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Capsaicinoids Enhance Metabolic Rate in Normal Healthy Individuals using a Novel Metabolic Tracker Breezing Device-An Open Label Placebo Controlled Acute Study

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... In table 2 we summarize several dietary ingredients that are under research because of their thermogenic potential (induce considerable changes in energy expenditure) and safety if consumed in recommended doses; nonetheless, it is necessary to clarify that they are not able to solve obesity/overweight by their own but might provide some advantages in long term treatments. Green Tea (Camelia sinensis) 6-8 mg of Green Tea with 50% of Epigalocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) per kg of body massThermogenic and antioxidant properties due to polyphenols and catechinsSeems to increase fat oxidation under resting and post-exerciseProlongs catecholamine-induced lipolysis during exercise probably by inhibition of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT)Xanthine derivatives can act as phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors [45][46][47][48][49][50] Chilli Pepper (Capsicum) 2-10 mg Capsaicinoids per kg of body massThermogenic and anti-obesity potentialIncreases resting energy expenditureActivates sympathetic nervous system and BAT via Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and probably Melastatin 8 Channel (TRPM8)Stimulates lypolisis through lipases activation [49][50][51][52][53][54][55] Anhydrous Caffeine 2-4 mg Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) per kg of body mass ...
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Capsaicin, a spicy component of hot peppers, has been shown to improve inflammatory disease and obesity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory activity of capsaicin can be used to improve free fatty acid (FFA)-induced inflammation by reducing gene expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell) macrophages. To investigate whether capsaicin ameliorates palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions, we treated THP-1 cells with palmitate in the presence or absence of capsaicin and measured MIP-1 and IL-8 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To elucidate the mechanism by which capsaicin effects on palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions, we performed immunoblotting with stress kinase-related antibodies and measured palmitate oxidation and palmitate oxidation-related gene expression. Palmitate and stearate but not the unsaturated FFA oleate significantly increased MIP-1 and IL-8 expressions in THP-1 macrophages. Treatment with capsaicin or FFA oxidation stimulators inhibited palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 expressions in THP-1 macrophages. Capsaicin increased the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and the β-oxidation of palmitate. Furthermore, capsaicin significantly reduced palmitate-stimulated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and p38. Our data suggest that the attenuation of palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions by capsaicin is associated with reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and p38 and preserved β-oxidation activity.
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To investigate the effects of capsaicin (CAP) on proliferation of bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro as well as on xenografts in nude mice in vivo. T24 cells were assessed for cell viability and apoptosis by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis after incubation with different concentrations of CAP. To uncover the mechanism by which CAP affected the viability of T24 cells, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed. To study the in vivo effects of CAP, T24 cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice and CAP (5 mg/kg by wt) was subcutaneously injected into nude mice with bladder tumors. CAP decreased the viability of T24 cells in a dose-dependent manner without marked apoptosis. CAP induced ROS production and mitochondrial membrane depolarization, thereby inducing cell death, not apoptosis, in T24 cells at a concentration of 100 microM or higher. Furthermore, these effects of CAP could be reversed by capsazepine, the antagonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel. In vivo experiment showed that CAP significantly slowed the growth of T24 bladder cancer xenografts as measured by size (661.80 +/- 62.03 vs 567.02 +/- 43.94 mm(3); P <.01). CAP mediates cell death in T24 cells through calcium entry-dependent ROS production and mitochondrial depolarization, and it may have a role in the management of bladder cancer.
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Obesity is a major health problem in developed countries and a growing one in the developing world. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some forms of cancer. A better understanding of the biological basis of obesity should aid its prevention and treatment.
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The purpose of this study was to identify and describe how adults with diabetes in a weight control study attempted to make life-style behavioral changes. All subjects had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and were 20% to 50% overweight. Data were drawn from narrative responses given by 28 clients to open-ended questions regarding behavioral change. Questions were asked as part of a 16-week life-style behavioral change program for weight control. A systematic analysis of content was used to generate six categories of responses depicting the life-style behavioral change process. The process, as described by these clients, is: Starting point; Introspection; Why change; Mental preparation; Plans, progress, and continuation; and Helps and hindrances.
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Current interest in the role of functional foods in weight control has focused on plant ingredients capable of interfering with the sympathoadrenal system. We investigated whether a green tea extract, by virtue of its high content of caffeine and catechin polyphenols, could increase 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation in humans. Twenty-four-hour EE, the respiratory quotient (RQ), and the urinary excretion of nitrogen and catecholamines were measured in a respiratory chamber in 10 healthy men. On 3 separate occasions, subjects were randomly assigned among 3 treatments: green tea extract (50 mg caffeine and 90 mg epigallocatechin gallate), caffeine (50 mg), and placebo, which they ingested at breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Relative to placebo, treatment with the green tea extract resulted in a significant increase in 24-h EE (4%; P < 0.01) and a significant decrease in 24-h RQ (from 0.88 to 0.85; P < 0.001) without any change in urinary nitrogen. Twenty-four-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion was higher during treatment with the green tea extract than with the placebo (40%, P < 0.05). Treatment with caffeine in amounts equivalent to those found in the green tea extract had no effect on EE and RQ nor on urinary nitrogen or catecholamines. Green tea has thermogenic properties and promotes fat oxidation beyond that explained by its caffeine content per se. The green tea extract may play a role in the control of body composition via sympathetic activation of thermogenesis, fat oxidation, or both.
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The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, with nearly half a billion of the world's population now considered to be overweight or obese. The obesity epidemic is related both to dietary factors and to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Obesity has significant co-morbidities and these are associated with substantial health care and social costs. Of particular concern is the fact that obesity is increasing among children and adolescents. National health policymakers must take action to deal with the obesity problem. Prevention should be the primary target, but it is also important to develop strategies to treat those already affected with obesity.
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The increased rate of obesity in the past decade is caused by a larger rate of energy input than energy expenditure. But this simple explanation belies the complexity of the possible solutions: Education about obesity needs to improve for both the medical community and the public. Successful treatment will require reforms of medical practice as well as more research to facilitate the development of new drugs.
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Decreased appetite and increased energy expenditure after oral consumption of red pepper has been shown. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative oral and gastrointestinal contribution to capsaicin-induced satiety and its effects on food intake or macronutrient selection. For 24 subjects (12 men and 12 women; age: 35+/-10 y; BMI: 25.0+/-2.4 kg/m2; range 20-30), 16 h food intake was assessed four times during 2 consecutive days by offering macronutrient-specific buffets and boxes with snacks, in our laboratory restaurant. At 30 min before each meal, 0.9 g red pepper (0.25% capsaicin; 80,000 Scoville Thermal Units) or a placebo was offered in either tomato juice or in two capsules that were swallowed with tomato juice. Hunger and satiety were recorded using Visual Analogue Scales. Average daily energy intake in the placebo condition was 11.5+/-1.0 MJ/d for the men and 9.4+/-0.8 MJ/d for the women. After capsaicin capsules, energy intake was 10.4+/-0.6 and 8.3+/-0.5 MJ/d (P<0.01); after capsaicin in tomato juice, it was 9.9+/-0.7 and 7.9+/-0.5 MJ/d, respectively (compared to placebo: P<0.001; compared to capsaicin in capsules: P<0.05). En % from carbohydrate/protein/fat (C/P/F): changed from 46+/-3/15+/-1/39+/-2 to 52+/-4/15+/-1/33+/-2 en% (P<0.01) in the men, and from 48+/-4/14+/-2/38+/-3 to 42+/-4/14+/-2/32+/-3 en% (P<0.01) in the women, in both capsaicin conditions. Satiety (area under the curve) increased from 689 to 757 mmh in the men and from 712 to 806 mmh in the women, both (P<0.01). Only in the oral exposure condition was the reduction in energy intake and the increase in satiety related to perceived spiciness. In the short term, both oral and gastrointestinal exposure to capsaicin increased satiety and reduced energy and fat intake; the stronger reduction with oral exposure suggests a sensory effect of capsaicin.
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To test whether consumption of a beverage containing active ingredients will increase 24-hour energy metabolism in healthy, young, lean individuals. RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURES: Thirty-one male and female subjects consumed 3 x 250-mL servings of a beverage containing green tea catechins, caffeine, and calcium for 3 days in a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design study. On the 3rd day, 23-hour energy metabolism, extrapolated to 24-hour, was measured in a calorimeter chamber. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and total day and night urines were analyzed for urea and catecholamine excretion. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and 24-hour fat oxidation were lower in women than in men (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.015, respectively). Although there were no treatment or treatment/gender effects on substrate oxidation, treatment increased 24-hour EE by 106 +/- 31 kcal/24 hours (p = 0.002), equivalent to 4.7 +/- 1.6 kcal/h (day; p = 0.005) and 3.3 +/- 1.5 kcal/h (night; p = 0.04). No significant differences were observed in hemodynamic parameters. The present study provides evidence that consumption of a beverage containing green tea catechins, caffeine, and calcium increases 24-hour EE by 4.6%, but the contribution of the individual ingredients cannot be distinguished. Although this increase is modest, the results are discussed in relation to proposed public health goals, indicating that such modifications are sufficient to prevent weight gain. When consumed regularly as part of a healthy diet and exercise regime, such a beverage may provide benefits for weight control.
A pocket-sized metabolic analyzer for assessment of resting energy expenditure
  • D Zhao
  • X Xian
  • M Terrera
  • Krishnanr
  • D Miller
Zhao D, Xian X, Terrera M, KrishnanR, Miller D, et al. (2014) A pocket-sized metabolic analyzer for assessment of resting energy expenditure. Clinical Nutr 33: 341-347.