ArticlePDF Available


Integrated Farming System Model by integration of fish and water chestnut with fox nut was developed in 50 ha of land in Darbhanga district. The net benefit from the system was recorded at Rs. 68,545 (1,26,505 – 57,960) as compared to traditional system i.e. fox nut production alone. Field based system of Makhana cultivation was standardized with other crops like fish, rice and water chestnut in cropping system mode The gross return from Fox nut-fish, Fox nut-rice and Fox nut-water chestnut was obtained as Rs. 2,82,810, 2,73,840 and 3,54,340 per ha, respectively while a gross return of Rs. 1,32,552 was obtained from Fox nut cultivation alone. The highest benefit cost ratio was recorded with Fox nut-water chestnut combination (1.79) followed by Fox nut-fish combination in field system of Fox nut cultivation under integrated farming system model. Keywords
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 4906-4912
Original Research Article
Integrated Aquaculture with Fox Nut- A Case Study from North Bihar, India
I.S. Singh1*, Lokendra Kumar2, B.P. Bhatt3, A.K. Thakur4,
A.K. Choudhary3 and Anil Kumar5
1ICAR-RCER, Research Centre for Makhana, Darbhanga, Bihar, India
2Indian Institute for Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal, Haryana, India
3ICAR-Research Centre for Eastern Region, Patna, Bihar, India
4National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, Kolkata, India
5BPS Agricultural College, Purnea, Bihar, India
*Corresponding author
Fox nut (Euryale ferox), an aquatic crop of
the Family Nymphaeaceae commonly known
as MAKHANA, is unique, highly nutritious,
fully organic non- cereal food, blessings for
the rural poor, especially of flood prone zone
of north Bihar, lower Assam, and part of
Bengal and who have perfected art of
cultivating fox nut. It is grown in stagnant
perennial water bodies like ponds, land
depressions, oxbow lakes, swamps and
ditches. Fox nut seeds are also called as Black
Diamond. The seeds of Fox nut are popped
and eaten as roasted as well as used in
preparation of various kind of sweets and
recipes. Fox nut is considered a superior dry
fruit, as it is endowed with several rich
nutritional ingredients.
The popped fox nut contain 12.8% moisture
(w/w), 9.7% protein, 0.4% fat, crude fiber (%
by wt) 0.2, calorific value (K. cals/100 g) 358,
amylose 18.2%, phosphorus 53.2 mg/100 g,
and iron 1.4 mg/100 g (Kumar et al., 2011).
It has some medicinal properties too and there
is a great export potential of this crop.
Integrated Farming System Model by integration of fish and water chestnut with
fox nut was developed in 50 ha of land in Darbhanga district. The net benefit from
the system was recorded at Rs. 68,545 (1,26,505 57,960) as compared to
traditional system i.e. fox nut production alone. Field based system of Makhana
cultivation was standardized with other crops like fish, rice and water chestnut in
cropping system mode The gross return from Fox nut-fish, Fox nut-rice and Fox
nut-water chestnut was obtained as Rs. 2,82,810, 2,73,840 and 3,54,340 per ha,
respectively while a gross return of Rs. 1,32,552 was obtained from Fox nut
cultivation alone. The highest benefit cost ratio was recorded with Fox nut-water
chestnut combination (1.79) followed by Fox nut-fish combination in field system
of Fox nut cultivation under integrated farming system model.
Ke ywords
Fox nut, Integrated
farming system,
Water chestnut,
Fishes, Pond and
agricultural fields.
29 September 2017
Available Online:
10 October 2017
Article Info
International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 Number 10 (2017) pp. 4906-4912
Journal homepage:
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 4906-4912
Production of fox-nut in Bihar
Bihar State accounts for over 80% of the Fox
nut production of the country. Darbhanga,
Madhubani, Saharsa, Katihar, Purnea, Supaul,
Kishanganj Araria and Sitamari districts are
major producer of Fox nut. These districts
comprise an area of 15000 ha under fox nut
cultivation. The State Government has set a
target to extend the cultivation of fox nut in
20,000 ha by 2020, by adopting the field
based fox nut cultivation technology. Use of
huge labours is the most important component
of fox nut cultivation and its post-harvest
processing. Five lakh families is directly
involved in fox nut cultivation, harvesting,
popping, and produce selling. According to an
estimate of state government that Fox nut is
grown in an area of about 15000 hectare.
The total yield recorded to be about 22500
tons of fox nut seed (gurri) and 7500 to
10,000 tons of popped fox nut which fetches
187 to 250 crores of rupees approximately.
Moreover it is privilege that fox nut
cultivation and popping is done only in India
while other countries are only cultivating it. It
is grown their as a wild aquatic weed of
ornamental/medicinal purpose.
Climate and morphology
Fox nut (Euryale ferox Salisb) is a plant of
tropical and subtropical climate. For its proper
growth and development the conducive range
of air temperature is 200 C--350 C, relative
humidity 50%-90% and annual rainfall 100
cm-250 cm, organically reach water bodies
with less than 50% water transparency
(Mandal et al., 2010). An important aquatic
herb, prickly water plant with gigantic
floating nature leaves of a size of 1-2 m and
these leaves are born on 0.90 to 1.5 m feet
long petioles predominantly nerved and
reticulated-veined beneath, green in upper and
purple in lower side, thorny in both side of
leave even in entire plant (Kumar et al.,
2014). It grows well in stagnant water of 0.2-
2 m depth, with thick rhizomatous stem,
deeply rooted in cluster form in sediment.
The crop growth period of Fox nut in pond
system generally varies between nine to ten
months; thus, farmers are unable to get more
than one crop in a year. Furthermore, the
yield potential of fox nut grown in this (pond
system) condition has been recorded only 1.1
to 1.6 t/ha (Mishra et al., 2003). In field
condition the productivity of improved strain
of fox nut varied between 2.6 and 3.0 t/ha
(Kumar et al., 2012). They further reported
that in field condition the crop growth period
was of only four months. To make the Fox
nut cultivation in deep water ponds more
profitable, the utilization of ponds should be
diversified by integrating the other aquatic
crop such as water chestnut, water lily and
some fishes in a scientific manner.
Water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa) is popularly
known as singhara or paani phal. In India, It
is mainly grown in Madhay Pradesh, Uttar
Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha. It is an annual
floating-leaved aquatic plant of temperate and
tropical fresh-water wetlands, rivers, lakes,
ponds, and estuaries.
It is a native crop of Eurasia and Africa,
where it is cultivated for its large nutritious
seed. Like Fox nut it also requires 0.30-0.60
m depth of water throughout its growth
period. It is cultivated during the months of
July to November every year. It adds the
phytomass in the range of 1 t/ha to 15 t/ha. Its
vegetative part is rich in Fe and Zn contents.
The yield potential varies from 1 to 6.0 t/ha.
The nutritional value of raw seed of water
chestnut is 4.7% protein, 0.3% fat, 0.6% fiber,
23.3% starch (carbohydrate), 1.1% minerals
and 70.0% water. Water chestnut kernels are
used to treat rabies, poisonous animal bites,
diarrhea and other diseases.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 4906-4912
Materials and Methods
Crop cultivation
Fox nut is cultivated either in water
bodies/ponds having water depth of 1.20-1.80
m or in 0.30-0.60 m deep shallow agricultural
Pond system
It is the traditional method of fox nut
cultivation. In water bodies, seed sowing is
not required, since leftover seed of previous
crop serves as planting materials of
subsequent crops. However, Fox nut
cultivation in new water bodies (ponds)
requires seed sowing. The seeds should be
broadcasted @ 80 kg/ha in the month of
December. In general, pond cultivation is
linked with low productivity as collection of
seed from bottom is a very tedious process
and possesses drudgery to health to Jalkar
farmers. Under pond condition, it takes a
duration of complete one year. Thus no other
crop can be grown.
Field system
The methodology of fox nut cultivation in
agriculture fields consisting 0.30-0.60 m
depth of water, has been standardized by
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region.
This system is very easy to operate and
provides opportunities to cultivate cereals and
fodder crops in the same piece of land in same
year. It raises the crop intensity by 200-300%.
The prerequisite for this system is to raise a
nursery. In cropping system mode of fox nut
cultivation, water chestnut, fish, particularly
catfishes, sweet flag could be cultivated
successfully. Hence diversification in aquatic
food system is possible in cropping system
mode of Fox nut cultivation.
The field is well prepared by two to three
deep ploughing, however, before ploughing,
for the proper nourishment of seedlings,
fertilizers @ 100:60:40 / ha, respectively, of
N, P and K is applied. The field is filled with
water up to the 0.45 m height of bund and the
seeds are sown in the month of December. An
amount of 20 kg healthy seed is broadcasted
uniformly in the entire nursery plot. For
transplanting in one hectare area, an area of
500 m2 is enough for raising the nursery. A
water level of 0.30 m. height is maintained
throughout the growing period of seedlings,
i.e., from December to March. The seedlings
are transferred from the nursery plot to the
main field in the first week of April and
transplanted at a distance of 1.20 x 1.25 m.
Integration of fishes and water chestnut
with fox nut
Pond of 1.0 acre size is selected and cleaned
and followed by removal of carnivorous
fishes by applying mahua oil cake @ 2.5 t/ha.
Transplanting and gap filling work was also
conducted for optimization of crop geometry
@ 7,000 plants/ha. The 10% area in the
middle of pond was kept vacant as refuge area
for proper oxygenation and better growth of
The fish species (Rohu, Katla, Common carp
and Mrigal) were integrated @ 6,000
numbers/ha as fingerlings in the ratio of
40:20:20:20, respectively in March-April and
again in the month of September after harvest
of Fox nut. The harvesting of fishes gets
completed in the month of December-January
before the emergence of Fox nut crop. Water
chestnut is harvested in the month of October-
November. Since it is sown in the month of
2nd week of August and gets ready for first
harvesting in the last week of October.
The area under pond and agricultural lands is
given in the tables 1 and 2, respectively.
A multi-disciplinary research team
representing the disciplines of soil science,
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 4906-4912
plant breeding, horticulture, engineering and
forestry was involved in the in-depth analysis
of respective components. The ultimate goal
is to work out the economics of different
components thereafter draw a concrete
conclusion pertaining to most economically
remunerative system after making the
comparison of the efficacy of different
Case studies
To improve the livelihood of Fox nut growers
the NAIP project “Sustainable livelihood
improvement through need based integrated
farming system models in disadvantaged
districts of Bihar” was initiated in April, 2009
in 50 ha ponds of fox nut growers of Sadar
block of Darbhanga district. During the year
2013-2014, the coverage area of this project
was extended from one district to three
districts (Darbhanga, Madhubani and
Muzaffarpur) and the mode of Fox nut
cultivation widened from traditional ponds to
shallow agricultural fields. Out of this 50 ha
area, 36.4 ha was allotted under traditional
pond system while rest 13.6 ha was covered
under field mode of Fox nut cultivation.
Fox nut leaf Fox nut flower
Matured fruit of fox nut Exposed view of seed setting
in Fox nut fruit
Fishes collected from pond Fox nut plants growing in field condition
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 4906-4912
Matured seed of fox nut
Matured plant of water chestnut Fresh fruit of water chestnut
Field view of makhana
Fig.1 A view of fox nut+fish system in pond Fig.2 A view of water chest nut crop in fox
Nut pond
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 4906-4912
Fig.3 A view of fox nut crop at farmer’s Fig.4 A view of fish harvesting from fox
Field under NAIP nut field
Table.1 Economic analysis of different combinations in pond system of Fox nut cultivation
Total production (t)
Average productivity
(Rs) /ha
Net return
(Rs) /ha
g of
Fox nut
Table.2 Economic analysis of different combinations in field mode of Fox nut cultivation
Total production (t.)
Average productivity (t/ha)
(Rs) /ha
(Rs) /ha
Fox nut
Fox nut
Fox nut +
Fox nut -
Fox nut -
Fox nut
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 4906-4912
Results and Discussion
Five years results of this multicenter prize
agriculture system are presented and
discussed as under:
In both systems, integrated concept of
farming systems were adopted to augment the
per unit area net income of fox nut growers.
The results of this project have been presented
in tables 1 and 2. These results indicate that
the net returns in both integrated farming
systems are near about two folds of the solo
fox nut production system. Among all
combinations of two systems, fox nut- water
chestnut (in field condition) was recorded to
give the highest net return (Rs. 1,56,436/-) to
fox nut growers followed by fox nut + fish -
water chestnut in ponds (Rs. 1,26,505/-) and
Fox nut + Fish (Rs. 1,21,520/-) in field
system. On the other hand, Fox nut + Fish
combination gave net return of Rs 1.02.635/-
only which was at par with the net returns i.e.,
Rs 1,07,660/- only obtained from Fox nut-
water chestnut combinations. The findings of
this project suggest that integrated farming
may be very helpful to improve the economic
status of fox nut growers by providing
sustainable livelihood to them.
Thus, it is felt that fox nut cultivation in
cropping system modes offers unique
opportunity to cultivate it at shallow water
depth with optimum yield. This particular
technology could extend fox nut cultivation in
1 million ha, subject to availability of life
saving irrigation and seed extraction machine.
Govt. of Bihar will have to extend the
facilities for increasing area under Fox nut
since it is commercially cultivated in Bihar
Kumar, Lokendra, Gupta, V.K., Jha, B.K.,
Singh, I.S., Bhatt, B.P. and Singh, A.K
2012. Status of Makhana (Euryale ferox
Salisb.) Cultivation in India. Tech. Bull.
No. R-32/PAT-21. ICAR RCER, Patna
P. 31.
Kumar, Lokendra, Gupta, V.K., Khan, M.A.,
Singh, S.S., Jee, Janardan and Kumar,
Ashok 2011. Field based makhana
cultivation for improving cropping
intensity of rice fields. Bihar J. Horti.,
1, 71-72.
Kumar, Lokendra, Gupta, V.K., Singh, I.S.,
Bhatt, B.P. and Kumar, Devendra 2014.
Sequential double cropping system of
makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.)
cultivation in agricultural fields of north
Biahr, India. Int. J. Agricult. Stat. Sci.,
Mandal, R.N., Saha, G.S. and Sarangi, N
2010. Harvest and processing of
makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) - A
unique assemblage of traditional
knowledge. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl.9,
Mishra, R.K., Jha, Vidyanath and Dehadrai,
P.V. 2003. MAKHANA. P. 261. DIPA,
ICAR, New Delhi.
How to cite this article:
Singh, I.S., Lokendra Kumar, B.P. Bhatt, A.K. Thakur, A.K. Choudhary and Anil Kumar.
2017. Integrated Aquaculture with Fox Nut- A Case Study from North Bihar, India.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 6(10): 4906-4912. doi:
... Based on the size of the pop, four types of E. ferox such as lava, murha, turi, and mix are available in the market (Kumar, Shekhar, Kumari, Prasad, & Bhatt, 2020). Currently, it is being utilized for the preparations of various functional foods especially sweets and healthy foods (Singh et al., 2017). Its presence has also been witnessed in the preparations of Ayurvedic medicines for treating many diseases such as kidney disorders, persistent diarrhea, rheumatic disorders, excessive leucorrhea, bile disorders, hepatic dysfunctioning, etc. (Nehal, Mann, & Gupta, 2015). ...
... Its cultivation has also been reported in some parts of North America, Nepal, Korea in the Manchuria lakes, Lachvin in Russia, and Tegelem clay in Holland, Taiwan, and Hainan islands of China, Shikoku, and Honsyu in Japan (Khadatkar et al., 2020). In India, it is distributed mainly in the parts of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Tripura, Assam, Manipur, West Bengal, Manipur, Madhya Pradesh, and West Bengal, among them, E. ferox has commercially grown in only some parts of Manipur, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, and North Bihar and Bihar contribute for more than 80% of the total production (Mandal, Saha, & Sarangi, 2010;Singh et al., 2017). In December-January, germination of seeds occurs, and then plantlets emerge from the water's surface during February-March. ...
... In another study, polysaccharides were extracted using an ultrasonic cleaner, at a temperature of 80°C, and the duration of extraction was TA B L E 1 A comparative profiling of physicochemical, amino acid, and minerals of raw and popped seed of Euryale ferox Note: Source: (Francis, 2018;Jana & Idris, 2018;Jha et al., 1991;Kumar, Singh, & Bhatt, 2016;Kumar, Yadav, et al., 2016;Singh et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Euryale ferox (also known as foxnut), belongs to the family Nymphaeaceae. It is mainly grown in India, China, Japan, and Korea. It is a highly nutritious food, abundant in nutritional and bioactive compounds such as carbohydrates, protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols. It is considered a functional food owing to its various health benefits such as antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, antifatigue, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antimelanogenic, etc. E. ferox has immense potential in both food and non‐food industries. Regardless of being recognized as a superfood packed with nutritional as well as medicinal properties, it is still neglected, and there has not been much attention given to its cultivation. Therefore, in this review, the potential of E. ferox as a superfood has been explored to enhance its utilization in the development of different foods and make it available outside its growing area. Practical applications Euryale ferox is abundant in several macronutrients and micronutrients; and considered as a superfood in terms of various health benefits. E. ferox has the ability to be used in the development of different health, functional, and nutraceutical foods, which will open a new door for the food industry to combat with numerous diseases.
... In India, about 80% of total Makhana comes from Darbhanga, Madhubani, Purnia and Katihar district of Bihar (Kumar et al., 2011a(Kumar et al., , 2011b. But, the area under Makhana cultivation is only about 13,000 to 15,000 ha (Mandal et al., 2010;Singh et al., 2017). Among these, Madhubani and Dharbanga districts are the major contributor due to the residence of "Mallah" community which deals with the cultivation of Makhana in ponds. ...
... The Makhana crop also accumulates large amount of P, Fe, Mn and Zn elements in biomass due to muddy and wet field condition. Singh et al. (2017) reported that Makhana can replenish the exhausted nutrients such as N, P and Zn by the cultivation of other cereals (rice and wheat). Also, it greatly helps in sustainable management of natural resources due to highest tissue concentrations of the less soluble Fe and Mn. ...
Full-text available
Makhana (Euryle ferox Salisb.) or foxnut is an aquatic food crop, which is normally grown in ponds. The importance of this crop is increasing day-by-day due to its high carbohydrate and protein, and low fat content, and also due to its religious offerings. The cultivation of Makhana involves a lot of drudgery as all the operations like sowing, interculture, harvesting and processing are done manually. This paper explores the agronomic management techniques of Makhana in relation to environmental system from its cultivation to post-processing practices. Due to its unique biological, physiological and agronomic traits, Makhana is able to exploit small as well as marginal pond owners to be included in low-input cropping systems, representing an alternative viable aquatic food crop for sustainable agriculture in rural India. Nevertheless this great potential and the considerable increase in new generation consumer demand for Makhana as ready to eat food, the future of the crop is still uncertain. Indeed, the main obstacles to Makhana production are: (1) the limited areas of cultivation where it is traditionally grown, (2) lack of quality breeder seeds, (3) lack of knowledge on management practices and limited resources, and (4) very high price. The present review highlights the immense potentiality of Makhana as a food crop to explore aquatic resources and need of extending the research towards a sustainable system by integrating it with field crops and marine life i.e. aquaculture with agriculture.
... So water chestnut farming is a profitable business. Singh et al. (2017) showed that Integrated Farming System Model by integration of fish and water chestnut with makhana was developed in 50 ha of land in Darbhanga district. The net benefit from the system was recorded at BDT 88,354 (159,378 -73,019) as compared to traditional system i.e. makhana production alone. ...
Full-text available
The study was conducted to know the contribution of water chestnut (Trapa natans) in the aquaculture of Bangladesh. The study were also performed to know the general biology of the plant, propagation process, growth performance, culture system, problems, harvesting system, per decimal (dec) production etc. Data were collected from four upazilas under four districts for eight months from April to November 2017. Traditional culture system was included in this research work that was practiced by the farmers in our country. During the study some food items were made with water chestnut flour, such as cake, halua, morobba and raw water chestnut was used to make different types of curry. Chemical analysis showed that the moisture content were 96.67%, 90.35%; lipid were 1.20%, 1.65%; protein were 0.30%, 0.94%; carbohydrate were 0.50%, 5.38%; ash were 0.18%, 0.64% and fiber were 1.15%, 1.05%, respectively for green and red water chestnut. The marketing channels from farmers to consumers were passed through a number of intermediaries such as local water chestnut traders (paikers), wholesalers and retailers. The cost-benefit ratio was varied from one farmer to another because of their culture systems, economic capability, labor cost, disease, ownership of land etc. The production cost was BDT 80/dec and benefit was BDT 220/dec in one case, however for other farmer the production cost was BDT 100/dec and benefit was BDT 506.25 for second cases. Improved traditional culture system was used for second cases so farmers got high profit. If these culture systems are expanded throughout the country especially in flood plain region, farmers will get extra benefit from their land. In Bangladesh, agricultural crops frequently damaged due to flood. If water chestnut in these flood affected land is cultured, farmers will recover their investment and get extra benefit.
Purpose Sustainability is a very important factor to be considered in the supply chain (SC) of any industry. Agricultural industry needs to be addressed even more importantly with the tools of sustainability as it concerns the life of millions. This paper explores the critical barriers (CBs) in the sustainable supply chains (SSCs) of makhana industry located in the northern part of India and seeks to design a model for the researchers and the managers who want to work in this industry. Design/methodology/approach Initially, the CBs were identified with the help of an extensive literature review of sustainability in SCs for agri-industry and discussion with makhana industry experts (consisting of managers and senior managers) and academicians (consisting of professors and research scholars). The study uses the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique, namely interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and fuzzy ISM to develop the model. The study finally validates the model using Matrice d'impacts croisés multiplication appliquée á un classment (MICMAC) analysis. Findings The obtained results indicate that, in the SSC of makhana industry, the role of “Lack of adoption of organic agricultural management techniques” (CB2), “Lack of modern techniques (CB4)”, “Multiple intermediaries” (CB5), “Weak socio-economic conditions” (CB7) and “Lack of proper knowledge” (CB1) are very significant. These barriers are needed to be addressed first as they have the highest driving power and other barriers are directly driven by these CBs. Research limitations/implications The paper has included seven experts, and the interrelationship between CBs has been developed on the basis of their knowledge and discussion, so the results may be a little bias. Moreover, the paper has obtained the results using the ISM and fuzzy ISM by considering ten CBs; the researchers can explore this research by including more CBs and validate the results using other MCDM techniques like fuzzy-decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), fuzzy-Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and Best Worst Method (BWM). Originality/value This study is unique as per industry point of view and may help the researchers and managers to explore the field of makhana.
Technical Report
Full-text available
ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research annual report presents the salient achievements for the year 2017-18
Full-text available
Makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) is an aquatic crop mostly grown in stagnant fresh water bodies of north Bihar, Assam, West Bengal and Manipur etc. To explore the possibility of two crops of makhana per year in the same field, the present study was conducted during 2011 and 2012 at the Research Farm of ICAR–RCER, Research Centre for Makhana, Darbhanga, Bihar. During both the years, the transplantation of first crop was made in the first week of February and its harvesting was made in the last week of June. In the same field the second crop was transplanted in the first week of July and harvested in the last week of October. All standard package of practices were followed to raise the good experimental crops of makhana. The mean values of seed yield of spring crop of makhana was observed to be 3.04 t/ha while the yield potential of kharif crop was recorded to be 2.23 t/ha. However, the yield potential of kharif crop was not at par with the spring crop, yet it was very high as compared to the productivity of traditional crop of makhana in pond system (1.0-1.2 t/ha). The net return of these two makhana crops was recorded as Rs. 1,00,305/-and Rs. 80,205/-for spring and kharif crops, respectively. Findings of this study suggest that per year, two crops of makhana could be grown successfully in the field system of makhana cultivation.
The study deals with the involvement of traditional knowledge pertaining to harvest and processing of Makhana (Euryale ferox Salisb.) -potential aquatic cash crop. A group of farmers, locally known as Mallah-a fisher community, is traditionally skilled with aquatic resource management. Inherently, they remain engaged in cultivation, harvest and processing of Makhana, which has high economic value in North and Eastern India. The harvest of Makhana seeds from water bodies and their processing from black hard nut to white puff, ready to eat, through frying in hot earthen oven are cumbersome traditional methods blended with a series of concerted effort. Each activity from harvest to processing, unique assemblage of traditional knowledge has been discussed.
Field based makhana cultivation for improving cropping intensity of rice fields
  • Lokendra Kumar
  • V K Gupta
  • M A Khan
  • S S Singh
  • Janardan Jee
  • Ashok Kumar
Kumar, Lokendra, Gupta, V.K., Khan, M.A., Singh, S.S., Jee, Janardan and Kumar, Ashok 2011. Field based makhana cultivation for improving cropping intensity of rice fields. Bihar J. Horti., 1, 71-72.