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Attractiveness of Certain Popular Food Products to the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica, Adults under Field Conditions

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Entomology Journal publishes original research papers and reviews from any entomological discipline or from directly allied fields in ecology, behavioral biology, The attractiveness of twenty seven materials (11 of fresh vegetables, 8 of plant seeds, and 8 of oily materials) to adult male and female of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica, was evaluated singly and as mixtures under field conditions. The comparison of attractiveness was done between materials in the same group and between the most attractive materials of each group. Results showed that fresh coriander leaves, dill leaves, and zucchini fruit were the most attractive materials of the green vegetables group to both sexes and a combination of coriander leaves and zucchini fruit increased the number of attracted male and female cockroaches. In case of plant seeds, roasted peanut was the most attractive to males and females, whereas peanut butter was the most attractive from oily materials. A mixture composed of equal amounts of roasted peanut, coriander oil, fresh coriander leaves, and zucchini fruit attracted more cockroaches than peanut butter. Addition of cockroach's feces to the mixture increased its attractiveness against cockroaches.
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Citation: Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci. (A. Entomology) Vol. 10(5)pp: 1- 9(2017)
Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences is the official English
language journal of the Egyptian Society for Biological Sciences, Department of
Entomology, Faculty of Sciences Ain Shams University.
Entomology Journal publishes original research papers and reviews from any
entomological discipline or from directly allied fields in ecology, behavioral
biology, physiology, biochemistry, development, genetics, systematics,
morphology, evolution, control of insects, arachnids, and general entomology.
www.eajbs.eg.net
Provided for non-commercial research and education use.
Not for reproduction, distribution or commercial use.
Vol. 10 No. 5 (2017)
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Citation: Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci. (A. Entomology) Vol. 10(5)pp: 1- 9(2017)
Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci., 10(5): 1–9 (2017)
Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences
A. Entomology
ISSN 1687- 8809
www.eajbs.eg.net
Attractiveness of Certain Popular Food Products to the German Cockroach,
Blattella germanica, Adults under Field Conditions
Abd Elwahab A. Ibrahim1, Reda F. A. Bakr2,3, Olfat M. El-Monairy1,
Yasser A. El-Sayed2, and Maysa Hegazy1
1- Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Qaluobiya , Egypt
2- Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
3- Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences. Bisha University, Bisha , KSA
E.Mail : tmgmwahab@hotmail.com
___________________________________________________________________
ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT
Article History
Received: 10/6/2017
Accepted: 16/8/2017
_______________
Keywords:
Attractiveness , popular
food products German
cockroach, Blattella
germanica , field
conditions
The attractiveness of twenty seven materials (11 of fresh vegetables, 8
of plant seeds, and 8 of oily materials) to adult male and female of German
cockroaches, Blattella germanica, was evaluated singly and as mixtures
under field conditions. The comparison of attractiveness was done between
materials in the same group and between the most attractive materials of
each group. Results showed that fresh coriander leaves, dill leaves, and
zucchini fruit were the most attractive materials of the green vegetables
group to both sexes and a combination of coriander leaves and zucchini fruit
increased the number of attracted male and female cockroaches. In case of
plant seeds, roasted peanut was the most attractive to males and females,
whereas peanut butter was the most attractive from oily materials. A mixture
composed of equal amounts of roasted peanut, coriander oil, fresh coriander
leaves, and zucchini fruit attracted more cockroaches than peanut butter.
Addition of cockroach’s feces to the mixture increased its attractiveness
against cockroaches.
INTRODUCTION
Entomologists have been interested in studying cockroach food preference
because cockroaches are one of the most common household pests; and the range of
food substances that they utilize is greater than any other insect (Jones and
Raubenheimer, 2001). Thus, there is a need to develop cockroach attractants that
provide safe and effective cockroach attraction (Vandermeer et al., 2012).
The term attractant is often erroneously used in reference to phagostimulants
(food) that must be found randomly, e.g., by cockroaches, or must be placed in an
area known to be frequently visited by cockroaches. Many approaches for controlling
cockroach populations are based on attracting cockroaches to traps, insecticide baits,
and onto surfaces treated with residual insecticides or biological control agents
(Nalyanya and Schal, 2001). Extensive research has been conducted on household
food materials as lures with the aim to incorporate them into cockroach control
tactics (Tsuji, 1965; Reierson and Rust 1977a, Rust and Reierson 1981, Ballard and
Gold, 1982). However, the documentation of food preference of the German
cockroach is limited.
Bread has emerged as one of the most attractive food substances for German
cockroaches; it is frequently used in trapping studies in apartments (Owens and
Abd Elwahab A. Ibrahim et al.
2
Bennett, 1982, 1983; Barcay et al., 1990).
In a study, Nalyanya et al., (2001) stated that bread was highly attractive in
olfactory assays for attracting male B. germanica cockroaches. Tabaru and
Mochizuki (2005) found that the herbs, anise (Pimpinella anisum), sansyo
(Zathoxylum piperitum), onion (Allium cepa), vanilla (Vanilla planifolia), mustard
(Brassica hirta), and eucalypt (Eucalyptus radiata) have an attractive effect to the
German cockroach. Also, El-Sharabasy et al., (2014) recorded that the percentage of
adults attracted to carbohydrate foods (biscuit and banana) and protein food (cooked
cheese) was significantly higher than bread and potato and luncheon (minced meat
and white cheese).
Crude fecal extracts containing cockroach aggregation pheromones have
shown promise in field studies by reducing repellency of contact insecticides (Rust
and Reierson, 1977b). Efforts to integrate pheromone in cockroach population
management are certain to optimize trap catch, as with Supella longipalpa (Liang et
al., 1998). Kaakeh and Bennett (1996) indicated that Victor traps with aggregation
pheromone trapped significantly more cockroaches than Victor traps without
pheromone.
There are no commercially available cockroach attractants. For this reason, the
present work aimed to study the attractiveness of the most popular food products
found in our kitchens to the feeding preference of German cockroach, B. germanica.
Results obtained from the present work may help in the selection of products that
may be used in the attraction of cockroaches into baits or to toxic materials.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Tested Products: All the tested products were purchased from local distributors.
The selected products were separated and tested in three groups according to their
nature as illustrated in Table (1). Combination between some of the attractants was
done by mixing equal amounts of them. Also, cockroach feces, as additive materials,
were collected from cockroach's aggregation sites in kitchens.
Table 1: Descriptive information on the tested products in the field trial.
Group1
(Fresh vegetables)
Group 2
(Plant seeds)
Group 3 (Oily materials)
Products Ingredients
Coriander leaves
Coriandrum sativum Peanut
Arachis hypogaea Peanut butter
Roasted peanut, sugar, peanut oil,
hydrogenated rape seed, soy bean cotton seed
oil, and salt
Dill leaves
Anethum graveolens
Hibiscus
Hibiscus syriacus Coriander oil Coriandrol, linalool, and limonene.
Zucchini fruit
Cucurbita pepo Caraway
Carm carvi Peppermint oil Carvon, mentol, menthon, and limonin
Potato
Solanium tuberosum Black pepper
Piper nigrum Butter Caw milk fat.
Peppermint leaves Mentha piperita Cumin Cuminum
Cyminum Dill oil Carvon, limonin, and phellandrene.
Parsley leaves Petroselinum
sativum
Fenugreek
Trigonella foenum Margarine Refined palm oil, beta carotene, flavor, and
antioxidant T.B.H.Q.
Cucumber
Cucumis sativus Anise
Pimpinella anisum Animal fat -
Tomato
Solanium lycopersicum Coriander Chicken fat -
Onion Allum cepan - - -
Green pepper Capsicum annum
- - -
Garlic Allium sativum - - -
Attractiveness of certain popular food products to the German cockroach B. germanica
3
Procedures of the Field Bioassay: The kitchen was cleaned from any materials
(food or water source) which may affect the response of the insects to the tested
products. The light of the kitchen was switched on all the night to reduce the insects'
activity and to some extent for reducing their feeding through night. Attractant
products (about 1 gm. of each) were arranged on the marble about 10cm from each
other and then the light of the kitchen was switched off. The arrangement of the
attractants was done in a completely randomized block design and their locations
were re-randomized after each count. The number of attracted males and females was
recorded each hour for 6 hours.
The count was assessed under a very faint light by visual count according to
methods described by Agrawal and Tilak (2006) and Ahmad and Suliyat (2011).
Statistical Analysis:
Data were expressed as mean standard error. The statistical significance of
differences between individual means was analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis
one way (ANOVA, version 20-32bit) program followed by Duncan's test.
RESULTS
The attractiveness of twenty seven products (11 of fresh vegetables, 8 of plant seeds,
and 8 of oily products) to adult males and females of German cockroach Blattella
germanica, singly or as mixtures are shown in the Tables (2-7).
Green Vegetables Group: Coriander leaves, dill leaves, and zucchini fruit attracted
significantly more males and females in comparable to both the control and the other
attractants (fresh potato, peppermint leaves, parsley leaves, cucumber, tomato, onion,
green pepper, and garlic) as shown in Table (2).
Table 2: Mean number of B. germanica adults attracted per hour to certain fresh vegetables in field
trials after the investigation period (6hrs.).
N: 6 replicates for each treatment, mean attractiveness in the same column followed by the same
superscript, are not significantly different (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's test, p 0.05.
The number of attracted males per hour to coriander leaves and dill leaves
(6.8 and 6.2, respectively) was more than that of attracted females (4.8 and 3.0,
respectively). On the other hand, zucchini fruit was more attractive to females than
males. The results also showed that no females were attracted to onion, green pepper,
and garlic.
It is remarkable that a mixture of coriander leaves and zucchini fruit was
significantly more attractive to adult males and females (9.2 and 7.8, respectively)
Fresh vegetables Number of insects hour (Mean ± SE)
Coriander leaves 6.8 ± 0.60a4.8 ± 0.47a
Dill leaves 6.2 ± 0.47a3.0 ± 0.44b
Zucchini fruit 5.8 ± 0.60a6.5 ± 0.47c
Fresh potato 2.5 ± 0.56ce 0.7 ± 0.33def
Peppermint leaves 2.2 ± 0.54de 1.5 ± 0.34d
Parsley leaves 2.0 ± 0.44de 0.3 ± 0.16e
Cucumber 1.8 ± 0.40de 2.5 ± 0.42b
Tomato 1.8 ± 0.16de 0.3 ± 0.21ef
Onion 1.0 + 0.36bd 0e
Green pepper 0.3 ± 0.33b0e
Garlic 0b0e
Control (white bread) 3.0 ± 0.25ce 1.2 ± 0.24df
Abd Elwahab A. Ibrahim et al.
4
than coriander leaves or zucchini fruit tested alone (4.8 and 3.0, respectively) or in
combination with dill leaves (Table 3). Combination of dill leaves with coriander
leaves or zucchini fruit reduced their attractiveness against females and prevented its
effect against males.
Table 3: Mean number of B. germanica adults attracted per hour to combination of certain fresh
vegetables in field trials after the investigation period (6hrs.).
N: 6 replicates for each treatment, mean attractiveness in the same column followed by the same
superscript, are not significantly different (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's test, p 0.05.
Plant Seeds: Data presented in Table 4 indicated that roasted peanut attracted
significantly more insects (8.5 and 5.8 insect hr. for males and females, respectively)
in comparison with the other seeds and the control.
Table 4: Mean number of B. germanica adults attracted per hour to certain dry plant seeds in field
trials after the investigation period (6hrs.).
N: 6 replicates for each treatment, mean attractiveness in the same column followed by the same
superscript, are not significantly different (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's test, p 0.05.
Black pepper, cumin, fenugreek, anise, and coriander were not attractive for
both sexes. On the other hand, fresh peanut, hibiscus, and caraway attracted number
of insects less than the control.
Oily Products: The data summarized in Table (5) indicated that peanut butter was
the most accepted product for both sexes and significantly attracted more insects
(12.0 and 9.5 insect hr. for males and females, respectively) than the other materials
and the control. There were also significant differences in the numbers of attracted
insects to coriander oil (5.7 male hr and 3.0 female hr) and peppermint oil (5.0
male hr and 2.5 female hr) from the control (0.3 male hr. and zero hr females). Dill
oil and chicken fat reduced the number of males attracted, while no females were
attracted. Animal fat and margarine did not attract any males or females.
Fresh vegetables Number of insects hour
(Mean ± SE)
Coriander leaves + zucchini fruit 9.2 ± 0.30a7.8 ± 0.30a
Coriander leaves 4.8 ± 0.47b 2.0 ± 0.25b
Zucchini fruit 3.0 ± 0.25b3.0 ± 0.51c
Coriander leaves + zucchini fruit + dill leaves 1.8 ± 0.47d3.0 ± 0.51c
Dill leaves + zucchini fruit 0e 0.8 ± 0.30d
Dill leaves + coriander leaves 0e 0.3 ± 0.21d
Dill leaves 0e0d
Control (white bread) 2.2 ± 0.30cd 0d
Plant seeds Number of insects hour (Mean ± SE)
Roasted peanut 8.5 ± 0.50a5.8 ± 0.47a
Fresh peanut 4.0 ± 0.36b3.2 ± 0.30bc
Hibiscus 3.7 ± 0.33b2.8 ± 0.47b
Caraway 1.8 ± 0.30c0d
Black pepper 0d 0
d
Cumin 0d0d
Fenugreek 0d0d
Anise 0d0d
Coriander 0d0d
Control (white bread) 5.8 ± 0.60e3.0 ± 0.36c
Attractiveness of certain popular food products to the German cockroach B. germanica
5
Table 5: Mean number of B. germanica adults attracted per hour to certain oily materials in field trials
after the investigation period (6hrs.).
Oily materials Number of insects hour (Mean ± SE)
Peanut butter 12.0 ± 0.36a 9.5 ± 0.42a
Coriander oil 5.7 ± 0.66
d
3.0 ± 0.57
b
Peppermint oil 5.0 ± 0.57
d
2.5 ± 0.34
bd
Butter 3.3 ± 0.42
b
0.5 ± 0.34c
Dill oil 1.0 ± 0.44c0c
Chicken fat 0.2 ± 0.16e0c
Animal fat 0e0c
Margarine 0e0c
Control (white bread) 0.3 ± 0.52e0c
N: 6 replicates for each treatment, mean attractiveness in the same column followed by the same
superscript, are not significantly different (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's test, p 0.05.
Comparative Attractiveness of Certain Combinations of Attractants: The visual
counts of cockroaches attracted to certain combinations of attractants in comparison
with peanut butter are shown in Table (6).
Table 6: Mean number of B. germanica adults attracted per hour to combinations of certain attractants
in field trials after the investigation period (6hrs.).
Attractants Number of insects hour (Mean ± SE)
Peanut butter 9.5 ± 0.34a8.2 ± 0.65a
Roasted peanut + coriander oil + fresh coriander
leaves + zucchini fruits 7.3 ± 0.49b 6.8 ± 0.65b
Coriander leaves + zucchini fruits 4.3 ± 0.42c5.0 ± 0.51c
Roasted peanut + coriander oil 1.3 ± 0.49d0d
Roasted peanut + peppermint oil + fresh coriander
leaves + zucchini fruits 1.2 ± 0.40de 0.2 ± 0.16d
Roasted peanut + peppermint oil 0e0.7 ± 0.21d
Control (white bread) 0e0d
N: 6 replicates for each treatment, mean attractiveness in the same column followed by the same
superscript, are not significantly different (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's test, p 0.05.
No significant difference was found between the attractiveness of peanut
butter, which was proved to be the best of oily products (9.5 and 8.2 insect hr. for
males and females, respectively), and a mixture composed of equal amounts of
roasted peanut, coriander oil, fresh coriander leaves, and zucchini fruit (7.3 and 6.8
insect hr. for males and females, respectively). The other tested mixtures (coriander
leaves + zucchini, roasted peanut + coriander oil, roasted peanut + peppermint oil +
fresh coriander leaves + zucchini and roasted peanut + peppermint oil) were not
significantly attractive to both sexes. No insects attracted to the control (white
bread).
In a separated assay, addition of cockroach feces to the mixture composed of
roasted peanut, coriander oil, fresh coriander leaves, and fresh zucchini ranked it to
be significantly the most attractive mixture for both male and female adults
compared with the control or the other used mixtures of attractants (peanut butter,
roasted peanut + coriander oil + fresh coriander leaves + zucchini fruit) as shown in
Table (7). This mixture also attracted more insects than peanut butter.
Abd Elwahab A. Ibrahim et al.
6
Table 7: Mean number of B. germanica adults attracted per hour to combinations of certain attractants
in field trials after the investigation period (6hrs.).
Attractants Number of insects hour (Mean ± SE)
Feces + * 10.2 ± 0.60a9.3 ± 0.49a
Peanut butter 9.8 ± 0.30a7.7 ± 0.33a
Bread + * 5.3 ± 0.42b3.0 ± 0.51b
Dry milk + * 4.5 ± 0.61b0.8 ± 0.30c
Vanillin + * 4.0 ± 0.51bc 2.2 ± 0.30b
Sugar + * 2.8 ± 0.47c0.3 ± 0.21c
Control (white bread) 0d0c
N: 6 replicates for each treatment, mean attractiveness in the same column followed by the same
superscript, are not significantly different (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's test, p 0.05.
*: 1:1:1:1:1 of roasted peanut + coriander oil + fresh coriander leaves + fresh zucchini.
DISCUSSION
Data of the present study clearly showed that coriander leaves, dill leaves, and
zucchini fruit (from the green vegetables group) were the most attractive materials to
both males and females. A combination of coriander leaves and zucchini increased
the number of the attracted males and females which may be due to the high water,
carbohydrates, and protein contents of them. Carbohydrates are one nutrient that both
sexes use as a primary energy source (Carrel and Tanner, 2002). Muntean (2007)
recorded that raw zucchini fruit contain water (92.73%), carbohydrates (3.11%),
protein (2.71%), total lipids (0.40%), ash (1.05%), and total dietary fiber (1.1%).
Also, El-Sharabasy et al., (2014) recorded that the percentage of adults
attracted to carbohydrate foods (biscuit and banana) and protein food (cooked
cheese) was significantly higher than (bread and potato) and luncheon (minced meat
and white cheese). Results of the current investigation strongly favor the concept
given by Quan et al., (1995) who have reported that vegetable juice was more
attractive than wormwood, onion, celery, and garlic. Similar conclusion has been
made by Tabaru and Mochizuki (2005) who found that the herbs, anise (Pimpinella
anisum), sansyo (Zathoxylum piperitum), onion (Allium cepa), vanilla (Vanilla
planifolia), mustard (Brassica hirta), and eucalypt (Eucalyptus radiata) have an
attractant effect to the German cockroach.
It is clear from our results that the attracted insects to roasted peanut were
greater than that attracted to fresh peanut. This observation may be due to the release
of its odorants. Quan et al., (1995) found that the attractiveness of vegetable essence
and pineapple essence was clearly higher than banana essence, yeast alcoholic drink
essence, and almond essence.
It was observed also that the peanut butter was highly attractive to males and
females. In the current trial the observed attractiveness of the peanut butter may be
due to ingredients such as roasted peanut, sugar, and peanut oil. Nalyanya and Schal
(2001) compared various attractants in olfactometer assays and in field experiments
and found that peanut butter was more attractive to B. germanica than distiller’s
grain in the two assays. Awad et al., (2002) rendered the attractiveness of
cockroaches to peanut butter to -sitosterol.
The -sitosterol is a steroid glycoside and is considered as the mother
compound that can convert, synthetically, to 7 successive compounds to produce
blattellastanoside which is considered as the arrestant component of the aggregation
Attractiveness of certain popular food products to the German cockroach B. germanica
7
pheromone (Sakuma and Fukami, 1990).
From our results, we can concluded that the number of attracted insects to
peanut butter was reduced when it was compared to other strong attractive mixtures
like the mixture composed of roasted peanut, coriander oil, fresh coriander leaves,
and zucchini fruit.
Addition of cockroach feces to this mixture render it more attractive than
peanut butter. This is may be due to the aggregation pheromone. The aggregation
pheromone contains both attractant and arrestant components and cockroaches
respond to the attractants by olfaction (Sakuma and Fukami, 1985) and to the
arrestants by contact chemoreception (Sakuma and Fukami, 1991).
Efforts to integrate pheromone and food lures in cockroach population
management are certain to optimize trap catch, as with Supella longipalpa (Liang et
al., 1998). Results of the current investigation strongly favor the concept given by
Kaakeh and Bennett (1996) that Victor traps with aggregation pheromone trapped
significantly more cockroaches than Victor traps without pheromone.
Our observation is supported by the observation of Miller et al., (1997) who
found that the use of fecal extract of German cockroach in combination with toxic
bait may increase the attractiveness of bait stations, decrease bait repellency, and
enhance cockroach mortality in the presence of competing food sources. Also, Miller
et al., (2000) evaluated an aqueous extract of German cockroach fecal material for
inducing trail-following behavior in German cockroaches and they found that the
presence of the fecal extract-treated trails significantly enhanced trap catch. Crude
fecal extracts containing aggregation pheromones have shown promise in field
studies by reducing repellency of contact insecticides (Rust and Reierson, 1977b).
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Vandermeer, R. K.; Brenner, R. J.; Cataldo, D. A.; Voris, P. V. and Lipinsky, E. S.
(2012): United States Patent.
ARABIC SUMMARY
           
   -    
&
-    :  
  
-       
-        
-      - -  
    )        
 (            
 .               
 .             
               
  .             
        .        
           .  
        .
... To date, many food-based attractants and synthetic odorants have been evaluated with the intention of being incorporated into cockroach control tactics (Tsuji 1966, Rust and Reierson 1981, Ballard and Gold 1982, Karimifar et al. 2011, Ibrahim et al. 2017, Pol et al. 2018. They can be placed on traps for mass trapping of German cockroaches or incorporated into bait matrices for increasing the toxic bait palatability or masking the formulation repellency (Owens 1995, Gore and Schal 2004, Roelofs et al. 2006. ...
... In field experiments, a three-component composition comprising dry malt extract, water, and Brewer's yeast was similarly effective for attracting and capturing German cockroaches as a commercial cockroach bait (Pol et al. 2017). Fresh coriander leaves, dill leaves, zucchini fruit, a combination of coriander leaves and zucchini fruit, roasted peanut, and peanut butter were the most attractive materials to both male and female cockroaches among 27 products studied as German cockroach attractants (11 fresh vegetables, 8 plant seeds, and 8 oily products) (Ibrahim et al. 2017). Among 30 substances tested by Wiley and Boush (1983), oleyl alcohol, palmitic acid, fenugreek seed alcohol extract, and elaidic acid methyl ester produced 60% or more, positive responses toward bait stations (Wileyto and Boush 1983). ...
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Sticky traps are standard tools for monitoring German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.); however, because they lack an attractant, their ability to catch cockroaches is by chance and largely dependent upon the location of placement and length of time they are left in place. Currently, highly effective and economical cockroach attractants are not available. Food-based attractants have the potential to be employed in sticky traps and enhance their effectiveness on trapping German cockroaches. We conducted laboratory and field experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of novel food-based attractants. Laboratory results showed that sticky traps containing the following attractants: apple oil, blueberry oil, orange oil, or their combination, fish oil, peanut butter, Roach lure tablet, and bacon extract had significantly higher trap catch compared to those traps that do not contain an attractant. Apple plus blueberry oil mixture and Roach lure tablet enhanced the trap catch by ≥ 103%, and bacon extract enhanced the trap catch by 92% in the field assays. Apple plus blueberry oil mixture and Roach lure tablet were the most promising attractants based on laboratory and field experiments. Apple plus blueberry oil mixture aged for 2 wk was as attractive to German cockroaches as fresh mixture.
... Awad et al. (2000) reported that attractiveness of peanut butter was due to ingredients such as β-sitosterol. Ibrahim et al. (2017) showed that roasted peanut was the most attractive food to male and female cockroaches and a mixture composed of equal amounts of roasted peanut, coriander oil, fresh coriander leaves, and zucchini fruit attracted more cockroaches than peanut butter. ...
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