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Abstract

This mixed-methods study examined Spanish, university-based teacher educators’ beliefs and practices related to diversity, given the changing demographics in Spain due to migration. Questionnaire (n=142) and interview (n=16) data revealed that a multidimensional definition of diversity informed participants’ work with pre-service teachers. Findings also indicated tensions between older participants’ personal and professional beliefs about diversity. These findings support the need for (1) explicit content in pre-service programs on immigrant students; (2) training for teacher educators on incorporating content related to student diversity in coursework; and (3) additional research on how teacher educators prepare future educators to disrupt inequitable student outcomes.

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... On an organizational level, units have different profiles and work in different ways. On a structural level, demographic changes due to migration have increased (OECD, 2015;Acquah, Tandon, & Lempinen, 2016;Wassell, Reid Kerrigan, Fernandez Hawrylak, 2018). In 2015, there were record numbers of newly arriving children, not only in Sweden but in other countries in Europe as well. ...
... This could be an effect of it being a course on multicultural issues, or of the questions being about culture and linguistics. As an example of teacher educators' perceptions, Wassell et al. (2018) conducted a questionnaire and interview study about teacher educators' perceptions of diversity in Spain. They found that the teacher educators defined diversity as a broad concept including both internal and external manifestations. ...
... The result showed that staff in charge of practicum courses were aware of different educational conditions in preschools but had less of a clear agenda or routines when it comes to how student teachers should be enabled to experience different educational conditions. The different conditions that were most often mentioned were whether several languages were spoken in the classroom and whether there were children with special needs, which is in accordance with earlier studies (Acquah et al., 2016;Wassell et al., 2018). Otherwise staff mainly mentioned organizational or pedagogical issues like routines for activities, different age groups and differences between preschool and preschool class. ...
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Keywords The expectations placed on practice teaching in initial teacher education are high. During practice, student teachers should combine theory with practice, make themselves familiar with multicultural classrooms in general, and become aware of different factors that affect learning and teaching. The aim of this study is to increase our knowledge about how work is carried out within practicum placements to help student teachers to understand differing cultural and socioeconomic characteristics of educational settings as a basis for discussing social justice. Staff at practice schools, the practicum team at a university and student teachers were asked about their definitions of different factors that condition learning and teaching, and routines for visiting preschools characterized by different educational conditions. Staff at practice school and university gave examples of different factors, but there was a general lack of organized work with this issue, such as visiting different preschools and holding discussions afterwards. This was confirmed by student teachers, few of whom had visited other preschools and had subsequent discussions. Instead some had experienced variation in work routines, children with special needs and multilingual groups in different sections of their own unit. Experiencing educational environments with different cultural and socioeconomic conditions was considered valuable by the student teachers but was not always given priority. It is concluded that individual variations and needs are understood and formulated by staff and student teachers, but less attention is given to how group belongings and structural frameworks such as socio-economics are affecting social justice. Teacher Education, practicum, educational factors, social justice
... Por otra parte, la llegada de menores refugiados a costas italianas (se estima que un 12, 5% de los llegados son menores) exige que las instituciones educativas garanticen los derechos educativos de los menores llegados por estos procesos migratorios, atendiendo a su situación de "doble vulnerabilidad" derivada de su condición de menores y migrantes. (OIM, 2018;ACNUR, 2018, Wrench et al. 2018). El abordaje de esta realidad requiere formación sobre las problemáticas asociadas al proceso de adaptación e inclusión a la nueva sociedad, entre las que se encuentran: las dificultades de adquisición lingüística, la discriminación y los prejuicios, los problemas de identidad, las cuales, todas ellas, contribuyen al aumento del estrés, los trastornos emocionales, el fracaso escolar y a la segregación de los menores (Huynh & Fuligni, 2010;Suárez-Orozco & Suárez-Orozco, 2009 (2016), para que se priorice la atención a estas dificultades es necesario que existan escuelas sensibles a esta realidad y un entramado humano comprometido con la situación que acogen en las aulas. ...
... Si atendemos al análisis de las creencias culturales en el profesorado, encontramos que, pese al contexto social y político que atraviesan los países del sur de Europa y especialmente Italia, las puntuaciones del profesorado son elevadas tanto en las creencias en igualdad como en las multiculturales dentro y fuera del aula (con medias por encima del 5 en un rango de 1 a 6). La existencia de resultados positivos en el profesorado coincide con otros estudios realizados en contextos homólogos como el español (Wassell et al. 2018). El mantenimiento de estas creencias, pese al contexto social, político y discursivo reciente anti-migratorio, puede asociarse a algunos factores. ...
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Europa atraviesa uno de los momentos más regresivos en materia de derechos para las personas migrantes. Las políticas que justifican el cuestionamiento de derechos se asientan y, a su vez, contribuyen a la conformación de determinadas creencias hacia la diversidad. Estas creencias en el profesorado condicionan los procesos de enseñanza aprendizaje, los modos de relación y la transmisión de valores dentro del aula. Este estudio se centra en conocer las creencias del profesorado hacia la multiculturalidad y la igualdad en el sur de Italia, una de las zonas de mayor control migratorio en Europa. Para la investigación se validó transculturalmente la encuesta de Creencias culturales para profesores (The Teachers Cultural Beliefs Scale –TCBS-) (mediante análisis exploratorio y confirmatorio) que se aplicó sobre 300 docentes de centros educativos públicos sicilianos. Los resultados muestran, pese al contexto político, que el profesorado mantiene creencias positivas hacia la igualdad y la multiculturalidad. Las mujeres manifiestan creencias más positivas hacia la multiculturalidad en el aula que sus pares masculinos, mientras que el grupo con más años de docencia ofrece peores resultados hacia la multiculturalidad fuera del aula. Esta panorámica general, ofrece una imagen de las escuelas como potenciales espacios de resistencia democrática. No obstante, es preciso desarrollar instrumentos que valoren de manera más concreta y sensible las formas contemporáneas de discriminación. ...... [Europe is going through one of the most regressive moments in terms of rights for migrants. Policies that justify the questioning of rights are based and, in turn, contribute to the formation of certain beliefs towards diversity. These beliefs in the teaching staff condition the teaching-learning processes, the modes of relationship and the transmission of values within the classroom. This study focuses on knowing teachers' beliefs towards multiculturalism and equality in Southern Italy, one of the areas with the greatest migration control in Europe. For the research, the Cultural Beliefs for Teachers Scale (TCBS) was validated cross-culturally (through exploratory and confirmatory analysis) that was applied to 300 teachers from Sicilian public schools. The results show, despite the political context, that teachers maintain positive beliefs towards equality and multiculturalism. Women manifest more positive beliefs towards multiculturalism in the classroom than their male peers, while the group with more years of teaching offers worse results towards multiculturalism outside the classroom. This general overview offers an image of schools as potential spaces for democratic resistance. However, there is a need to develop new instruments that assess contemporary forms of discrimination more concretely and sensitively.]
... In this regard, it would have been interesting to have collected data about the nationalist feelings and preferences of the participants. In any case, their responses indicate a tolerant attitude toward cultural diversity, as other studies with Spanish teachers have pointed out (Cardona et al. 2010;Chiner et al. 2015;Wassell et al. 2018). Yet, they seem to hold what Smith (2009, p. 47) describes as a "tourist" view of cultures, as they do not go beyond the folkloric surface. ...
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Although education for democratic citizenship has long been a powerful rationale for social studies education, researchers still report a significant gap between this purpose and what is really taught in classrooms. Explanations of this phenomenon vary, but literature on citizenship education (CE) research has largely interpreted this gap as a result of (preservice) teachers’ political worldviews or lack of civic experiences. Other evidence, however, suggests that teacher socialization processes generate conventions about what is necessary, possible, and reasonable in CE that go beyond teachers’ political views and behaviors. This mixed-method study, developed at a Spanish university, aims to explore the understandings of CE shared by preservice teachers with different political ideologies and levels of civic engagement. The findings of this study have deep implications for teacher education courses aimed at fostering CE and the curricular inclusion of current social issues.
... esim. Goethe & Colina, 2018;Wassel, Kerrigan, & Hawrylak, 2018;Kousa & Aksela, 2019). Yhteiskunnassamme diversiteetti onkin määrittymässä uudelleen entistä moniulotteisempana hyperdiversiteettinä (Doucerain, Dere, & Ryder, 2013). ...
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Oppilaiden diversiteetti on inkluusioajattelun lähtökohta. Opettaja tarvitsee tietoja ja taitoja diversiteetin havaitsemiseen ja oppilaiden tukemiseen. Tutkimuksessa selvitämme, millaisia ennakkokäsityksiä opettajaopiskelijoilla on luonnontieteiden opetukseen liittyvistä tuen tarpeista. Käsityksiä kartoitettiin e-kyselyllä monialaisten opintojen luonnontieteiden opintojaksolla vuosina 2015–2018. Kyselyyn vastasi 491 luokan- ja erityisluokanopettajaopiskelijaa, joista tutkimusluvan antoi 468. Aineisto analysoitiin sisällönanalyysillä. Enemmistö opiskelijoista tarkasteli oppilaiden diversiteettiä ongelmakeskeisesti, jolloin tuki nähtiin ratkaisuna diagnosoituun oppimisvaikeuteen. Opettajaopiskelijat käsittelivät oppilaiden tuen tarvetta myös oppiaineiden sisältöihin ja opetustapahtumaan liittyen. Luonnontieteiden opetustilanteet tulisi rakentaa diversiteettia huomioivaksi, jolloin diversiteetti-käsite kattaa kaikki perusopetuksen oppilaat monipuolisesti ymmärrettyinä yksilöinä. In English Student diversity is the starting point for inclusive thinking. The teacher needs knowledge and skills to detect diversity and support students. In this study, we will investigate what kinds of preconceptions students have about the need for support in science education. Perceptions were surveyed in an electronic questionnaire during the 2015–2018 Interdisciplinary Studies in Natural Sciences. Totally, 491 class and special class teacher students, of whom 468 were granted research permission, answered the questionnaire. The data was analysed by content analysis. Most students looked at student diversity in a problem-oriented manner and support was seen as a solution to diagnosed learning disability. Teacher students also looked at the need for support in terms of subject content and teaching activities. Science teaching situations should be built with diversity in mind, so that the concept of diversity includes all students in basic education as diverse individuals.
... The rapid growth in the proportion of immigrant students 1 learning Spanish as a second (or third) language is having a major effect across the country. This tendency has led to increased inclusion of Spanish as a second language (SL2) in mainstream classrooms, where they are taught by teachers who consider themselves ill-prepared for working with linguistically diverse students (Rodríguez-Izquierdo, González-Falcón, & Goenechea, 2018;Wassell, Kerrigan, & Hawrylak, 2018). ...
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Linguistically responsive teaching (LRT) means understanding the role that language has in building meaningful learning environments. In this paper linguistically responsive teaching is viewed as one way of implementing the notion of intercultural education. This qualitative study analysed data from 10 specialist language teachers and mainstream teachers to examine their perceptions of linguistic responsiveness in teaching Spanish as a second language to immigrant students. The findings revealed that there are differences in the perceptions of teachers on linguistically responsive teaching. Overall, the language teachers, as compared to mainstream teachers, showed a more extensive perceptions related to the LRT framework. Qualitative data suggested that training in relation to teaching L2 and previous experiences in teaching immigrant students had an influence on participants’ perceptions. Finally, the study indicates that while teachers did consider several elements of the LRT framework in their discussions on their practices, much more work regarding skills and knowledge aspects of understanding second language acquisition is necessary to prepare linguistically responsive teachers.
... For example, a study by Goodwin and colleagues (2014) conducted with teacher educators from all over the US showed that minority participants expressed the feeling of being more prepared to handle issues of cultural diversity compared to their counterparts (White teacher educators). In a mixed-methods study conducted in 12 ITPs in Spain, Wassell, Kerrigan, and Hawrylak (2018) investigated teacher educators' conceptions of diversity. Results show that the teacher educators did not mention issues directly connected with diversity such as institutional discrimination and described cultural differences primarily in terms of deficit characteristics. ...
... For example, a study by Goodwin and colleagues (2014) conducted with teacher educators from all over the US showed that minority participants expressed the feeling of being more prepared to handle issues of cultural diversity compared to their counterparts (White teacher educators). In a mixed-methods study conducted in 12 ITPs in Spain, Wassell, Kerrigan, and Hawrylak (2018) investigated teacher educators' conceptions of diversity. Results show that the teacher educators did not mention issues directly connected with diversity such as institutional discrimination and described cultural differences primarily in terms of deficit characteristics. ...
... & Hawrylak, 2018) although race and ethnicity are mostly used topics concerning diversity (Pohan & Aguilar, 2001). In the field of research and practice, comparative terms such as heterogeneity (e.g. ...
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The aim of this case-study was to understand how chemistry teachers experience their work in diverse classes where the needs of differentiated teaching practices are constantly growing. The deeper intention was to perceive new information in order to develop supportive methods that could better correspond to teachers' reality. Eight voluntary Finnish secondary school chemistry teachers participated in semi-structured interviews. Four categorial distinctions for successful chemistry teaching were found according to their beliefs: 1) to have more support and resources, 2) to be able to recognize students' problems, 3) to use supportive materials and methods, and 4) to connect theory and practice with inspiring and meaningful activities. This study presents new insights about teachers' beliefs of diversity and what is needed for successful chemistry teaching. Directions for further research and practices are also suggested.
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Effective teaching in multicultural settings requires the awareness and ability to adapt to diverse needs and viewpoints. Teachers’ multicultural efficacy may be gained from coursework or interactions within diverse communities. In this study the authors determined preservice teachers’ multicultural efficacy using the Multicultural Efficacy Scale (MES) and its relationship to education and personal characteristics. Study results revealed average levels of multicultural attitudes and efficacy and no relationship to coursework and personal characteristics. The authors did find a significant relationship to political worldviews. Results suggest that other variables may be making personal characteristics less influential on views of diversity.
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This study investigated preservice teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about teaching culturally and linguistically diverse students when progressing through specially designed courses. Data were collected using the Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey and semi-structured interviews. Analyses indicated that preservice teachers who received more multicultural preparation held more positive attitudes and based their attitudes more on academic preparation than on personal experiences. Preservice teachers who completed the multicultural course and English for speakers of other languages field placement had a more in-depth understanding of how to help culturally and linguistically diverse students.
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Seventeen years ago Gloria Ladson-Billings (1995) published the landmark article “Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy,” giving a coherent theoretical statement for resource pedagogies that had been building throughout the 1970s and 1980s. I, like countless teachers and university-based researchers, have been inspired by what it means to make teaching and learning relevant and responsive to the languages, literacies, and cultural practices of students across categories of difference and (in)equality. Recently, however, I have begun to question if the terms “relevant” and “responsive” are really descriptive of much of the teaching and research founded upon them and, more importantly, if they go far enough in their orientation to the languages and literacies and other cultural practices of communities marginalized by systemic inequalities to ensure the valuing and maintenance of our multiethnic and multilingual society. In this essay, I offer the term and stance of culturally sustaining pedagogy as an alternative that, I believe, embodies some of the best research and practice in the resource pedagogy tradition and as a term that supports the value of our multiethnic and multilingual present and future. Culturally sustaining pedagogy seeks to perpetuate and foster—to sustain—linguistic, literate, and cultural pluralism as part of the democratic project of schooling. In the face of current policies and practices that have the explicit goal of creating a monocultural and monolingual society, research and practice need equally explicit resistances that embrace cultural pluralism and cultural equality.
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A teacher educator team addressed negative student responses to a multicultural foundations course by designing an action research study to learn more about their student’s identities, experiences and beliefs. Through qualitative analysis of written assignments, they identified three categories of student beliefs about the purposes of schools in relation to cultural diversity in American society. These categories were reinforced through triangulation with data from focus group dialogues. The findings suggest relationships between previous cross-cultural experiences, gender, and beliefs. Focus group data also revealed unrecognized sources of student resistance to multicultural teacher education, even among students who took a transformative position.
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Formerly a country of emigrants, Spain has now become a receptor of immigrants from other countries. In spite of the great diversity that existed in our country's past, reflection, legislation and educational concern pertaining to cultural pluralism developed only after this phenomenon. In this paper we examine the adoption of the intercultural perspective in education in Spain, and the relationship between policy and practice. We first discuss the theoretical framework that we use. Second, we look at European policies in this area and finally we describe how cultural diversity is dealt with in Spain, both from a legislative and a practical point of view.
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Since the 1990s, cultural diversity in Spanish classrooms has increased notably with the arrival of immigrant origin students. This fact, together with the European Union discourses about consideration for cultural differences, have contributed to the appearance in Spain, and particularly in Catalonia, of an intercultural discourse. This article analyses the evolution of educational policies up to the current dominant discourse (from exclusion to incorporation in the school and the classroom, passing through segregationist actions) emphasising the difficulty nowadays of putting this into everyday practice, among other things for the lack of references and the absence of resources. This is done through the analysis of different official documents, as well as recouping different pieces of research on this question by both the author and others.
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The idea for this book was born from our contact with colleagues and from finding in the scientific literature that important issues were being addressed by researchers with a methodology so faulty that it rendered the results uninterpretable or misleading. We hoped that by compiling in one place the experiences of various researchers in conducting studies with Hispanics, future investigators would be able to address properly the methodological limitations that have plagued so much of the early writings on Hispanics. In writing this book we have tried to include the experiences and suggestions of a large number of authors who have conducted research with Hispanics in the last few years. In some cases we have emphasized one solution over the other possibilities based on our experiences over the last few years in which we have studied well over 14,000 Hispanics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The article describes the newly developed Teacher Cultural Beliefs Scale (TCBS). The TCBS assesses multicultural and egalitarian beliefs about diversity, both of which reflect favorable attitudes toward immigrant students, but differ with regard to how cultural diversity is believed to be best accommodated in schools. Results from a first study with 433 beginning teachers supported the two-factor structure and the measurement invariance of the scale. Results from a second study with 340 teacher candidates and educational science students showed that proponents of multiculturalism and egalitarianism shared a motivation to control prejudiced reactions, but that they differed in their views on acculturation, prejudices, and authoritarianism.
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The aim of the research reported in this paper was to study and analyse student attitudes towards ethnic diversity and their expectations regarding the school in creating positive attitudes. The results show that the majority of the students embrace a positive attitude towards multicultural society. However, this attitude varies when the variables of gender and tracking level are examined. Most students support a strong stand for taking an active approach against racism in school. There is an undertone of an appeal to teachers to remove flyers and other signs of discrimination and racism. Students with a negative or monocultural attitude need teachers who can act as active role models in creating a multicultural attitude.Den forskning som rapporteras i föreliggande artikel syftade till att studera och analysera elevers attityder till etniska relationer samt deras förväntningar på skolans roll med avseende på skapandet av positiva attityder. Resultatet visar att majoriteten av eleverna har en positiv inställning till det multikulturella samhället. Denna attityd varierar emellertid mellan olika grupper beroende på kön och studieinriktning. Majoriteten tar stark ställning för en aktiv hållning mot rasism från skolan. Det finns en underton av vädjan till lärarna att hjälpa till att få bort flygblad och andra tecken på diskriminering och rasism. Elever som har en negativ eller monokulturell attityd behöver lärare som kan vara aktiva förebilder för i skapandet av en multikulturell attityd.
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This article describes some of the issues affecting measures that are translated and/or adapted from an original language and culture to a new one. It addresses steps to ensure (a) that the test continues to measure the same psychological characteristics, (b) that the test content is the same, and (c) that the research procedures needed to document that it effectively meets this goal are available. Specifically, the notions of test validation, fairness, and norms are addressed. An argument that such adaptations may be necessary when assessing members of subpopulations in U.S. culture is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Data gathered from 142 public university elementary and secondary teacher preparation programs across the United States (representing the preparation of approximately 23,000–30,000 new teachers annually), indicated that race/ethnicity was the most emphasized diversity topic followed by special needs, language diversity, economic (social class), gender, and sexual orientation. The majority of programs addressed diversity topics across program classes. States were similar in the priority assigned to various diversity topics, with the exception of California, which placed greater emphasis upon language diversity but less upon special needs as compared to other states. In addition, there appeared to be little to no relationship between the faculty demographics (gender and race) and the priorities placed upon gender and racial diversity in programs. The project also surveyed program coordinators’ assessments of the various challenges to the inclusion of diversity topics. Finally, the data suggested that possible relationships might exist between faculty attitudes/knowledge regarding diversity topics and student attitudes.
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In this paper, we present the case of two countries, the United States and Spain, whose educational systems are grappling with questions of difference and social justice. We describe some of the conditions in each country that led to the development of multicultural/intercultural education as a philosophical framework for teacher preparation and we draw attention to some of the challenges faced by multicultural and intercultural teacher education on both sides of the Atlantic.
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Although Hispanics constitute the most rapidly growing segment of the population in the United States, they have received relatively little attention regarding factors affecting their health behaviors and influences. One such factor is the scarcity of reliable and valid Spanish-language instruments for research with this population. Researchers who attempt to translate an existing instrument into Spanish need to recognize the methodological issues involved in the translation process and psychometric testing. The purpose of this article is to describe the advantages and disadvantages of various translation methodologies, to identify statistical issues in cross-cultural research, and to provide a case study of the translation process and statistical analysis of a translated instrument. Specifically, this study looks at the development and pilot testing of a Spanish-language version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II using a randomized convenience sample of 60 bilingual Hispanic individuals.
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