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Marine Wildlife King George Island Antarctica

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... The tools provided by KBs to produce field guides could be particularly helpful for Antarctic biologists, as there is a real need for generating new Antarctic field guides or updating existing ones. A relatively low number of field guides to the flora and fauna of Antarctica have been made available in comparison to temperate and tropical regions (Brueggeman 1998, Hibberd & Moore 2009, Rauschert & Arntz 2015, Schories & Kohlberg 2016, https://niwa.co.nz/coasts-and-oceans/marine-identificationguides-and-fact-sheets/amazing-antarctic-asteroids). In addition, regarding the marine fauna and flora of the Southern Ocean, it appears that the biodiversity of the Antarctic zone has been assessed more often (Brueggeman 1998, Rauschert & Arntz 2015, Schories & Kohlberg 2016 than the species of the sub-Antarctic islands (however, see Fischer & Hureau 1985, Hibberd & Moore 2009), in nearshore habitats in particular (Féral et al. 2019). ...
... A relatively low number of field guides to the flora and fauna of Antarctica have been made available in comparison to temperate and tropical regions (Brueggeman 1998, Hibberd & Moore 2009, Rauschert & Arntz 2015, Schories & Kohlberg 2016, https://niwa.co.nz/coasts-and-oceans/marine-identificationguides-and-fact-sheets/amazing-antarctic-asteroids). In addition, regarding the marine fauna and flora of the Southern Ocean, it appears that the biodiversity of the Antarctic zone has been assessed more often (Brueggeman 1998, Rauschert & Arntz 2015, Schories & Kohlberg 2016 than the species of the sub-Antarctic islands (however, see Fischer & Hureau 1985, Hibberd & Moore 2009), in nearshore habitats in particular (Féral et al. 2019). Available Antarctic guides mainly focus on epifaunal species (Barnes 2007, Hibberd & Moore 2009, Schories & Kohlberg 2016 or Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems taxa (https://www.ccamlr.org/en/system/files/VME-guide.pdf), or include only some benthic fauna (Fischer & Hureau 1985). ...
... In addition, regarding the marine fauna and flora of the Southern Ocean, it appears that the biodiversity of the Antarctic zone has been assessed more often (Brueggeman 1998, Rauschert & Arntz 2015, Schories & Kohlberg 2016 than the species of the sub-Antarctic islands (however, see Fischer & Hureau 1985, Hibberd & Moore 2009), in nearshore habitats in particular (Féral et al. 2019). Available Antarctic guides mainly focus on epifaunal species (Barnes 2007, Hibberd & Moore 2009, Schories & Kohlberg 2016 or Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems taxa (https://www.ccamlr.org/en/system/files/VME-guide.pdf), or include only some benthic fauna (Fischer & Hureau 1985). Coverage of infaunal communities is minimal or only available for larger visible infaunal taxa at the sediment surface (i.e. ...
Article
Species inventories are essential to the implementation of conservation policies to mitigate biodiversity loss and maintain ecosystem services and their value to society. This is particularly topical with respect to climate change and direct anthropogenic effects on Antarctic biodiversity, with the identification of the most at-risk taxa and geographical areas becoming a priority. Identification tools are often neglected and considered helpful only for taxonomists. However, the development of new online information technologies and computer-aided identification tools provides an opportunity to promote them to a wider audience, especially considering the emerging generation of scientists who apply an integrative approach to taxonomy. This paper aims to clarify essential concepts and provide convenient and accessible tools, tips and suggested systems to use and develop knowledge bases (KBs). The software Xper3 was selected as an example of a user-friendly KB management system to give a general overview of existing tools and functionalities through two applications: the ‘Antarctic Echinoids’ and ‘Odontasteridae Southern Ocean (Asteroids)’ KBs. We highlight the advantages provided by KBs over more classical tools, and future potential uses are highlighted, including the production of field guides to aid in the compilation of species inventories for biodiversity conservation purposes.
... The taxonomic composition and abundance of epibenthic megafauna were determined from images collected by the ROV. All epifaunal animals that were discernable in the images (approximately >1 cm in the longest dimension) were recorded and identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible, using identification descriptions in the literature (Hibberd, 2009;Rauschert and Arntz, 2015;Danis, 2013;Schories and Kohlberg, 2016) and through the database of the World Register of Marine Species (http://www.marinespecies.org) (accessed on May 25, 2020). ...
... Ascidian taxa were identified to the lowest possible level based on specific morphological characteristics described in the literature (Tatiàn et al., 1998(Tatiàn et al., , 2005Monniot et al., 2011;Alurralde et al., 2013;Schories and Kohlberg, 2016) and also with the aid of ascidian taxonomists (Boon-Jo Rho and Su-Yuan Seo from Natural History Museum, Ewha Womans University, Republic of Korea). Abundance data for each ascidian taxon were then obtained by counting the number within a quadrat frame (50 × 50 cm) and transforming the counted numbers to values per square meter (Table S1). ...
Article
Full-text available
We report strong evidence for the utility of ascidian communities as sentinel organisms for monitoring nearshore Antarctic marine ecosystem response to climate-induced warming and glacial melting. Ascidians are one of the most common Antarctic epibenthic megafauna, but information on their distribution and the determinants is still scarce. In this study we investigated spatial patterns of ascidians in Marian Cove (MC), a rapidly deglaciating fjord in the West Antarctic Peninsula, one of the most rapidly warming regions on earth. We also analyzed key drivers structuring the communities and assessed their relevance to glacial retreat and following processes. The first applied ROV survey in MC discovered that ascidians were the most diverse (14 out of 64 taxa) taxa with the greatest abundance (~264 inds·m⁻²). Ascidian abundance and diversity greatly varied in space, by distance from glacier and/or depths, explaining ~64% of total megafaunal variations. Notably, in deep seabed (50–90 m) they shifted distinctly from early colonization communities near glacier (0.2 km to glacier) with predominance of two opportunistic species, Molgula pedunculata and Cnemidocarpa verrucosa, to mature communities at the most remote site (3.5 km). A set of analyses revealed that such shifts were related mostly to changes in sediment properties that develop in association with glacial retreat and consequent processes. Sediment composition, grain size and sorting collectively explained outward increasing physical stability apparently with decreased influence of glacial retreat, supporting ascidian community maturing at the deep and distant site. BIOENV analysis indicated that “distance” to glacier is one key factor influencing ascidian community structure in the deep seabed. Overall, the results of the analyses strongly indicated that physical disturbances (mainly sedimentation and ice scouring) accompanying glacial retreat are an important force shaping ascidian assemblages in the cove, and that these forces are altered by the distance from the glacier and water depth. Notably, in this fjord, the period of sea bed deglaciation was roughly proportional to the distance to glacier over the last six decades. This suggested that the ascidian shift identified in this study reflects a long-term successional process associated with glacial retreat in the past in MC, which in turn warrants to project future changes in this glacial fjord and possibly other similar environments.
... Seluruh hewan Echinodermata mempunyai bentuk bilateral simetris ketika larva dan radial simetris setelah dewasa. Hewan ini memiliki zat kapur di endoskeletonnya dan mempunyai sistem vaskular, juga kemampuan regenerasi pada bagian tubuh yang hilang atau rusak (Schories & Kohlberg, 2016). ...
... The need for sub-Antarctic field guides. The examination of existing field guides to the marine fauna and flora of the Southern Ocean shows that biodiversity of the Antarctic zone has been more extensively treated than the sub-Antarctic, (Brueggeman 1998;De Broyer et al. 2014;Rauschert & Arntz 2015;Schories & Kohlberg 2016). This deficiency applies to the echinoderms to which Antarctic volumes have been dedicated (Neill et al. 2016 [Asteroidea]; David et al. 2005 [Echinoidea]). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the current challenges in today's ecology research is to understand and quantify the effects of climate changes on biodiversity. In order to detect possible trends in biodiversity patterns, it is necessary to conduct long-term observations in various and representative environments. This is always challenging, even more difficult in marine habitats and in the Southern Ocean in particular. Since 2012, a submarine observatory of the coastal benthos has been in operation in the Kerguelen Islands. Eight contrasting sites are monitored using photo and video surveys, loggers, and settlement plots. To quantify potential changes, several photographic analysis techniques are also complemented by scuba diving and ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) observations. Investigator scientists have developed and improved new protocols that will be carried out in the long term by the staff of the National Natural Reserve of the French Southern Territories. In order to provide reliable support of species identification, the Proteker program supported by IPEV, French Polar Institute, is currently developing several field guides that should improve the identification of the main taxa being monitored. In light of their abundance in coastal environments of the Kerguelen Islands, and because they are among the most visible invertebrates and the easiest of organisms to consider for monitoring surveys, we first focused on echinoderms. Results of this first study are presented here. For each echinoderm species, a spreadsheet provides the species name with synonymies, a description of diagnostic features, the recorded distribution, as well as three different types of illustrations: (i) living specimens in their environment, which is useful for scuba divers, (ii) fresh collected specimens out of water, and (iii) specimens fixed in ethanol. Therefore, species can be identified alive while diving, but also after sampling in the field, and after several years in the laboratory. An assessment of Kerguelen's coastal echinoderms is also given.
Article
It is demonstrated here that Charcotia Chevreux, 1906 (Amphipoda) has priority over Charcotia Vayssière, 1906 (Gastropoda), and that Waldeckia Chevreux, 1906 has to be treated as an invalid objective junior synonym of Charcotia Chevreux, 1906. An analysis of a part of the mitochondrial COI gene of Charcotia indicates that Charcotia obesa sensu lato, consists of two genetically distant clades that fulfil the criteria of genetic species. Each genetic clade corresponds to a different morphotype. The first one has a low triangular protrusion on the dorsal border of urosomite 1, a strong tooth on epimeron 3, and the posterodistal corner of the basis of pereiopod 7 is regularly rounded. It agrees with the original description of Charcotia obesa Chevreux, 1906. The second one has a protrusion of urosomite 1 prolongated by a sharp and usually long denticle, a small tooth on epimeron 3, and the posterodistal corner of the basis of pereiopod 7 is bluntly angular. The second form is treated herein as a new species, Charcotia amundseni sp. nov., which is described in detail. While the bathymetric distribution of the two Antarctic Charcotia species overlaps (0–300 m for C. obesa and 7–1200 m for C. amundseni sp. nov.), C. obesa largely predominates at depths of less than 150 m, while Charcotia amundseni sp. nov. predominates at greater depths. Both species are widely distributed and presumably circum-Antarctic.
Article
Species lists have been compiled for all the major groups of Southern Ocean benthic marine invertebrates, eliminating synonymies where possible and providing a subjective estimate of completeness and reliability for each group. Antarctic marine diversity (pelagic and benthic) is relatively high at the phylum and class level, with the gaps mostly comprising minor, meiofaunal or parasitic groups. Most benthic diversity data come from the continental shelves, with relatively few samples from deeper water. Even for the continental shelves, however, sampling is highly patchy with some areas hardly investigated at all. Over 4100 benthic species have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with the most speciose groups being polychaetes, gastropods and amphipods. Comparison with tropical and temperate regions suggest that decapods, bivalves and teleost fishes are poorly represented in the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna, whereas pycnogonids, echinoderms and many suspension feeding groups are rich and diverse. Some groups that are currently low in diversity were previously well represented in the Antarctic shallow water marine fauna, notably decapods and many fishes. Other groups have undergone marked radiations in the Southern Ocean, including pycnogonids, amphipods, isopods and teleost fishes; in all cases, however, it is only some lineages that have diversified. This indicates that evolutionary questions concerning the origin, diversification or extinction of the Southern Ocean marine fauna will have no single answer; the evolutionary history of each group appears to reflect a different response to the tectonic, climatic and oceanographic changes to which they have been subject through history. The disposition of southern hemisphere continents makes it difficult to assess whether there is a latitudinal cline in shallow-water marine diversity to mirror that known from the northern hemisphere. Within Antarctica, many species appear to have circumpolar distributions, and the long established biogeographical division into continental Antarctic, Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic regions have not been challenged by recent sampling. For most groups the frequency distribution of species per genus ratios is typical, though none is well described by the predictions from current evolutionary or null models. Where data are available, size spectra indicate that many Southern Ocean taxa are small, a few spectacular examples of gigantism notwithstanding, and species abundance plots are normal. Knowledge of the Southern Ocean benthic marine fauna has reached a stage where we can now ask powerful evolutionary questions, and the development of new molecular techniques provides the mechanism for answering them.
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Bivalve species were collected from shallow coastal areas of King George Island (Martel, Mackellar and Ezcurra inlets of Amiralty Bay). Twenty one species belonging to 16 genera and 12 families were identified and their morphometric and morphological shell characteristics were described. Three main characteristics were found to be common to the majority of the bivalve species sampled: 1) thin fragile shells; 2) small size of individuals (76%), and 3) the lack of true cardinal teeth (72%). Comparison of calcium data from a tropical estuary and a subantarctic coastal shallow area suggested that the calcium in the sea water was not a constraint to shell building but shell thickness could be an adaptation to the efficiency of energy partitioning. Small individual size and the lack of true cardinal teeth are discussed in relation to a high deposition environment and widespread mud bottoms.
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Giant petrels are the dominant scavenging seabird species in the Sub-Antarctic and maritime Antarctic ecosystems. They consume large amounts of penguin carrion, but also include significant numbers of seals, Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, and small petrels in their diets. Differences in energy requirements between northern giant petrel Macronectes halli and southern giant petrel M. giganteus, and between male and female chicks, are demonstrated. The present world breeding population is concluded to be c8600 pairs of M. halli and c38 000 pairs of M. giganteus. Total world non-breeding populations of 26 000 and 113 000 birds are calculated for M. halli and M. giganteus, respectively. The energy consumption of these populations in the breeding season is assessed and, taking into account geographical variation in diet their impact on local ecosystems is evaluated. -from Author