Crustaceana 91 (2) 239-241
NOTES AND NEWS
NOCTURNAL CLEANING OF SLEEPING RABBITFISH,
SIGANUS CANALICULATUS, BY THE CLEANER SHRIMP,
UROCARIDELLA ANTONBRUUNII (DECAPODA, PALAEMONIDAE)
ARTHUR R. BOS1,2)and CHARLES H. J. M. FRANSEN2,3)
1)Department of Biology, The American University in Cairo, P.O. Box 74,
New Cairo 11835, Egypt
2)Taxonomy and Systematics Group, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517,
2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
Many coral reef ﬁsh regularly visit cleaning stations to have ectoparasites
removed by cleaner ﬁsh or shrimps (Cote, 2000; Bshary & Schäffer, 2002;
Chapuis & Bshary, 2009; Vaughan et al., 2016). Cleaners often attract potential
clients by using visual cues, such as dance behaviour (Becker et al., 2005),
signalling the location of the cleaning station while leading the client away from
competing cleaners. Visual signals however, only work during the day suggesting
that cleaning stations are closed at night. Militz and Hutson (2015) ﬁrstly observed
diminished nocturnal cleaning by the shrimp Lysmata amboinensis (De Man, 1888)
under laboratory conditions, and only one observation has been reported from a
coral reef (Bonaldo et al., 2015).
An individual of the cleaner shrimp Urocaridella antonbruunii (Bruce, 1967)
(cf. Anker & De Grave, 2016, ﬁg. 108) was observed carefully approaching a
sleeping rabbitﬁsh Siganus canaliculatus (Park, 1797) during a night dive in the
Davao Gulf, Philippines, on 2 October 2010 (ﬁg. 1A). Once the shrimp ascended
upon the siganid, it started cleaning the siganid’s skin and continued doing so
for about 10 min (ﬁg. 1B). The cleaner shrimp Urocaridella antonbruunii may
be specialized in nocturnal cleaning of ﬁsh avoiding competition with diurnal
Clients of cleaning stations are commonly predators or relatively large individ-
uals of non-predatory families (Cote, 2000). Juveniles or small-sized ﬁsh rarely
visit cleaning stations and, until today, only two siganids were observed at clean-
ing stations: Siganus rivulatus Forsskål & Niebuhr, 1775 (cf. Poulin, 1993) and
3)Corresponding author; e-mail: email@example.com
©Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2018 DOI 10.1163/15685403-00003753
240 NOTES AND NEWS
Fig. 1. Urocaridella antonbruunii (Bruce, 1967) cleaning a sleeping rabbitﬁsh, Siganus canaliculatus
(Park, 1797), in the Davao Gulf, Philippines, 2 October 2010. A, carefully approaching the siganid;
NOTES AND NEWS 241
S. corallinus (Valenciennes, 1835) (cf. Bonaldo et al., 2015). This report consti-
tutes the ﬁrst record of a sleeping individual of S. canaliculatus being cleaned. If
the siganid intentionally chose its sleeping location for receiving cleaning service
is unknown and needs further investigation.
We greatly acknowledge J. Bayogan and G. Gumanao from Davao del Norte
State College, Panabo City, Philippines for logistic support during the ﬁeldwork.
ANKER,A.&S.DEGRAVE, 2016. An updated and annotated checklist of marine and brackish
caridean shrimps of Singapore (Crustacea, Decapoda). Rafﬂes Bulletin of Zoology, (Suppl.)
BECKER,J.H.A.,L.M.CURTIS &A.S.GRUTTER, 2005. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to
advertise cleaning service to clients. Current Biology, 15: 760-764.
BONALDO,R.M.,A.S.GRUTTER,I.SAZIMA &J.P.KRAJEWSKI, 2015. 24/7 service: nocturnal
cleaning in a tropical Indo-Paciﬁc reef. Marine Biodiversity, 45: 611-612.
BSHARY,R.&D.SCHÄFFER, 2002. Choosy reef ﬁsh select cleaner ﬁsh that provide high-quality
service. Animal Behaviour, 63: 557-564.
CHAPUIS,L.&R.BSHARY, 2009. Strategic adjustment of service quality to client identity in the
cleaner shrimp Periclimenes longicarpus. Animal Behaviour, 78: 455-459.
COTE, I. M., 2000. Evolution and ecology of cleaning symbioses in the sea. Oceanography and
Marine Biology, 38: 311-355.
MILITZ,T.A.&K.S.HUTSON, 2015. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture. PLoS
ONE, 10: e0117723.
POULIN, R., 1993. A cleaner perspective on cleaning symbiosis. Reviews in Fish Biology and
Fisheries, 3: 75-79.
VAUGHAN,D.B.,A.S.GRUTTER,M.J.COSTELLO &K.S.HUTSON, 2016. Cleaner ﬁshes and
shrimp diversity and a re-evaluation of cleaning symbioses. Fish Fish., DOI:10.1111/faf.12198
First received 29 August 2017.
Final version accepted 23 October 2017.