Article

Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM10 at an urban background site in a high–altitude Latin American megacity (Bogota, Colombia)

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Bogota registers frequent episodes of poor air quality from high PM10 concentrations. It is one of the main Latin American megacities, located at 2600 m in the tropical Andes, but there is insufficient data on PM10 source contribution. A characterization of the chemical composition and the source apportionment of PM10 at an urban background site in Bogota was carried out in this study. Daily samples were collected from June 2015 to May 2016 (a total of 311 samples). Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble compounds (SO42−, Cl−, NO3−, NH4+), major elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, P) and trace metals (V, Cd, Pb, Sr, Ba, among others) were analyzed. The results were interpreted in terms of their variability during the rainy season (RS) and the dry season (DS). The data obtained revealed that the carbonaceous fraction (∼51%) and mineral dust (23%) were the main PM10 components, followed by others (15%), Secondary Inorganic Compounds (SIC) (11%) and sea salt (0.4%). The average concentrations of soil, SIC and OC were higher during RS than DS. However, peak values were observed during the DS due to photochemical activity and forest fires. Although trace metals represented <1% of PM10, high concentrations of toxic elements such as Pb and Sb on RS, and Cu on DS, were obtained. By using a PMF model, six factors were identified (∼96% PM10) including fugitive dust, road dust, metal processing, secondary PM, vehicles exhaust and industrial emissions. Traffic (exhaust emissions + road dust) was the major PM10 source, accounting for ∼50% of the PM10. The results provided novel data about PM10 chemical composition, its sources and its seasonal variability during the year, which can help the local government to define control strategies for the main emission sources during the most critical periods.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Anthropogenic sources include road traffic, rail and air traffic, heating, industrial activities, building construction, agriculture, and incineration plants (Omrani et al. 2017; Thorpe and Harrison 2008). Indeed, industrial and automobile emissions have been the main causes of the deterioration of the air quality in developing and developed cities since the beginning of the 20th century (Bourotte et al. 2007;Ramírez et al. 2018). ...
... Bogotá is the largest city in Colombia, located in a plateau at approximately 2600 m above sea level with an area of 1600 km 2 (Molina and Molina 2004). Due to its high elevation, the lower efficiency in combustion processes may potentially expose inhabitants to higher levels of air pollution (Ramírez et al. 2018). Bogotá is the largest contributor to the country's economic production and has more than 2 million private vehicles (Ramírez et al. (2018) and references therein). ...
... Due to its high elevation, the lower efficiency in combustion processes may potentially expose inhabitants to higher levels of air pollution (Ramírez et al. 2018). Bogotá is the largest contributor to the country's economic production and has more than 2 million private vehicles (Ramírez et al. (2018) and references therein). Pb was removed from gasoline in 1991 (Pachón and Sarmiento Vela 2008). ...
Article
Air pollution is one of the major problems caused by urban growth, and both industrial and automobile emissions have been the main causes of air quality deterioration in cities since the beginning of the 20th century. Atmospheric pollution is the largest single environmental risk for health causing about 7 million human deaths per year. On a global scale, developing countries are major contributors to air pollution due to their rising economies, with rapid industrial and population growth combined with poor emission controls. In South America there are five megacities (Bogotá, Buenos Aires, Lima, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) with over 10 million people potentially contributing to wide-ranging environmental consequences. Atmospheric particulate matter (APM) plays a leading role in the transport of trace metals and metalloids through the atmosphere and are chemical markers of air quality. The presence of these pollutants in APM has a detrimental effect on both the air quality and human health. In this review we provide an integrated assessment of hazardous metals and metalloids in the fine and coarse APM fractions, focusing on the South American megacities. We identified the current state of research for Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, Sb, Sn, V and Zn, and summarized the findings in the 21st century. The findings of this review highlighted that despite the phasing out of leaded gasoline, Pb continues to be a metal pollutant with one of the highest atmospheric emission rates, mainly due to vehicular pollution. The megacities from Brazil and Argentina were, by far, those with the highest number of studies performed. However, updated research is needed for the five megacities, including specific studies on fine and ultrafine particulate matter fractions as these pose serious human health issues. Urban agglomerations denoted sustained increases of most metals over time that is indicative of deteriorating air quality. Nickel and Cd concentrations in megacities from Argentina, Brazil and Colombia, as well as Pb in one study from Colombia, were found to have exceeded international air quality guidelines.
... Besides, PM composition is oftentimes too complex and its elements impact the human ecosystem in a diverse way, with heavy metals (HMs) being one of the greatest concerns (Dockery, 2009;Nguyen et al., 2021a). Sources of HMs in PM comprise both anthropogenic and natural origins, examples of which include As, Pb, Cr as known carcinogenic HMs derived from industrial and anthropogenic sources and Fe, Mn and Si as typical elements found in the Earth's crust (Mulware, 2013;Ramírez et al., 2018). Despite its low abundance relative to the PM total mass, HMs pollution has attracted more attention due to their public health risks (Kumar et al., 2021). ...
... Several studies have been conducted worldwide concerning several HMs at a wide range of particle sizes (Sahu and Basti, 2021). For instance, PM10 studies have been conducted widely in North America, South America, and Europe (Zajusz-Zubek et al., 2015;Di Vaio et al., 2018;Ramírez et al., 2018;Alves et al., 2021;Li et al., 2021;Oroumiyeh et al., 2022). In these studies, spatiotemporal profiles of PM 10 -HMs (i.e., heavy metals in PM 10 ) in combination with either source apportionment or health risk assessment were described as primary methodologies. ...
... Such a pattern could be either a result of planetary boundary height (PBL) modulation or increased emission rates at nighttime (Maletto et al., 2003;Chandra et al., 2017). The reduction of PBL height during soil and dust re-suspension process could elevate mineral elements (Al, Sr) concentration (Ramírez et al., 2018;Rai et al., 2021) which was also observed in studies surrounding Tibetan Plateau where fugitive dust might influence crustal elements concentration and PM10 pattern (Tripathee et al., 2014;Guo et al., 2017). Besides, statistically insignificant daytime-nighttime differences between V (p = 0.056) and Sr (p = 0.58) concentration showed their lack of a diurnal cycle (Fig. 2(c)). ...
Article
Full-text available
Airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution is a global concern, in which partitioned heavy metals (HMs) could impose great risks to residents living in metropolitan areas. In this study, PM10 samples were collected in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) – a megacity in southern Vietnam – and analyzed for 11 HMs to investigate their concentration profiles, perform source apportionment and estimate their risk factors. Results showed that atmospheric HMs concentration decreased following the order of Al > Fe > Sr > Mn> Pb > Cu > Cr > V > Ni > Sb > As. Traffic activities were likely the major cause of rush-hour peaks for most HMs in which Cr, As, and Cu showed > 20% increases in their relative proportions. For seasonal variation, most HMs showed a dry > rainy pattern as a result of washout by higher rainfall in the rainy season while crustal elements (Al, Sr, Mn) showed a rainy > dry pattern and might be explained by the difference in air mass transport modulating by monsoon activities. The positive-matrix factorization (PMF) model revealed 5 primary sources for HMs, including traffic emission, shipping activity and combustion activity, fugitive dust re-suspension and waste incineration. Combustion activity might enrich As, Sb, Pb levels at HCMC, and As contributed half (50.8%) to the potential ecological risk (PER) in the city. Besides, the current Cr level could impose a carcinogenic effect towards children in HCMC (total carcinogenic index > 10-4) while Mn might impose intolerable non-carcinogenic risk (hazard index > 1). This study provides information on local air quality status for scientific and regulatory perspectives as well as helps fill the information gap and update the understanding of air pollution in South and Southeast Asia.
... A large amount of attention has been given to PM 2.5 and the impacts of PM 2.5 to human health have been extensively studied in relation to human respiratory diseases (T ellez-Rojo et al., 2020;Xin et al., 2016), health risks and health impact assessments Seposo et al., 2018;Sulong et al., 2017), mortality and morbidity (Fenech et al., 2019;Kloog et al., 2015), lung function (Panis et al., 2016), DNA damage (Sørensen et al., 2003) and toxicity (Deng et al., 2013;Sulong et al., 2019). PM abundance has also been studied in different backgrounds such as urban, rural, semi-urban, industrial areas, power plant areas and also different temporal seasons (Fang et al., 2015;Jamhari et al., 2014;Juneng et al., 2009;Ramírez et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2019a). PM holds many contaminants which can be divided into inorganic and organic species. ...
... The inorganic chemical composition of PM is usually identified as water soluble inorganic ion species (WSII) which mainly includes F À and Cl À , and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) such as SO 4 2À , NH 4 þ , NO 3 À ; and Mg 2þ , Ca 2þ , Na þ and K þ . Studies on PM 2.5 and PM 10 compositions have determined an abundance of SO 4 2À , NO 3 À and NH 4 þ suggesting a transboundary source as well as vehicle emissions and biomass burning sources (Amil et al., 2016;Cheung et al., 2011;Jain et al., 2020;Ramírez et al., 2018;Sulong et al., 2017). Moreover, certain WSII are used as indicators for the identification of PM sources. ...
... As reported by Othman and Latif (2013), NO 3 À was correlated with K þ during the combustion of peat soil, suggesting that K þ was released during peat combustion. The application of ions as indicators of PM sources has been corroborated by several studies that applied K þ as an indicator of biomass burning (Amil et al., 2016;Fang et al., 2015;Jain et al., 2020;Sulong et al., 2017) while ions such as Na þ and Cl À have been widely used as indicators for sea salt Ramírez et al., 2018). On top of that, WSII are also the major components that are usually determined for PM chemical characterization. ...
Article
This study aimed to determine the spatial distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 collected in four regions (North, Central, South and East Coast) of Peninsular Malaysia during the southwest monsoon. Concurrent measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 were performed using a high volume sampler (HVS) for 24 h (August to September 2018) collecting a total of 104 samples. All samples were then analysed for water soluble inorganic ions (WSII) using ion chromatography, trace metals using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The results showed that the highest average PM2.5 concentration during the sampling campaign was in the North region (33.2±5.3 μg m⁻³) while for PM10 the highest was in the Central region (38.6±7.70 μg m⁻³). WSII recorded contributions of 22% for PM2.5 and 20% for PM10 mass, with SO4²⁻ the most abundant species with average concentrations of 1.83±0.42 μg m⁻³ (PM2.5) and 2.19±0.27 μg m⁻³ (PM10). Using a Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model, soil fertilizer (23%) was identified as the major source of PM2.5 while industrial activity (25%) was identified as the major source of PM10. Overall, the studied metals had hazard quotients (HQ) value of < 1 indicating a very low risk of non-carcinogenic elements while the highest excess life time cancer risk (ELCR) was recorded for Cr VI in the South region with values of 8.4E-06 (PM2.5) and 6.6E-05 (PM10). The incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) calculated from the PAH concentrations was within the acceptable range for all regions.
... The investigation of chemical PM composition is essential to identify possible sources of pollutant emission and understand the toxicological effects. High-volume air samplers are a conventional monitoring technique, which allow to collect PM on a filter and perform the chemical analysis later (Gonz alez et al., 2018;Morera-G omez et al., 2018;Ramírez et al., 2018). On the other hand, the use of plants to identify changes in environmental quality is an ideal low-cost alternative ( Avila et al., 2019;Illi et al., 2017;Solgi et al., 2020;Turkyilmaz et al., 2018a). ...
... In summary, it is noticed that the concentrations of the metals mainly associated with soil dust (K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Al) were higher in 2018, while the concentrations of the metals mainly associated with anthropogenic emissions (Zn and Cu) were higher in 2017. These variations may have been due to different factors, such as irregularity of the behavior of emission sources, like vehicular sources and power plants, and to meteorological parameters, as mentioned in previous works (Braga et al., 2005;Manalis et al., 2005;Ramírez et al., 2018;Sanchez-Ccoyllo and Andrade, 2002). In order to evaluate the effect of meteorological parameters on the metal composition of PM, Table 4 shows the mean and standard deviation of precipitation, relative humidity, pressure, temperature and wind speed during the samplings in 2017 and 2018. ...
Article
Full-text available
The reliability of Araucaria heterophylla needles as a biomonitor was evaluated by analyzing the concentration of metals in PM10 filters and in Araucaria heterophylla needles. The sampling campaign was carried out at two sites in the city of Quito, Ecuador, in 2017–2019. Concentrations of Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Pb, Zn, Ca, Fe, Al and Mg were determined in PM10 filters and in Araucaria heterophylla needles using an Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The annual mean concentrations of PM10 ranged between 24.9 and 26.3 μg m⁻³, exceeding the limit established by the World Health Organization (20 μg m⁻³). Statistical analyses, performed for the PM10 filters, showed that dust resuspension and anthropogenic activities were important sources for PM10 emissions in the city. Metals related to natural emissions (Ca, Mg, K, Al and Fe) dominated in both types of samples, while the minor metals were those related to anthropogenic emissions (Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb). The former were positively associated with the needle samples, while the latter were associated with PM10 filters. This work not only improved scientific knowledge on the concentrations of PM10 and metals in the Andean city of Quito, but also greatly contributed to the progress of research on the use of Araucaria heterophylla needles as a biomonitor.
... The characteristics of the study area and the sampling conditions, including the meteorological parameters, have been described in previous studies (Ramírez et al., 2018a(Ramírez et al., , 2018b. Briefly, Bogota has a vehicle fleet dominated by private vehicles (N2.2 millions) and motorcycles (467,000), 95% of which use gasoline. ...
... In this study, the third factor had the highest contributions in the rainy period (November 2015; Fig. SD5), which is consistent with its denomination. Researchers have confirmed that the use of vehicles increases during rainy seasons in Bogota, and consequently the variability in the traffic speed, acceleration, and braking rates increase (Ramírez et al., 2018a). ...
Article
The deleterious health effects of thoracic fractions seem to be more related to the chemical composition of the particles than to their mass concentration. The presence of hazardous materials in PM10 (e.g., heavy metals and metalloids) causes risks to human health. In this study, twelve trace elements (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Sn, Ba, Co, As, V, and Sb) in 315 samples of ambient PM10 were analyzed. The samples were collected at an urban background site in a Latin American megacity (Bogota, Colombia) for one year. The concentrations and temporal variabilities of these elements were examined. According to the results, Cu (52 ng/m3), Zn (44 ng/m3), Pb (25 ng/m3), and Ba (20 ng/m3) were the traces with the highest concentrations, particularly during the dry season (January to March), which was characterized by barbecue (BBQ) charcoal combustion and forest fires. In addition, the differences between the results of weekdays and weekends were identified. The determined enrichment factor (EF) indicated that Zn, Pb, Sn, Cu, Cd, and Sb mainly originated from anthropogenic sources. Moreover, a speciation analysis of inorganic Sb (EF > 300) was conducted, which revealed that Sb(V) was the main Sb species in the PM10 samples (>80%). Six causes for the hazardous elements were identified based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model: fossil fuel combustion and forest fires (60%), road dust (19%), traffic-related emissions (9%), copper smelting (8%), the iron and steel industry (2%), and an unidentified industrial sector (2%). Furthermore, a health risk assessment of the carcinogenic elements was performed. Accordingly, the cancer risk of inhalation exposure to Co, Ni, As, Cd, Sb(III), and Pb was negligible for children and adults at the sampling site. For adults, the adjusted Cr(VI) level was slightly higher than the minimal acceptable risk level during the study period (1.4 × 10−6).
... Representing 22.72% of the total variance with high loadings of Al, K, Fe, Na and P the second factor is considered to have mixed sources. The correlation between Al, K, Fe and Na can be related to the resuspension of these elements, in the form of crustal material and soil dust (Koçak et al. 2011;Ramírez et al. 2018). According to Malandrino et al. (2013) the correlation of Fe and P is more difficult to explain, but P in the aqueous form in correlation with sodium can form Na 3 PO 4 , which in the industry is used as a cleaning agent, lubricant, food additive, stain remover and degreaser. ...
... The fifth factor represented only 7.03% of the total variance with a significant proportion of Zn, which is a representative for vehicle sources. Zn is associated with tire wear and brake abrasion (Ramírez et al. 2018), being a vulcanizing agent in tire manufacturing (Tanner et al. 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Observations of particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) were conducted from January to December in 2015 in the Ciuc basin, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. Daily concentrations of PM10 ranged from 10.90 to 167.70 μg/m3, with an annual mean concentration of 46.31 μg/m3, which is higher than the European Union limit of 40 μg/m3. Samples were analyzed for a total of 21 elements. O, C and Si were the most abundant elements accounting for about 85% of the PM10 mass. Source identification showed that the elemental composition of PM10 is represented by post volcanic activity, crustal origin, and anthropogenic sources, caused by the resuspension of crustal material, sea salt and soil dust. The average PM10 composition was 72.10% soil, 20.92% smoke K, 13.84% salt, 1.53% sulfate and 1.02% organic matter. The back-trajectory analysis showed that the majority of PM10 pollution comes from the West, Southwest and South.
... Table 2 specifies that at the urban site the highest PM 10 average concentrations are registered during the wet season days without rain events, as also most of the elements. This result agrees with other studies 58 . This increase in the concentrations of PM 10 and elements during the wet season may be due to an increase in relative humidity (see Table 4), which causes worsened combustion efficiency 37 ; urban dynamics, such as an increase in the acceleration and braking rates, which can raise the pollutant emission rate 25,58 ; and a higher intensity of anthropogenic activity during school period (September-June). ...
... This result agrees with other studies 58 . This increase in the concentrations of PM 10 and elements during the wet season may be due to an increase in relative humidity (see Table 4), which causes worsened combustion efficiency 37 ; urban dynamics, such as an increase in the acceleration and braking rates, which can raise the pollutant emission rate 25,58 ; and a higher intensity of anthropogenic activity during school period (September-June). The latter causes an increase in the use of highly contaminating diesel-powered school buses 39 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Particulate matter (PM) is one of the key pollutants causing health risks worldwide. While the preoccupation for increased concentrations of these particles mainly depends on their sources and thus chemical composition, some regions are yet not well investigated. In this work the composition of chemical elements of atmospheric PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 µm), collected at the urban and suburban sites in high elevation tropical city, were chemically analysed during the dry and wet seasons of 2017–2018. A large fraction (~ 68%) of PM10 composition in Quito, Ecuador is accounted for by water-soluble ions and 16 elements analysed using UV/VIS spectrophotometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma—Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Hierarchical clustering analysis was performed to study a correlation between the chemical composition of urban pollution and meteorological parameters. The suburban area displays an increase in PM10 concentrations and natural elemental markers during the dry (increased wind intensity, resuspension of soil dust) season. Meanwhile, densely urbanized area shows increased total PM10 concentrations and anthropogenic elemental markers during the wet season, which may point to the worsened combustion and traffic conditions. This might indicate the prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory problems in motorized areas of the cities in the developing world.
... The critical points shown in Fig. 2a have common characteristics that favor the presence of PM 2.5 in the microenvironment of the TM system. These factors refer to the high presence of heavy traffic fueled with diesel and with low emissions control (Ramírez, 2018), the nearby industrial corridors and several strategic points for city mobility, where important high traffic avenues meet. ...
... Different studies have shown that diesel vehicles emit 4 times more PM 2.5 than gasoline vehicles (Rojas, 2004). In Bogotá, public buses, TM, and heavy traffic are pow ered by diesel (Ramírez, 2018). Under these conditions, circulating along the ways of the TM system or nearby generates high exposure to PM 2.5 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have shown that public transport users can be exposed to high levels of pollution emitted from their own vehicles and nearby sources. The purpose of this research is to determine the personal exposure of passengers to PM2.5 inside the vehicles of the massive public transport of two of the main and more populated cities of Colombia, Bogotá and Medellín. TM (TransMilenio powered by diesel) and SITVA (electric and gas natural vehicles) were the systems studied. Were evaluated the integration of new vehicles with technologies Euro V and Euro VI in the TM system, the impact of the weekend effect on personal exposure into public transport(TM and SITVA), and the possible differences between personal exposure regarding the ways of the systems(mixed lane or exclusive lane for TM and SITVA). To measure PM2.5 levels, a DustTrak monitor previously calibrated was used. This measurement campaigns lasted for more than 80 hours and a mean of 17000 data of PM2.5 concentrations were obtained for each route. The personal dose was calculated based on the recorded data. The mean PM2.5 concentrations and personal dose found in the research for TM are 167 µg/m³ and 2.3 µg/min, respectively, while, for SITVA they are 41 µg/m³ and 0.53 µg/min, respectively. Therefore, SITVA users have a 5 times lower personal exposure to PM2.5 than TM users. It was also found that due to the poor proportion of new TM vehicles during the monitoring period, the personal exposure in the old vehicles and in the new ones is similar. In the case of SITVA, it was evidenced that the mixed lane contributes to a high personal exposure to PM2.5 than the exclusive one.
... Non-exhaust emissions are currently uncontrolled, despite being a significant source of urban thoracic particles (Amato, 2018). Moreover, they contribute to traffic-related air pollution as much as exhaust emissions (Thorpe and Harrison, 2008;Lawrence et al., 2016;Ramírez et al., 2018). ...
... This is a consequence of population growth, the increase in road traffic, industrial activities, and poor road states (DNP, 2018). Recent studies have highlighted that the resuspension of road dust is one of the main sources of outdoor PM in Colombian cities, as it contributes to up to 23% of the airborne PM 10 mass (Ramírez et al., 2018). The aim of this study is to expand our current knowledge of road dust in a major industrial city in the Colombian Caribbean region (Barranquilla). ...
Article
In this study, inorganic geochemical characterization of the thoracic (or < 10 μm) fraction of road dust in Barranquilla (a major industrial city in the Caribbean region) was conducted. Samples were collected directly from street pavements, and the fraction of particles < 10 μm was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Major elements including Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and S were the most abundant species, accounting for 23 ± 18% of the mass of thoracic particles. Enrichment factor was calculated obtaining that Sb, Sn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe had a dominant anthropogenic influence. An exploratory analysis of morphology and geochemical composition of ultrafine particles was conducted using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). Iron particles were identified as enriched compounds and as a mineral (magnetite). Hazardous ultrafine particles (UFPs, with diameter < 100 nm) such as TiO2 and Pb (agglomerated shape), and V and Ni (almost-spherical carbonaceous particles) were also detected. The braking process was identified as a crucial urban source of thoracic particles and UFPs. The results provide data that can be used to better understand and manage road dust.
... Observational campaigns in Bogotá, Colombia show a persistent OA fraction over the city (e.g. Vargas et al., 2012;Ramírez et al., 2018;Rincón-Riveros et al., 2020). Vargas et al. (2012) suggested that OA was mainly of secondary origin based on EC to OC ratios. ...
... Recently, Rincón-Riveros et al. (2020) showed a strong association between OC and the BB tracer levoglucosan, during the dry season, and a strong correlation of Brown Carbon with the number of fires in the region. Ramírez et al. (2018) characterized PM 10 chemical composition during 1 year at an urban background site in Bogotá. The authors found that carbonaceous material constitutes 51% of PM 10 at the site, with a large OA fraction persistent throughout the year, i.e., not only during the high BB period of January to April. ...
Article
Organic aerosol (OA) is one of the major components of fine atmospheric aerosol particles. Recent field campaigns and modeling studies in Colombia have demonstrated the presence of a large OA fraction in urban and rural aerosols. In this work we focus on constraining the sources associated with OA and its precursors over the city of Bogotá, Colombia. We used PM2.5 chemical speciation data from field campaigns carried out during 2018 to evaluate the ability of a regional transport model to reproduce and explain the observed OA. The samples were collected at three sites during high- and low-aerosol concentration seasons in the region. We used The Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) with two different chemical mechanisms and aerosol schemes, RACM/MADE-VBS and MOZART/MOSAIC, in conjunction with the detailed in-situ aerosol chemical speciation observations to analyze the seasonality of OA in the city of Bogotá, and to establish the most relevant sources. Simulations were carried out for the same periods for which data is available, spanning a high biomass burning (BB) season (February 2018) and a low biomass burning season (September 2018). We demonstrated that long-range transport of BB emissions from Northern Amazonia can episodically increase aerosol loading during September, while BB activity in the Grasslands of the Orinoco River Basin are the main source during February. The two aerosol schemes utilized in this work reproduce the observed seasonal variations in total fine aerosol concentration, with a difference between February and September of 10 μg m⁻³. The comparison between aerosol schemes demonstrated that MOZART/MOSAIC consistently predicted more OA with a larger SOA:OA ratio than in the RACM/MADE-VBS experiment. SOA dominates the OA fraction by 66% for RACM/MADE-VBS and 74% for MOZART/MOSAIC during February and 69% for RACM/MADE-VBS and 71% for MOZART/MOSAIC during September. These differences between organic aerosol burden between the mechanisms used in this study may be attributed to the different treatment of SOA gas/particle partitioning in the schemes.
... In the literature, there are several studies [41][42][43][44][45] that used mathematical models and computational tools, such as The Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) and Chemical mass balance (CMB). These studies have demonstrated that the chemical elements determined by spectroanalytical techniques that compose of airborne particulate matter collected in various cities around the world, come from different sources. ...
... vehicular emissions or industries) or natural processes (resuspension of soils), regardless of the seasons (autumn, winter, spring and summer) or periods (rainy and dry) of the year. For example, Bernardoni et al. [41] verified that in summer the high concentration of Al and Ca has as main source of origin the resuspension of dust, vehicular emissions, industry and construction works and in the winter, the Fe, K, Zn of vehicular traffic and wood fires; Ramírez et al. [44] verified that the rainy season had high concentrations of Al, Ca and Fe that were associated with fugitive dust, road dust and vehicular emissions. ...
Article
Chemical composition of PM10 was studied during the period of 2014–2015 in the city of São Carlos, Brazil (‘Dos Voluntários’ Square). PM10 samples were directly analysed by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence – WD-XRF (Al, Ca, Ce, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, P, S, Si, Ti, V, and Zn), and by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy – LIBS (Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si and Ti) both for qualitative purposes. For quantitative analysis of Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Na, S, and Zn, the analytes were extracted from samples of PM10 collected, in filters of glass fibre, with an extractive acid solution (HNO3 and HCl) and determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry – ICP OES. Spatial variations of elemental concentrations (ng m–³) were significantly higher in winter Al (19.0), Ba (13.6), Ca (20.0), Na (27.0), S (37.1), and Zn (9.5), autumn showed the highest concentration of Na (26.4), spring showed the highest concentration of Fe (11.6), K (13.1) and also S (25.3) and summer did not show a high concentration in the comparison between the seasons at the site. Using principal component analysis (PCA), as a data interpretation tool, with the data obtained by the WD-XRF and LIBS it was not possible to obtain a good correlation, but with the data of ICP OES, it was possible to verify correlations between identified and determinate elements, with samples collected in the autumn, winter, spring and summer seasons in the city of São Carlos. These associated analytical techniques were excellent tools in environmental monitoring, through the analysis of PM10 samples, presenting reliable and efficiency strategy, and based on the PCA and the EF equation was possible to draw the profile of the possible origins of these elements in the city.
... mainly deterministic, stochastic or a mix between both -hybrid) (Kumar et al., 2016;Méndez-Espinosa et al., 2017;Nedbor-Gross et al., 2018;Zárate et al., 2007), followed by experimental (i.e. superficial and atmospheric field campaigns) (Morales Betancourt et al., 2017;Guevara-Luna et al., 2018;Ramírez et al., 2018a;Vargas et al., 2012), and probabilitystatistics (Franceschi et al., 2018;Melgarejo et al., 2015;Zafra et al., 2017). The deterministic models have been the most suitable to understand the physical and chemical processes of pollutants mathematically. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Biomass burning emissions have a substantial impact on regional air quality and climate. The region of Amazonia in South America has long been identified as one of the largest contributors to short-lived pollutants globally. However, massive natural wildfires and agricultural burns also occur every year in the grassland plains of Northern South America during the dry season (November to April). The regional-scale air quality impact of these biomass burning emissions has not been studied in-depth and is analyzed in this study. This research has been established in two chapters. In chapter 1 of this document, we used PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations from three large urban areas: Bogotá, Medellín, and Bucaramanga, for the period 2006-2016. CO data was only available for the city of Bogotá for the analysis period. The spatiotemporal distribution of fires was obtained from MODIS Active Fire Data. The back-trajectories of air masses reaching the receptor sites were computed with two different meteorological datasets. Radiosonde data, available only for Bogotá, was used to account for local meteorological factors impacting pollution dispersion. A novel analysis algorithm was developed to combine active fire data with back-trajectory locations to select those active fires in the vicinity of the air masses arriving at each city. This analysis allows the selection of only those fires that can be causally related to the air quality in the selected locations. We show that anomalously high PM and CO levels occurred when air masses originated from the Orinoco grasslands during the times when the largest number of fires in the region were active. Also, statistical techniques were executed to analyses the association between the related number of fires and these pollutants. In chapter 2, novel statistical classification methods are explored to separate the effect of local vs. regional variables affecting the concentration of air pollutants in the city.
... EC accounted for 5% of total PM 2.5 for the observation period. These results are consistent with published studies on PM 10 composition in the city, which has been shown to have strong presence of OC and EC (e.g., Ramírez et al., 2018aRamírez et al., , 2018b. It is likely that the actual EC fraction is higher within the urban area of Bogotá, as both sampling sites are located outside the urban perimeter. ...
Article
Biomass burning (BB) emissions significantly deteriorate air quality in many regions worldwide, impact human health and perturbing Earth's radiation budget and climate. South America is one of largest contributors to BB emissions globally. After Amazonia, BB emissions from open and agricultural fires of Northern South America (NSA) are the most significant. Recent evidence shows a strong correlation between fire counts in NSA and Brown Carbon in some Colombian cities, suggesting a substantial seasonal contribution of regional BB sources to air pollution levels in the densely populated areas of NSA. In this work we use the atmospheric regional chemical transport model WRF-Chem to assess the contribution of open BB events to pollutant concentration and to estimate potential health impacts associated with wildfire events in NSA. Three nested domains are used to simulate atmospheric composition in the Northern part of South America and the Caribbean. Simulations included biogenic and anthropogenic emissions from a global emission inventory merged with local emissions for the city of Bogotá. Two modelling scenarios were considered, a base case without BB emissions (NO_FIRE) and a sensitivity scenario with BB emissions. Simulations were carried out for periods of strong BB activity in NSA. In the NO_FIRE scenario, aerosol concentrations are unrealistically low. When BB is included background PM2.5 concentrations increase 80%. The increment in aerosol concentrations is mainly driven by Secondary Organic Aerosols. In the case of Bogotá, the most densely populated city in the domain, monthly mean increases in PM2.5 is 3.3 μg m⁻³ and 4.3 ppb for O3. Modeled meteorological and air pollution fields are in better agreement with observations when high spatial resolution (3 × 3 km) is used in the simulations. The total estimated short-term all-cause mortality associated to BB during February in the region is 171 cases, 88 PM2.5-related and 83 O3-related mortality.
... Bogotá is the capital of Colombia and one of the largest cities in Latin America. As with other cities in the region, Bogotá has high vehicular congestion and low air quality (Zhu et al., 2012;UNEP, 2016;Ramírez et al., 2018a;Mura et al., 2020). High emissions from heavy vehicles and motorcycles typically occur in urban areas. ...
Article
Bogotá is a leading city with regard to urban cycling infrastructure in Latin America. This study evaluated cyclist exposure to particle-related air pollution on selected bicycle lanes in Bogotá. We provide new data on cyclist inhalation rates and the chemical composition of ambient particulate matter. We measured real-time concentrations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) on two different bicycles lanes. Cyclist exposure to PM2.5 and BC ranged between 10.5 and 36.0 μg/m3 and 4.5 and 7.9 μg/m3, respectively. The highest exposure was measured on bicycle lanes adjacent to roads with major vehicular traffic. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations by a gravimetric method using a fixed monitoring point located in one of the bicycle stretches. The chemical composition of PM2.5 showed high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Mg, with mean values ranging from 63 ng/m3 to 286 ng/m3. The detected trace elements were Cu, Zn, and Ba at concentrations exceeding 10 ng/m3. Our results highlight the influence of traffic emissions (direct emissions and PM resuspension) on cyclist exposure to hazardous air pollutants (such as PM2.5 and BC). Our findings emphasize the need to consider air quality in the urban planning and implementing of cycling infrastructure.
... In general terms, the effects that PM 10 can produce are very diverse due to the variability on their chemical composition (Rengarajan et al., 2011;Ramirez et al., 2018;Islam et al., 2019Islam et al., , 2020Rabha and Saikia, 2020), granulometry (Artinano et al., 2003;De Berardis et al., 2007) and even morphology (Shen et al., 2016: Murari et al., 2016Morillas et al., 2019). According to the literature, some epidemiological studies suggest a direct relationship between PM 10 and daily deaths and hospitalizations (Carugno et al., 2016) due to pulmonary (Cheng et al., 2019) and cardiovascular diseases (Sicard et al., 2019). ...
Article
Speciation of respirable particles is becoming increasingly important from an epidemiological and analytical point of view to determine the potential effects of air pollution on human health. For this reason, current laws and analytical sampling methods focus on particle size, as it turns out to be the main factor for the greater or lesser penetration into the airways. In this sense, particles of less than 10 micrometers in diameter (<10 μm), referred to as PM10, are the particles that have a higher capacity for access to the respiratory tract and, therefore, more significant effect on them. In this sense, one of the most important factors that have a key role in the PM10 atmospheric pollution effect is the dispersion effect with the direct influence of natural effects such as wind, rain, topography apart from others. In this work, PM10 data extracted from the Basque Government environmental stations (19 sampling points) in the Biscay province (Basque Country, north of Spain) were combined with the results obtained from the use of self-made passive samplers (SMPS) in the same sampling points areas and subsequently, the sample analysis with a non-invasive elemental technique (Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry) was carried out. Thanks to this methodology, it was possible to determine a wide variety of metals in PM10 such as Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ti, etc.. Most of them present as oxides and others as apart of natural aggregations such as quartz, aluminosilicates, phosphates etc.
... PM 10 is the most significant air pollutant in Bogotá [9]. Annual average PM 10 levels for Bogotá range from 9.89 μg/m 3 to 160 μg/m 3 with peaks in the months of March and April. ...
... Solid particles' input to the snow cover is due to precipitation from the atmosphere, DISs application on roads, blowing of road dust and soils particles from snow-free areas, and spraying of mud sediment from the surface of roadways during snow melting. Resuspended road dust is reported to be one of the most important sources of microparticles in the atmosphere; for example, in Bogota, it supplies about 23% of the mass of PM 10 particles [101] and in the USA, more than a half of PM 10 and about a quarter of PM 2.5 particles [102]. In Paris, the contributions of road dust emissions were estimated to be 13% of atmospheric PM 10 , while the sum of vehicle exhaust and wear accounted for 47% of PM 10 [103]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Concentrations and ratio of dissolved and suspended forms of metals and metalloids (MMs) in snow cover and their deposition rates from the atmosphere in the western part of Moscow were studied. Forms of MMs were separated using a filter with pore diameter of 0.45 μm; their concentrations were measured by ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Anthropogenic impact in Moscow caused a significant increase in dust load (2–7 times), concentration of solid particles in snow cover (2–5 times), and mineralization of snow meltwater (5–18 times) compared to the background level. Urban snow contains Sn, Ti, Bi, Al, W, Fe, Pb, V, Cr, Rb, Mo, Mn, As, Co, Cu, Ba, Sb, Mg mainly in suspended form, and Ca and Na in dissolved form. The role of suspended MMs in the city significantly increases compared to the background region due to high dust load, usage of de-icing salts, and the change of acidic background conditions to alkaline ones. Anthropogenic emissions are the main sources of suspended Ca, W, Co, V, Sr, Ti, Mg, Na, Mo, Zn, Fe, Sb, and Cu in the snow cover of traffic zone. These elements’ concentrations in roadside snow cover exceed the background values more than 25 times. The highest concentrations and deposition rates of MMs in the snow of Moscow are localized near the large and medium roads.
... Current RDS surveys can promote the development of temporal data by providing information on the sites in the survey. Seasonal events including firework displays ) and forest fires (Ramirez et al. 2018) may also influence the results, as well as rain (Chon et al. 1998) and snow (Stojiljkovic et al. 2019). Therefore, RDS should be surveyed after a period of dry weather at a time when atmospheric pollutant loadings are normal for that region. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The proportion of people living in urbanised areas is predicted to rise to > 65% by 2050, and therefore, more humans than ever will be exposed to urban environmental pollution. Accumulation of organic and inorganic substances on street and road surfaces is a major global challenge requiring scientifically robust methods of establishing risk that inform management strategies. This aim of this contribution is to critically review the global literature on urban road–deposited sediment contamination with a specific focus on variability in sampling and analytical methods. Materials and methods In order to assess the concentration of contaminants in global road-deposited sediment (RDS), a comprehensive search of published RDS studies was completed. We review methodological approaches used in RDS studies to highlight the variability in datasets as a result of sampling technique, grain size fractionation, geochemical and mineralogical characterisation methods and establishing the influence of local geology on contaminant concentrations. We also consider emerging contaminants in RDS, and we provide a workflow diagram which promotes a standardised sampling and analysis regime that we believe can reduce data variability and promote collaboration when it comes to tackling the important issue of RDS contamination. Results and discussion Across the literature, Asia (except China) and Africa are underrepresented in RDS studies despite these continents having the largest and fastest growing populations, respectively. The removal of tetraethyl lead from gasoline produced a noticeable decrease in lead concentrations in global RDS, and platinum group element (PGE) concentrations in RDS were consistent with catalytic converter usage. Research into the impact of electric vehicles on non-exhaust emissions suggests other contaminants such as zinc may become more prominent in the future. Most RDS studies consider grain size fractions larger than > 20 μm due to sampling constraints despite RDS < 20 μm being most relevant to human health. The use of chemical extraction methods to establish contaminant geochemistry is popular; however, most extraction procedures are not relevant or specific to minerals identified in RDS through microscopic and spectroscopic investigations. Conclusions This review highlights considerable variability in sampling and analytical approach which makes it difficult to identify broad global patterns in RDS contamination. To remove this variability from future RDS research, this review suggests a workflow plan which attempts to improve the comparability between RDS studies. Such comparability is crucial in identifying more discrete RDS trends and informing future emission policy.
... Adicionalmente, las variables climáticas asociadas con estos episodios extremos fueron en el caso del O3 las temperaturas mayores a la media (14,(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)8 °C) y elevados valores de radiación solar (178-211 W/m 2 ); las cuales tuvieron una relación directa con las concentraciones máximas de O3. Lo anterior posiblemente debido a que fueron catalizadores para la formación de este contaminante [17] [12]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research aimed to analyze time series of PM2.5, PM10 and O3 in Bogotá city (Colombia) using ARIMA models to assess their geographical distribution and determine activation periods of extreme episodes of air pollution. The geographic behavior of pollutants from the ARIMA structure was studied and atypical concentration values were detected, which will be analyzed with respect to Colombian regulations and the climatic conditions that favor their occurrence. Models suggest a sectorization of the concentration levels of pollutants in the city (north, center, and south). The periods with greater susceptibility to exceed the daily limit are recorded between 6-10 a.m. for PM2.5-10 and between 11 a.m.-4 p.m. for O3. On a monthly basis it is presented in January, February, and March. Wind direction from the southwest of the city had the greatest influence on the extreme pollution episodes.
... In general, concentration of metals in dust from large urban population centers, as well as the environmental and health consequences, is an issue that has been extensively studied (Huang et al. 2018;Najmeddin et al. 2018;Ramirez et al. 2018). In the case of rural areas, the knowledge is limited compared to large cities, most likely due to the scarce anthropogenic contaminant sources in rural areas (e.g., vehicular traffic, industrial zones, construction, municipal waste incineration). ...
Article
Abandoned mine tailings are considered as one of the main sources of potentially toxic elements. Because of the lack of supervision, particularly from small-scale or artisanal mining, abandoned tailings have become part of the natural landscape, especially in rural areas from developing countries. Abandoned mine tailings represent a latent problem in terms of the possible affectations to human health and the environment. An example of this is the small-sized (~ 200 × ~ 300 m) abandoned mine tailings located ~ 500 m south of San Felipe de Jesus town, Sonora, in northwestern Mexico. The mineralogy determined in mine tailings samples consists of divalent hydrated metal sulfates (rozenite, starkeyite, kieserite, szomolnokite and epsomite), trivalent hydrated metal sulfates (coquimbite) and divalent-trivalent hydrated sulfates (copiapite), which are highly soluble efflorescent minerals associated with acid mine drainage. Rozenite was detected in road dust samples, evidencing that dust is dispersed and transported from abandoned residues. In order to assess the possible impact of the tailings (un-oxidized, oxidized, efflorescent minerals), concentrations of potentially toxic elements (total and soluble fractions) in samples from mine tailings, unpaved road soils and road dust from San Felipe de Jesús were determined. Average concentrations (ppm) of potential toxic elements in mine tailings samples ranged from 16,756–1306 (As), 665–98 (Cd), 5691–338 (Cu), 14,162–832 (Pb), 492–82 (Sb), 176,219–8285 (Zn). Enrichment factors determined in mine tailings, agricultural soils and road dust exhibit similar patterns, differing only in level of enrichment, which also confirms the dispersion of potentially toxic elements toward surroundings. Contamination Index (CI) and Hazard Average Quotient (HAQ) were calculated in mine tailings to assess potential contamination associated with potentially toxic elements dispersed by aeolian and/or hydric processes, respectively. The CI values suggest that mine tailing materials have a high potential for polluting soils and sediments. Semi-arid conditions of the region favor the suspension and transport of contaminants, potentially affecting surrounding agricultural fields and population. The HAQ values from efflorescence minerals and mine tailings indicate that potential of toxicity is very high, and might affect the quality of water (groundwater and surficial) in the region. CI and HAQ can provide a good estimation of pollution hazards associated with the abandoned mine tailings in the San Felipe de Jesús area.
... For instance, the PM 10 emission factor from wear between pavements and tires is of the order of 2 mg/km per vehicle (Alves et al., 2020a). At the same time, resuspended road dust can be one of the most important sources of microparticles in the atmosphere; for example, in Bogota, it supplies about 23% of the mass of PM 10 particles (Ramírez et al., 2018) and in the USA, more than a half of PM 10 and about a quarter of PM 2.5 particles (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2020). This is especially true for cities with a high density of road network and large areas sealed under road pavements . ...
Article
For the first time, the contents of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in road dust and in its PM10 fraction were studied in Moscow from June 09 to July 30, 2017 on roads with different traffic intensities, inside courtyards with parking lots, and on pedestrian walkways in parks. The contents of PTEs in road dust and PM10 fraction were analyzed by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The main pollutants of road dust and its PM10 fraction included Sb, Zn, W, Sn, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Mo. PM10 was a major carrier of W, Bi, Sb, Zn, Sn (accounts for >65% of their total contents in road dust); Cu (>50%); and Cd, Pb, Mo, Co, Ni (30–50%). PM10 fraction was 1.2–6.4 times more polluted with PTEs than bulk samples. Resuspension of roadside soil particles accounted for 34% of the mass of PTEs in road dust and for 64% in the PM10 fraction. Other important sources of PTEs were non-exhaust vehicles emissions (~ 20% for dust and ~14% for PM10) and industrial emissions (~20% and ~6%). The road dust and PM10 particles were most contaminated in the central part of the city due to the large number of cars and traffic congestions. Local anomalies of individual PTEs were observed near industrial zones mainly in the west, south, and southeast of Moscow. In the yards of residential buildings the total enrichment of road dust and PM10 with PTEs was only 1.1–1.5 times lower than that on major roads which poses a serious danger to the population spending a significant part of their lives in residential areas. The spatial pattern of the PTEs distribution in road dust and its PM10 fraction should assist in more efficient planning of washing and mechanical cleaning of the road surface from dust to minimize the risk to public health.
... Another relationship that provides information about the presence of SOA is the OC vs EC correlation (Chow et al. 2002, Mugica et al. 2009, Guzmán-Torres et al. 2009, Ramírez et al. 2018; if OC and EC came from the same emission source, it would be expected that both species were correlated. Calculated values of TC/EC ranged between 2.29 (1.3) and 20 (16) with a median value of 8.95 (0.93), suggesting a significant contribution of OC due to SOA formation. ...
Article
Full-text available
A study of elemental composition of PM2.5 samples collected at the main campus of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, comprising data from 2015, 2016, and 2019, is described. X-ray fluorescence analysis was employed to measure concentrations of up to 19 elements, complemented with ion chromatography for eight ionic species (for samples of 2015 and 2016), and thermo-optical analysis for organic and elemental carbon (for samples of 2015). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to develop receptor models for each year, to identify polluting sources and their contributions to total mass. Five sources were identified in every case. With the aid of PMF, the influence of biomass burning on a major episode in May, 2019, was recognized. Comparisons with previous studies in this or nearby sites are also presented. It should be noted that only limited compositional data in this site are available since 2005 for the aerosol fine fraction.
... Firstly, a year-long study performed in 2015-2016 quantified Elemental Carbon (EC) in PM 10 samples collected at an urban background location in the city of Bogotá Fig. 1). (Ramírez et al., 2018). Annual mean EC concentration was ± 3.25 1.59 − μg m 3 , corresponding to 8.7% of PM 10 . ...
Article
This work documents the extremely high concentrations of fine aerosol particles (PM2.5), equivalent black carbon (eBC) and carbon monoxide (CO) experienced by commuters in one of the world largest Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems, located in Bogotá, Colombia. A strong relationship between vehicle emissions standard and in-vehicle concentrations was established. Extensive measurements of PM2.5, eBC, and CO were carried out inside the system buses and stations. Measurements were performed during eleven months covering all the system lanes and a significant fraction of the bus fleet and stations. Based on the observed in-bus and in-station concentrations, travel times, and urban ambient levels, the contribution of a typical round trip in the BRT system to the daily inhaled dose was estimated to be 60% for PM2.5, and between 79% and 90% for eBC. The mean PM2.5 dose inhaled by commuters in a typical round trip in the system is 1.2 times the dose a subject would inhale over 24 h exposed to WHO guideline of 25 μg m−3 . In 52 out of 180 buses sampled the mean in-cabin concentration of eBC was in excess of 100 μg m−3 . Measurements show that mean ratio of in-bus to urban ambient concentration is 8:1 for PM2.5 and 4:1 for CO. These ratios were observed to be much larger when traveling inside the older fraction of the BRT fleet, reaching 11:1 and 7:1 for PM2.5 and CO respectively. These older buses consist exclusively of Euro II and Euro III nominal emission standard vehicles. Average exposure levels inside Euro II and III buses was twice as large as those measured inside vehicles with stricter emission standards, Euro IV or superior. Overall, the measurements suggest that the entrainment of polluted pockets of air to the semi enclosed micro-environments in the system, namely, buses and stations, explains the extreme observed exposure concentrations. Measurements inside an underground bus-station where traffic is restricted to only BRT buses, and on-board a zero emission fully electric BRT bus suggested most of the pollution in the system comes from entrainment of the exhaust of the diesel-powered BRT buses. The significantly lower exposure and inhaled dose of PM2.5, eBC, and CO observed for commuters in newer vehicles suggests that a fleet renewal could have a disproportionately large impact on reducing population exposure to air pollutants. The extent of the reduction in exposure and inhaled dose through fleet renewal is proportional to the gradient of inbus to urban ambient air pollution levels
... The sampling site is considered an urban background site since several sources contribute to the emission of PAHs with no source dominating over the other. [18][19][20][21][22][23] The sampling site is embarked by the Mediterranean coastal road 100 m west, by Bliss Street 200 m east and it is 4.2 km far from Beirut harbor. The sampling site is surrounded from all sides by campus parking, pedestrian small roads and a highway that gets crowded by traffic from the schools close to AUB. ...
Article
Ambient particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected for one year at an urban background site, and spatially and temporally compared to yearly averages in three coastal cities in Lebanon. The samples were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and source apportioned with an optimized robust method using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three major sources were found to contribute to PAH emissions at the urban background site, namely, traffic (48%), diesel generators (23%), and incineration (29%). The cancer risk was found higher than what was measured at the same site in previous years with an increase of 35%. Improper regulations of the sources (incineration, power plant, diesel generators and traffic) identified in the different sites resulted in PAH intraurban variability. It is essential to study the chemical components of particulate matter (PM) in order to assess toxicity. In particular, particle-bound PAHs and their oxidation products are known for their carcinogenicity as well as their persistence in the atmosphere, which facilitate their transport to new locations. In the absence of law enforcement, unregulated sources and their total contribution to ambient PAHs present a major health risk. This calls for the attention of development funding agencies and their need to implement sustainable "carbon-free" funding strategies in support of urban development of low and middle-income countries (LMICs).
... To the best of the present author's knowledge, only a few studies have reported on the sources and formation of EPFRs in atmospheric particulate matter, and these have indicated a high risk associated health problems (Gehling and Dellinger, 2013;Chen et al., 2020). Such studies have further indicated that road dust contributed were 21-31%, 11-31%, 6-16% and 7% to PM 2.5 at the traffic, urban background, urban-industrial and rural sites, respectively, while the corresponding values for PM 10 were 21-35%, 29-34%, 17-22% and 9-22% (Amato et al., 2014a(Amato et al., , 2014bRamírez et al., 2018). Nevertheless, studies on the contributions of anthropogenic and natural sources towards EPFRs in road dust remain limited. ...
Article
The partitioning of pollutants in the size-fractions of road dust particles is extremely important to their migration and bioavailability in the air environment. Herein, the pollution characteristics and sources of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Ni) and environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are investigated in 64 samples of mixed particle-size road dust in four size fractions (> 250 μm, 150–250 μm, 75–150 μm, <75 μm). The samples were collected from urban arterial roads of three cities in the core of Central Plains Urban Agglomeration. The results indicate that 67.70% of the road dust (by mass) consist of the <75 μm particles size fraction, and that the highest levels of EPFRs and heavy metals are concentrated in the <150 μm in the <75 μm size fractions. In addition, Cd exhibits extremely high average enrichment factors (EFs) of 51.84 in the 75–150 μm fraction and 64.80 in the <75 μm fraction. Further analysis reveals a remarkable correlation between EPFR concentration and the concentrations Zn and Cr in the road dust. An application of principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) to the regional investigation and the layout of functional zones demonstrates that Cr, Pb, Zn and EPFRs are mainly derived from traffic emissions, and account for 51.45–77.86% of the fine particle fraction (<150 μm). Meanwhile, industrial activities are identified as the primary source of Cd and Cu, accounting for 63.07–76.22% of the <150 μm particle size fraction. These findings suggest a potential risk of EPFRs and heavy metals in fine particulate matter, and provide a new insight into the potential sources and health risks of EPFRs in road dust. Therefore, further studies are needed in order to explore the EPFRs in fine particulate particles and to assess their effects upon human health.
... The chemical composition and size distribution of PM 10 vary greatly depending on the origin and the formation processes in the atmosphere. Chemical analyses of the components constituting PM 10 indicate a large variety of different substances, including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water soluble compounds, such as sulfate (SO 4 2− ), chloride (Cl − ), nitrate (NO 3 − ), ammonium (NH 4 + ), and also minerals and metals [6][7][8][9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The old Swedish city Visby, located on the island Gotland, has, for several years, reported higher PM10 concentrations than any other city in Sweden. In Visby, local limestone is used, both in road paving and as sand used for anti-slip measures, resulting in a clear annual pattern of PM10 with the highest concentrations during winter/spring when studded tires are allowed. This study analyzes the short-term associations between PM10 and daily number of patients with acute respiratory problems (ICD-10 diagnoses: J00-J99) seeking care at the hospital or primary healthcare units in Visby during the period of 2013-2019. The daily mean of PM10 was on average 45 µg m-3 during winter/spring and 18 µg m-3 during summer/autumn. Four outcome categories were analyzed using quasi-Poisson regression models, stratifying for period and adjusting for calendar variables and weather. An increase in respiratory visits was associated with increasing concentrations in PM10 during the summer/autumn period, most prominent among children, where asthma visits increased by 5% (95% CI: 2-9%) per 10 µg m-3 increase in PM10. For the winter/spring period, no significant effects were observed, except for the diagnose group 'upper airways' in adults, where respiratory visits increased by 1% (95% CI: 0.1-1.9%) per 10 µg m-3 increase. According to the results, limestone in particles seem to be relatively harmless at the exposure concentrations observed in Visby, and this is in line with the results from a few experimental and occupational studies.
... This sector has an intensive use of fossil fuels for goods production and transportation. The industries are located both within the urban area and at nearby municipalities, generating land-use and environmental conflicts [28]. Frequently, PM exceeds national air quality standards in the southern and western areas of the city, given the emission sources, and local and meteorological conditions [24]. ...
Chapter
Road dust (RD) is one of the most important sources of particles in the atmosphere, especially in industrial areas and cities. In this special issue, we collected 16 original articles that describe field, experimental, and modeling studies related to RD and its various size fractions as a key issue in understanding the relationships between several urban and industrial environments and in the identification of pollution sources. Articles in the special issue focus primarily on the following main topics: (1) study of the chemical composition and speciation of RD and its source attribution; (2) assessment of RD and aerosol pollution levels (including express technique), environmental hazards and public health risks; (3) distribution of stable and radioactive isotopes in RD; (4) determination of factors affecting the level of dust accumulation on roads and the intensity of its pollution; and (5) study of the effect of RD on the atmosphere and other environments. Based on the results presented in this special issue, but not limited to, some of the current challenges in studying RD are formulated, including the need for further geographically wider and analytically deeper work on various aspects of the formation, transport pathways, and accumulation of RD in urban, industrial and other areas.
... Recently, Safai et al. (2014) proposed the concept of ECR to obtain a better association between atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols and climate change. This approach has been widely used in previous studies (Safai et al., 2014;Singh et al., 2016;Pipal and Satsangi, 2015;Ramírez et al., 2018a;Pani et al., 2019). Fig. 7 shows the monthly ECR values, which were calculated using Eq. ...
Article
Full-text available
Carbonaceous material is an important component of atmospheric aerosol particles, which plays a significant role in air quality and climate, and also has potentially negative impacts on human health. There is a lack of data reported in the literature regarding the carbonaceous fraction of aerosol in the North-West European ‘air pollution hotspot’ and this work reports a comprehensive one-year intensive measurement campaign, where organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) fractions of PM10 (particulate matter of diameter ≤ 10 μm) were measured. Owing to the importance of carbonaceous aerosols in understanding particulate pollution sources, ~2000 PM10 samples were simultaneously collected across North-West Europe at four urban background sites located in Amsterdam (AD), Antwerp (AP), Leicester (LE) and Lille (LL), and one industrial site at Wijk aan Zee (WZ). PM10 samples were chemically analysed by OC-EC analyser for carbonaceous species (OC, and EC) and trends were identified. OC accounted for 12.8%, 13.9%, 15.3%, 15.1% and 9.8%, and EC accounted for 2.4%, 4.9%, 4.4%, 4.0%, and 2.4% of total PM10 mass for AD, AP, LE, LL and WZ, respectively. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) contributions were higher in warmer months compared to colder months, and SOC concentration levels were similar at all five locations, with SOC contributing more than primary organic aerosol (POC) in each city. The lower effective carbon ratio (ECR) values (≤0.3) at all five sites in October, November, and February can be attributed to higher combined POC and EC concentrations and lesser contributions from SOC, meaning that SOC with a greater relative formation has a greater tendency to disperse solar radiation. Higher ECR values in April, May, and July, on the other hand, indicate that more absorbing types of carbonaceous aerosols are also present. More than 90% of the air-mass trajectories were from the north and northeast. This paper details atmospheric processes and sources influencing the seasonal variability of the carbonaceous components of PM10.
... The highest values, which exceed more than twice the limit established in Colombian regulations, correspond to an area close to a mass transportation main line and to 6 main roads associated with an industrial area with high traffic flow, in which wind also converges and subsequently drags pollutants to the place [86]. However, in a following study [87] an annual average level of 0.025 μg/m3 and a daily maximum of 1.48 μg/m3 were identified, associated with high-temperature industrial emissions, such as those coming from metallurgical processes, fossil fuel combustion, incineration of industrial waste, and industries related to steel, ceramics, glass, and paint manufacturing. On the other hand, in the department of La Guajira, lead concentrations were evaluated in daily samplings of PM10 and PST in a high vehicular traffic area in the city of Rioacha, with average values of 7.9 and 4.1 ng/m³; far below the limit established for daily exposure [89]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this paper is to present a review of specific cases that reported lead concentrations in blood, objects, food, soil, bioindicators, air, and water in specific places in Colombia and evaluate the reported concentrations against target values. Materials and Methods: A systematic qualitative literature review of publications between 1995 and 2019 was done; using Boolean operators 1571 papers were identified, to which 3 inclusion and 4 exclusion criteria were applied. A total of 57 studies met the defined criteria. The reports in these studies were geo-localized and compared with acceptable values. Results and Discussion: Results suggest that lead is present in all environmental matrices, widely distributed in the Colombian territory, and that 72 % of the cases exceeded regulation limits. The percentage of noncompliance per environmental matrix was 89 % for blood samples, 71 % in food, 63 %, in soil, 89 % for bioindicators, 60 % for air, and 55 % for water. Conclusion: These results show that lead pollution is a large-scale problem in the country, more systematic studies are needed, and control measures, policy-making and regulatory updating should be pursued.
... Depending on source and site, PM may have different physical and chemical properties; common components of PM include sulphates, nitrates, ammonium, inorganic ions, organic or inorganic carbon, crustal matter, water, metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Moreover, PM may act as carrier for biological pollutants, such as allergens and microbes (Adams et al., 2015;Cesari et al., 2018;Hama et al., 2018;Ramírez et al., 2018). PM includes particles small enough to enter the thoracic area of the respiratory system, with well documented effects on human health. ...
Article
This study aims to evaluate and quantify the environmental, health, and economic benefits due to the penetration of electric vehicles in the fleet composition by replacing conventional vehicles in an urban area. This study has been performed for the city of Turin, where road transport represents one of the main primary emission sources. Air pollution data were evaluated by ADMS-Roads, the flow traffic data used for simulation come from a real-time monitoring. Instead, statistics on mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were collected from the regional health information system and the National Health Institute and implemented in the BenMap software to evaluate the health and economic impacts. In both cases, two scenarios to evaluate the annual benefits of reducing PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 were used: reduction to the levels gained by the assumptions of 2025 and 2030 Scenario and the PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations were considered for evaluating short-term and long-term effects. The analysis performed doesn't include background pollution levels, i.e. the concentrations percentage reductions are only related to the local contribution, therefore derived from the contribution only of traffic source. The results show that fleet electrification has a potential benefit for concentrations reduction in comparison to the base Scenario, especially related to NO2, less for PM10 and PM2.5. Regarding 2025 Scenario (4 % (passenger car) and 5 % (light-duty vehicles) electric vehicles), reductions of 52 % of NO2, 35 % of PM10 and 49 % of PM2.5 are observed. Meanwhile, as regards 2030 Scenario reductions of 87 % of NO2, 36 % of PM10 and 50 % of PM2.5 are reached. Also, in terms of social costs a decrease of 47 % for the 2025 Scenario and 66 % for the 2030 Scenario in comparison to the base Scenario is arise.
... This sector has an intensive use of fossil fuels for goods production and transportation. The industries are located both within the urban area and at nearby municipalities, generating land-use and environmental conflicts [28]. Frequently, PM exceeds national air quality standards in the southern and western areas of the city, given the emission sources, and local and meteorological conditions [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Road dust (RD) resuspension is one of the main sources of particulate matter in cities with adverse impacts on air quality, health, and climate. Studies on the variability of the deposited PM10 fraction of RD (RD10) have been limited in Latin America, whereby our understanding of the central factors that control this pollutant remains incomplete. In this study, forty-one RD10 samples were collected in two Andean cities (Bogotá and Manizales) and analyzed for ions, minerals, and trace elements. RD10 levels varied between 1.8–45.7 mg/m2, with an average of 11.8 mg/m2, in Bogotá and between 0.8–26.7 mg/m2, with an average of 5.7 mg/m2, in Manizales. Minerals were the most abundant species in both cities, with a fraction significantly larger in Manizales (38%) than Bogotá (9%). The difference could be explained mainly by the complex topography and the composition of soil derived from volcanic ash in Manizales. The volcanic activity was also associated with SO4⁻2 and Clˉ. Enrichment factors and principal component analysis were conducted to explore potential factors associated to sources of RD10. Elements such as Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, V, Sb, and Mo were mainly associated with exhaust and non-exhaust traffic emissions.
... Ambient PM is a complex mixture of different chemical species that have been associated with distinct health impacts (Amato et al. 2018;Sardar et al. 2005;Watson et al. 1994). Specific PM components including redox active metals (e.g., V, Mn, Ni, and Cu), carbonaceous species (e.g., elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been consistently linked with the PM oxidative potential (Cheung et al. 2012;Chiara et al. 2018aChiara et al. , 2018bDaher et al. 2014;Kleinman et al. 2005). ...
Article
In this study, we employed Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multi-Linear Regression (MLR) to identify the most significant sources contributing to the toxicity of PM10 in the city center of Riyadh. PM10 samples were collected using a medium-volume air sampler during cool (December 2019–March 2020) and warm (May 2020–August 2020) seasons, including dust and non-dust events. The collected filters were analyzed for their chemical components (i.e., watersoluble ions, metals, and trace elements) as well as oxidative potential and elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) contents. Our measurements revealed comparable extrinsic oxidative potential (P-value = 0.30) during the warm (1.2 ± 0.1 nmol/min-m3) and cool (1.1 ± 0.1 nmol/min-m3) periods. Moreover, we observed higher extrinsic oxidative potential of PM10 samples collected during dust events (~30% increase) compared to non-dust samples. Our PCA-MLR analysis identified soil and resuspended dust, secondary aerosol (SA), local industrial activities and petroleum refineries, and traffic emissions as the four sources contributing to the ambient PM10 oxidative potential in central Riyadh. Soil and resuspended dust were the major source contributing to the oxidative potential of ambient PM10, accounting for 31% of the total oxidative potential. Secondary aerosols (SA) were the next important source of PM10 toxicity in the area as they contributed to about 20% of the PM10 oxidative potential. Results of this study revealed the major role of soil and resuspended road dust on PM10 toxicity and can be helpful in adopting targeted air quality policies to reduce the population exposure to PM10.
... Zn could be released to the environment by iron/steel industry emissions (Bourliva et al., 2018). The significant amount of Zn and Cu appearing in this factor were associated with industrial sources at high temperatures, such as metallurgical activities, especially galvanization industry for Zn (Begum et al., 2011;Ramírez et al., 2018). Cu is one of the most widely used metallic materials (Jin et al., 2019b). ...
Article
A total of 32 atmospheric depositions (ADs) samples were collected from eight sampling sites from April 2018 to March 2019 in the Tehran megacity. Elemental concentration, pollution characteristics, ecological and human health risks, and source apportionment of ADs in the < 63 μm fraction were investigated. Descriptive statistical analysis revealed that the average concentration of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu had the highest values over the upper continental crust (UCC). The influence of anthropogenic activities on the level of elements pollution was determined using the Geo-accumulation index (Igeo), Enrichment factor (EF), and Pollution index (PI). The findings revealed the highest Igeo values for Cd at the “extremely contaminated” level due to great influence from Cd emission sources, especially in spring. The extremely high EF values for Zn in 18.8% of samples could be attributed to the low distance of these sampling sites from the nearby industrial areas and adjacent road traffic density. PI values in the range of “considerable to extremely high” pollution were in the order of Zn > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr. Eventually, The pollution load index (PLI) indicated the higher than unity of PLI values for all sampling sites reflecting considerable polluted sites across the study area. The ecological risk index (RI) indicated a considerable ecological risk, with the highest monomial risk values for Cd and Pb. The cumulative hazard index (HI) results showed that children encounter higher non-carcinogenic (NCR) risks than adults. However, the cumulative carcinogenic risk (CCR) of adults was 2.25 times higher than for children. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model extracted four factors, including traffic-related sources (29.7%), local soils and crustal dust resuspension sources (24.8%), demolition and construction activities (23.5%), and industry-related emissions (22%). Among the identified sources, traffic-related sources showed the largest contribution to elements and ecological risks.
... In relation to the PM2.5 concentrations, the following spatial distribution was detected: north (1,1,10), center (1,1,4), and south-west (1,1,9). This spatial distribution was possibly related to wind direction and speed, and land use [12]. The results showed the following spatial distribution for O3: northwest (1,1,4), center (1,1,9), and south (1,1,5). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to show the development of Box-Jenkins stochastic models to study the behavior of air pollutants concentrations in the megacity of Bogotá, Colombia. Information was collected from 10 stations in the city’s air quality monitoring network over a ten-year period. The temporal relationship between air pollutants, their spatial variation, and the occurrence of extreme pollution episodes was studied using Box-Jenkins models. The results showed that the moving average term of the models developed was the main indicator of spatial distribution for the daily pollutant concentrations. In the case of atmospheric particulate matter < 10 μm, the following spatial distribution was identified in the megacity: northwestern, center-southwest, and southeast. For atmospheric particulate matter < 2.5 μm: north, center, and southwest. For ozone: northwest, center, and south. Maximum hourly particulate matter concentrations were observed between 6-10 a.m., and between 11 a.m. - 4 p.m. for ozone. Monthly, the highest particulate matter concentrations were observed in February (14.1%), January (13.5%), and March (12.2%). In the context of atmospheric physics, this study was relevant for the following findings: The usefulness of Box-Jenkins models in simulating the temporal behavior of air pollutants, and for their adequate performance in detecting urban spatial trends.
... PM10 is the most significant air pollutant in Bogotá [9]. Annual average PM10 levels for Bogotá range from 9.89 μg/m3 to 160 μg/m3 with peaks in the months of March and April. ...
Article
Full-text available
Air pollution levels in the cities of Bogotá and Medellín (Colombia) are now reaching dangerous levels as measured by the few government monitoring stations available and operative. So far, government actions have focused on enforcing private car and industrial emission limits, prohibiting the circulation of vehicles for a few days during particularly polluted periods and vague promises of switching a percentage of public transport vehicles to alternative power. Official measurements are increasingly being reported in the national and local media, as well as through social media, but citizen distrust of their quality has mounted. Citizen collectives are starting to work designing low-cost mobile sensors, monitoring pollution in some areas and in public transport, sharing their georeferenced data over the internet and trying to raise awareness of the dangers of pollution and the necessity of radical actions to deal with the problem. This paper describes the current actions of some of these citizen collectives and their results in setting the media and public agenda on air pollution problems.
Article
While significant efforts have been made to mitigate the negative health impacts of particulate matter, there are limited statistics on particle exposure in Raipur. A study was conducted to look at the short-term relationships between particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) and meteorological variables in Raipur. The current research was based on an experimental study conducted at Chhattisgarh’s NIT Raipur. During the pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter seasons of 2021, a total of 125 air specimens were gathered from the campus. A respirable dust sampler and a fine particulate sampler were used to detect PM10 and PM 2.5 on the building’s terrace. To assess the associations between PM 2.5 and PM10 particulates and both sampling season and site, Pearson’s correlation study was used. The monthly mean mass concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Raipur ranged from 28.0-334.0 μg/m ³ to 56.0-448.0 μg/m ³ , respectively. Post-monsoon PM concentrations were highest, followed by pre-monsoon, winter, and post-monsoon. On more than 92 percent of days, PM 2.5 concentrations exceeded NAAQS standards, while PM 10 concentrations exceeded restrictions on 90 percent of days. There were seasonal changes identified in the relationships between PM concentrations and meteorological variables.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the emission sources of PM10 are characterised by analysing its trace elements (TE) and ions contents. PM10 samples were collected for a year (2019-2020) at five sites and analysed. PM10 speciated data were analysed using graphical visualization, correlation analysis, generalised additive model (GAM), and positive matrix factorization (PMF). Annual average PM10 concentrations (µg/m3) were 304.68 ± 155.56 at Aziziyah, 219.59 ± 87.29 at Misfalah, 173.90 ± 103.08 at Abdeyah, 168.81 ± 82.50 at Askan, and 157.60 ± 80.10 at Sanaiyah in Makkah, which exceeded WHO (15 µg/m3), USEPA (50 µg/m3), and the Saudi Arabia national (80 µg/m3) annual air quality standards. A GAM model was developed using PM10 as a response and ions and TEs as predictors. Among the predictors Mg, Ca, Cr, Al, and Pb were highly significant (p < 0.01), Se, Cl, and NO2 were significant (p < 0.05), and PO4 and SO4 were significant (p < 0.1). The model showed R-squared (adj) 0.85 and deviance explained 88.1%. PMF identified four main emission sources of PM10 in Makkah: (1) Road traffic emissions (explained 51% variance); (2) Industrial emissions and mineral dust (explained 27.5% variance); (3) Restaurant and dwelling emissions (explained 13.6% variance); and (4) Fossil fuel combustion (explained 7.9% variance).
Article
Full-text available
The present study offers the first evaluation of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) of submicron (PM1) fraction in Changchun (Northeast China) during a year-long sampling period (October 24, 2016 to October 23, 2017). More than 288 PM1 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 1 μm) samples were collected. The PM1 concentrations ranged from 3.78 to 451.08 μg·m-3, with an average of 57.73 μg·m-3, which was 1.65 times higher than the Chinese National Standard II. Following the concept of the well-known IMPROVE algorithm, OC and EC values were obtained. The OC values ranged from 1.18 to 82.54 μg∙m-3, and the EC values were from 0.30 to 14.19 μg∙m-3. Total carbon (TC = EC + OC) constituted 9.11-40.35% of the total PM1 mass, and OC dominated over EC. The average OC/EC ratio was 4.78, which implied a low percentage for vehicles and a high contribution of coal and biomass consumption to PM1. Among OC, the annual primary organic carbon (POC) value was 7.69 μg∙m-3, accounting for 63% of the OC, while secondary organic carbon (SOC) contributed 37% with 4.12 μg∙m-3. Among EC, CHAR (EC1) dominated over SOOT (EC2 + EC3), and the CHAR/SOOR ratio ranged from 2.91 to 28.55. The results of the OC and EC values as well as the OC/EC and CHAR/SOOT ratios suggest that possible sources of PM1 include vehicles, coal burning, cooking, and biomass burning.
Article
Poor air quality disproportionally impacts cities in low- and middle-income countries. In Bogotá, Colombia, a metropolitan area with over 10 million inhabitants, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels regularly exceed air quality guidelines, leading to detrimental effects on health. Although there is public interest to improve the city’s air quality, the main sources of PM2.5 pollution have not been clearly identified and the use of modeling for policy development in Bogotá has been limited. Here, we apply a modeling framework based on the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) to conduct seasonal simulations of air pollution in Bogotá and reveal the emissions sectors with the largest contributions to PM2.5. Based on these results, we project and compare the air quality benefits of potential pollution mitigation strategies focused on these sources. The analysis finds that resuspended dust from unpaved roads is the largest local source of PM2.5 and can contribute over 30% of seasonally-averaged concentration across the city. Vehicles, industrial activity, and unpaved road dust combined are responsible for over 60% of PM2.5 pollution in Bogotá. A scenario analysis shows that paving roads can lead to PM2.5 decreases of nearly 10 μg/m³ by 2030 in some areas of the city, but air quality will deteriorate significantly over others in the absence of additional emissions control measures. Mitigation strategies designed to target the sectors with the largest contributions to PM2.5, including road cleaning systems, controls for industrial point sources, cleaner transportation fuels, and updated vehicle fleets, can largely avert projected increases in concentrations, although the impacts of different approaches vary throughout the city. This study is the first to use a comprehensive model to determine sector contributions to air pollution and inform potential emissions control policies in Bogotá, demonstrating an approach to guide pollution management in developing cities facing comparable challenges.
Article
Urban road dust was collected from Vellore City, Tamil Nadu, India, and analysed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine road dust from nine sampling locations in the study region. SEM image analysis was used to identify various shape factors of collected dust particles. The equivalent spherical diameter of most particles was between 10 μm and 30 μm. Fine particles had greater concentrations at locations with higher traffic flow. Particles were categorised into four classes based on their shape factors, viz., spherical, mineral, elongated, or irregular. Spherical particles had the smallest mean equivalent diameter (1.95 μm) and mineral particles had the largest diameter (33.3 μm). Spherical particles made up the smallest portion of road dust (0–12%) in the study region and mineral particles made up the largest (45%–65%). Elongated and irregular particles, each made up 23%–30% of road dust. Electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis was used to identify the elemental composition of dust particles. Spherical particles were mostly from combustion sources and mineral particles were largely of crustal origin. No individual source was found for irregular and elongated particles. Biological debris was the major source of irregular particles.
Article
Thousands of deaths associated with air pollution each year could be prevented by forecasting the behavior of factors that pose risks to people’s health and their geographical distribution. Proximity to pollution sources, degree of urbanization, and population density are some of the factors whose spatial distribution enables the identification of possible influence on the presence of respiratory diseases (RD). Currently, Bogotá is among the cities with the poorest air quality in Latin America. Specifically, the locality of Kennedy is one of the zones in the city with the highest recorded concentration levels of local pollutants over the last 10 years. From 2009 to 2016, there were 8619 deaths associated with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the locality. Given these characteristics, this study set out to identify and analyze the areas in which the primary socioeconomic and environmental conditions contribute to the presence of symptoms associated with RD. To this end, information collected in field by performing georeferenced surveys was analyzed through geostatistical and machine learning tools which carried out cluster and pattern analyses. Random forests and AdaBoost were applied to establish hot spots where RD could occur, given the conjugation of predictor variables in the micro-territory. It was found that random forests outperformed AdaBoost with 0.63 AUC. In particular, this study’s approach applies to densely populated municipalities with high levels of air pollution. In using these tools, municipalities can anticipate environmental health situations and reduce the cost of respiratory disease treatments.
Article
Full-text available
Air pollution in towns adjacent to and downwind of large cities can be similar or even higher than in the city itself. In the case of towns constituting the greater Bogotá area, with more than half a million inhabitants and strong industrial activity, little is known about the factors that affect their poor air quality. This work investigated the incremental excess of the composition and source contribution to PM2.5 in two sites near Bogotá (Soacha: 4°35'4.59" N, 74°13'11.62" W; and Mosquera: 4°42'9.75" N, 74°13'54.94" W), using the Chemical Mass Balance receptor model with organic molecular markers, and back trajectory analysis. Simultaneous sample collection was carried out for two-months. Organic matter was the major component of the PM2.5 mass (66 ± 14% and 61 ± 12%), while secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) constituted 13 ± 8 % and 10 ± 2 %. The main anthropogenic sources contributing to PM2.5 at Soacha were wood combustion (23%), diesel vehicles (19%), and coal combustion at small facilities (11%). At Mosquera, they were gasoline vehicles (26%), diesel vehicles (19%), and coal combustion at small inefficient facilities (15%). The contribution of regional Secondary Organic Aerosol to PM2.5 was significant (19% and 15%), arriving mostly from the Orinoco basin but higher with air masses arriving from the Amazon rainforest. The regional contribution to secondary inorganic aerosols was higher with winds from the Magdalena Valley. The methods presented in this manuscript will be useful in other megacities and large cities to better manage impacts of local and regional air pollution sources.
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of air pollutants (CO, PM2.5, NO2 and O3), during the dry and rainy seasons of 2015, was conducted in a high-traffic area of Quito, Ecuador. Variations in the annual, diurnal, weekdays, weekends, daytime and nighttime concentration of these pollutants were examined using the data obtained from the public records of the monitoring network in Quito. The highest concentrations of CO, PM2.5 and NO2 occurred during the rush hours of the rainy season, while the maximum O3 concentrations occurred during the midday of the dry season due to the improvement in the O3-generating photochemical reactions. The “weekend effect” was also observed in this study and was likely primarily due to the accumulation of O3 in the air. Moreover, the PM2.5 concentration was higher during the nighttime than during daytime, mainly in the dry season due to the poor horizontal diffusion of PM2.5 and the absence of precipitation events, while the O3 concentration was higher during the daytime in both seasons due to the enhancement of the photochemical reactions. A Pearson analysis showed that CO, PM2.5 and NO2 were positively intercorrelated. It was identified, through polar plots and a real-time traffic map that the emission sources of these pollutants were in the proximity to the monitoring station, specifically vehicle exhaust emissions. Atmospheric horizontal mixing was an important dilution mechanism of PM2.5 and NO2 during the dry season, while transportation of O3 contributed to its increasing concentration.
Article
Vehicle non-exhaust emissions are a major component of particle matter, including the direct wear of tires, brakes, road and the resuspension of deposited particles. It is suggested that resuspended PM (RPM) emissions can be at the same magnitude or even larger than combustion emissions in urban centers. Factors affecting RPM can be included in four categories: road characteristics, traffic condition, land use and meteorology. In order to study and evaluate these influencing factors, road dust less than 10 micrometers (RD10) was collected in 41 sites across Bogotá. The sampling points had diverse characteristics. RD10 levels varied between 1.0 and 45.8 mg/m² with an average of 8.9 ± 8.4 mg/m². Lower RD10 values were observed when vegetation density was high, pavement condition good, driving speeds fast and construction activities absent. On the contrary, RD10 increased under heavy-duty traffic influence and dry conditions. Among dust mitigation measures, management of land use variables could be as important as traffic control and road maintenance. Implication Statement This study documented for the first time in Latin America dust loadings less than 10 micrometers, information that can be used to estimate resuspended particle matter emissions in the region. The influence of meteorology, traffic characteristics, road condition and land-use variables was analyzed and quantified. The management of land use variables could be as important as traffic control and road maintenance for road dust mitigation.Further research interests are discussed.
Article
The current global economic model of industrialization has historically searched for indefinite growth without considering environmental impacts. Dependence on fossil fuels has caused degradation of the global air quality and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions increase. Colombia and specifically Bogotá is no exception to this problem, which is causing increasing concern about the negative impacts on its inhabitants. Due to the limitation of investigations contemplating the concentrations of pollutants produced by industries in the city, this study was developed in order to estimate the emissions of air pollutants from fixed sources in Bogotá D.C., projected to the year 2050 using the LEAP software. Under three scenarios, we estimated the variation of emissions for different assumptions of industrial energy matrixes, giving proposals for emissions reduction in the city. The results of the study show that for a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the emissions of PM10, NOx, SO2, CO2, CO and VOC’s in 2050 would increase by 31.39%, 2.50%, 21.42%, 26.22%, 35.04% and 41.84% compared to 2014 in the different industrial sectors analysed. On the other hand, the scenarios proposed for the reduction of emissions have a different behavior. In the Carbon Reduction (RC) scenario, PM10 and SO2 emissions in 2050 would decrease by 23.10% and 27.89% respectively, although CO2, NOx, CO and VOC’s would increase by 38.39%, 1.55%, 14.94% and 41.73%. Finally, the Mitigation scenario (MIT) showed a reduction in emissions of PM10, NOx, SO2, CO2, CO and VOC’s by 62.83%, 59.46%, 79.20%, 49.15%, 47.94% and 45.96% during the studied period. Additionally, an economic analysis was included for the proposed scenarios to be implemented. This study allows to conclude that the industries of Bogotá should begin to consider an increase in the fraction of electric energy in their productive activities to reduce emissions. This would stand as long as the power providers have implemented renewable technologies in their generation processes.
Article
Full-text available
Air pollution has become an important issue, especially in Caribbean urban areas, and, particulate matter (PM) emitted by different natural and anthropogenic sources causes environmental and health issues. In this work, we studied the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 sources in an industrial and port urban area in the Caribbean region of Colombia. PM samples were collected within 48-h periods between April and October 2018 by using a Partisol 2000i-D sampler. Elemental geochemical characterization was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Further, ionic species and black carbon (BC) were quantified by ion chromatography and reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. Using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model, the contributions of PM sources were quantified. The average concentration of PM10 was 46.6 ± 16.2 μg/m³, with high concentrations of Cl and Ca. For PM2.5, the average concentration was 12.0 ± 3.2 μg/m³, and the most abundant components were BC, S, and Cl. The receptor model identified five sources for PM10 and PM2.5. For both fractions, the contributions of marine sea spray, re-suspended soil, and vehicular traffic were observed. In addition, PM2.5 included two mixed sources were found to be fuel oil combustion with fertilizer industry emissions, and secondary aerosol sources with building construction emissions. Further, PM10 was found to also include building construction emissions with re-suspended soil, and metallurgical industry emissions. These obtained geochemical atmospheric results are important for the implementation of strategies for the continuous improvement of the air quality of the Caribbean region.
Article
This extensive study considered the air pollution data after the flash smelting technology for copper production had become fully operational. The assessment of the air quality after the implementation was significantly important, since the modernisation was necessary for reducing the environmental contamination in one of the most polluted regions in South-Eastern Europe. The concentrations of SO2, PM10 and toxic elements (As, Pb, Cd, Ni) in PM10 samples were monitored at different sites, with respect to the copper smelter, in the period 2016–2019. The air quality evaluation was performed concerning the corresponding limit and target values defined by the Serbian and European legislation, as well as the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG). The measured SO2 concentrations indicated frequent exceedances of the defined daily and annual limit values, at both national and European level. Although exceedances were not as pronounced as in the period before the implementation of the new technology, the episodes of extreme air pollution with SO2 persisted on the daily basis. The maximum daily SO2 concentration of 2125 μg m⁻³ was more than 100 times higher compared to the WHO AQG, but lower compared to the period before the implementation of the flash smelting technology. The air quality considering PM10 and especially As levels in PM10 samples was notably poorer after the modernisation. The annual target value for As, defined by the European and Serbian Regulation, was exceeded at all the measuring sites, with maximum exceedance of more than 90 times at the suburban site during 2019. The frequent exceedances of the corresponding annual limit and target values were also denoted for Pb and Cd in PM10 samples. The analysed data emphasised that the Bor area could still be characterised as an environmental hotspot in Serbia and beyond.
Article
Full-text available
Agro-industrial areas are frequently affected by various sources of atmospheric pollutants that have a negative impact on public health and ecosystems. However, air quality in these areas is infrequently monitored because of their smaller population compared to large cities, especially in developing countries. The Cauca River valley (CRV) is an agro-industrial region in southwestern Colombia, where a large fraction of the area is devoted to sugarcane and livestock production. The CRV is also affected by road traffic and industrial emissions. This study aims to elucidate the chemical composition of particulate matter fine mode (PM 2.5) and to identify the main pollutant sources before source attribution. A sampling campaign was carried out at a representative site in the CRV region, where daily averaged mass concentrations of PM 2.5 and the concentrations of water-soluble ions, trace metals, organic and elemental carbon, and various fractions of organic compounds (carbohydrates, n alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-PAHs) were measured. The mean PM 2.5 was 14.4 ± 4.4 µg m −3 , and the most abundant constituent was organic material (52.7 % ± 18.4 %), followed by sul-fate (12.7 % ± 2.8 %), and elemental carbon (7.1 % ± 2.5 %), which indicates the presence of secondary aerosol formation and incomplete combustion. Levoglucosan was present in all samples, with a mean concentration of (113.8 ± 147.2 ng m −3), revealing biomass burning as a persistent source. Mass closure using the elemental carbon (EC) tracer method explained 88.4 % on PM 2.5 , whereas the organic tracer method explained 70.9 % of PM 2.5. We attribute this difference to the lack of information of specific organic tracers for some sources, both primary and secondary. Organic material and inorganic ions were the dominant groups of species (79 % of PM 2.5). OM prim and OM sec contribute 24.2 % and 28.5 % to PM 2.5. Inorganic ions as sulfate, nitrate, and ammonia constitute 19.0 %, EC 7.1 %, dust 3.5%, particle-bounded water (PBW) 5.3 %, and trace element oxides (TEOs), 0.9 % of PM 2.5. The aerosol was acidic, with a pH of 2.5±0.4, mainly because of the abundance of organic and sulfur compounds. Diagnostic ratios and tracer concentrations indicate that most PM 2.5 was emitted locally and had contributions of both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources, that biomass burning was ubiquitous during the sampling period and was the main source of PAHs, and that the relatively low PM 2.5 concentrations and mutagenic potentials are consistent with low-intensity, year-long biomass burning (BB) and sugarcane pre-harvest burning in the CRV.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, volatile organic compounds (VOC) were characterized in ambient air at three different monitoring sites within the urban perimeter of Bogotá, Colombia. On-line VOC measurements were conducted using a Synstech Spectras portable gas chromatograph with a temporal resolution of 30 min. Average VOC concentrations were higher at two of the sampling sites, which are characterized by intensive industrial and commercial activities, and high vehicular activity. Analyses of the diurnal behavior of total VOC showed that concentrations tend to be higher in the morning (at around 8:00 LT) and during the evening (around 22:00 LT). Such trends suggest the influence of road traffic activity in the surroundings of the measuring sites on VOC levels. According to our results, alkanes are the most abundant hydrocarbons in the ambient air in Bogotá (about 80% of the total VOC), while alkenes represent only 15% of the total VOC. We computed the ozone formation potential (OFP) using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) concept and evaluated the role of each VOC in the O3 formation. These results show that ethene, propene, n-butane, i-pentane and isoprene are the species with the highest OFP (noting that high concentrations are not necessarily linked with elevated O3 production). Finally, we used principal components analysis to identify the sources of different VOC. Our results showed that most of the compounds included in this study are emitted by road traffic. The receptor modeling also shows that the top-five compounds in terms of O3 production come mainly from the exhaust of gasoline vehicles.
Article
Full-text available
London, like many major cities, has a noted air pollution problem, and a better understanding of the sources of airborne particles in the different size fractions will facilitate the implementation and effectiveness of control strategies to reduce air pollution. Thus, the trace elemental composition of the fine and coarse fraction were analysed at hourly time resolution at urban background (North Kensington, NK) and roadside (Marylebone Road, MR) sites within central London. Unlike previous work, the current study focuses on measurements during the summer providing a snapshot of contributing sources, utilising the high time resolution to improve source identification. Roadside enrichment was observed for a large number of elements associated with traffic emissions (Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb and Zr), while those elements that are typically from more regional sources (e.g. Na, Cl, S and K) were not found to have an appreciable increment. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied for the source apportionment of the particle mass at both sites with similar sources being identified, including sea salt, airborne soil, traffic emissions, secondary inorganic aerosols and a Zn-Pb source. In the fine fraction, traffic emissions was the largest contributing source at MR (31.9%), whereas it was incorporated within an "urban background" source at NK, which had contributions from wood smoke, vehicle emissions and secondary particles. Regional sources were the major contributors to the coarse fraction at both sites. Secondary inorganic aerosols (which contained influences from shipping emissions and coal combustion) source factors accounted for around 33% of the PM10 at NK and were found to have the highest contributions from regional sources, including from the European mainland. Exhaust and non-exhaust sources both contribute appreciably to PM10 levels at the MR site, highlighting the continuing importance of vehicle-related air pollutants at roadside.
Article
Full-text available
Thermal-optical analysis is a conventional method for determining the carbonaceous aerosol fraction and for classifying it into organic carbon, OC, and elemental carbon, EC. Unfortunately, the different thermal evolution protocols in use can result in a wide elemental carbon-to-total carbon variation by up to a factor of five. In Europe, there is currently no standard procedure for determining the carbonaceous aerosol fraction which implies that data from different laboratories at various sites are of unknown accuracy and cannot be considered comparable. In the framework of the EU-project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research), a comprehensive study has been carried out to identify the causes of differences in the EC measured using different thermal evolution protocols; thereby the major positive and negative biases affecting thermal-optical analysis have been isolated and minimised to define an optimised protocol suitable for European aerosols. Our approach to improve the accuracy of the discrimination between OC and EC was essentially based on four goals. Firstly, charring corrections rely on faulty assumptions – e.g. pyrolytic carbon is considered to evolve completely before native EC throughout the analysis –, thus we have reduced pyrolysis to a minimum by favoring volatilisation of OC. Secondly, we have minimised the potential negative bias in EC determination due to early evolution of light absorbing carbon species at higher temperatures in the He-mode, including both native EC and combinations of native EC and pyrolytic carbon potentially with different specific attenuation cross section values. Thirdly, we have minimised the potential positive bias in EC determination resulting from the incomplete evolution of OC during the He-mode which then evolves during the He/O2-mode, potentially after the split point. Finally, we have minimised the uncertainty due to the position of the OC/EC split point on the FID response profile by introducing multiple desorption steps in the He/O2-mode. Based on different types of carbonaceous PM encountered across Europe, we have defined an optimised thermal evolution protocol, the EUSAAR_2 protocol, as follows: step 1 in He, 200 °C for 120 s; step 2 in He 300 °C for 150 s; step 3 in He 450 °C for 180 s; step 4 in He 650 °C for 180 s. For steps 1–4 in He/O2, the conditions are 500 °C for 120 s, 550 °C for 120 s, 700 ° C for 70 s, and 850 °C for 80 s, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
Air pollution is now becoming an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Numerous epidemiological, biomedical and clinical studies indicate that ambient particulate matter (PM) in air pollution is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular disease such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic stroke, vascular dysfunction, hypertension and atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms for PM-caused cardiovascular disease include directly toxicity to cardiovascular system or indirectly injury by inducing systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in peripheral circulation. Here, we review the linking between PM exposure and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the observed PM induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Article
Full-text available
This study reports the results of field research into variability of the scavenging coefficient (Λ) of suspended dust comprising particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 mm. Registration of PM10 over 7 years in conditions of the occurrence of rainfall (convective light showers, large-scale precipitation and storms) was undertaken in an undeveloped rural area. The analysis involved 806 observations taken at constant time intervals of 0.5 hour. The measurements of the concentration of PM10 were performed by means of a reference method accompanied by concurrent registration of basic meteorological parameters. It was found that, for PM10, the scavenging efficiency is considerably influenced by rainfall intensity R and the type of precipitation. In the case of convective precipitation, data on Λ are only partially related to "classical approach" of rain scavenging. Within the range of comparable values of rainfall intensity, the type of wet deposition (except for storms) does not influence the effectiveness of scavenging PM10 from the ground-level zone. The large number of observations conducted in real-time conditions yielded a proposal of simple regression model, which can be deemed suitable for the description of variability Λ (DPM10), but only to a limited extent for large-scale precipitation. The collected results can be applied in air pollution dispersion models and deposition and were found to be generally representative for areas with similar climatic characteristics.
Article
Full-text available
Major components of suspended particulate matter (PM) are inorganic ions, organic matter (OM), elemental carbon (EC), geological minerals, salt, non-mineral elements, and water. Since oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) are not directly measured in chemical speciation networks, more than ten weighting equations have been applied to account for their presence, thereby approximating gravimetric mass. Assumptions for these weights are not the same under all circumstances. OM is estimated from an organic carbon (OC) multiplier (f) that ranges from 1.4 to 1.8 in most studies, but f can be larger for highly polar compounds from biomass burning and secondary organic aerosols. The mineral content of fugitive dust is estimated from elemental markers, while the water-soluble content is accounted for as inorganic ions or salt. Part of the discrepancy between measured and reconstructed PM mass is due to the measurement process, including: (1) organic vapors adsorbed on quartz-fiber filters; (2) evaporation of volatile ammonium nitrate and OM between the weighed Teflon-membrane filter and the nylon-membrane and/or quartz-fiber filters on which ions and carbon are measured; and (3) liquid water retained on soluble constituents during filter weighing. The widely used IMPROVE equations were developed to characterize particle light extinction in U.S. national parks, and variants of this approach have been tested in a large variety of environments. Important factors for improving agreement between measured and reconstructed PM mass are the f multiplier for converting OC to OM and accounting for OC sampling artifacts. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11869-015-0338-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To analyze the association between daily mortality from different causes and acute exposure to particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), in Bogota, Colombia. Materials and methods: A time-series ecological study was conducted from 1998 to 2006. The association between mortality (due to different causes) and exposure was analyzed using single and distributed lag models and adjusting for potential confounders. Results: For all ages, the cumulative effect of acute mortality from all causes and respiratory causes increased 0.71% (95%CI 0.46-0.96) and 1.43% (95%CI 0.85-2.00), respectively, per 10µg/m³ increment in daily average PM10 with a lag of three days before death. Cumulative effect of mortality from cardiovascular causes was -0.03% (95%CI -0.49-0.44%) with the same lag. Conclusions: The results suggest an association between an increase in PM10 concentrations and acute mortality from all causes and respiratory causes.
Article
Full-text available
Urban air quality management plan (UAQMP) is an effective and efficient tool employed in managing acceptable urban air quality. However, the UAQM practices are specific to a country’s needs and requirements. Majority of the developed countries have full–fledged UAQMP with a regulatory management framework. However, developing countries are still working in formulating the effective and efficient UAQMPs to manage their deteriorating urban air environment. The first step in the process of formulation of UAQMP is to identify the air quality control regions based on ambient air quality status and second, initiate a time bound program involving all stakeholders to develop UAQMPs. The successful implementation of UAQMPs depends on the strength of its key components, e.g. goal/objective, monitoring network, emission inventory, air quality modeling, control strategies and public participation. This paper presents a comprehensive review on UAQMPs, being implemented worldwide at different scales e.g., national (macro), city (medium), and local (micro).
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of outdoor air pollution, represented by 10 µg/m3 increment of PM10, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China, United States and European Union through systematic review and meta-analysis. Publications in English and Chinese from PubMed and EMBASE were selected. The Cochrane Review Handbook of Generic Inverse Variance was used to synthesize the pooled effects on incidence, prevalence, mortality and hospital admission. Outdoor air pollution contributed to higher incidence and prevalence of COPD. Short-term exposure was associated with COPD mortality increased by 6%, 1% and 1% in the European Union, the United States and China, respectively (p < 0.05). Chronic PM exposure produced a 10% increase in mortality. In a short-term exposure to 10 µg/m3 PM10 increment COPD mortality was elevated by 1% in China (p < 0.05) and hospital admission enrollment was increased by 1% in China, 2% in United States and 1% in European Union (p < 0.05). Outdoor air pollution contributes to the increasing burdens of COPD.10 µg/m3 increase of PM10 produced significant condition of COPD death and exacerbation in China, United States and European Union. Controlling air pollution will have substantial benefit to COPD morbidity and mortality.
Article
Full-text available
A pilot study, in which we conducted inhalable particulate matter (PM10) measurements in four public elementary schools in Bogotá, is presented. Three of these schools are located alongside major urban roads with different types of public transportation. The remainder school is located alongside a rural road. PM10 measurements were carried out using both gravimetric and real time techniques. Average PM10 concentrations found in the schools ranged from 55 ug m-3 to 91 ug m-3. These pollutant concentrations are above the World Health Organization reference values. Significant differences in PM10 concentrations were observed between the schools located in urban roads and the school located in the semi-rural area. The present work corresponds to the base line results of a longitudinal study that is still being conducted. These results demonstrate the importance of continuing developing research aimed at characterizing the range of atmospheric pollutants at major city roads environs in Bogota.
Article
Full-text available
Simultaneous monitoring of PM2.5 and PM10 was carried out during two-month periods at three air-quality monitoring stations in Bogotá. The data gathered were statistically analyzed looking for evidence of correlations between PM2.5 and PM10. Results show a positive linear correlation between the two parameters.
Article
Full-text available
The impact of road dust emissions on PM10 and PM2.5 (atmospheric particulate matter with diameteer <10 μm and 2.5 μm mass concentrations recorded from 2003 to 2010 at 11 locations (rural, urban and industrial) in southern Spain was estimated based on the chemical characterization of PM and the use of a constrained Positive Matrix Factorization, where the chemical profile of local road dust samples is used as a priori knowledge. Results indicate that road dust increased PM10 levels on average by 21–35% at traffic sites, 29–34% at urban background sites heavily affected by road traffic emissions, 17–22% at urban-industrial sites and 9–22%at rural sites. Road dust contributions to ambient PM levels show a marked seasonality with maxima in summer and minima in winter, likely due to the rainfall frequency. Decreasing concentration trends over the sampling years were found at some traffic and urban sites but in most cases the decreases were less significant than for vehicle exhaust emissions, while concentrations increased at industrial sites, probably due to local peculiarities. Concerning PM2.5, road dust contributions were lower than in PM10, as expected but still important (21–31 %, 11–31 %, 6–16% and 7% for traffic, urban background, urban-industrial and rural sites, respectively). In addition the three main sources of road dust (carbonaceous particles, brake wear and road wear/mineral) were identified and their contributions to road dust mass loadings estimated, supporting the idea that air quality managers should drive measures aimed at preventing the build-up of road dust particles on roads.
Article
Full-text available
Particulate matter, measured as PM10, is the most concerning airborne pollutant in Bogotá. Determining its chemical composition is important for understanding its potential effects and to estimate various sources' contribution to such pollution. This paper gives the results of characterising the ionic species, carbonaceous material, metals and crustal elements present in airborne PM10 in Bogotá. An ion charge balance and mass reconstruction were done for determining consistency between chemical characterisation and gravimetric PM10. The composition was different in each area; however, the fractions contributing most to PM10 were crustal, 37% to 42% was related to fugitive and suspended dust, 12% to 11% was related to carbonaceus fractions, 43% to elemental carbon, 34% for organic matter and 5% to 8% for ionic fractions.
Article
Full-text available
In this work, the source of ambient particulate matter (PM10) collected over a one year period at an urban background site in Lens (France) were determined and investigated using a~Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model (US EPA PMF v3.0). In addition, a Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) was performed by means of the Hysplit v4.9 model to assess prevailing geographical origins of the identified sources. A selective iteration process was followed for the qualification of the more robust and meaningful PMF solution. Components measured and used in the PMF include inorganic and organic species: soluble ionic species, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), sugars alcohols, sugar anhydride, and organic carbon (OC). The mean PM10 concentration measured from March 2011 to March 2012 was about 21 μg m-3 with typically OM, nitrate and sulfate contributing to most of the mass and accounting respectively for 5.8, 4.5 and 2.3 μg m-3 on a yearly basis. Accordingly, PMF outputs showed that the main emission sources were (in a decreasing order of contribution): secondary inorganic aerosols (28% of the total PM10 mass), aged marine emissions (19%), with probably predominant contribution of shipping activities, biomass burning (13%), mineral dust (13%), primary biogenic emissions (9%), fresh sea salts (8%), primary traffic emissions (6%) and heavy oil combustion (4%). Significant temporal variations were observed for most of the identified sources. In particular, biomass burning emissions were negligible in summer but responsible for about 25% of total PM10 and 50% of total OC at wintertime. Conversely, primary biogenic emissions were found to be negligible in winter but to represent about 20% of total PM10 and 40% of total OC in summer. The latter result calls for more investigations of primary biogenic aerosols using source apportionment studies, which quite usually disregards this type of sources. This study furthermore underlines the major influence of secondary processes during daily threshold exceedances. Finally, apparent discrepancies that could be generally observed between filter-based studies (such as the present one) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer-based PMF analyses (organic fractions) are also discussed here.
Article
Full-text available
Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk function (RR). However, there is inadequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world. Develop relative risk (RR) functions over entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). In addition, develop RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children less than 5 years old. An Integrated Exposure-Response (IER) model was fit by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke (SHS), household solid cooking fuel (HAP), and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were derived for every country based on estimated world-wide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared to seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The PAF (%) attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from: 2-41 for IHD, 1-43 for stroke, < 1-21 for COPD, < 1-25 for LC, and < 1-38 for ALRI. We developed a fine particulate mass-based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available.
Article
Full-text available
Santiago, the capital of Chile, suffers from high air pollution levels, especially during winter. An extensive particulate matter (PM) monitoring and analysis program was conducted to quantify elemental concentrations of PM. Size-resolved PM samples (PM2.5 and PM10–2.5) from the La Paz and Las Condes stations in Santiago (2004–2005) were analyzed using ICP-MS. Most trace element concentrations (Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, V, Sb, Pb and As) were higher during winter than during summer and were also higher at the La Paz station than at the Las Condes station. During the highest pollution events, As concentrations in PM2.5 (16 ng m−3) exceeded the annual average standard value (6 ng m−3). A 10-year time series showed decreasing Pb and As concentrations and slightly increasing Zn, Cu and Mn concentrations. Concentrations of Cr and Ni remained relatively constant. The implementation of new public policies in 1998 may explain the decreasing concentrations of Pb and As. Enrichment factor (EF) calculations identified two principal groups: elements with EF < 10 (Mg, Y, Zr, U Sr, Ca, Ti, and V) and EF > 10 (Rb, K, Cs, Fe, P, Ba, Mn, Ni, Cr, Co, Zn, Sn, Pb, Cu, Mo, Cd, As, Ag, and Sb), which were related to natural and anthropogenic PM sources, respectively. Three main PM sources were identified using factor analysis: a natural source (crustal matter and marine aerosol), combustion and copper smelting. Three other sources were identified using rare earth elements: fluid catalytic crackers, oil-fired power production and catalytic converters.
Article
Full-text available
Particle-related pollution (PM10, PM2.5 and soot) was measured in both indoor and outdoor microenvironments at four public elementary schools in Bogota, Colombia. Three of these schools were located alongside major urban roads in w hich different types of public transit systems are used (bus rapid transit system and conventional transit buses). The fourth school was located on a non-congested road (background school). Pollutant levels at schools situated on major-roads were higher than those found at the low -congestionroad school. Outdoor black carbon daily mean concentrations at the schools located near major roads were up to six times higher than those recorded at the background school. Mean particulate matter concentrations at schools near major roads were above international standards, suggesting that school-age children in Bogota are exposed to pollution levels that are considered to be harmful by environmental and public health authorities. Elevated indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations documented in this study suggested that traffic has a direct impact on air quality regarding the schools’ characterised microenvironments.
Article
Full-text available
At urban traffic intersections, vehicles frequently stop with idling engines during the red-light period and speed up rapidly during the green-light period. The changes of driving patterns (i.e., idle, acceleration, deceleration and cruising patterns) generally produce uncertain emission. Additionally, the movement of pedestrians and the influence of wind further result in the random dispersion of pollutants. It is, therefore, too complex to simulate the effects of such dynamics on the resulting emission using conventional deterministic causal models.
Article
Full-text available
Aerosol particle samples collected from Asia and the North Pacific were analyzed to investigate the relationships among atmospheric sea salt, mineral aerosol, biogenic emissions (methanesulfonate (MSA)), and several anthropogenic substances (sulfate, nitrate, and various trace elements). These studies specifically focused on the sources for aerosol SO=4 and on the long-range transport of continental materials to the North Pacific. Ground-based aerosol sampling was conducted at four coastal-continental sites: Hong Kong, Taiwan, Okinawa, and Cheju; and at three remote Pacific islands, Shemya, Midway, and Oahu. Non-sea-salt (nss) SO=4 and MSA were uncorrelated at the East Asian sites presumably because pollution sources overwhelm the biogenic emissions of nss SO=4. At the coastal-continental sites, marine biogenic emissions accounted for only 10 to
Article
Heze city, a medium-size city in Shandong province, Eastern China. Ambient PM2.5 samples were collected in urban area of Heze from August 2015 to April 2016, and chemical species and sources of PM2.5 were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the average concentration of PM2.5 was 100.9 μg/m³ during the sampling period, and the water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species included elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), as well as elements contributed 32.7–51.7%, 16.3% and 12.5%, respectively, to PM2.5. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the existing form of NH4⁺ was more complex and diverse in spring/summer, and ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium hydrogen sulfate might be major form of NH4⁺ in autumn/winter. Correlation analysis between PM2.5 and SO4²⁻/NO3⁻, PM2.5 and OC/EC during different seasons suggested that mobile sources might make an important impact on the increase of PM2.5 concentrations in spring/summer, and stationary sources might play a critical role on the increase of PM2.5 concentrations in autumn/winter. Seven factors were selected in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) models analysis based on the Error Estimation (EE) diagnostics during different seasons. Secondary source had the highest contribution to PM2.5 in Heze for the whole year, and followed by coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, soil dust, construction dust, biomass burning and metal manufacturing, and their annual contributions to PM2.5 were 26.5%, 17.2%, 16.5%, 11.5%, 7.7%, 7.0% and 3.8%, respectively. The air masses that were originated from Mongolia reflected the features of large-scale and long-distance air transport; while the air masses that began in Jiangsu, Shandong and Henan showed the features of small-scale and short-distance. Shandong, Henan and Jiangsu were identified as the major potential sources-areas of PM2.5 by using potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) models.