vilela, 2020) and provides relevant information for maintenance works . Furthermore, AR can be implemented at the design phase to navigate through the design options during collaborative meetings (Ammari and Hammad, 2014). ...
Article
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BIM (Building Information Modeling) is increasingly present in a wide range of applications (architecture, engineering, construction, land use planning, utility management, etc.). BIM allows better management of projects through precise planning, communication and collaboration between several stakeholders as well as facilitating the monitoring of project operations. The emergence of Augmented Reality (AR) technology allows the superposition of (2D, 3D) information directly on the physical world, so generating immersive, interactive and enriching experiences for the user. To take advantages of BIM and AR potential in the interaction and the intuitive management in AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operation) projects, we propose a BIM-based AR workflow through an application called "EasyBIM". This latter allows access and interaction with a BIM model through functionalities for measurement, data consultation, collaboration, visualization and integration of information from sensors. The application is developed for mobile platforms (tablet, smartphone), and has as input an IFC file (Industry Foundation Classes). Promising test results show that the developed solution can be easily integrated into a BIM context for several use cases: marketing, collaboration, site monitoring, facility management, etc.
... Traditional quality inspection methods are subjective, time-consuming, and cannot guarantee the accuracy of inspection results. Some researchers proved through experiments that AR can improve the information retrieval process and alleviate the problem of information overload [44]. Hou et al. [9][10][11]45] developed AR systems to instruct workers in assembly or installation. ...
Article
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Safe and effective construction management requires tools for reducing delays, eliminating reworks, and avoiding accidents. Unfortunately, challenges still exist in current construction practices for enabling real-time interactions among project participants, field discoveries, and massive data. Extended reality (i.e., XR) could help to establish immersive and interactive virtual environments that enable real-time information exchange among humans, cyber processes, and physical environments during construction. However, limited studies have synthesized potentials, challenges, and scenarios of XR for ensuring construction safety and efficiency. This study provides a critical review that synthesizes XR in construction management. First, the authors used the PRISMA method to screen studies related to XR in construction management. Seventy-nine studies were selected and comprehensively analyzed. The authors conducted a bibliometric analysis to comprehend the spatiotemporal distributions of the selected studies. Then, the selected studies were classified into three categories: (1) progress control, (2) quality control, and (3) safety management. The authors also synthesized information for XR applications in various construction management scenarios and summarized the challenges related to XR applications. Finally, this review shed light on future research directions of XR for safe and effective construction management.
... AR is considered to be an effective and fast communication and interaction tool that can visualize virtual objects [79,80]. However, current AR alignment methods, such as quick response (QR) markers [81], simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) [82,83] and global positioning systems (GPSs) [28], have two main limitations: (1) the positioning accuracy of currently commercially available SLAM systems and GPSs is far from sufficient for practical engineering requirements, and (2) the application of QR markers is limited to the tabletop level, far from the city level. In addition, the computer vision (CV)-based method [84] is affected by the environment and is mainly used for the appearance of buildings rather than for hidden pipelines. ...
Article
The impossibility of visual inspection and the complexity of combined loads hamper the quantitative assessment, lifetime prediction and control of underground pipelines during their lifecycles. A methodology based on mobile augmented reality (MAR) and Brillouin fiber optic sensors (BFOSs) is presented to build a digital twin (DT) for underground pipelines. Field experiments were carried out to demonstrate that the proposed method can quantitatively assess and predict the structural safety of an underground pipeline from the DT. The results demonstrate that the distributed sensor networks can measure important but unpredictable deformations (i.e., longitudinal bending and axial thermal strain), the joint data-physics driven model can estimate the structural stress state more accurately than the common calculation model, and the MAR-based human-asset interaction interface enables more intuitive, efficient, automated operation and maintenance (O&M). In the future, in-line robotic systems and localized damage models should be further adopted for lifecycle O&M.
... However, the application of the AR-tool had different limitations related to the sensitivity of sensors in detecting hidden objects, connections between the software programs and hardware devices to integrate the digital information into the real-life environment, and finally time required for setting up the AR tool. These results support outputs presented by Bosch et al [14], Chu et al [15], Wang et al [16], Gavish et al [17], and Cralsén and Elfstrand [18], who discussed limitations related to hardware and software issues. ...
Article
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The majority of the buildings in Sweden were constructed before national energy codes became effective. Although performing energy renovations and/or energy-related maintenances can significantly improve the energy performance of these buildings, the energy renovation rate is very low in Sweden. The low energy renovation rate is associated with various challenges including lack of technical drawings to specify the position of hidden objects and lack of information about material specifications. An augmented reality (AR) tool was therefore developed to not only locate the position of hidden objects but also create IFC files being used by BIM management systems. The tool was later applied in real practice to evaluate its effectiveness in detecting hidden objects. The analyses of results showed that the application of the AR tool in energy renovations and/or energy efficiency-related maintenances can be beneficial as it could successfully locate hidden objects. However, the application of the AR-tool had different limitations related to the sensitivity of sensors in detecting hidden objects, connections between the software programs and hardware devices to integrate the digital information into the real-life environment, and finally time required for setting up the AR tool.
... AR is considered to be an effective and fast communication and interaction tool that can visualize virtual objects [79,80]. However, current AR alignment methods, such as quick response (QR) markers [81], simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) [82,83] and global positioning systems (GPSs) [28], have two main limitations: (1) the positioning accuracy of currently commercially available SLAM systems and GPSs is far from sufficient for practical engineering requirements, and (2) the application of QR markers is limited to the tabletop level, far from the city level. In addition, the computer vision (CV)-based method [84] is affected by the environment and is mainly used for the appearance of buildings rather than for hidden pipelines. ...
Preprint
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With increasing service life, underground pipelines experience a variety of deterioration scenarios, such as rupture, corrosion, leakage, and erosion. Structural deterioration can cause explosions, flooding, road collapse, environmental pollution, etc. Therefore, the development of advanced techniques for structural inspection/monitoring, assessment, lifetime prediction and control of underground pipelines is urgently needed. A methodology based on mobile augmented reality (MAR) and Brillouin fiber optic sensors (BFOSs) is presented to build a digital twin (DT) for underground pipelines. Distributed sensor networks integrating BFOSs and Internet of Things (IoT)-based digital sensors were proposed to enable real-time monitoring of the structural state of underground pipelines. The joint data-physics driven model was presented to assess the structural stress state in a distributed manner. In the framework of reliability analysis, real-time structural safety assessment and lifetime prediction approaches were built for informed operation and maintenance (O&M) decisions. An MAR-based human-asset interaction interface was developed to provide location-based accessibility and intuitive visualization for real-time interactions between an operator and pipelines. A series of field experiments were carried out to investigate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can quantitatively assess and predict the structural safety of an underground pipeline by using the real-time mutual interactions between the pipelines and the DT. The MAR-based human-asset interaction interface can provide more intuitive, efficient, automated O&M for underground pipelines.
... This high interest can be explained by BIM´s promise of improving the construction performance and efficiency (Azhar, 2011). Nevertheless, if BIM is not properly implemented, organizations may incur in additional costs or reductions in efficiency (Chu, Matthews, & Love, 2018). ...
... Tan and Lim (2017) introduced an augmented reality virtual tour system to enhance the exploration of historical sites. Cao et al. (2019) conducted a comprehensive analysis of AR in the fields of Architecture, Engineering, and Construction, and Chu et al. (2018) investigated how AR might be utilized to improve information retrieval from BIM models, saving time in construction planning tasks. Mutis and Ambekar (2020) investigated the challenges of using augmented reality to execute project walkthroughs and provided a system that can visualize future construction site interventions. ...
Article
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In architecture, context term refers to the surrounding area in which the building is situated. Context is crucial in architectural theory and practice when developing architectural vocabulary. Creating harmony with historic context amidst expanding development has been a primary concern and focus of designers since the mid-twentieth century. Contextualism theory refers to the interaction between new buildings and their surroundings, as well as the challenge of integrating new and existing structures to establish congruence and continuity. When using a contextual design method, an analysis of traditional architectural style has a considerable impact on a designer’s decision-making process (Lambe and Dongre, 2019). In this study, a general framework is proposed, which integrates shape grammar-based procedural modeling and augmented reality technology to create a harmonious environment through the generation of new designs based on the grammar of the existing architectural style of the residential buildings in Amman city without limiting the designer’s creativity of order to address the issue of Western architectural movements influencing the architectural style in Amman, which is incompatible with the city’s identity and it’s context. This approach was tested on a group of University of Jordan students, and the results were evaluated using a machine learning model. The effectiveness of this method was discovered, and it can be regarded as a step toward achieving spatial congruence.
... Along the same lines, Baek, Ha, and Kim (2019) emphasise that AR applications may 'compensate for the weaknesses of ineffective verbal communication, time-consuming data accessibility, and distraction caused by domain switching'. Chu, Matthews, and Love (2018) could show that information retrieval processes improved as the mental workloads were lowered thanks to the AR applications and users were able to complete tasks with minimal error. ...
Article
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Ongoing urbanisation processes invoke immense construction activities, for which citizens often participate in planning. Yet, imagining planned buildings based on visual representations is a highly demanding task. While traditional methods, such as construction spans, 2D, or 3D visualisation often fail to offer a complete picture, we propose Augmented Reality (AR) as a more adequate tool. We first present an evaluation of the suitability of AR compared to construction spans for a future building and assess which degree of abstraction of AR is most effective, as well as difficulty of interpreting them correctly. In a between-subjects field study we compare construction spans and a prototype AR application including three levels of detail (LOD) of the same building project. Participants solve two estimation tasks using the construction spans and six estimation tasks using the AR application, before answering a questionnaire on the different visualisation methods. We find participants are confident about the potential of AR, but no significant differences between the different LOD groups in subjective assessment. Results suggest that previous knowledge (e.g. in GIS) may have a positive impact on dimension estimation performance. Also, details, such as façade elements or windows, could facilitate estimation tasks because they allow inferences about a building’s size.
... AR has reportedly improved the efficiency of some everyday construction tasks, such as layout marking, excavation, positioning, and placement of precast components [38]. Construction workers using BIM with AR could complete the same task twice as fast as other crew using paper drawings [39]. AR, along with intuitive equipment and connected intelligence, makes the inspections easier, faster, safer, and less expensive by accurately tracking inspectors' locations as they move around job sites [30]. ...
Article
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Bridges are indispensable links of transportation infrastructure systems, and inspections play a critical role in maintaining bridge components in the state of good repair. Through a survey of bridge inspectors, the authors revealed that visual inspection techniques are the prominent inspection method but result in inaccuracy and ambiguity due to high variances among inspection results; modern inspections using drones and robots could improve efficiency but pose new challenges and do not reduce subjectivity. As a result, a novel, building information modeling-and augmented reality-based supportive inspection system (BASIS) that objectively captures bridge defects is proposed and validated. On-site inspectors can access the bridge model containing historical defect information (defect type, length/width/depth, and location) and overlay relevant content on the actual infrastructure through BASIS for inspection data collection with more accuracy and less ambiguity. A proof-of-concept prototype of the BASIS for bridges was developed as an android application and verified by bridge inspectors for effectiveness on a small pedestrian bridge. It was found that BASIS was able to collect accurate inspection data irrespective of the level of experience of the user, thusly minimizing the data subjectivity caused by differences among inspectors' judgment and/or human errors. This research explores the utilization of emerging tools to collect bridge condition information in a more comprehensive and objective manner. Collected information can be further integrated it into a digital model that reflects the bridge's most accurate and up-to-date condition, heading toward a digital twin of the physical infrastructure. The proposed system may also be adapted for other types of infrastructure (e.g., dams, levees, and railroads) that also require routine inspections.
... Extensive research has been conducted to identify applications of mixed reality within the architecture, engineering and construction industry (Chi, Kang and Wang, 2013), including locating 2D drawings within corresponding 3D environments (Cote et al, 2013), improving registration of digital models to as-built designs (Georgeli et al, 2007), filtering redundant data in increasingly large building information models (Chu, Matthews and Love, 2018) or precisely locating and checking parts in space (Yabuki, 2007). The first application using mixed reality for in-situ architectural construction tasks dates back to the 1990's with Webster's system for assembling space frames from audio, text and graphical instructions (Webster et al, 1996). ...
... AR applications are created once an asset is constructed or an existing facility needs to be renovated or maintained [8]. In this case, the XR technologies bring the BIM to the field to better execute the project, i.e., by visualising objects on site, overlaying plan information, such as electrical grids, and so on [9]. MR applications incorporate aspects of both AR and VR, and typically blend digital information with real objects. ...
Article
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With the emergence of XR technologies, the demand for new time- and cost-saving applications in the AEC industry based on these new technologies is rapidly increasing. Their real-time feedback and digital interaction in the field makes these systems very well suited for construction site monitoring, maintenance, project planning, and so on. However, the continuously changing environments of construction sites and facilities requires extraordinary robust and dynamic data acquisition technologies to capture and update the built environment. New XR devices already have the hardware to accomplish these tasks, but the framework to document and geolocate multi-temporal mappings of a changing environment is still very much the subject of ongoing research. The goal of this research is, therefore, to study whether Lidar and photogrammetric technologies can be adapted to process XR sensory data and align multiple time series in the same coordinate system. Given the sometimes drastic changes on sites, we do not only use the sensory data but also any preexisting remote sensing data and as-is or as-designed BIM to aid the registration. In this work, we specifically study the low-resolution geometry and image matching of the Hololens 2 during consecutive stages of a construction. During the experiments, multiple time series of constructions are captured and registered. The experiments show that XR-captured data can be reliably registered to preexisting datasets with an accuracy that matches or exceeds the resolution of the sensory data. These results indicate that this method is an excellent way to align generic XR devices to a wide variety of existing reference data.
... Hence, this is necessary to develop a solution that can provide a more natural interpretation method of assembly instructions (Wang and Dunston, 2006). Several marker-based AR solutions were developed in the early years, demonstrating the benefits of XR in improving construction productivity (Byungil et al., 2012;Chu et al., 2018;Fazel and Izadi, 2018;Hou and Wang, 2013;Lei et al., 2013Lei et al., , 2015Wang et al., 2014). The successful implementation of AR technology in assembly tasks reduced assembly time required by over 80%, positively impacting construction productivity (Chalhoub and Ayer, 2019;Kwiatek et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose – In recent years, deep learning and extended reality (XR) technologies have gained popularity in the built environment, especially in construction engineering and management. A significant amount of research efforts has been thus dedicated to the automation of construction-related activities and visualization of the construction process. The purpose of this study is to investigate potential research opportunities in the integration of deep learning and XR technologies in construction engineering and management. Design/methodology/approach – This study presents a literature review of 164 research articles published in Scopus from 2006 to 2021, based on strict data acquisition criteria. A mixed review method, consisting of a scientometric analysis and systematic review, is conducted in this study to identify research gaps and propose future research directions. Findings – The proposed research directions can be categorized into four areas, including realism of training simulations; integration of visual and audio-based classification; automated hazard detection in headmounted displays (HMDs); and context awareness in HMDs. Originality/value – This study contributes to the body of knowledge by identifying the necessity of integrating deep learning and XR technologies in facilitating the construction engineering andmanagement process.
... Hence, this is necessary to develop a solution that can provide a more natural interpretation method of assembly instructions (Wang and Dunston, 2006). Several marker-based AR solutions were developed in the early years, demonstrating the benefits of XR in improving construction productivity (Byungil et al., 2012;Chu et al., 2018;Fazel and Izadi, 2018;Hou and Wang, 2013;Lei et al., 2013Lei et al., , 2015Wang et al., 2014). The successful implementation of AR technology in assembly tasks reduced assembly time required by over 80%, positively impacting construction productivity (Chalhoub and Ayer, 2019;Kwiatek et al., 2019). ...
... A study by Abramovici et al. [85] proposed an AR-based support system for collaboration among working-level stakeholders involved in the FM process, whereby AR was used not only as a tool for the visualization of maintenance data, but also for communication and alerts, or for displaying other coordination-related aspects for the whole team. Another study by Chu et al. [86] developed, tested, and evaluated mobile systems (Artifact) with cloud-based storage capabilities aimed at integrating BIM and AR to improve information-retrieving processes as well as operational efficiency during construction. ...
Article
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The operation and maintenance (O&M) of buildings and infrastructure represent a strategic activity to ensure they perform as expected over time and to reduce energy consumption and maintenance costs at the urban and building scale. With the increasing diffusion of BIM, IoT devices, and AI, the future of O&M is represented by digital twin technology. To effectively take advantage of this digital revolution, thus enabling data-driven energy control, proactive maintenance, and predictive daily operations, it is vital that smart building management exploits the opportunities offered by the extended reality (XR) technologies. Nevertheless, in consideration of the novelty of XR in the AECO sector and its rapid and ongoing evolution, knowledge of the specific possibilities and the methods of integration into the building process workflow is still piecemeal and sparse. With the goal to bridge this gap, the article presents a thorough review of virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and mixed reality (MR) technologies and applications for smart building operation and maintenance. After defining VR, AR, and MR, the article provides a detailed review that analyzes, categorizes, and summarizes state-of-the-art XR technologies and their possible applications for building O&M along with their relative advantages and disadvantages. The article concludes that the application of XR in building and city management is showing promising results in enhancing human performance in technical O&M tasks, in understanding and controlling the energy efficiency, comfort, and safety of building and infrastructures, and in supporting strategic decision making for the future smart city.
... The representation learning is similar to a "black box", and therefore, it is difficult to understand how the internal nonlinear function works. As the dataset and the algorithm are the critical factors in applied research related to deep learning, the research process is designed by improving design science research [58]. In this study, this is more suitable for research on the automatic detection of workers' unsafe actions, as shown in Figure 2. The method is structured as follows: ...
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... Ao longo dos últimos anos tem sido verificado o desenvolvimento de meios de interação inovadores por forma a minimizar o impacto na mudança de paradigma tecnológico no sector da Arquitetura, Engenharia, Construção e Operações (AECO), quer pela implementação de novas tecnologias, quer pela extensa curva de aprendizagem de algumas ferramentas autorais BIM. A utilização de um espectro variado de tecnologias imersivas (e.g., Realidade Virtual (RV) e Realidade Aumentada (RA)), tem contribuído favoravelmente em diversas áreas do conhecimento como a educação e treino para Engenharia [1]- [3], revisão de projeto e colaboração [4]- [6], manutenção de edifícios [7]- [9], segurança na construção [10]- [12], entre outras. Contudo e quando presentes em trabalhos de investigação, a diversidade de procedimentos utilizados para avaliação da aplicabilidade de interfaces inovadoras no sector AECO carece de uma metodologia holística que forneça resultados passíveis de serem comparados, centrados no utilizador e em cumprimento com diretrizes sistematizadas em normas internacionais. ...
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Ao longo dos últimos anos tem sido verificado o desenvolvimento de meios de inte‑ração inovadores por forma a minimizar o impacto na mudança de paradigma tec‑nológico no sector da Arquitetura, Engenharia, Construção e Operações (AECO), quer pela implementação de novas tecnologias, quer pela extensa curva de aprendizagem de algumas ferramentas autorais BIM. A utilização de um espectro variado de tecno‑logias imersivas (e.g., Realidade Virtual (RV) e Realidade Aumentada (RA)), tem con‑tribuído favoravelmente em diversas áreas do conhecimento como a educação e trei‑no para Engenharia [1]–[3], revisão de projeto e colaboração [4]–[6], manutenção de edifícios [7]–[9], segurança na construção [10]–[12], entre outras. Contudo e quando presentes em trabalhos de investigação, a diversidade de procedimentos utilizados para avaliação da aplicabilidade de interfaces inovadoras no sector AECO carece de uma metodologia holística que forneça resultados passíveis de serem comparados, centrados no utilizador e em cumprimento com diretrizes sistematizadas em normas internacionais.O presente artigo descreve o estado de uma investigação em curso no sentido de propor linhas orientadoras para a avaliação da usabilidade de interfaces inovadoras e imersivas baseadas em BIM, com base em normas de usabilidade de software e investigação relacionada. Adicionalmente, apresentam‑se várias interpretações dos domínios que compõem o conceito de usabilidade, assim como adaptações para que as avaliações de usabilidade se possam adequar aos requisitos das interfaces imer‑sivas e do próprio sector da construção.
... This technology combines human dexterity and cognition with digital computation in manual construction processes. Using these digital manufacturing methods, management of existing human resources is digitized for a limited investment in exchange for a high-efficiency payoff [2] and rapid implementation. AR technology is now maturing. ...
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... To assess the potential value of the POMMS, a survey similar to the one conducted by Chu et al. (2018), is conducted and presented in Table 2. This survey involves a sample size of 20 participants, each individual with at least one year of industry experience. ...
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... In another study, Oesterreich and Teuteberg 2018 proposed an approach that combines the method of utility effect chains and system dynamics to develop a quantification model for specific AR applications. Chu et al. 2018 evaluated the effectiveness of integrating AR with BIM to enhance task efficiency through improving the information retrieval process during construction. Recent applications of AR have helped in improving the performance in different areas of civil engineering and construction. ...
Chapter
VR Technology is advancing faster into the architectural environment in the last few years. This study aims to take a closer look into a multidisciplinary aspect of the current and future applications of VR technology in the architectural world. As per a trial done in a Design Studio class, the students were asked to develop their designs into BIM models from the outset. Then, using Enscape3D for Revit as a VR package, they navigated their designs to better understand the architectural design qualities. This trial has proved significant in enhancing the students’ understanding of the architectural building spaces and their spatial organization. The use of trenchless technology methods for the installation and rehabilitation of the underground has proven to be an effective way to cause minimum social disruptions. Alternatively, Augmented Reality has experienced a breakthrough in many areas of civil engineering applications due to cheaper hardware and a strong industry commitment. Future applications: As the software advances in the building design by using the AI to have a more sustainable project, so follows the VR. 3D printing technologies connect advanced software and materials into physical structures. This investigation aims to understand the direction of VR in architecture as a multidisciplinary discipline.
... While some works in this context focus on conceptual frameworks for integrating BIM and AR technology [152,610,362], others aim at analyzing the potential benefits of AR techniques within the AEC domain [382,428,158] or investigate the challenges of deploying AR applications within the underground construction industry [170]. Other works focus on analyzing the requirements that potential users within the AEC domain put at AR-BIM systems [305,194,119]. ...
Thesis
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... Tezel et al. (2021) developed a blockchain model for supply chain management in construction. Chu et al. (2018) used the DSR methodology to develop a framework for integrating BIM and augmented reality in construction management. ...
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Recent technological developments and advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have enabled sophisticated capabilities to be a part of Digital Twin (DT), virtually making it possible to introduce automation into all aspects of work processes. Given these possibilities that DT can offer, practitioners are facing increasingly difficult decisions regarding what capabilities to select while deploying a DT in practice. The lack of research in this field has not helped either. It has resulted in the rebranding and reuse of emerging technological capabilities like prediction, simulation, AI, and Machine Learning (ML) as necessary constituents of DT. Inappropriate selection of capabilities in a DT can result in missed opportunities, strategic misalignments, inflated expectations, and risk of it being rejected as just hype by the practitioners. To alleviate this challenge, this paper proposes the digitalization framework, designed and developed by following a Design Science Research (DSR) methodology over a period of 18 months. The framework can help practitioners select an appropriate level of sophistication in a DT by weighing the pros and cons for each level, deciding evaluation criteria for the digital twin system, and assessing the implications of the selected DT on the organizational processes and strategies, and value creation. Three real-life case studies illustrate the application and usefulness of the framework.
... Design science research (DSR) is driven by field problems or opportunities because it believes instrumental knowledge is developed by deep engagement with these real-life problems or opportunities (van Aken et al., 2016). DS has been applied in multiple domains related to this paper, including construction management (Tommelein, 2020;Voordijk, 2009), construction informatics (Chu et al., 2018;Fang et al., 2018), information systems (March and Smith, 1995;Peffers et al., 2007) and operations management (van Aken et al., 2016). Hartmann and Trappey (2020) have called for researchers in advanced engineering informatics to approach problems in a "bottom up manner closely involving engineering practitioners" while making use of social science methods to help formalize and validate knowledge. ...
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Augmented reality (AR) builds better participation for placemaking by focusing on the real-time feature, ‎communication, and direct information flow between project stakeholders. This study attempts to access to ‎specification of the Augmented Reality System for Placemaking (ARSP) model and make the research a basis ‎for a profitable e-business model. By investigating AR and placemaking, this research seeks to build an ‎augmented reality system specification of the information flow and communication for project stakeholders' ‎management. This paper explores the potential for using AR technology in interior design by three-‎dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) and façade placemaking by 2D textures of brick material. The ‎system consists of a qualitative proof of concept (POC) model, a prototype model, and a minimum vital ‎product (MVP) model to study to compel quantitative research. The ARSP POC model, prototype model, ‎and MVP model are programmed by building an information modeling (BIM) system, Revit and Unity ‎software, and different software development kits (SDKs) as an application for Android devices. Seventy-‎four experts tested the MVP model in the Delphi method and observed, interviewed, and filled out a ‎questionnaire. The research shows that the contributions of this study to the body of knowledge are twofold. ‎First, this study extends the understanding of AR applications in placemaking. Second, this study identifies ‎possible improvements using AR systems in design, procurement, and construction.
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Purpose Although data rich building information models have been widely adopted in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry in the United Kingdom (UK), use of 2D drawings on site for construction is still the norm. The ability of 2-dimensional (2D) drawings to convey complex 3-dimensional information is limited and requires interpretation from operatives, and 2D drawings can be quickly superseded by model updates. Although constructing directly from a model has been adopted in the aerospace and automotive industries, its use in construction is in its infancy. This research therefore aims to investigate the potential for, and barriers to, model-based construction in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This research uses a qualitative approach, thematically analysing 13 semi-structured interviews with UK-based construction professionals who have experience of paperless or model-based construction. Findings Although model -based construction has been implemented to a limited extent on some civil engineering projects; research and investment in software, network capacity, legal and contractual issues, and cultural and human factors will need to be considered before model-based construction can be implemented more widely. Originality/value The research contributes to an understudied, emergent area of construction practice and outlines hurdles that need to be understood and overcome before more widespread adoption of model-based construction can take place.
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The construction industry has become more digital and the traditional methods of construction activities are gradually becoming outdated. In this era of digital construction, various information and communication technologies have been developed and deployed to the site for the management and control of construction activities including cost management. Irrespective of the benefits of adopting these technologies, most of them are still not readily accepted for use for construction management. This study articulated Seven (7) recent technologies driving the industry and evaluated their acceptance for cost management of construction projects. The technologies include mobile technology, Augmented/Virtual Reality (AR/VR), Building Information Modeling (BIM), Internet of Things (IoT), Autonomous Equipment (Drones and Robotics), Artificial Intelligence (AI), and Predictive Analytics (PA). Data was gathered using a restructured questionnaire and technology acceptance model analysis was performed to identify which of the technologies have higher acceptance for cost management based on the criteria of availability, affordability, frequency of use, usefulness for cost management, and acceptance in the industry. Test statistics using Spearman’s correlations and Kendall’s correlations for each of the technologies and Spearman’s Correlations of Technology acceptance with other variables in the TAM Model were performed. The results showed that mobile technology has higher correlation values than other technologies, and therefore has a higher acceptance for cost management. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance values and Spearman’s correlation values for Mobile technology were all above 0.6 which indicates a high level of agreement among the raters and strong relationships between the compared TAM variables.
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Augmented reality (AR) is among the technologies in both Industry 4.0 and 5.0, which has the potential to play a key role in Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC). Previous studies indicate that the use of AR, which is more prominent in other industries, is mainly focused on the construction phase. Additionally, this phase of the project faces performance, supervisory, and safety problems. Accordingly, this systematic review analyzes 50 related articles to assess the applications of this technology, its implementation, as well as its acceptance and non-acceptance factors in the construction phase. The results show that despite the advantages that AR brings, it is still not mature enough, and there are some inter-research conflicts in this field that require more profound studies to resolve them. Considering the existing challenges and research gaps, some future directions are provided in the final section of this review to clarify the research path for researchers.
Chapter
The construction sector carries many risk factors in terms of occupational safety. Many studies reveal that the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is effective in reducing losses in the construction sector. Lately, BIM (Building Information Modeling) has been deployed as one of the working methodologies to tackle and automate safety measures in the construction industry. Apart from other methodologies, safety information and risk factors are often identified during the project design phases in BIM. Fostered with Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies, BIM can also efficiently visualize such risks to prevent them. This study proposes a mobile application called AG-IGU that incorporates a BIM-supported AR environment against the risk of falling, which is the most common accident in construction projects.
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The complexity and the fragmentation of the construction industry require interprofessional collaboration and effective real-time management of information exchange throughout the construction process. Augmented Reality (AR), Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Cloud Computing have proven to be highly promising in enhancing performance while reducing costs in the AEC domain. This paper presents a mobile Open-Source application named "CollaBIM" providing visualization, collaboration, and interaction functionalities with a BIM model. Collaboration is the focus of this work by using a Cloud service allowing notification, display of the schedule, visualization of updated data and images. The application is developed under Unity and uses a BIM model resulting from a Scan-To-BIM process. It is executable on Android mobile devices and can be easily integrated into the work processes of the construction sector.
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Recent technological developments and advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) have enabled sophisticated capabilities to be a part of Digital Twin (DT), virtually making it possible to introduce automation into all aspects of work processes. Given these possibilities that DT can offer, practitioners are facing increasingly difficult decisions regarding what capabilities to select while deploying a DT in practice. The lack of research in this field has not helped either. It has resulted in the rebranding and reuse of emerging technological capabilities like prediction, simulation, AI, and Machine Learning (ML) as necessary constituents of DT. Inappropriate selection of capabilities in a DT can result in missed opportunities, strategic misalignments, inflated expectations, and risk of it being rejected as just hype by the practitioners. To alleviate this challenge, this paper proposes the digitalization framework, designed and developed by following a Design Science Research (DSR) methodology over a period of 18 months. The framework can help practitioners select an appropriate level of sophistication in a DT by weighing the pros and cons for each level, deciding evaluation criteria for the digital twin system, and assessing the implications of the selected DT on the organizational processes and strategies, and value creation. Three real-life case studies illustrate the application and usefulness of the framework.
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Purpose In recent years, deep learning and extended reality (XR) technologies have gained popularity in the built environment, especially in construction engineering and management. A significant amount of research efforts has been thus dedicated to the automation of construction-related activities and visualization of the construction process. The primary aim of this study is to investigate potential research opportunities in the integration of deep learning and XR technologies in construction engineering and management. Design/methodology/approach This study presents a literature review of 164 research articles published in Scopus from 2006 to 2021, based on strict data acquisition criteria. A mixed review method, consisting of a scientometric analysis and systematic review, is conducted in this study to identify research gaps and propose future research directions. Findings The proposed research directions can be categorized into four areas, including 1) Realism of training simulations; 2) Integration of visual and audio-based classification; 3) Automated hazard detection in head-mounted displays (HMDs); and 4) Context-awareness in head-mounted displays (HMDs). Originality/value This study contributes to the body of knowledge by identifying the necessity of integrating deep learning and XR technologies in facilitating the construction engineering and management process.
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Purpose: This study aims to empirically analyze the symmetries and asymmetries among the critical factors affecting building information modeling (BIM) implementation between countries with different income levels. To achieve that aim, the study objectives are to identify: critical factors affecting BIM implementation in low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries; overlapping critical factors between countries with different income levels; and agreements on the critical factors between countries with different income levels. Design/methodology/approach: This study identified potential BIM implementation factors using a systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews with architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) professionals. Then, the factors were inserted into a questionnaire survey and sent to AEC professionals in Afghanistan, India, Malaysia and Saudi Arabia. The collected data was analyzed using the following techniques and tests: mean, standard deviation, normalized value, Kruskal–Wallis, Dunn and Mann–Whitney. Findings: Five critical factors overlap between all countries: “availability of guidelines for implementing BIM,” “cost-benefit of implementing BIM,” “stakeholders’ willingness to learn the BIM method,” “consistent views on BIM between stakeholders” and “existence of standard contracts on liability and risk allocation.” Also, the criticality of the factors often differs between income levels, especially between low- and high-income countries, suggesting a significant gap between low- and high-income countries in BIM implementation. Originality/value: This study differs from prior works by empirically analyzing the symmetries and asymmetries in BIM implementation factors between countries with different income levels (i.e. low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries).
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Abstract Purpose The construction industry is affected by the technologies of Industry 4.0 as the buildings are transforming into complex productions. Integration of innovative technologies, such as virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), in construction management is an emerging area to increase efficiency and effectiveness. With an aim of determining the current situation, this study evaluates the literature on VR and AR within construction management research. Design/methodology/approach The methodology of this research is based on descriptive and bibliometric analyses to understand and state the current relations between VR-AR technologies and construction management research. According to the meta-analysis (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses [PRISMA]) protocol of reviewing, 143 papers between 2010 and 2021 from Scopus, Web of Science (WoS) and Science Direct have been retrieved, and then analysis has been applied on these papers. Descriptive analysis contains increment of publications throughout the years, rates of papers according to countries and content of the publications. The bibliometric analysis involves the analysis through Excel and VOSviewer: co-occurrence of keywords, country-based, source and citation. Findings The results of this study emphasize the increasing interest in the adoption of VR-AR technologies in construction management research. As the number of publications has been continuously increased, this trend indicates the strength and growing interest in the topic. Another significant finding is VR-AR implementation studies are mostly based on building information modelling (BIM). In this study, the results of analyses have been discussed in terms of learning, knowledge areas and digital technologies as part of construction management. Originality/value This study contributes to providing a significant theoretical reference for the potentials of VR-AR in construction management research. VR-AR technologies mostly attract the interest of researchers from architectural design studies; however, there is a gap to investigate their potentials in terms of construction management. Additionally, this study focuses on the last 11 years, which indicate the latest trends.
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The purposes of this paper are to identify risk factors impacting the successful implementation of immersive reality technology (ImT) in the construction industry, analyze these risk factors (impact and probability), assess the relationships among different categories of risk factors, and provide recommendations to improve ImT implementation. A literature review, a pilot test based on expert interviews, and a questionnaire survey were used. First, the risk factors of ImT applications were identified by consulting the relevant literature on virtual reality, mixed reality, and augmented reality; these were subsequently grouped into five categories—technology, operation, individual/worker, investment, and external. Next, a questionnaire survey was designed and distributed to relevant construction practitioners in South Africa (usable response = 175). Twenty-one ImT implementation risk factors were identified, and risk criticality scores ranged from 2.02 to 3.18. High investment cost, the need for extensive worker training, and the possible introduction of new risks for workers were rated as significant risks. The present study confirmed three statistically significant hypothesized risk paths—namely, those between external issues and individual/worker’s concerns, between external issues and investment limitations, and between individual/worker’s concerns and technology concerns. The present study contributes to the literature regarding the adoption of construction technology by providing a list of critical risk factors that could be used to develop models and tools for assessing ImT adoption and guide practitioners involved in integrating ImTs.
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Construction equipment security information management (CESIM) is a critical component of equipment security management. However, equipment-related information's authenticity and integrity cannot be guaranteed in centralized systems currently, which limits the effectiveness of CESIM. In addressing this issue, a framework that combines blockchain and deep learning technologies is proposed by providing decentralized data storage, keeping data authentic, and protecting data from tampering. In accordance with the proposed framework, a prototype system is developed and further evaluated. Results show that the prototype system can improve the efficiency of equipment supervision, decision making, and accident tracking in equipment security management. In conclusion, this study aims to place emphasis on: (1) applying blockchain technology to ensure equipment-related information authentic and secure; (2) developing word2vec + CNN-based deep learning to automatically identify keywords and categories of equipment inspection reports; and (3) verifying the feasibility of the proposed framework and developing a prototype system for further application
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The paper motivates, presents, demonstrates in use, and evaluates a methodology for conducting design science (DS) research in information systems (IS). DS is of importance in a discipline oriented to the creation of successful artifacts. Several researchers have pioneered DS research in IS, yet over the past 15 years, little DS research has been done within the discipline. The lack of a methodology to serve as a commonly accepted framework for DS research and of a template for its presentation may have contributed to its slow adoption. The design science research methodology (DSRM) presented here incorporates principles, practices, and procedures required to carry out such research and meets three objectives: it is consistent with prior literature, it provides a nominal process model for doing DS research, and it provides a mental model for presenting and evaluating DS research in IS. The DS process includes six steps: problem identification and motivation, definition of the objectives for a solution, design and development, demonstration, evaluation, and communication. We demonstrate and evaluate the methodology by presenting four case studies in terms of the DSRM, including cases that present the design of a database to support health assessment methods, a software reuse measure, an Internet video telephony application, and an IS planning method. The designed methodology effectively satisfies the three objectives and has the potential to help aid the acceptance of DS research in the IS discipline.
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This paper calculates indices of central bank autonomy (CBA) for 163 central banks as of end-2003, and comparable indices for a subgroup of 68 central banks as of the end of the 1980s. The results confirm strong improvements in both economic and political CBA over the past couple of decades, although more progress is needed to boost political autonomy of the central banks in emerging market and developing countries. Our analysis confirms that greater CBA has on average helped to maintain low inflation levels. The paper identifies four broad principles of CBA that have been shared by the majority of countries. Significant differences exist in the area of banking supervision where many central banks have retained a key role. Finally, we discuss the sequencing of reforms to separate the conduct of monetary and fiscal policies. IMF Staff Papers (2009) 56, 263–296. doi:10.1057/imfsp.2008.25; published online 23 September 2008
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In the past two decades, augmented reality (AR) has received a growing amount of attention by researchers in the manufacturing technology community, because AR can be applied to address a wide range of problems throughout the assembly phase in the lifecycle of a product, e.g., planning, design, ergonomics assessment, operation guidance and training. However, to the best of authors’ knowledge, there has not been any comprehensive review of AR-based assembly systems. This paper aims to provide a concise overview of the technical features, characteristics and broad range of applications of AR-based assembly systems published between 1990 and 2015. Among these selected articles, two thirds of them were published between 2005 and 2015, and they are considered as recent pertinent works which will be discussed in detail. In addition, the current limitation factors and future trends in the development will also be discussed.
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of the fundamental assumption driving technology investment is more the merrier. The benefits achieved at task level for individuals are expected to eventually roll-up to organization-level productivity improvements. This paper explores the un-intended impacts of technology that stifles users' ability, to realize the full potential of organizational investment. While current generation of technologies has the ability to empower and engage employee's on-the-go, even in personal times, sometimes they threaten to imbalance personal life. Organizations need to exercise restraint to manage harmful impacts of multi-tasking and information overload caused by these technologies. The analysis is based on secondary research and empirical observations. These insights can help in product development and service offerings using newer technologies. Even, organizations and end-users can learn to frame appropriate roll-out plans and organization policies for technology adoption.
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Having timely access to information on the performance of a construction project enables the design team and contractor to improve their decision-making so as to ensure project deliverables are met. This paper examines the effectiveness of cloud-based BIM for real-time delivery of information to support progress monitoring and management of the construction of a reinforced concrete (RC) structure using action based research. To undertake this task, existing paper-based processes were re-engineered to accommodate the use of cloud-based BIM during construction. The design and implementation of a real-time object oriented bi-directional system, allowed information (e.g., the status of the ‘As-Built’ schedule) to be captured on-site and synchronized with a federated BIM. As a result of adopting cloud-based technology during construction, a new object oriented workflow and processes for progress management are proposed.
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The significant advancement in digital imaging and widespread popularity of digital cameras for capturing a comprehensive visual record of construction performance in the architecture, engineering, construction, and facility management (AEC/FM) industries have triggered an extensive growth in the rate of site photography, allowing hundreds of images to be stored for a project on a daily basis. Meanwhile, collaborative AEC technologies centering around building information models (BIMs) are becoming widely applied to support various architectural, structural, and preconstruction decision-making tasks. These models, if integrated with the as-built perspective of a construction, have great potential to extensively add value during the construction phase of a project. This paper reports recent developments from research efforts in (1)automated acquisition of as-built point-cloud models from unordered daily site photo collections and geo-registration of site images, (2)automated generation of four-dimensional (4D) as-built point-cloud models, and (3)semiautomated superimposition of the integrated as-built model over 4D (three dimensions plus time) BIMs to generate integrated 4D as-built and as-planned visualizations. The limitations and benefits of each modeling approach, the motivations for development of 4D augmented-reality (D 4AR) environments for integrated visualization of as-built and as-planned models, the perceived and observed applications, and the benefits in seven case studies are discussed. Not only does a D 4AR model visualize construction processes and performance deviations, it can also be used as a tool for automated and remote monitoring of progress and safety, quality control, and site layout management, and enables enhanced coordination and communication.
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This study analyses the behavioral, physiological, and psychological effects of digital manuals presented by a retinal imaging display (RID) on workers in the manufacturing industry. An RID consists of wearable glasses that enable users to view a digital image overlaying the real world. We conducted an experiment in which subjects assembled an object by referring to different types of manuals. The experimental results suggest that an RID enables users to conveniently examine real objects against information in the manual, reduces the information-processing load while performing tasks, and supports effortless performance of tasks. However, using a monochrome picture manual with an RID increases the information-processing load. On the other hand, a full-color RID movie manual generates additional responses in users, such as psychological satisfaction.
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Building information modeling (BIM) is an emerging technology focused methodology that can be used to improve the performance and productivity of an asset's design, construction, operation and maintenance process. Typically the investment justification process for BIM has been based upon the utilization of the return on investment (ROI). This measure does not accurately reflect the 'real' costs and benefits that are associated with implementing BIM by an asset owner. With this in mind, a benefits evaluation framework that looks beyond ROI and takes into account the evolving nature of BIM by incorporating intangible benefits and indirect costs is presented and discussed. To acquire the wide range of benefits that BIM can offer asset owners, it is proffered that they should shift their mindsets away from justification using ROI to a process of evaluation that encompasses the appraisal of value and benefits' realization.
Natural science research follows a stereotypical pattern and such uniformity makes it easier to recognize and evaluate the results of such research. A similar format has been lacking for design science research. This issue was addressed by Peffers et al. (2008) who defined such a template for design science research for information systems: the design science research methodology (DSRM). In this paper, we first discuss design science research and the DSRM. Then, we illustrate the application of the DSRM to AIS research through retroactive analysis. Finally, we integrate the DSRM into the operational specification of artifact networks and use the REA literature for illustration purposes.
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Augmented reality (AR) is a novel human–machine interaction that overlays virtual computer-generated information on a real world environment. It has found good potential applications in many fields, such as military training, surgery, entertainment, maintenance, assembly, product design and other manufacturing operations in the last ten years. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of developed and demonstrated AR applications in manufacturing activities. The intention of this survey is to provide researchers, students, and engineers, who use or plan to use AR as a tool in manufacturing research, a useful insight on the state-of-the-art AR applications and developments.
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This paper describes the development of an Augmented Reality (AR)-based equipment Operations and Maintenance (O&M) fieldwork support application to improve efficiency at the site and the experimental evaluation of the application. The application consists of an AR-based interface for intuitive GUI and an O&M information model developed with various types of O&M specific information obtained through observing tradespeople's fieldwork activities, and those from Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and Building Automation System (BAS). In addition, the BACnet protocol is used to get sensor-derived operation data in real time from BAS. A series of experiments was conducted to quantitatively measure improvement in equipment O&M fieldwork efficiency by using a software prototype of the application. The results show that with the application the subjects saved, on average, 51% of time spent at task when they located target areas and 8% of time at task while obtaining sensor-based performance data from BAS.
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The relevance problem of academic management research in organization and management is an old and thorny one. Recent discussions on this issue have resulted in proposals to use more Mode 2 knowledge production in our field. These discussions focused mainly on the process of research itself and less on the products produced by this process. Here the focus is on the so-called field-tested and grounded technological rule as a possible product of Mode 2 research with the potential to improve the relevance of academic research in management. Technological rules can be seen as solution-oriented knowledge. Such knowledge may be called Management Theory, while more description-oriented knowledge may be called Organization Theory. In this article the nature of technological rules in management is discussed, as well as their development, their use in actual management practice and the potential for cross-fertilization between Management Theory and Organization Theory.
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An advocated panacea for reducing design errors and rework in construction and engineering projects is building information modeling (BIM). Yet, it would appear that advocates of BIM have overlooked why and how design errors occur. In this article, the nature of error is explained and the principal underlying causes identified with reference to the normative literature and the authors phenomenological research. A systemic model for reducing design errors is presented and the enabling role of BIM discussed.
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Individuals within organizations are beginning to make an important realization: more information technology (IT) usage in the workplace can, at times, lead to productivity losses. We conceptualize this frequently observed, but largely ignored phenomenon as technology overload, when additional technology tools begin to crowd out one’s productivity instead of enhancing it. We found support for three main factors contributing technology-based productivity losses through information overload, communication overload, and system feature overload. Interestingly, these factors are a function of the individuals who use the technology, not the technology itself. In this paper, we present the results from three studies that (1) develop and pre-test a scale measurement for technology overload and its distinct dimensions, (2) validate the instrument, and (3) explore the relationship between technology overload and knowledge worker productivity. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between information technology usage and knowledge worker productivity, and they suggest how tradeoffs can be managed to ameliorate technology overload.
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Construction projects are information-intensive in nature and require site personnel to have continuous on-demand access to information such as project plans, drawings, schedules, and budgets. Awareness of a user's context (such as user profile, role, preferences, task, and existing project conditions) can enhance the construction project delivery process by providing a mechanism to determine information relevant to a particular context. Context awareness can also be used to improve security, logistics and health and safety practices on construction sites. Location is an important aspect of context awareness. A location aware application can utilize the knowledge of the user/object location to provide relevant information and services. This paper argues that a successful and reliable location tracking system must be able to track a user's spatial context and deliver contextual data continuously in both outdoor and indoor environments to effectively support construction projects. Research describing the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) for indoor tracking and Global Positioning System (GPS) for outdoor spatial context tracking is presented, and an integrated tracking technique using WLAN and GPS for ubiquitous location sensing is introduced. The key benefits and technical challenges of such an integrated approach are also highlighted. The presented tracking techniques have been validated in both indoor and outdoor environments to ensure their practical implementation on real construction jobsites.
The construction productivity imperative
  • S Changali
  • A Mohammad
  • M Van Nieuwland
S. Changali, A. Mohammad, M. van Nieuwland, The construction productivity imperative. McKinsey & Company, Available at http://www.mckinsey.com/ industries/capital-projects-and-infrastructure/our-insights/the-constructionproductivity-imperative:, (2015), Accessed date: 17 November 2016.
Delivering Value with BIM: A Whole-of-Life Approach
  • A Sanchez
  • K Hampson
  • S Vaux
A. Sanchez, K. Hampson, S. Vaux, Delivering Value with BIM: A Whole-of-Life Approach, Routledge, London, 2016 (ISBN-13: 978-1138118997).
Component based engineering of a mobile BIM-based Augmented Reality system
  • S Meža
  • Z Turk
  • M Dolenc
S. Meža, Z. Turk, M. Dolenc, Component based engineering of a mobile BIM-based Augmented Reality system, Autom. Constr. 42 (2014) 1-12, http://dx.doi.org/10. 1016/j.autcon.2014.02.011.
Factors influencing labor productivity on construction sites: a state-ofthe-art literature review and a survey
  • S G Naoum
S.G. Naoum, Factors influencing labor productivity on construction sites: a state-ofthe-art literature review and a survey, Int. J. Product. Perform. Manag. 65 (3) (2016) 401-421, http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-03-2015-0045.