Anti microbial activity of jojoba oil against selected microbes: An invitro study

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Aim: To evaluate the anti- microbial activity of jojoba oil against selected microbes. Objective: The study is to determine the anti-microbial activity of jojoba oil against selected microbes. Background: Jojoba oil is the liquid produced in the seed of the Simmondsia chinensis. It is used as a replacement for whale oil and its derivatives, such as cetyl alcohol. It is found as an additive in many cosmetic products, especially those marketed as being made from natural ingredients. In particular, such products commonly containing jojoba are lotions and moisturizers, hair shampoos and conditioner. Effect of jojoba oil on E. coli, pseudomonas species, klebsiella species and Staphylococcus aureus is determined. Reason: This study is to evaluate the anti microbial activity of jojoba oil against E, coli, pseudomonas species, klebsiella species and Staphylococcus aureus. This may help in the development of other products with jojoba oil as its constituent. Result: The investigation of anti microbial activity of jojoba oil on selected positive and negative bacilli was done by agar well diffusion technique and its zone of inhibition was evaluated.

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... There is conflicting evidence on jojoba's antimicrobial effects. Jojoba roots, latex, and essential oil have all shown potent antimicrobial properties against a variety of bacteria (Pooja Umaiyal et al. 2016;Abu-Salem and Ibrahim 2014). Multiple studies on crude jojoba oil have however failed to demonstrate such effects (Al-Qizwini et al. 2014;Elnimiri and Nimir 2011), with the exception of one recent paper which described a significant antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria but reported a high resistance from the common foodborne bacteria E. coli (Al-Ghamdi et al. 2019). ...
... The results also indicate that the jojoba oil extract had no antimicrobial effect against the tested bacteria, both on agar and in liquid phase (P>0·05), agreeing with the reported data of some previous investigations (Al-Obaidi et al. 2017). They do however contradict other studies that found potent antimicrobial properties in jojoba oil (Pooja Umaiyal et al. 2016;Al-Ghamdi et al. 2019). There is currently no standardized and reliable method to study the potential antimicrobial properties of plant-derived materials (Othman et al. 2011), which could explain the divergence in results between these experiments. ...
In recent years, wraps made with beeswax, jojoba oil, and tree resin have emerged both in the form of commercial and home-made products as a sustainable alternative to clingfilm. This study evaluated the antimicrobial properties of their components and explored a potential enhancement with propolis. Food grade beeswax and propolis samples were extracted by reflux, and jojoba oil and pine resin by Soxhlet, and solvent extraction respectively. The antimicrobial effects of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were evaluated using the agar disc diffusion method. A novel method using extract-impregnated discs in bacterial suspensions was also trialled. Combinations of extracts were tested to detect interaction effects (IE) between components. Beeswax and jojoba oil showed no antimicrobial activity (P>0·05), resin reduced the growth of S. aureus (P<0.001), and propolis inhibited both S. aureus (P=0·011) and E. coli. Synergistic interactions were detected between the wrap components (IE=-59·73%) and between beeswax and propolis (IE=-27·88%), but only against S. aureus. The results showed that beeswax food wraps possess antimicrobial properties, and that propolis may enhance these by additivity or synergy. Overestimation of bacterial concentrations likely occurred due to method flaws, therefore possible improvements were identified to increase method reliability. Further studies including larger number of replicates are required to confirm the described results.
... Studies have suggested that JJO helps during the wound healing process [8,31,48] and has some anti-microbial benefit [49], lending itself to acne product formulations [50]. Other studies have shown beneficial effect in the management of scalp psoriatic plaques [51]. ...
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Renewed consumer and industry interest in natural ingredients has led to a large growth of natural cosmetics. This has put pressure on formulation skills and product claims when it comes to using natural compounds. Taking a strategic and comprehensive approach in viewing natural ingredients, including natural oils, as ‘active’ ingredients rather than just providing for so-called ‘natural’ claims, aids both innovation and development. Given the ever-increasing consumer demand for natural ingredients, and more importantly the demand for effective natural ingredients including plant oils, it is important for the cosmetic industry to re-evaluate them in this context. The objectives of this review are to provide an update of three popular cosmetic plant oils - Sweet Almond, Evening Primrose, and Jojoba - in terms of their cosmetic applications as ‘active’ ingredients. This review highlights the activity of these oils, in the management of dry skin, ageing skin, juvenile skin, atopic dermatitis, scalp conditions, and their wider potential. Attention is given to formulation considerations where the content of these oils impacts product oxidation, skin penetration and stratum corneum homeostasis. Benefits of these oils have been well documented both pre-clinically and clinically. Historically, they have been used for hundreds if not thousands of years for their management and treatment of various skin and other ailments. Given the discrepancies in some clinical data presented for a variety of dermatoses, the importance of the choice of oil and how to formulate with them within the context of the epidermal barrier function, skin penetration, and toxicity, cannot be underestimated. Care should be taken in terms of the quality and stability of theses oils, as well as ensuring best formulation type, if the reported activities of these oils are to be achieved with consistency. Despite discrepancies in the literature and questionable study designs, it is clear, that Sweet Almond, Evening Primrose and Jojoba oils, do have skin care benefits for both adult and juvenile applications. They are effective ingredients for skin care preparations to strengthen stratum corneum integrity, recovery, and lipid ratio. Nevertheless, further experimental data are required concerning the impact on stratum corneum physiology and structure.
... Abu-Salem and Ibrahim have also shown high efficacy on both bacteria and fungi of root extract and latex of the plant (Abu-Salem & Ibrahim 2014). In separate works, antibacterial and antifungal activities were also found for jojoba oil (Pooja Umaiyal et al. 2016;Al-Ghamdi et al. 2019). Thus, it seems that the active agent(s) are not restricted to a specific part of the plant. ...
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Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C.K. Schneider is an evergreen shrub widely grown in Israel, the Middle East, South America, Africa, India and Australia used as an agricultural crop for commercial purposes and as a source of its non-edible natural wax. It is widely used in pharmaceutics and cosmetic formulation due to its unique structural characteristics and beneficial health effects. In addition, extensive work has been published on the plant’s health-promoting activities, ranging from antioxidant activities to the treatment of cancer. Being a rich source of natural liquid wax, the majority of research regarding jojoba focuses on its applications, as well as on the ability to exploit the residual plant materials obtained in its production. To date, several potent phytochemicals have been attributed to its medicinal properties, e.g. simmondsin and phenolic compounds. The current review emphasizes the evidence-based medicinal qualities of the wax and plant extracts and highlights the gaps of knowledge in these research areas and the importance of acquiring additional understanding of jojoba distinctive traits.
... Raw jojoba wax has few impurities so it requires little or no refining (Wisniak, 1994). Pooja et al. (2016) reported that jojoba wax can be used as natural preservative in food against some bacterial species which cause food-borne diseases and food spoilage such as E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Kbebsiella pnuemoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruit is a popular vegetable crop grown in the subtropics and tropics characterized with low calorie content, high content of pro-vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and polyphenols. ...
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This research was aimed to evaluating jojoba wax as antimicrobial and antioxidant agent and study its application in sodium alginate edible coating for maintaining quality attributes of fresh-cut eggplant (Solanum melongena) slices during refrigerated storage at 4 o C. The results indicated that jojoba wax had high content of total monounsaturated fatty acid, the main fatty acid identified was gadoleic acid (20:1) (70.7%) followed by erucic acid (22:1) (14.2%) while oleic acid (18: 1) content was 8.7 %.The results indicated that DPPH scavenging capacity of jojoba wax is lower than that of ascorbic acid since the IC 50 values were 99.18 and 14.20 µg/ml for jojoba wax and ascorbic acid; respectively. The results revealed that jojoba wax exhibited better inhibition activities against gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of jojoba wax against tested bacteria ranged from 198 to 219 ul/ml. The antifungal activity of jojoba wax ranged between 4950 and 8750 AU/ml against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus parasiticus; respectively. The coated fresh-cut eggplant slices were had higher lightness than that of control sample. Fresh-cut eggplant slices coated / uncoated had gradual increment in firmness values with EVALUATION OF JOJOBA WAX AS ANTIMICROBIAL 178 increased the storage time. The addition of jojoba wax to the edible coating result in lowering the microbial growth.
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