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Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
TREASURE - MANGALITSA LOCAL PIG BREED IN
SERBIA
1 2 1,2,
Nenad Parunovi 3,2 1
1Institute for Animal Husbandry, Autoput 16, RS-11080 Belgrade-Zemun
2Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, RS-11080 Belgrade-Zemun,
3
Corresponding author: cedomirradovic.izs@gmail.com
Review paper
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to present the results of the
research of the Swallow belly Mangalitsa genotype in the last six decades.
According to the research, females reach the full maturity the age of 9-10 months,
but they are mated at the age of 1-1.5 years. Average age at first farrowing is 556
days. Reproductive ability is poorly expressed, with a strong maternal instinct.
Fertility of the Mangalitsa is relatively poor because it gives birth to 1-12 piglets,
on average 4 to 5 piglets, with an average body weight of 1.25 kg with a variation
of 0.8 to 1.8 kg. The suckling period is about 50 days (from 47 to 53 days). At
lactation duration of 60 days, the piglet weight at the weaning ranges from 6-13 kg
(average 9.61 kg) for piglets born in the spring, and from 7-15 kg (average 9.50 kg)
for piglets born in fall. Depending on the rearing system, the start of fattening and
final body weight, gains range 268 g to 830 g. The fat thickness (average
measurements) at the ridge was 10.2 cm, the middle of the back 7.9 cm and the
rump 8.1 cm, in previous studies, while in recent studies these values of fat
thickness are somewhat lower, with the pre-slaughter body weight also being lower
(the ridge 6.18 cm, the middle of the back 4.38 cm and at the rump 5.19 cm). The
recent research of the Longissimus dorsi muscle shows an intramuscular fat content
of 13.5%, protein content of 21.1% with specific qualitative properties pH45=6.11;
pH24=5.50; CIE L*=40.13; a*=11.77; b*=3.73). In the musculus longissimus
lumborum and thoracis, Mangalitsa (Swallow-bellied) pigs show higher levels of
monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 55.1%) and lower levels of saturated fatty
acids (SFA 35.3%) in comparison with Swedish Landrace pigs.
Key words: autochthonous breed, Swallow belly Mangalitsa,reproductive
traits, growth, carcass and meat quality
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
157
Introduction
Autochthonous breeds of farm animals are breeds that originated in the territory of
the Republic of Serbia and which have economic, scientific and cultural significance for
our country. They contain in their genes information from the environment, they have been
created over a long period of time, under the influence or without the influence of man.
Their genes represent safety in the production of food in future times, in which the greater
importance will be attributed to the resistance and adaptability of the breed. Bearing this
fact in mind, autochthonous breeds represent the TREASURE that we need to preserve for
future generations. Pig production in the Republic of Serbia has a long tradition.
During the 19th century, pigs were the main export product. In that time, the pig
farming was based on local indigenous breeds with the dominant breeds Šiška and
Šumadinka. Šiška and Šumadinka was the most primitive breed of pigs, created by
domestication of wild pigs Sus scrofa ferus ( ). Today in Serbia there are
three local indigenous pig breeds: Mangalitsa, Moravka and Resavka while Šiška
and Šumadinka breeds are lost in their original form. Mangalitsa was very popular
in Vojvodina (especially in Srem) and Hungary in the period from the 19th century
until the fifties, and recently farming of this breed has been restored. In the
Republic of Serbia there are three Mangalitsa breed strains, the Swallow-belly
rain. In
Hungary and Romania there is also so called red strain of this breed. Swallow belly
1949). Mangalitsa is a native primitive breed, originated from former Šumadinka
breed and is so called "fat" pig breed type. In addition to their genetic merit for
agro-biodiversity, they are the basis for a sustainable local pig production chain,
and are particularly important for regions where arable land and grain production
are limited. Autochthonous breeds of pigs provide security for the sustainable
production of food in the future and form part of the genetic and cultural heritage.
Since in Serbia the largest population is the Swallow-belly strain, the aim of this
paper is to describe this variety, from the literary sources available, to the most
important production traits.
Description of the breed and population size
Exterior: The head is relatively small in length and width, with ears that
are not too large and always facing in the direction of the snout. The length of the
ear is 2/3 of the length of the head. The body is short and rather rounded, while the
ridge is of the medium width and usually seamlessly crosses into the backline
( The cheast is wide and deep. The back, loin and sides are of the
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
158
medium width. Shoulders and ham are quite well expressed. The legs are of
medium length with plenty of thin bones and often soft pastern bones. The skin is
dark in colour, with dense, luminous and curly bristles that are shorter in the
Swallow-belly strain. The colour of the bristles can be from gray-yellow to reddish
(ginger). Briznej (1948) states that there are two varieties of which one from the
western breeding region is called "B
the sides of the body and the legs from the outer-lateral side to the claws). The
second variety - "Otok" and "Lasa" named after the village of Otok in the western
part of the Srem region, with the legs pigmented only to the hock joint and the
lower part of the papilla is white. The Otok variety has regularly strongly
ot are not so
developed (Briznej 1948). Claws, teats and snout tip are pigmented
The number of animals of mangalits breed has increased over years (Table 1). In
2016, only on the territory of Central Serbia, 321 sowes and 32 boars were
registered (in the records of the Main Breeding Organization).
Table 1. Population size
Year 2004 2008 2009 2012 2013 2014 2014* 2015*
Population 55-
100
400-
1000
400-
1000
1000-
2000
100-
1000 300-1000 300-1000 300-1000
Nº sows 19 200 350 600 90(90
#
) 203 (153
#
) 247(247
#
) 345 (345
#
)
Nº boars 9 20 20 50 2 24 35 50
Source of data-DAD-FAO (www.dad.fao.org) access 29/06/2016
#Registered animals in Herdbook.
*Source of data of Institute for Animal Husbandry (Main Breeding Organisation), Annual Report
(2014, 2015)-animals under the control of productivity.
Mangalitsa is very resistant and well adapted to extensive conditions of housing,
where the needs are only for a simple shelter from rain and snow. It is located in
the municipalities of Subotica, Sremska Mitrovica, Ba
When it comes to
Mangalitsa, which is the most common of all the indigenous breeds in Serbia, it is
necessary to make efforts to increase the number of animals in the population and
control its productivity. This is the only way the breed can be preserved as an
important genetic resource in pig production and breeding not only of Serbia, but
also the entire region ( ).
Reproductive performance
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
159
Mangulica is a late maturity breed. It reaches the full maturity at the age of 9-10
months, but is not mated until the age of 1-1.5 years, and it is fully grown and
mautre at the age of 3-4 years (Briznej 1948). In controlled herds in the four years
(2011-2014), the average age at first farrowing was 556 ±176.65 days (
al. 2015). Reproductive ability is poorly expressed, with a strong maternal instinct.
The number of dairy nipples is most often 10. Fertility of the Mangalitsa females is
relatively poor because it gives birth to 1-12 piglets, on average 4 to 5 piglets with
an average of 1.25 kg body weight, varying from 0.8 to 1.8 kg ( ). Pigs at
birth have characteristic stripes, which disappear in 10 days in white strain piglets,
and in swallow belly strain in 3-4 months. Low productivity of the Mangalitsa is
also reflected in the low farrowing index (1.21-1.81 litters/year). The poor rearing
conditions and uncontrolled mating contribute to the poor reproductive parameters
of this breed of pigs in Serbia (Table 2). However, the variability of fertility traits
indicates the possibility for genetic improvement. Regardless of the low fertility
properties, this breed should be preserved as an important genetic resource and be
included in the selection program ( ). It is also necessary to
have a plan of mating in a more precise manner so as to avoid inbreeding.
Table 2. Reproductive traits
Reference /
Reproductive traits
Report
Annual
Report
Study
Study
Study
UNIBG, 2010
(Mean±SD)
IAH, 2015
(Mean±SD)
Brinzej
(1949)
Szabó
(2002) (Mean±SD)
Number of sows
recorded 28 litters
70 sows
(85 litters) 10 litters
74
litters
53 sows
(129 litters)
Sow parity
1
2.04
3.45
(508.92±127.5
6 age at first
farrowing)
Litters/sow and year
1.21
1.81
1.77
Litter weight (kg)
6.99
Piglets/litter
5.32
±1.78
(1-9) 4.96±1.81 6.20 6.64 4.60±1.65
Piglets alive/litter
4.82
±2.31
(0-9)
1of#4.45±2.23
2of4.50±1.69
3of5.11±2.89
4.73±1.78
Piglets
weaned/litter
4.92
±2.24
(0-9)24 litters 4.48±1.84
5.90
(88.90%) 4.09±1.91
Duration of
lactation (d) 50 days 47.05±8.38 52.57±15.24
Weaning to
conception interval
(d)
92.31±61.66 period
farrowing-mating
=> WCI=92.31-
52.57=39.74)
1Keep records classified according to this parameter, #-order of farrowing
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
160
BW – body weight of sow must indicate also the stage i.e. weaning, end gestation
Observing the size of the litter, there are no significant differences between the
number of piglets in the litter established in the middle of the 20th century (Briznej
1949) and the beginning of the 21st century (Szabó 2002). Research of
al. (2013) as well as the Annual Report (2009 and 2014) show that a somewhat
lower number of piglets per litter has been registered, which may be the result of
inbreeding. found the average number of piglets in the litter
of 4.60, of which 4.09 weaned pigs with a suckling period of 52.57 days. The same
group of authors calculated the duration of the weaning-conception period obtained
by subtracting the farrowing-mating period (92.31 days) and the duration of
lactation (52.57 days), which amounted to 39.74 days (Table 2).
Growth traits
Literary data on the production performance of the breed are shown in various
production systems (open and closed, extensive, semi-intensive and intensive
system of rearing), of nutrition and gender (Table 3 and 4).
Table 3. Production system, nutrition, gender and number of animals in the trial
Literature source
Brinzej (1949) and et al.
(2017) Brinzej (1956)
Number of pigs
10 litters
(62 piglets) 74 animals in each group 12 32
Pol animals and
animals
castrated animals
(after weaning) and
castrated animals
(
one month before the
beginning of the
fattening)
Production
system/
Nutrition
Milk and
supplemental diet
(peas and wet
barley) from 4
weeks of age
Two weeks after birth, the
piglets are fed at will, barley
and fresh green alfalfa
during the summer or alfalfa
flour in winter.
Semi-
Intensive
System
(grazing and
maize)
Intensive nutrition with
maize and barley
Depending on the intensity of the rearing system and the nutrition, there are
differences in the rate of growth within and between gender of piglets/fatteners
(Table 4). Differences in the growth characteristics exist among groups of piglets
born in different seasons. The birth weight varies in the range of 700 to 2000 g,
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
161
which is similar to today's allochthonous breeds. The average daily gain during the
suckling period is around 120-130 g, which depends on the lactation period, the
piglets gender and the season of birth. In the intensive rearing system, mangalitsa
animals can achieve high average daily gains of 830 g, as demonstrated by the
results of the research by Brinzej (1956). Unlike the above mentioned research,
study by conducted on fatteners grown in semi-intensive
system, show much lower potential in terms of the growth rate (about 267 g).
Possible reasons for this difference in gain are differences in the intensity of
rearing, in the final body weight, but also in the differences in the genetic structure
of fatteners, since the time distance of the conducted researches is about 60 years.
Table 4. Body weight at birth and gain
Trait
Literature source
Brinzej (1949) and
et
al. (2017)
Brinzej
(1956)
Body weight
(BW) At birth 1130g 133* 158
(132-174)*
At birth (g) 1205 1170
1220 1270
At weaning
(kg)
9.61 9.97
9.50 9.54
Average daily
gain
(ADG),g
1-4 weeks 120
137 spring
138 autumn 146spring
137autumn 267,86 830
5-8 weeks 130
Total suckling
period 125
*slaughter BW
Brinzej (1949) states in his study that the average body weight of piglets at birth
was 1130 g (females - 1080 g while males have a slightly higher birth weight of
1180 g); average daily gain of piglets in the first 4 weeks of life is 120 g, from 5 to
8 weeks of age - 130 g, i.e. for the total suckling period of 8 weeks on average it is
125 g; from 5-8 weeks, the average daily gain is from 84-153 g, with the female
animals showing gain of 77-150 g and a males 100-157 g. According to
Miti (1954), the body weight of the male piglets at birth is 1205 g, with variations
of 800-1900 g for piglets born in the spring, and 1220 g with variation of 700-1900
g for piglets born in autumn, whereby on the day 60 (weaning), the body weight
ranged from 6 to 13 kg (average 9.61 kg) for piglets born in the spring, and in the
range of 7-15 kg (average 9.50 kg) for piglets born in autumn. The average daily
gain from birth to weaning at body weight of 1.22-9.48 kg was 137 g for piglets
born in the spring and 138 g for piglets born in autumn. At birth, the average
weight of female piglets is 1170 g, with variations of 700-1800 g for piglets born in
the spring, and 1270 g with an interval of variation of 700-2000 g for piglets born
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
162
in autumn, whereby on day 60 (weaning), body weight ranged between 6-13 kg
(average 9.97 kg) for piglets born in the spring, and 7-14 kg (average 9.54 kg) for
piglets born in autumn. The average daily gain from birth to weaning at body
weight of 1.22-9.48 kg is 146 g for piglets born in the spring and 137 g for piglets
born in autumn. Radovic et al. (2017) examined animals with pre-slaughter body
weight of 133 kg, with a gain of 267.86 g (the animals were 30 kg at the start of the
trial, and the final body weight reached 150 kg) and the fat thickness of 50.0 mm.
Contrary to this study, Brinzej (1956) examined animals with pre-slaughter weight
of 158 kg (132-174 kg) and obtained the following results: gain of 830 g (59 to 158
kg).
Carcass and meat quality traits
The Mangalitsa is an extremely fatty pig breed ( and , 2004).
While adipose tissue is about 65–70% of the carcass, lean meat is less than 35%
Rátky et al (2013). The carcass side quality traits vary depending on the nutrition
and the housing system (Table 5). The slaughter weight is different and ranges
from about 101 to 150 kg. In the earlier period, pigs were fattened to higher body
weights, which affected the higher content of fat tissue in the carcass. Today
consumers' demands are focused on the higher meat content of the carcass sides,
which caused pigs to be fattened to lower body weights, similar to those in the
intensive rearing system (about 100-110 kg). The slaughter yield ranges from 76 to
83%. The fat thickness varied in the presented researches depending on the body
weight of the pigs at slaughter and the location on the carcass on which it was
measured. found the thickest fat on the ridge - 61.85 mm
while the lowest was measured in the middle of the back - 43.78 mm. In the
research of 012) the maximum values of fat thickness at withers
determined was 85 mm and the lowest value was 48 mm, while for fat thickness at
the middle of the back (between 13th and 15th vertebrae) max. value was 55 mm
and the lowest measured value was 27 mm.
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
163
Table 5. Carcass traits
Reference al. (2010)
Brinzej
(1956) al. (2012)
LSM
(2012)*
LSM±SE
LSM±SE
Nº pigs recorded 10 32 23 22
CO-12+FR-10
16 (balanced ratio of
gender)
Production syst
em
(extensive, intensive,
mixed…)2
semi-
intensive intensive
open &
closed
conventional (CO)
& free range (FR)
farm free range
(conventional
mixture)
Type of housing/
no. of animals per
group
10
CO (six pigs per
cage, 4 m2per
animals)
FR
surface of 150 m
2
: 110
m2open + 40 m2
cover
section (4.8 m2of
surface area per
animal)
Slaughter weight
(kg) 101,22 158 103.83 CO 102.06±3.70
FR 98.06±4.06
107.14±2.85
337.1±7.83age (days)
Carcass weight
(kg) 73,90
82.31
warm;
80.22
cold
CO 80±0.43
warm
FR 76.8±0.47warm
CO 78.1±0.46cold
FR 74.7±0.49cold
Carcass yield (%
live weight) 73 CO 77.4±0.46
FR 73.9±0.51
Carcass length (cm)
os pubis-atlas
os pubis-1st rib
88,74
72,80
92.78
76.26
CO 89.3±0.63
FR 89.2±0.69
*CO-conventional mixture, FR-pasture, acorns and grains; After reaching a 60 kg of live weight both
groups fed with conventional mixture.
Table 6. Total mass in four major carcasses parts and backfat thickness
Reference Brinzej
(1956) al. (2010) )(2012)*
Ham weight (kg) 7.760 open 8.25
closed 7.83
Shoulder weight
(kg) 4.170 open 4.45 closed 4.82
Loin weight (kg) 6.268 open 6.52 closed 6.62
Belly-rib (kg) 4.73 open 4.60 closed 4.38
Backfat thickness
(cm)
ridge 10.2;
loins 7.90;
rump 8.10
ridge 6.18;
loins 4.38;
rump 5.19
ridge 6.17;
loins 4.27;
rump 4.78
CONV #6.19; 5.46; 6.01
FR #5.84; 5.18; 5.65
*CONV-conventional mixture, FR-pasture, acorns and grains; after reaching a 60 kg of live weight
both groups fed with conventional mixture.
#Above the M. gluteus medius at the carcass split-line, on the three positions.
found in the open system the thigh weight (Table 6) of 8.25
kg (with 3.75 kg of muscle tissue), while in the closed system the weight of the
thigh is 7.83 kg (with 3.75 kg muscle). The weight of the shoulder is 4.45 kg in the
open system (2.13 kg muscle tissue) and 4.82 kg (muscle tissue 2.19 kg) in the
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
164
closed system. The wight of back-loin section in the open system is 6.52 kg with
1.76 kg of muscle, in the closed system 6.62 kg with 1.91 kg of muscle tissue. The
backfat thickness at the ridge is 6,17 cm, at the middle of the back 4,27 cm and on
the sides 4.78 to 5.37 cm ( ). state that
the thickness of backfat in conventional nutrition at three points respectively is:
6.19; 5.46; 6.01, and in the free farm system 5.84; 5.18; 5.65 cm.
Table 7. Meat quality traits longissimus dorsi muscle
Study Study Study Study Study
Reference (2015)#
Mean±SD
et al.
(2017)##
LSM±SE
(2007)
LSM±SD
al. (2012)###
LSM±SE
al. (2016)
Mean±SD
Nº pigs recorded 7 12 13:10 12:10 15
Production system
(extensive,
intensive, mixed…)
intensive intensive open (O) &
closed (C)
conventional
(CON) & free
range (FR)
intensive
pH 45 6.11±0.13 O 6.04±0.10
C 6.32±0.32
CON-6.12±0.05
FR-5.89±0.06
pH 24 5.47±0.66 5.50±0.06 CON-5.80±0.06
FR-5.41±0.06
5.56
CIE L* 38.19±1.92 40.13±1.4
8
48.39
CIE a* 10.58±2.50 11.77±1.0
4
10.13
CIE b* 2.68±0.88 3.73±0.45 4.14
Drip loss %
Cooking
loss 29.60±1.82
Tenderness
(kg) 5.05±1.13
Water
holding
capacity
13.20±2.15
WBSF: Warner-Bratzler shear force test; IMF intramuscular fat content
#Water Holding Capacity measured according to the method of Weiss et al. (1953). Cooking loss was
determined in the following manner: a sample size of 3 x 4 x 2 cm is weighed and placed into a
beaker of boiling water and cooked for 10 minutes; the difference in mass of the sample before and
after cooking is the mass loss during the heat treatment, expressed as a percentage. The samples used
to determine the mass loss and the cooking were used to determine the meat cutting force (kg):
muscles are cut into pieces the size of 1 x 1 cm in the direction of extension of the muscle fibers;
tenderness of meat, expressed forcibly cutting, measured Volodkevich instrument (Volodkevich,
1938); read more value on the instrument representing more cutting force values, and firmer flesh.
Surface color just the cut of meat from the color stabilization time of 30 min (the samples were stored
in contact with air at 4 ° C) was measured by a portable Minolta colorimeter CR-400 (light source
D65, the geometry of the observation angle 0). Values are based on a spectrum of color CIEL* a* b*
(CIE, 1976).
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
165
## Meat value pH musculus longissimus (MLD) and m. semimembranosus (SM) was determined 45
minutes (pH1) and 24 hours post mortem (pH2) by pH-meter (Hanna, HI 83141). The color of MLD
was determined 24 hours post-mortem measured (between 3. and 4. rib, from caudo-cranial point of
view) using Chromameter CR-400 (Minolta Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan).
###pH measurment-Testo 205 pH meter (±0.02 pH, ±0.4 C, Germany, 2007).
In Longissimus dorsi muscle of fatteners kept in closed system Petrovic et
al. (2012) established higher water content (70.71:68.49%; p=0.0069), lower
content of total fats/lipids (5.45:8.09%; p=0.0081) and higher ash content
compared to animals reared in the open housing system (1.09:1.02%; p=0.0392).
Lower values for the share of water (64.3%), protein (21.1%) and ash (0.95%) with
a fat content of 13.5% in musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT) are
reported in the research of compared to research by
and In the study of
(2013), Mangalitsa (Swallow-bellied and White Mangalitsa) pigs showed higher
levels (55.1% and 58.0%) of MUFA (P<0.001) in the MLLT than Swedish
Landrace pigs (44.9%). A higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, which are
purportedly less harmful to human health, were measured in WM and SBM breeds,
whereas the percentage of saturated fatty acids was proven to be significantly
higher in Swedish Landrace pigs ( .
Conclusion
Mangalitsa is a late and extremely fatty pig breed with low fertility, long
suckling period and a very weak-slow growth. From the research it can be seen that
there is lower or higher variability for individual characteristics and therefore
potential for selection-improvement of these properties. With such features, its
cost-effectiveness is in low-investment in housing facilities with as large areas for
pasturing and acorn nutrition, preferably if an organic breeding system is possible
and the production of traditional high-value products (ham, kulen and sausages)
and their marketing as highly valuable organic products or products protected by a
geographical indication. Only the presence of local breeds of domestic animals
makes the production of food safe in the dynamic change of the production
environment, especially in the predicted and expected climatic changes. It should
not be forgotten that precisely native/autochthonous breeds are adapted to different
environmental conditions, resistant to various illnesses and modest in terms of
housing and nutrition. Due to all this, it is necessary to work primarily on
increasing the number of the population, increasing the number of breeders in the
organic production system and the formation of Gene Bank (semen), because it
does not exist in Serbia. It is also necessary to continue research with different
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
166
breeding systems and their impact on the quality of meat and meat products of the
Mangalitsa pigs.
TREASURE – Mangulica, lokalna rasa svinja u Srbiji
Parunovi
Rezime
Glavni cilj ovog rada prikaz rezultata istraživanja genotipa Swallow belly
Mangalitsa u poslednjih šest decenija. U skladu sa istraživanjima plotkinje polnu
zrelost dostižu sa uzrastom od 9-10 meseci ali se pripuštaju sa uzrastom od 1-1.5
godine. Average age at first farrowing is 556 days. Reproduktivna sposobnost je
slabo izražena, sa snažnim materinskim instinktom. Plodnost mangulice je
-
. Dojni period je oko
50 dana (od 47 do 53 dana). Pri trajanju laktacije od 60 dana telesna masa prasadi
u intervalu od 6-
- . U
ova i završne telesne mase prirasti su bili od
268 g do 830 g. Debljina slanine (prose ne mere) na grebenu je bila 10.2 cm,
sredini le a 7.9 cm i na krstima 8.1 cm u ranijim istraživanjima dok su u novijim
istraživanjima te vrednosti debljine slanine nešto niže, s tim da je telesna masa pri
klanju niža (greben 6.18 cm, sredini le a 4.38 cm i na krstima 5.19 cm). Novija
istraživanja miši a Longissimus dorsi muscle pokazala su sadržaj intramuskularne
masti od 13.5%, sadržaj proteina od 21,1% sa specifi nim kvalitativnim osobinama
(pH45=6.11; pH24=5.50; CIE L*=40.13; a*=11.77; b*=3.73). U musculus
longissimus lumborum thoracis grla lasaste mangulice imala su ve i udeo
mononezasi enih masnih kiselina (55.1%) i niži nivo zasi enih masnih kiselina
(SFA 35.3%) u odnosu na grla rase švedski landras.
autohtona rasa, Swallow belly Mangalitsa, reproduktivne
osobine, porast, kvalitet polutki i mesa
Acknowledgment
"This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon
2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 634476
(Project acronym: TREASURE). The content of this paper reflects only the
Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium
Modern Trends in Livestock Production
October 11-13, 2017
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author‘s view and the European Union Agency is not responsible for any use that
may be made of the information it contains."
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Book
Full-text available
GENERAL SECTION The United Nations and FAO developed program have realized the importance of conserving the global genetic resources, as well as the danger of accelerating erosion and the loss of indigenous breeds and species of animals that are losing the battle with commercial and highly productive animals. Therefore, the First and Second Reports on the State of Animal Genetic Resources were adopted with Action Plans and the Interlaken Declaration as guidelines for global activities. Animal genetic resources have agroecological and economic significance. Agroecologically, it is reflected in the fact that these breeds are more resistant and more adapted to ecosystem, traditionally and less demanding and especially suitable for organic production. Preservation of their gene pool is of great importance for ecosystem and species diversity at the national and international levels. It is of economic importance to include these breeds in the production of more biologically valuable food, which also brings greater economic benefits. Serbia has not adopted the Law on Management of Animal Genetic Resources as well as the developed Strategy and Action Plan for Conservation, Use and Application of Animal Genetic Resources of Serbia at the national level, but the draft would be institutionally coordinated by the Serbian Ministry of Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry. In addition, it is necessary to compile lists of animal genetic resources of Serbia with reference to the most endangered breeds and types, their population status and the way they are now preserved (including the data of their owners). Based on the analysis of available data on autochthonous breeds in Serbia, it is necessary to update the current List of Regulations of the Ministry of Agriculture of Serbia and include breeds and strains which are not legally covered, but exist and are included in this Monograph, in order to ensure preservation and improvement of these breeds currently present in Serbia, especially thosethat are highly and critically endangered, and those that are presumed to be extinct. The bank of animal genes in Serbia has not been established yet (there is a bank of plant genes), so its formation is needed as soon as possible in order to enable in vitro – cryopreservation in the bank of genes, eggs, embryos, somatic cells, DNA and other biological material usable to reconstitute animals or the most endangered breeds. The Ministry of Environmental Protection should also provide incentives for the cultivation of indigenous breeds in protected natural assets (national nature reserves, etc.) for companies managing protected natural assets, as well as for the population living in protected areas. The Ministry of Trade and Tourism should provide incentives and support for branding products obtained from animal genetic resources (meat, dairy, etc.), as well as promotion, like organizing fairs and exhibitions of indigenous breeds and their products (national, international level). It is also necessary to improve cooperation with neighboring countries to preserve common cross-border breeds and to continue cooperation at the global and regional level. More media affirmation of breeders of autochthonous breeds in Serbia and affirmation of autochthonous products is also needed. EQUINES Domestic equines: the horse (Equus caballus) and the donkey (Equus asinus) have been a natural resource of great importance for the development of human society throughout the history of civilizations. Today, 520 breeds and types of these animals are cataloged or registered in the world, of which 208 in Europe. Only 129 of them in the world and 84 in Europe are not endangered (FAO, 2000). The list of autochthonous genetic resources of the Republic of Serbia (2017) includes domestic mountain horse, Nonius horse and Balkan donkey. Serbian (domestic) mountain pony Serbian mountain pony, previously named Yugoslav mountain pony, is an indigenous breed of horse from the group of Mediterranean ponies in the Western Balkans, which was created without a planned selection influence outside the breeding area of the Bosnian mountain pony. These horses have been bred for centuries and have adapted to the biogeographical conditions of microhabitats in the area west of Stara and Suva mountains in Serbia to the Adriatic Sea and from the Sava and Danube to Shar Mountain, Prokletije and Kom mountain.from 2011 to 2020, the number of hives has almost doubled, from 593,000 to 980,000. Bees are also extremely important in the pollination process, although no economic valorization of the ecosystem pollination service has been carried out in Serbia. Honey production oscillates and does not follow the growth of the number of hives, and it is due to changing weather conditions during the last twenty years, in periods of dry years. The highest production was in 2015 (12,263 tons), then in 2018 (11,427 tons), and the lowest in the observed period was in year 2014 (4,383 tons) and in year 2016, (5,761 tons). The export of honey is constantly increasing (except in 2019, due to the dry year) and the total export of honey in year 2018 amounted 2,744 tons in the value of 10,518,100 euros, which is 61% more than in year 2014. Although there are restrictions on exports in EU countries, other markets need to be opened, and it should be given the possibility of significant foreign exchange inflows from this agricultural production.
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide, only a few "fatty" pig breeds exist with different and/or regional utilization. Using the Hungarian Mangalica, which almost went extinct in Europe and the Lao Moo Lat pig, which still has a large population in South-East Asia as exemples, we wanted to demonstrate that indigenous (fatty) pig breeds may represent both national value and tremendous economic potential. Since these less prolific and less productive breeds cannot contribute to mass production, new market roles and methods should be established for them in the premium segment of pork trading. Thus their preservation and propagation needs the comprehensive collaboration of commercial, governmental actors and researchers. Briefly summarizing the history, we report the current results of reproductive physiology research. The commercial renaissance of Mangalica pigs is indebted to the enthusiastic efforts of basic scientists, pig breeding experts and dedicated Mangalica producers. Scientific achievements were applied to practical breeding and production of delicious pork and processed products, which ultimately made the economic success in the Mangalica sector possible. Both, research on and utilization of endangered (pig) breeds maintain not only breed diversities, but also may improve the livelihood of farmers worldwide.
DAD-FAO (www.dad.fao.org) access 29
DAD-FAO (www.dad.fao.org) access 29/06/2016 INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY (2015): Annual Report, 2015. PARUNOVI
Genetic resources in pig breeding-carcass quality traits of breeds Moravka and Mangalitsa Quality traits of carcass sides and meat of Moravka and Mangalitsa pig breeds
S. (2007): Genetic resources in pig breeding-carcass quality traits of breeds Moravka and Mangalitsa. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 23:421-428. Quality traits of carcass sides and meat of Moravka and Mangalitsa pig breeds. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 26:21-27.
Composition of carcass sides and quality of meat from swallow-belly mangalitsa reared in two systems
S. (2007): Genetic resources in pig breeding -carcass quality traits of breeds Moravka and Mangalitsa. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 23:421-428. Quality traits of carcass sides and meat of Moravka and Mangalitsa pig breeds. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 26:21-27. (2012): Composition of carcass sides and quality of meat from swallow-belly mangalitsa reared in two systems. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 28, 2, 303-311. (2013): Reproductive traits of pigs of Mangalitsa breed. 8th International Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium Modern Trends in Livestock Production October 11-13, 2017
Izveštaj o obavljenim poslovima koordinacije za mere selekcije u svinjarstvu u
Izveštaj o obavljenim poslovima koordinacije za mere selekcije u svinjarstvu u 2009 (Annual Report 2010), 1-47.
Meat quality of Swallow-Belly Mangulica pigs reared under intensive production system and slaughtered at 100 kg live weight
D. (2016): Meat quality of Swallow-Belly Mangulica pigs reared under intensive production system and slaughtered at 100 kg live weight. Hemijska Industrija, 70, 5, 557-564. Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Poljoprivredni fakultet, 1-286.
PARUNOVIof m: longissimus of free-range and conventionally reared mangalitsa pigs
  • Institute Of
  • Husbandry
INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY (2015): Annual Report, 2015. PARUNOVIof m: longissimus of free-range and conventionally reared mangalitsa pigs. South African Journal of Animal Science, 42, 2, 101-113.composition of the musculus longissimus of different pig genotypes. South African Journal of Animal Science, 43, 2, 123-136.
Measures of in-situ protection, reintroduction and reproductive parameters of indigenous pig breeds in Republic of Serbia
Acta agriculturae Slovenica, Supplement 4, 89-92, Ljubljana. Fatty acid profile of m. longissimus dorsi of Mangalitsa and Moravka pig breeds. Archiv Tierzucht 57, 17, 1-12. R., M. (2017): Carcass and pork quality traits of indigenous pure breeds (Mangalitsa, Moravka) and their crossbreads. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 51, 2, 371-376. Measures of in-situ protection, reintroduction and reproductive parameters of indigenous pig breeds in Republic of Serbia. Reproduction in domestic animals, 50, 3, 85-85.
Theriogenological results of alternative pig breeds. (Alternatív sertésfajták szaporodásbiológiai eredményei) In: Innováció, a tudomány és a gyakorlat egysége az ezredforduló agráriumában
  • Szabó P
SZABÓ P (2002): Theriogenological results of alternative pig breeds. (Alternatív sertésfajták szaporodásbiológiai eredményei) In: Innováció, a tudomány és a gyakorlat egysége az ezredforduló agráriumában, Debrecen, 97-102.
O lasastoj mangulici s obzirom na njen uzgoj u šumi. rstvo
  • Brinzej M
BRINZEJ M. (1948): O lasastoj mangulici s obzirom na njen uzgoj u šumi. rstvo, II, 12, 293-299.