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Study of Genetic Variability for Cane Yield and its Component Traits in Early Maturing Sugarcane

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Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 1739-1748
1739
Original Research Article https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.610.210
Study of Genetic Variability for Cane Yield and its Component
Traits in Early Maturing Sugarcane
Relisha Ranjan* and Balwant Kumar
Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, SRI, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural
University, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar), India
*Corresponding author
A B S T R A C T
Introduction
Sugarcane is a highly heterozygous and
complex polyploidy in nature and this crop
has resulted in generation of genetic
variability. Sugarcane improvement involves
hybridization followed by clonal propagation.
After hybridization large number of seedlings
generated every year in which wide range of
variability existed among the seedlings for
cane and sugar yield and its component traits,
therefore genetic variability is one of the
important considerations in sugarcane crop
improvement. Variability is measure by
estimation of genotypic and phenotypic
variance 2g and σ 2p), genotypic and
phenotypic coefficient of variation (GCV and
PCV), heritability, genetic advance and
genetic advance as per cent of mean. These
parameters help in selection for improvement
of desired characters. Environment plays an
important role in the expression of phenotype.
The phenotypic variability which is
observable includes both genotypic (heritable)
and environmental variation (non-heritable).
Hence, variability can be observed through
International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 Number 10 (2017) pp. 1739-1748
Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com
Sixteen early maturing sugarcane clones were planted in Randomized Block Design with
three replications during spring season 2016-17 at Dr. RPCAU, Pusa, Bihar to study the
genetic variability for cane yield and its component traits in early maturing sugarcane. The
characters studied were germination percentage at 45 and 90 days after planting (DAP),
number of shoots at 120 and 240 DAP (000/ha), plant height at 150 days, 240 days (cm)
and 300 days(at harvest), cane diameter (cm), fibre per cent, single cane weight (kg),
number of millable cane (000/ha), juice quality traits viz., brix, pol and purity per cent at 8
and 10th months stage, respectively, CCS per cent at harves, cane and sugar yield
(tonne/ha) at harvest. Analysis of variance revealed that highly significant differences
among the clones for all the characters under study. Maximum range was found for the
trait plant height at 150 days followed by plant height at 240 days and cane yield. The
phenotypic coefficient of variance was greater than genotypic coefficient of variance for
all the characters under study. The characters like cane yield, sugar yield, single cane
weight, number of shoots at 120 DAP, cane diameter and germination percentage at 90
DAP showed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean.
Hence, the characters namely, cane yield, sugar yield, single cane weight, number of
shoots at 120 DAP, cane diameter and germination percentage at 90 DAP can be utilized
for further selection and genetic improvement of early maturing genotypes.
Ke yword s
Genetic variability,
Phenotypic
variance, Genotypic
Variance, PCV,
GCV, Genetic
advance,
Heritability, Early
maturing sugarcane.
Accepted:
17 September 2017
Available Online:
10 October 2017
Article Info
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 1739-1748
1740
biometric parameters like GCV, heritability
(broad sense) and genetic advance.
Development of varieties for different
maturity group is of paramount importance in
sugarcane cultivation to realize higher
recoveries in sugar mills. Crushing early
varieties at the start of season would increase
the sugar recovery. Genetic variability for
cane in the sub-tropical sugarcane gene pool
has been found high which can be utilized for
developing commercial varieties with high
yield and sugar recovery. A clear cut
understanding of variability of qualitative and
quantitative characters of the breeding
material is essential for breeder. Since the
breeder is concerned with selection of
superior genotypes for which the most
suitable individuals from their phenotypic
expression. Estimates of genotypic and
phenotypic variance for various quantitative
characters and their heritability are necessary.
Estimates of heritability and genetic advance
expected by selection for yield via its
components are useful in designing an
effective breeding programme. Selection for
yield could be made more efficiently and
effectively on the basis of components traits.
The pivotal of any breeding programme is the
variation present in a gene pool along with
flow of heritability.
The variability can be statistically
differentiated into heritable variation and non-
heritable variation. It is the heritable variation
which is selected for high productivity.
Heritability provides the information
regarding the proportion of total variation in a
progeny which is transmissible from
generation to generation. Genetic advance
provides information on expected genetic gain
resulting from selection of superior
individuals and idea of the amount of
reduction of environmental effects for
comparing the range of variability present in a
population with respect to yield.
Materials and Methods
The material of this investigation comprises
of 16 promising early maturing sugarcane
clones viz, CoP 11436, CoP 11437, CoP
11438, CoSe 11451,CoLk 12207, CoLk
12208, CoP 12436, CoP 12437, CoSe 12451,
CoP 14436,CoP 14437, CoP 15436, CoP
15437, BO 130, BO 153 (C) and CoSe 95422
(C). All the 16 early maturing sugarcane
clones including two checks viz., BO 153 and
CoSe 95422 were planted in Randomized
Block Design with three replications during
spring season 2016-17 at Dr. RPCAU, Pusa,
Bihar followed all the recommended package
and practices for raising sugarcane good crop.
Three buded setts of all the clones were
planted under field condition along with
checks and from each replication each variety
was planted in a plot of 4 rows of 3 meters
length each with a spacing of 0.75 meter
between rows.
Follow Patel and Patel (2014) for sugarcane
sett size, seed rate and sett treatment.
Observation were recorded by selecting five
random plants per genotype per replication
for component traits of cane yield and juice
quality characters viz., germination
percentage at 45 and 90 days after planting
(DAP), number of shoots at 120 and 240 DAP
(000/ha), plant height at 150 days, at 240 days
(cm) and at harvest, cane diameter at harvest
(cm), fibre per cent at harvest, single cane
weight (kg), number of millable cane at
harvest (000/ha), juice quality traits viz., brix,
pol and purity per cent at 8 and 10th months
stage, respectively, CCS per cent at harves,
cane and sugar yield (t/ha) at harvest.
Statistical analysis
In order to assess and quantify the genetic
variability among the genotypes for the
characters under study, Estimation of variance
components viz., phenotypic variances (2p)
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 1739-1748
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and genotypic variances (2g) were estimated
using the following formula as suggested by
Panse and Sukhatme (1967).
2g =
reσpes)MSS(genoty 2
2p = 2g + 2e [When Cov. G x E=0]
Where,
2e = Environmental variance i.e. error
variance = MSS (error) and r = Number of
replication
Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of
variation present in the cane yield and yield
contributing characters were computed as per
the method suggested by Burton and Devane
(1953).
Genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV)
GCV =
100
x
gσ2
Where,
2g = Genotypic variance and
=
Population mean
Phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV)
PCV =
100
x
pσ2
Where, 2p = Phenotypic variance and
=
Population mean
GCV and PCV values were categorized as
low (0-10 %), moderate (10-20%) and
high(20% and above)
Heritability (Broad sense) in broad sense was
estimated as the ratio of genotypic to the
phenotypic variance and was expressed in
percentage. It was calculated by the formula
given by Johanson et al., (1955a).
h2 (Broad sense heritability) =
100
pσ
gσ
2
2
Where,
2g = Genotypic variance, 2p = Phenotypic
variance and h2 = Heritability (broad sense
heritability)
The heritability was categorized as low,
moderate and high as given by Robinson et
al., (1949).0-30%: Low, 30-60%: Moderate
and 60% and above: High.
Genetic advance was estimated by using the
formula suggested by Lush (1949) and
followed by Johnson et al., (1955a) and
Allard (1960).
Genetic advance (G.A) = K. p. h2
Where, K=Selection differential which is 2.06
at 5 % selection intensity in large sample
from normally distributed population,
Phenotypic standard deviation and h2 =
Heritability in broad sense
Genetic advance as percentage of mean was
calculated by following formula:
GA (as per cent of mean) =
100
x
GA
Where,
GA = Genetic advance and
X
= Mean of the
character
Genetic advance as per cent mean was
categorized as low, moderate and high as
given by Johnson et al., (1955a).It is as
follows.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 1739-1748
1742
0-10%: Low
10-20%: Moderate
20% and above: High
All the statistical analyzed data are being
presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3. Observed data
are also presented in Graph 1, which showed
Estimate of ECV, GCV, PCV, h² and GAM of
characters in early maturing Sugarcane
clones.
Results and Discussion
Variability among the early maturing
sugarcane clones is the present need of
sugarcane improvement programme. The
analysis of variance as per overview given in
Table 1 clearly indicated that highly
significant differences were found among the
clones for all the characters under studied.
Similar results were also reported by earlier
workers Ebid, et al., (2015), Hiremath and
Nagaraja (2016), Tena et al., (2016), Agrawal
and Kumar (2017) and Kumar et al., (2017), it
means there wwer sufficient variability
existed in the early maturing sugarcane for
cane and sugar yield. Therefore wide range
for such traits viz., cane and sugar yield favor
towards selection of high cane yield as well as
high sugar containing clones. In present
investigation it was found that phenotypic
variation for all the characters under study
were higher than the genotypic variances.
This may be due to the non-genetic factor
which played an importance role in the
manifestation of these characters. This result
was in accordance with the findings of Doule
and Balasundaram (2002) for brix and sucrose
juice percentage, purity coefficient,
commercial cane sugar, pol per cent cane and
CCS per plot. Wide range of phenotypic and
genotypic variance were observed for cane
height at harvest followed by plant height at
240 DAP and purity per cent during 10 month
stage from the perusal of Table 2. The
assessment of heritable and non-heritable
component in the total variability observed is
indispensable in adopting suitable breeding
procedure. The heritable portion of the overall
observed variation can be ascertained by
studying the component of variation such as
GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance
as per cent of mean. The high phenotypic
coefficient of variance was observed for sugar
yield followed by germination per cent at 90
DAP, cane yield and single cane weight from
the perusal of Table 3. However, high
genotypic coefficient of variation was
observed for germination per cent at 90 DAP
followed by sugar yield, single cane weight,
these results are in agreement with Dilnesaw
et al., (2016), Swamy Gowda et al., (2016),
Bairwa et al., (2017) and Mehareb and
Abazid (2017). Study of per se performance
of individual genotypic suggests the
importance of the materials under study and it
becomes first hand information for the
breeders. The mean of different quantitative
character including sugar yield and cane yield
as performed by the available clones
suggested that selection of desirable clone
based on the characters from material
evaluated, cane be effective. Heritability
estimates are useful in deciding the character
to be considered while making selection, but
selection based on this factor alone may limit
the progress, as it is prone for change with
environment, material etc. (Johanson et al.,
1955). In other words, estimate of heritability
have a role to play in determining the
effectiveness of selection for a character,
provided they are considered in conjugation
with the genetic advance as per cent of mean
as suggested by Panse (1942) and Johanson et
al., (1955). In this study, heritability for the
characters namely germination percentage at
90 DAP, singe cane weight, number of shoots
at 120 DAP, brix per cent during 8 month
stage, pol per cent during 8 month stage, cane
diameter, plant height at harvest, cane yield
and plant height at 150 days found to be high
in sugarcane from the perusal of Table 3. So,
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 1739-1748
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these characters may be used as selection
criteria in sugarcane for further improvement
of clones. These finding were in confirmation
with the results of earlier workers namely
Chaudhary (2001) for stalk diameter and
single cane weight, Kumar et al., (2004) for
single cane weight, stalk girth and stalk
height, Thippeswamy et al., (2001) for
germination percentage and cane yield,
Jamoza et al., (2014) for stalk diameter and
stalk weight and Dilnesaw et al., (2016) for
cane yield. High genetic advance was
observed for the characters viz., germination
percentage at 90 DAP, number of shoots at
120 DAP, Cane diameter at harvest, single
cane weight, cane yield and sugar yield.
Similar results were also reported by earlier
workers Mali et al., (2010) for number of
tillers and single cane weight, Ebid et al., for
stalk weight, Sanghera et al., (2015) for stalk
length and number of shoots. The coefficient
of variance indicated the extent of variability
present in the character and does not indicate
the heritable portion. This could be
ascertained from the heritability estimates
which in broad sense include both additive
and non-additive gene effects and in narrow
sense include the portion of heritable
variation which is due to addititive
component (Lush, 1949). Assessing merits
and demerits of particular characters as it
enables plant breeders to decide the course of
selection procedures are followed under a
given situation. Hence, direct selection can be
done through these characters for future
improvement of clones for higher cane and
sugar yield in early maturing sugarcane
clones.
Table.1 Analysis of variance for twenty characters in early maturing sugarcane clones
S. N.
Characters
Mean sum of Square
F-Value
Treatment
(d.f= 15)
Error
(d.f= 30)
1.
Germination percentage at 45 DAP
40.12**
8.36
4.80
2.
Germination percentage at 90 DAP
220.75**
16.72
13.19
3.
Number of shoots at 120 DAP (000/ha)
482.73**
40.07
12.04
4.
Number of shoots at 240 DAP (000/ha)
313.91**
68.70
5.56
5.
Plant height at 150 days (cm)
321.22**
53.76
5.97
6.
Plant height at 240 days (cm)
951.58**
194.23
4.89
7.
Plant height at harvest (cm)
3007.51**
344.63
8.72
8.
Cane diameter at harvest (cm)
0.34**
0.03
9.89
9.
Fibre per cent at harvest
0.76**
0.27
2.78
10.
Single cane weight (kg)
0.04**
0.003
13.20
11.
Number of millable cane at harvest (000/ha)
206.63**
61.94
3.33
12.
Brix per cent during 8 month stage
3.61**
0.35
10.30
13.
Pol per cent during 8 month stage
2.84**
0.28
10.16
14.
Purity per cent during 8 month stage
1.37**
0.25
5.37
15.
Brix per cent during 10 month stage
1.05**
0.21
4.95
16.
Pol per cent during 10 month stage
0.53**
0.12
4.33
17.
Purity per cent during 10 month stage
2.05**
0.57
3.60
18.
Cane yield (tonne/ha)
512.19**
73.16
7.00
19.
CCS per cent at harvest
0.21**
0.05
4.01
20.
Sugar yield (tonne/ha)
8.93**
1.43
6.25
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1744
Table.2 Range, mean, genotypic and phenotypic variance of the characters in early maturing sugarcane clones
S. N.
Characters
Range
Mean
σg2
σp2
1
Germination percentage at 45 DAP
27.10 - 39.10
32.12
10.58
18.94
2
Germination percentage at 90 DAP
44.55 - 75.11
56.80
68.01
84.73
3
Number of shoots at 120 DAP (000/ha)
82.24-124.33
104.96
147.55
187.62
4
Number of shoots at 240 DAP (000/ha)
108.67-145.02
130.56
81.15
150.44
5
Plant height at 150 days (cm)
80.12-121.21
97.48
89.73
142.91
6
Plant height at 240 days (cm)
152.00-203.41
179.11
252.62
446.63
7
Plant height at harvest (cm)
178.67-309.00
271.03
887.62
1232.26
8
Cane diameter at harvest (cm)
2.23-3.18
2.72
0.10
0.13
9
Fibre per cent at harvest
12.75-14.72
13.37
0.16
0.43
10
Single cane weight (kg)
0.71-1.19
0.86
0.012
0.015
11
Number of millable cane at harvest (000/ha)
98.57-122.60
108.96
48.23
110.17
12
Brix per cent during 8 month stage
16.34-20.27
18.13
1.08
1.43
13
Pol per cent during 8 month stage
14.01-17.55
15.79
0.85
1.13
14
Purity per cent during 8 month stage
85.80-88.67
87.12
0.37
0.62
15
Brix per cent during 10 month stage
19.97-21.93
20.79
0.27
0.49
16
Pol per cent during 10 months stage
17.51-18.95
18.21
0.13
0.25
17
Purity per cent during 10 months stage
86.30-89.13
87.64
0.49
1.06
18
Cane yield (tonne/ha)
71.83-119.68
93.17
147.34
219.50
19
CCS per cent at harvest
12.02-12.96
12.54
0.05
0.10
20
Sugar yield (tonne/ha)
8.91-15.12
11.70
2.50
3.92
(σg2) Genotypic variance, (σp2) Phenotypic variance
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 1739-1748
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Table.3 Estimate of GCV, PCV, h², GA and GAM of characters in early maturing Sugarcane clones
S. N.
Characters
GCV
PCV
GA 5%
GAM 5%
1
Germination percentage at 45 DAP
10.13
13.55
55.9
5.01
15.60
2
Germination percentage at 90 DAP
14.52
16.20
80.3
15.22
26.79
3
Number of shoots at 120 DAP(000/ha)
11.57
13.05
78.6
22.19
21.14
4
Number of shoots at 240 DAP (000/ha)
6.92
9.39
54.3
13.72
10.51
5
Plant height at 150 days (cm)
9.67
12.26
62.4
15.36
15.76
6
Plant height at 240 days (cm)
8.87
11.80
56.5
24.60
13.74
7
Plant height at harvest (cm)
10.99
12.95
72.0
52.09
19.22
8
Cane diameter at harvest (cm)
11.70
13.53
74.8
0.56
20.85
9
Fibre per cent at harvest
3.01
4.9
37.3
0.51
3.78
10
Single cane weight (kg)
13.12
14.64
80.3
0.21
24.22
11
Number of millable cane at harvest (000/ha)
6.37
9.63
43.8
9.47
8.67
12
Brix per cent during 8 month stage
5.75
6.62
75.6
1.87
10.31
13
Pol per cent during 8 month stage
5.85
6.78
75.3
1.65
10.46
14
Purity per cent during 8 month stage
0.69
0.91
59.3
0.97
1.11
15
Brix per cent during 10 month stage
2.54
3.37
56.9
0.82
3.94
16
Pol per cent during 10 month stage
2.02
2.78
52.6
0.55
3.01
17
Purity per cent during 10 month stage
0.80
1.17
46.5
0.97
1.12
18
Cane yield (tonne/ha)
12.98
15.90
66.7
20.35
21.84
19
CCS per cent at harvest
1.82
2.57
50.1
0.33
2.61
20
Sugar yield (tonne/ha)
13.51
16.93
63.7
2.60
22.61
Phenotypic Coefficient of Variance (PCV), Genotypic Coefficient of Variance (GCV), Heritability (h²), Genetic Advance (GA) and Genetic Advance as per cent
of Mean (GAM)
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 1739-1748
1746
Graph.1 Estimate of ECV, GCV, PCV, h² and GAM of characters in early maturing Sugarcane clones
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(10): 1739-1748
1747
In order to make selection more effective, six
characters were used in present investigation
viz. selection based on per se performance of
characters namely, cane yield, sugar yield,
single cane weight, cane diameter,
germination percentage at 90 DAP, number of
shoots at 120 DAP as these characters showed
high heritability coupled with genetic advance
as per of mean. Therefore, instead of 20 traits
only six traits cane be observed for further
improvement in early maturing sugarcane
clones.
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How to cite this article:
Relisha Ranjan and Balwant Kumar. 2017. Study of Genetic Variability for Cane Yield and its
Component Traits in Early Maturing Sugarcane. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 6(10): 1739-
1748. doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.610.210
... The results revealed that moderate PCV (15.807) and low GCV (9.145) were recorded along with moderate heritability in broad sense (33.472 %) and genetic advance as per cent of mean (10.900 %) for cane height. Moderate PCV and low GCV with moderate GAM were recorded earlier by (22) in their study with sixteen early maturing sugarcane clones in a replicated trial. ...
... %) with moderate value of genetic advance as per cent of mean (16.727%). Moderate phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation and high heritability in broad sense had been reported earlier by (22) and moderate value of GAM was reported by (23). ...
... High estimates of heritability in broad sense and moderate genetic advance over mean recorded for cane diameter, also indicated the importance of additive gene action in the inheritance of this character, but it require cautious selection to improve this character. Similar results were also reported by (22) for cane yield, CCS yield and germination per cent. Preponderance of additive gene action for number of millable canes was also reported earlier by (28,29). ...
Article
Genetic variability parameters were studied for various cane yield and juice quality characters using 142 sugarcane clones, two parental varieties and five standards. Analysis of variance revealed that all the genotypes differ significantly for thirteen characters studied. Clone PC-2013-14-175 exhibited superior mean for juice brix per cent, polarity per cent, sucrose per cent and CCS per cent over the best standard, thus identified as best performer for juice quality characters. Similarly, PC-2013-14-221 exhibited superior performance for number of tillers, number of millable canes, cane height and CCS yield, therefore considered as best clone for cane yield contributing characters. Results revealed that PCV estimates were higher than GCV for all the characters and the closeness between GCV and PCV values for all the characters except cane height and CCS per cent indicated that majority of the characters are less influenced by the environment. Moderate to high magnitude of GCV, PCV along with high h 2 b and GAM were recorded for germination per cent, number of tillers, NMC, cane yield and CCS yield, indicated wider range of variability in the material and importance of additive gene action in inheritance of these characters in sugarcane.
... Negi et al (2017) observed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean for single cane weight. Ranjan and kumar (2017) found single cane weight and sugar yield for high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean. Therefore, it indicates that simple selection based on phenotype for these traits viz., plant height at 150 DAP, single cane weight at harvest and sugar yield at harvest might be effective method for sugarcane variety improvement breeding programme. ...
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To study the genetic variation in the productive traits of early maturing sugarcane clones an experiment was conducted with planting of 15 early maturing sugarcane clones including two checks in Randomized Block Design with three replications during spring season 2017 at research farm of RPCAU, Pusa, Samastipur Bihar, Analysis of variances revealed that all the eighteen traits viz., germination % at 45 days after planting, number of shoots at 120 days, plant height (at 150 days, 240 days and at harvest), cane diameter at harvest, millable canes at harvest(000/ha), single cane weight at harvest(kg), brix, pol, purity and CCS (%) in juice at 8 and 10th month stage, CCS t/ha(sugar yield) and cane yield(t/ha) at harvest were found differed significantly for all the genotypes. The range of variation was conspicuous for cane yield, sugar yield, number of millable canes, germination% at 45 days, number of shoots at 120 days and plant height at 150, 240 days and at harvest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were higher than its genotypic counter parts for all the traits. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of means was observed for plant height at 150 DAP, single cane weight at harvest and sugar yield at harvest. High heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of means was observed for germination % at 45 days after planting, plant height at 240 days after planting, plant height at harvest, cane diameter at harvest and brix at 10th month stage. Moderate heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of means was observed for number of shoots at 120 days after planting and cane yield at harvest (t/ha).Therefore the traits viz, germination % at 45 days after planting, plant height at 150 & 240 days after planting, plant height at harvest, cane diameter at harvest, brix at 10th month stage, single cane weight at harvest and sugar yield at harvest cane be utilized for further sugarcane breeding programme.
... None of the characters was observed for highest cluster mean in cluster I. Table: -5 showed the towards character contribution percent divergence of early (2017), Patil et.al. (2017) and Ranjan and Kumar (2017) have already been reported the significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters. ...
Article
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DR. RAJENDRA PRASAD CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITYPUSA (SAMASTIPUR) BIHAR-848 125 Title of the Research : “Diversity of early maturing sugarcane clones for cane and juice quality traits” Name of Student : HIMANSHU KUMAR NISHAD Registration Number : M/PBG/125/2016-17 Year : 2018 Major Subject : Plant Breeding & Genetics Minor Subject : Agricultural Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Major Advisor : Dr. BALWANT KUMAR University : Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar. Samastipur – 848-125 Total pages in thesis : 76 + i-V (Bibliography) + i-iii (Appendix) ABSTRACT A study was conducted with planting 15 early maturing sugarcane clones including two checks in Randomized Block Design with three replications during spring season 2017 at research farm of RPCAU Pusa to evaluate the variability, heritability, GA, character association and its cause and effects and clustering pattern for cane and juice quality traits. Observations were recorded for the eighteen traitsviz., germination % at 45 days after planting, number of shoots at 120 days, plant height at 150, 240 days and at harvest, cane diameter at harvest, millable canes at harvest, single cane weight at harvest, brix, pol, purity and ccs at 8and 10th month stage, sugar yield and cane yield at harvest and after its statistical analysis,all the characters were found differed significantly for all the genotypes. Among the test entries, the clone CoP16437 showed highest value for cane yield and sugar yield followed by CoP15437 & CoSe12451. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the traits.High heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of means was observed for plant height at 150 DAP, single cane weight at harvest and sugar yield at harvest.High heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of means was observed for germination % at 45 days after planting, plant height at 240 days after planting, plant height at harvest, cane diameter at harvest and brix at 10th month stage. Moderate heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance as percent of means was observed for number of shoots at 120 days after planting and cane yield at harvest (t/ha). Cane yield showed highly significant and positive association with plant height at 240 days and at harvest, cane diameter at harvest, single cane weight at harvest and sugar yield at harvest. Maximum positive direct effect on cane yield was exhibited by the character pol at 8th month stage followed by brix at 10th month stage and sugar yield at harvest. Maximum positive indirect effect on cane yield was exhibited by the character pol at 10th month stage via brix at 10th month stage. All the early maturing sugarcane clones were grouped into four distinguished clusters among fifteen genotypes. Cluster I contained maximum number of clones (6) followed by cluster IV (4), cluster III (3) and cluster II (2). Maximum intra-cluster D2distance was observed in cluster I and maximum inter-cluster D2distance was observed between cluster II and cluster IV. The trait, Pol percent at 10th month stage showed maximum character contribution percent towards divergence followed by sugar yield at harvest, cane yield and brix at 10th month stage. The clones viz, CoP16437 and CoP15437 have been identified for high yielding early maturing sugarcane clones for cane and sugar yield.
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To study genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance for cane and sugar yield attributing traits in mid-late maturing sugarcane clones
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Abstract Sugarcane is primarily grown in nine states of India namely; Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu. During early 19th century sugarcane cultivation started as cash crop and number of sugar factories open keeping in view a glimpses of sugarcane varietal screening and Improvement has been reviewed and found that Bihar was rich in term of sugar factories and its 20-40% share in national sugar production was already reported. It was the introduction of Co seedling that replace local varieties under cultivation those were Co 210, Co213, Co 214, Co 313, Co 331, Co 513,Co 356, Co 395,Co 453,Co508 and CoK 32, Co 383, Co 622,Co 419,Co 617,Co1148 and Co 1158 while in present varietal scenario cultivated varieties are Co 0238, Co 0118, Co 98014, CoP 9301, CoLk 94184, CoP 112, CoSe 01434, CoP 09437, BO 154 and CoP 16437. It was also found that POJ 2878, Co285, Co281, CP 28/11, Co213 & Co205 were mainly responsible for improvement in high yield and high sugar. The varietal development and evaluation of sugarcane varieties started in Bihar by after that Central Sugarcane Research Institute was established 1932 since then total 281 clones were developed at SRI, while several Sugarcane varieties of other place were also evaluated. AICRP on sugarcane under North Central Zone altogether 24 varieties were identified out of which 13 were notified for this zone while from SRI, total 10 varieties were identified among them two were notified. During last decade 44 clones were developed at SRI, Pusa and their evaluations were held time to time under water logging condition, red rot resistance and other biotic and abiotic stress as a result of hybridization followed by clonal selection in most of the genetic studied several clones are performing stable with high cane and sugar yield. This is a good sign for varietal improvement work in SRI, Pusa Bihar to release such technology for commercial cultivation which will overcome the past pride moment of sugarcane of Bihar again. Keywords: Varieties Co, BO, CoP, CoSe, CoLk, SRI, Pusa, AICRP on Sugarcane, Bihar
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To study the relations of certain morphological and sugar quality characters with sugarcane yield, an experiment was conducted at Wonji and Metehara Sugar Estates, Ethiopia between March 2012 and October 2013. The experiment, comprising of 400 sugarcane genotypes of which 174 were local that were collected from different regional states of Ethiopia and 226 introduced, was laid out in partial balanced lattice design with two replications. Data was collected on cane yield and its components, sugar yield and sugar quality traits. ANOVA, correlation and path coefficient analysis were done. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (P < 0.01) for all the characters studied. Cane yield showed strong positive and highly significant (P < 0.01) correlation with millable cane number (r = 0.832), single cane weight (r = 0.528), stalk height (r = 0.517) and sugar yield (r = 0.987). There was also positive significant (P = 0.05) correlation of tiller count and cane diameter with cane yield. Path analysis revealed the highest positive direct effect of millable cane number (0.812) on cane yield followed by single cane weight (0.682) and pol percent (0.550). However, stalk diameter and brix percent had considerable negative direct effects and indirect positive effects through single cane weight on cane yield. Therefore, in view of their significant positive association with cane yield, indirect effects of stalk diameter and brix percent via single cane weight should be considered during selection. Genotypes should be selected on the basis of millable cane number, single cane weight and pol percent for getting higher cane and sugar yield
Article
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Genetic variability, correlations and path coefficients were studied in thirteen phenotypically diverse early maturing sugarcane clones, which were planted in randomized block design. The study revealed highly significant differences among the 13 clones for all the characters studied, indicated the ample variation. High phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation were observed for number of shoots at 240 days followed by cane diameter and number of tiller at 120 days and single cane weight. High heritability estimates were recorded for stalk diameter (80.69%) and moderate for cane yield (74.42%) and number of millable canes (NMC) at 10 months (72.49%) implying simple selection for these traits would be effective. Maximum genetic gain (as percent of mean) was observed for stalk length (37.09%) followed by number of shoots (34.31%) indicating that there exist a scope to improve cane yield through this trait. Moderate heritability coupled with high genetic advance observed for number of shoots and cane length indicated the presence of additive gene action. Correlation coefficient revealed that cane yield was found to be significantly and positively correlated with NMC at10 months, stalk length, single cane weight, cane diameter and germination percentage at 45 days indicating the importance of these traits to be involved in selection criteria. Partioning of association into their direct and indirect effects showed that highest positive direct effect on cane yield is exerted by growth characters like no. of shoots 240 days, number millable canes, single cane weight and stalk diameter in this study so be taken into consideration in clonal selection programme for evolving improved sugarcane genotypes. Keywords: Sugarcane, genetic variability, heritability, correlation and path analysis. Abbreviations: PCV-phenotypic coefficient of variation, GCV-genotypic coefficient of variation, GA-genetic advance, NMC-number of millable canes, GM-grand mean, h 2 (bs)-heritability broad sense. INTRODUCTION Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is an important agro industrial crop and knowledge of heritability of agronomic traits is important in breeding programmes worldwide. It is an important agro-industrial crop in India, plays a pivotal role in national economy by contributing 1.9% to gross domestic product. However, plateauing yield level, declining factor productivity, increasing production cost, slashing sugar prices in international market and decreasing profitability in recent years indeed pose the real concerns before cane researchers, growers and mill owners. In India, sugar industry being the second largest agro-based industry next to textile. Sugarcane varieties in commercial cultivation are complex polyploids, the heterozygous and polyploid nature of this crop has resulted in generation of sufficient genetic variability. Genetic improvement in cane yield may be achieved by targeting traits closely associated with cane yield. A number of characteristics have been proposed as indirect selection criteria for genetic improvement of yield in plant breeding programmes [1].
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Thirty sugarcane clones were tested during August season of 2008-09 and 2009-10 in a randomized complete block design with two replications at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V.C. Farm, Mandya, Karnataka (India) to study the variability parameters for cane yield and quality traits in plant and ratoon crops. The observations were recorded for cane yield components viz., number of tillers, number of millable cane, stalk length, stalk diameter, single stalk weight, internodal length, number of internodes, juice brix per cent, juice pol per cent, juice purity per cent, CCS per cent, sugar yield and cane yield. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences between genotypes for all the characters studied. Wide range of variation was observed for number of tillers, number of millable cane, stalk diameter, cane and sugar yield and for quality traits, juice brix per cent, juice pol per cent and CCS per cent in both plant and ratoon crops. Maximum genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were exhibited by number of tillers, single stalk weight, sugar yield and cane yield in both plant and ratoon crops. Among quality characters lowest values for both coefficients were recorded by purity per cent in both plant and ratoon crops. Maximum genetic gain as per cent of mean was observed for number of tillers, number of millable cane, sugar and cane yield in plant crops. Whereas, in ratoon crop highest genetic gain as per cent of mean was recorded for number of tillers, single stalk weight, sugar and cane yield. All characters showed high heritability which suggests that selection should be in both plant and ratoon crops based on yield contributing characters having high PCV, GCV, heritability and genetic advance along with mean value.
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Estimates of genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters are useful in planning and evaluating breeding programs. A knowledge of the correlations that exist between important characters may facilitate the interpretation of results already obtained and provide the basis for planning more efficient programs for the future. Also, correlations between important and non-important characters may reveal that some of the latter are useful as indicators of one or more of the former....
Variability, heritability and genetic advance for cane yield and its component traits in sugarcane
  • S Thippeswamy
  • S T Kajjidoni
  • P M Slimath
  • J V Goud
  • M B Chetti
Thippeswamy, S., Kajjidoni, S.T., Slimath, P.M., Goud, J.V. and Chetti, M.B. 2001.Variability, heritability and genetic advance for cane yield and its component traits in sugarcane. Sugar Tech, 5(1/2): 65-72.
Genetic variability of some promising varieties (Saccharum spp) under harvesting ages for juice quality traits, cane and sugar yield
  • E M Mehareb
  • S R Abazid
Mehareb, E.M., and Abazid, S.R. 2017. Genetic variability of some promising varieties (Saccharum spp) under harvesting ages for juice quality traits, cane and sugar yield. Open access Journal of Agricultural research.